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1

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas  

E-print Network

. ? The PHM has a reddish or pinkish body. When pierced, the PHM bleeds a reddish-brown fluid. Eggs are bright pink to red (Fig. 2). A New Pest in Texas Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Carlos E. Bogr?n and Scott Ludwig* Figure 2. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation.... ? The PHM has a reddish or pinkish body. When pierced, the PHM bleeds a reddish-brown fluid. Eggs are bright pink to red (Fig. 2). A New Pest in Texas Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Carlos E. Bogr?n and Scott Ludwig* Figure 2. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

2007-09-14

2

Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene  

PubMed Central

Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 ?g per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

3

Enhanced production of pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass rearing program was developed for the pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dymsicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), to provide host material for producing the encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus ananatis (Gahan). PPM individuals produce honeydew that accumulates on heavily infested squash and entraps crawlers and older instars. A new protocol was tested to reduce accumulated honeydew with minimal mortality to PPM. Butternut

Raju R. Pandey; Marshall W. Johnson

2006-01-01

4

Design, Development, and Use of Molecular Primers and Probes for the Detection of Gluconacetobacter Species in the Pink Sugarcane Mealybug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment.

Ingrid H. Franke-Whittle; Michael G. O’Shea; Graham J. Leonard; Lindsay I. Sly

2005-01-01

5

Comparison of biological attributes of Anagyrus saccharicola Timb. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Pseudaphycus mundus Gahan (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of pink sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

E-print Network

The pink sugarcane mealybug (PSM) Saccharicoccus sacchari Ckll. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a common mealybug attacking sugarcane world-wide, and is recorded as a secondary pest of sugarcane produced in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas... of mummies for parasitoids attacking class III PSM. . 25 Number of emerging parasitoid progeny P. mundus developmental time at 26 C 27 29 TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) P. mundus developmental time on PSM size class III at three temperatures Page 31...

Chit, Myo

2012-06-07

6

Interactions of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on Pineapple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ant and mealybug interactions were studied in a pineapple field near Honolua on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Big-headed ants ( Pheidole megacephala (F.)) were found to have a positive association with gray pineapple mealybugs ( Dysmicoccus neobrevipes Beardsley) but no association with pink pineapple mealybugs ( D. brevipes (Cockerell)). Sticky trap collections revealed that D. neobrevipes and D. brevipes

Gary C. Jahn; John W. Beardsley

2000-01-01

7

Pink lesions.  

PubMed

Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions. PMID:24075552

Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

2013-10-01

8

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

9

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species-Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)-and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

10

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

11

Pink urine.  

PubMed

Abstract A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

2014-11-01

12

Survey of the natural enemies of Dysmicoccus mealybugs on pineapple in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for mealybugs, associated natural enemies and ants were conducted in abandoned pineapple fields on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu and Maui from July 1992 to November 1993. Whole plant samples were taken, and mealybugs and ants found were identified. Mealybug-infested plant parts were isolated and held until natural enemies emerged from parasitized host material. At sample sites where only

Héctor González-Hernández; Neil J. Reimer; Marshall W. Johnson

1999-01-01

13

Studies on Dicrodiplosis manihoti Harris (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a common predator of mealybugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biweekly samples of 4 species of mealybugs infesting fruit and ornamentals in Salalh, Sultanate of Oman, revealed thatDicrodiplosis manihoti Harr. was found to associate with the long-tailed mealybug and citrus mealybug. The predator occurred almost all the year\\u000a round and preyed on nymphs and adult females. Biological studies showed that the incubating period of the predator-egg averaged\\u000a 2.8 days. The

M. S. T. Abbas

1999-01-01

14

First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest  

PubMed Central

Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

2014-01-01

15

A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed. PMID:18076775

Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

2008-02-01

16

Interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the main natural enemies of the vine and citrus mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeydew-excreting hemipterans, such as mealybug pests, can be protected from their natural enemies by tending ants in return for honeydew, thereby compromising the aims of biological control. In this respect, antagonistic interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum, native to the Mediterranean basin, and the main natural enemies of both the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, and the citrus mealybug, P. citri,

Ramzi Mansour; Pompeo Suma; Gaetana Mazzeo; Alessandra La Pergola; Vito Pappalardo; Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi; Agatino Russo

2012-01-01

17

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS: SPECIES VARIATION, ALTITUDINAL CHANGE, COASTAL INFLUENCE AND FLORAL COLOUR CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

WONG SK, LIM YY & CHAN EWC. 2009. Antioxidant properties of Hibiscus: species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change. Antioxidant properties (AOP) of leaves and flowers of six Hibiscus species were screened. For leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus tiliaceus, the effects of altitudinal change and coastal influence respectively were assessed. Flowers of Hibiscus mutabilis, during colour

SK Wong; YY Lim; EWC Chan

2009-01-01

18

Pink Bollworm Management in Texas  

E-print Network

Pink Bollworm Management In Texas Charles T. Allen* In Texas, pink bollworms have caused damage across the south- ern and southwestern regions of the state. Severe infestations throughout the central part of the state, as far north as Waco... heavily on cultur- al controls. They have proven to be effective in Texas, California and Arizona. Description Moth The adult pink bollworm moth is a 3/8 inch long grayish-brown moth. Poorly defined black spots cover the wings which are held folded over...

Allen, Charles T.

1995-01-12

19

A partially mummified corpse with pink teeth and pink nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

A female corpse in a state of advanced decomposition and putrefaction with pink teeth and an equivalent discolouration of\\u000a several fingernails was found by a group of hunters in a forest. A combination of trimipramin intoxication, hypothermia and\\u000a pneumonia could be established as the cause of death. Autolysis or blood congestion can only favour the occurrence of a pink\\u000a discoloration.

C. Ortmann; A. DuChesne

1997-01-01

20

Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks. PMID:24620572

Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

2013-03-01

21

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers

J.-P. Pommereau; A. Garnier; G. Held; A. M. Gomes; F. Goutail; G. Durry; F. Borchi; A. Hauchecorne; N. Montoux; P. Cocquerez; G. Letrenne; F. Vial; A. Hertzog; B. Legras; I. Pisso; J. A. Pyle; N. R. P. Harris; R. L. Jones; A. D. Robinson; G. Hansford; L. Eden; T. Gardiner; N. Swann; B. Knudsen; N. Larsen; J. K. Nielsen; T. Christensen; F. Fierli; M. Pirre; V. Marécal; N. Huret; E. D. Rivière; H. Coe; D. Grosvenor; K. Edvarsen; G. di Donfrancesco; P. Ricaud; J.-J. Berthelier; M. Godefroy; E. Seran; K. Longo; S. Freitas

2011-01-01

22

"Pink plague" changes course.  

PubMed

By October 1992, the government's Special Program to Control AIDS (PECOS) registered 717 cases of the disease in Peru; however, the number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases could number thousands. PECOS estimates that the number of cases of HIV is doubling every 2 years. One of the main reasons for the continued spread of HIV is the common perception that the pink plague, as AIDS is called here, affects only homosexuals. While 85% of sexually transmitted HIV and AIDS cases are among gay and bisexual men, in the past 4 years a large number of new cases has been registered among heterosexuals, especially women. In 1987, the ratio of AIDS cases among men and women was approximately 15 to 1. Today, the male to female ratio is 7 to 1. Most people working on AIDS say that the changing profile of the epidemic in Peru is caused by the high costs of prevention programs and the lack of information on the disease, which drastically raise the number of people in high risk groups. Peru's ongoing economic crisis has eaten into the budgets of nongovernment organization's (NGOs) AIDS prevention campaigns and has pushed treatment out of the reach of many people. In 1991, 3 television commercials developed by PECOS to promote the use of condoms were blocked by the Health Ministry. One of the groups that fought against campaigns promoting condom use was the Association of Catholic Doctors. The only way to organize an effective program is through a joint effort that brings together the government, NGOs, and other private and public institutions. Cooperation was demonstrated through the actions carried out for World AIDS Day, when more than 16 public, NGO, and government organizations were involved in a variety of AIDS information activities. In 1993, about 30 NGOs will begin actively working with Peru's Health Ministry to coordinate activities. PMID:12286735

Chauvin, L

1993-03-01

23

Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs  

PubMed Central

Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

Lopez-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltra, Aleixandre; Resurreccion, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres; Gil, Rosario

2014-01-01

24

Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense in Cotton Plant by the Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of

Pengjun Zhang; Xiaoyun Zhu; Fang Huang; Yong Liu; Jinming Zhang; Yaobin Lu; Yongming Ruan

2011-01-01

25

Nucleotide sequence, genome organization and phylogenetic analysis of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-2.  

PubMed

The genome of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated closterovirus-2 (PMWaV-2) was cloned from double-stranded RNA isolated from diseased pineapple and its sequence determined. The 3'-terminal 14861 nt of the single-stranded RNA genome contains ten open reading frames (ORFs) which, from 5' to 3', potentially encode a >204 kDa polyprotein containing papain-like protease, methyltransferase and helicase domains (ORF1a), a 65 kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (ORF1b), a 5 kDa hydrophobic protein (ORF2), a 59 kDa heat shock protein 70 homologue (ORF3), a 46 kDa protein (ORF4), a 34 kDa coat protein (ORF5), a 56 kDa diverged coat protein (ORF6), a 20 kDa protein (ORF7), a 22 kDa protein (ORF8) and a 6 kDa protein (ORF9). A 132 nt untranslated region was present at the 3' terminus of the genome. This genome organization is typical of the monopartite closteroviruses, including the putative +1 ribosomal frameshift allowing expression of ORF1b. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that within the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE: the mealybug-transmitted PMWaV-2 is more closely related to other mealybug-transmitted members than to those which are transmitted by aphids or whiteflies. Within this group, PMWaV-2 shares the greatest sequence identity with grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3, another mealybug-transmitted closterovirus. PMID:11125151

Melzer, M J; Karasev, A V; Sether, D M; Hu, J S

2001-01-01

26

Resistance of Cotton to Pink Bollworm Damage.  

E-print Network

grandis Boh., by mechanically crush- ing them. Pink Bollworm Marlatt (1918) advanced the theory that the pink bollworm originated in India and offered as supporting evidence the apparent resistance of native Indian cottons to this insect. Imported... grandis Boh., by mechanically crush- ing them. Pink Bollworm Marlatt (1918) advanced the theory that the pink bollworm originated in India and offered as supporting evidence the apparent resistance of native Indian cottons to this insect. Imported...

Martin, Dial F.; Brazzel, J. R.

1956-01-01

27

Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage  

E-print Network

of caged field plot experiment for resistance of Pima and G^ _ thurberi to pink boll? worm damage at College Station, Texas, 1955 ? ? ? Location of eggs deposited on bolls by pink boll? worm adults on species of cotton as indicated at College Station..., Texas, 195U ? ...................... Number and percentage of pink bollworm eggs deposited on vegetative parts of several cottons as indicated at College Station, Texas, 1955 ? ? . Number and percentages of pink bollworm eggs deposited on fruiting...

Brazzel, J. R.

2013-10-04

28

Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.  

PubMed

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

29

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

30

Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that these insecticides are compatible with both natural enemies when used together for control of citrus mealybug in greenhouses and conservatories. PMID:17066788

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-10-01

31

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle)  

E-print Network

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle) Silene latifolia Poir. Life cycle Annual Similar weeds Bladder campion [S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke] Differs by having a strong perennial nature

32

Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat Language: English ... reddish color. What Are the Symptoms of Pink Eye? The signs and symptoms of pink eye may ...

33

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was determine whether a standardized Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces aqueous extract has an effect on body weight in an obese animal model induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract, containing 33.64mg of total anthocyanins per each 120mg of extract, was orally administered (120mg\\/kg\\/day) for 60 days to healthy and obese mice,

Francisco J. Alarcon-Aguilar; Alejandro Zamilpa; Ma. Dolores Perez-Garcia; Julio C. Almanza-Perez; Eunice Romero-Nuñez; Efrain A. Campos-Sepulveda; Laura I. Vazquez-Carrillo; Ruben Roman-Ramos

2007-01-01

34

The Pink Rim Sign: Location of Pink as an Indicator of Melanoma in Dermoscopic Images  

PubMed Central

Background. In dermoscopic images, multiple shades of pink have been described in melanoma without specifying location of these areas within the lesion. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistics for the presence of centrally and peripherally located pink melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions. Methods. Three observers, untrained in dermoscopy, each retrospectively analyzed 1290 dermoscopic images (296 melanomas (170 in situ and 126 invasive), 994 benign melanocytic nevi) and assessed the presence of any shade of pink in the center and periphery of the lesion. Results. Pink was located in the peripheral region in 14.5% of melanomas and 6.3% of benign melanocytic lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 2.51 (95% CI: 1.7–3.8, P < 0.0001). Central pink was located in 12.8% of melanomas and 21.8% of benign lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 0.462 (95% CI: 0.67, P = 0.204). Pink in melanoma in situ tended to be present throughout the lesion (68% of pink lesions). Pink in invasive melanoma was present in 17% of cases, often presenting as a pink rim. Conclusions. The presence of pink in the periphery or rim of a dermoscopic melanocytic lesion image provides an indication of malignancy. We offer the “pink rim sign” as a clue to the dermoscopic diagnosis of invasive melanoma. PMID:24639898

Rader, Ryan K.; Payne, Katie S.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Maggie C.; Drugge, Rhett J.; Malters, Joseph J.; Stoecker, William V.

2014-01-01

35

Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu

36

What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

Passmore, Kaye

2007-01-01

37

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2011-03-01

38

Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa.  

PubMed

The population density of mealybug species in some South African citrus orchards has increased to pest status in recent years. The characterization of the natural enemy complex and quantification of their contribution to the control of Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) on Citrus limon (L.) and Citrus reticulata (Blanco) was investigated through intensive sampling. Eight primary and four secondary parasitoids, and two predator species were identified from P. citri and P. calceolariae. Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake) were the most common species, accounting for 44% and 21% of the total. Of the five primary parasitoids reared from P. longispinus, A. pseudococci and Anagyrus sp. were predominant, comprising 41% and 30%. Nymphal and adult parasitism (range = 0-26% vs. 0-66%) and predation (range = 0-5.6% vs. 0-4.1%) varied significantly between host trees and mealybug species (P < 0.001). The numbers of nymphal instars and adult stages of P. calceolariae and P. longispinus and the nymphal stage of P. citri that were parasitized and killed by predators correlated significantly with the total number of hosts on which they acted (P < 0.01), suggesting a density-dependent association. Laboratory bioassay of nine contact insecticides (methidathion, methomyl, methyl-parathion, parathion, profenofos and prothiofos) against C. peregrinus indicated that all were highly toxic, causing 98-100% mortality in < 6 h of treatment. The IGRs fenoxycarb and triflumuron did not cause significant parasitoid mortality (P > 0.05). However, a mixture of pyriproxyfen and mineral oil caused a marginally significant mortality (P < 0.05). PMID:12762866

Wakgari, W M; Giliomee, J H

2003-06-01

39

Medico-legal aspects of postmortem pink teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary While the phenomenon of pink teeth has been known since 1829, when it was first described by Bell, its application in forensic medicine has been limited. Recently, however, attention was again focused on pink teeth in legal cases. The medico-legal implication was the use of pink teeth as a possible means of evaluating the cause of death. Pink teeth

H. Borrman; A. Du Chesne; B. Brinkmann

1994-01-01

40

Cathodoluminescence of natural, plastically deformed pink diamonds.  

PubMed

The 49 type I natural pink diamonds examined exhibit color restricted to lamellae or bands oriented along {111} that are created by plastic deformation. Pink diamonds fall into two groups: (1) diamonds from Argyle in Australia and Santa Elena in Venezuela are heavily strained throughout and exhibit pink bands alternating with colorless areas, and (2) diamonds from other localities have strain localized near the discrete pink lamellae. Growth zones are highlighted by a blue cathodoluminescence (CL) and crosscut by the pink lamellae that emit yellowish-green CL that originates from the H3 center. This center probably forms by the recombination of nitrogen-related centers (A-aggregates) and vacancies mobilized by natural annealing in the Earth's mantle. Twinning is the most likely mechanism through which plastic deformation is accommodated for the two groups of diamonds. The plastic deformation creates new centers visible through spectroscopic methods, including the one responsible for the pink color, which remains unidentified. The differences in the plastic deformation features, and resulting CL properties, for the two groups might correlate to the particular geologic conditions under which the diamonds formed; those from Argyle and Santa Elena are deposits located within Proterozoic cratons, whereas most diamonds originate from Archean cratons. PMID:23217341

Gaillou, E; Post, J E; Rose, T; Butler, J E

2012-12-01

41

Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri  

PubMed Central

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

42

Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.  

PubMed

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

43

Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of medicinal plants as raw materials in the production of drugs is again gaining popularity. Hibiscus sabdariffa is widely taken in the South-western part of Nigeria for the treatment of various diseases. Aqueous-methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was investigated for its phytochemical con- stituents, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps lethality assay. The extract was found to

Mary Tolulope

44

The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively.

M Haji Faraji; A. H Haji Tarkhani

1999-01-01

45

PINK BOLLWORM ERADICATION PLAN IN THE U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

An area-wide pink bollworm eradication program, involving growers and state and federal cooperators, has been proposed by the National Cotton Council's Pink Bollworm Action Committee. The program's objective is to eradicate the pink bollworm (PBW) from the infested areas of the U.S., essentially the southwestern portion of the Cotton Belt. Through the coordinated efforts of cotton producer communities, and federal,

Bill Grefenstette; Osama El-Lissy; R. T. Staten

46

Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

1991-12-01

47

Okra ( Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w\\/w) NaOCH3 catalyst, temperature 65°C and 600rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs\\/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC\\/MS, which showed

Farooq Anwar; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Nadeem

2010-01-01

48

Molecular typing of mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis populations from different hosts and locations in Punjab, India.  

PubMed

True identity and existence of genetic variability in mealy bug from different regions holds immense significance for adopting appropriate control measures along with predicting the development of any biotypes. Mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis adults were collected from four host plants i.e., Gossypium hirsutum--cotton (C), Abelmoschus esculentus--okra (O), Pennisetum glaucum--Napier Bajra (B) and a weed--Parthenium hysterophorus (P) in five cotton growing districts i.e., Abohar, Bathinda, Mansa, Muktsar and Faridkot of Punjab state. Variability among different populations was investigated through comparative analysis of four different RAPD markers. The genetic similarity dendrogram established that irrespective of the host plant and the collection site, 20 mealybug populations were distinguishable into two major clades that were related to each other by 68%. Clade 1 included populations from Abohar district; it also included a single population each from Muktsar and Bathinda districts. The populations from all the other districts were grouped under Clade 2 with genetic similarity of 78% Even under Clade 2, individual populations appeared to exist in location specific sub-clades. Thus, there is great possibility of development of biotypes which may differ in resistance to insecticides and host plant specificity. PMID:23029900

Singh, Satnam; Sharma, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajinder; Gupta, V K; Dilawari, V K

2012-05-01

49

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles). The Argentine ant is a widespread and ecologically damaging invasive species native to South America. In its native range, it co-occurs with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), another widespread invasive that is native to the same region. A recent study documented strong and symmetric competitive interactions between these two species in areas within their native ranges where they occur in the same habitats. The species were observed to forage at similar times, occupy similar trophic positions, and frequently engage in intense conflicts over food resources. Carbohydrate-rich resources, such as honeydew, were found to facilitate interspecific competition. The research results strongly suggest that release from interspecific competition contributes to the success of the Argentine ant and the red imported fire ant when these species are introduced into new areas. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:1) in January of 2007.

Wild, Alex

2010-02-12

50

Host plant probing analysis reveals quick settlement of the solenopsis mealybug during host shift.  

PubMed

Quantitative feeding behaviors were analyzed by electronic penetration graph technique to evaluate the resources utilization efficiency of the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), transferred to a novel host. Both nonphloem and phloem factors were contributed to the host availability during host shift; while only "prephloem" factor was involved with their offspring's fitness to the transferred host, on which they fed as effectively as their mothers did on the origin host. Different performances on different hosts were supposed to have relations with the diverse phloem components, rather than feeding behaviors. P. solenopsis could try and exploit an efficient stylet pathway to reach the phloem, which would be an importance factor to account for the expansion of the host range and adaptations to different hosts. High efficient feeding behaviors of P. solenopsis in the current study manifested its capability of resource utilization to the novel host, which was suggested to be advantageous for its host shift, and to be the explanation for rapid host shifts associated with its broad host range and quick settlement. PMID:25195430

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Bei, Yawei; He, Yueping; Lu, Yaobin

2014-08-01

51

Effect of Honey Solution and Water Acquisition on Survival of Starved Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the effects of honey solution and water access on feeding behavior and survival of starving solenopsis mealybugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The electrical penetration graph technique and an artificial membrane system were used to check whether P. solenopsis could imbibe free water or other liquid, such as the honey solution used here, in its natural environment. The recorded electrical penetration graph waveforms revealed that P. solenopsis could continuously imbibe water-honey solution for several hours, which indicated that honey solution and water acquisition could possibly occur when P. solenopsis had access to such liquids in its natural environment. Waveforms of water-honey solution feeding alternated between two distinct feeding phases in a regular pattern, which was assumed to reflect inherent habits of feeding attempts. The effects of honey solution and water acquisition on survival of P. solenopsis was also examined. Comparison between P. solenopsis in different treatments (starved, water feeding, honey solution feeding, and cotton plant feeding) suggested that 1) P. solenopsis could accept but did not favor feeding on water or the honey solution, and 2) this feeding could prolong its survival, but had no effect on body size. PMID:25373148

Huang, Fang; Wang, Feifei; Lu, Yaobin; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Bei, Yawei

2014-01-01

52

Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production. PMID:24766493

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

2013-01-01

53

The Phloem-Sap Feeding Mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) Carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Populations That Do Not Cause Disease in Host Plants  

PubMed Central

‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24×107 to 1.07×104 Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T.; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G.; Stocks, Ian C.; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

54

A case report of pink breast milk.  

PubMed

A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

2014-09-01

55

Ein Pink-Phänomen mykologischen Ursprungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract   A corpse was found in a state of advanced decomposition partly clothed and covered by vegation and soil. Pink coloured patches\\u000a were seen on the clothing and the skin. This discolouration could be experimentally reproduced even without any cadaver material.\\u000a For this purpose moistened cotton material was incubated with the same plant material as that used to cover the

U. Hammer; F. Zack; J. Lottmann; G. Berg

1999-01-01

56

Factors contributing to resistance of cotton to pink bollworm attack  

E-print Network

? ton. (Morphology study, Of1lk 3333333333333333333 94.0 38 Number of pink bollworm eggs deposited on plants of Deltapine and Pubescent con? fined together with boils on plants. (Special cage test, Of1lk . ll+2 39 Number of pink bollworm eggs...? ton. (Morphology study, Of1lk 3333333333333333333 94.0 38 Number of pink bollworm eggs deposited on plants of Deltapine and Pubescent con? fined together with boils on plants. (Special cage test, Of1lk . ll+2 39 Number of pink bollworm eggs...

Williams, Robert Kenneth

2013-10-04

57

Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus  

PubMed Central

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, ?ntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

2013-01-01

58

Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

2010-12-01

59

Aconitase Causes Iron Toxicity in Drosophila pink1 Mutants  

PubMed Central

The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrial kinase, and pink1 mutations cause early onset Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans. Loss of pink1 in Drosophila leads to defects in mitochondrial function, and genetic data suggest that another PD-related gene product, Parkin, acts with pink1 to regulate the clearance of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy). Consequently, pink1 mutants show an accumulation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria, but it is unclear if other factors are involved in pink1 function in vivo and contribute to the mitochondrial morphological defects seen in specific cell types in pink1 mutants. To explore the molecular mechanisms of pink1 function, we performed a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila and identified aconitase (acon) as a dominant suppressor of pink1. Acon localizes to mitochondria and harbors a labile iron-sulfur [4Fe-4S] cluster that can scavenge superoxide to release hydrogen peroxide and iron that combine to produce hydroxyl radicals. Using Acon enzymatic mutants, and expression of mitoferritin that scavenges free iron, we show that [4Fe-4S] cluster inactivation, as a result of increased superoxide in pink1 mutants, results in oxidative stress and mitochondrial swelling. We show that [4Fe-4S] inactivation acts downstream of pink1 in a pathway that affects mitochondrial morphology, but acts independently of parkin. Thus our data indicate that superoxide-dependent [4Fe-4S] inactivation defines a potential pathogenic cascade that acts independent of mitophagy and links iron toxicity to mitochondrial failure in a PD–relevant model. PMID:23637640

Esposito, Giovanni; Vos, Melissa; Vilain, Sven; Swerts, Jef; De Sousa Valadas, Jorge; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Schaap, Onno; Verstreken, Patrik

2013-01-01

60

Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import into mitochondria.  

PubMed

PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

Kato, Hiroki; Lu, Qiping; Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

2013-01-01

61

Tom70 Is Essential for PINK1 Import into Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase in the outer membrane of mitochondria (OMM), and known as a responsible gene of Parkinson's disease (PD). The precursor of PINK1 is synthesized in the cytosol and then imported into the mitochondria via the translocase of the OMM (TOM) complex. However, a large part of PINK1 import mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined using cell-free system the mechanism by which PINK1 is targeted to and assembled into mitochondria. Surprisingly, the main component of the import channel, Tom40 was not necessary for PINK1 import. Furthermore, we revealed that the import receptor Tom70 is essential for PINK1 import. In addition, we observed that although PINK1 has predicted mitochondrial targeting signal, it was not processed by the mitochondrial processing peptidase. Thus, our results suggest that PINK1 is imported into mitochondria by a unique pathway that is independent of the TOM core complex but crucially depends on the import receptor Tom70. PMID:23472196

Rapaport, Doron; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera

2013-01-01

62

Beyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society  

E-print Network

survey of women and men's attitudes toward robot development that demonstrates how real-world genderBeyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society Yan Wang University that illustrates potential dangers of "pink" versus "blue" dichotomous over-simplifications of women and men

63

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record. PMID:25038696

Da-Costa-Rocha, Inês; Bonnlaender, Bernd; Sievers, Hartwig; Pischel, Ivo; Heinrich, Michael

2014-12-15

64

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

2000-01-01

65

Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups and were given: (a) distilled water, (b) cold Hibiscus aqueous extract, and (c) boiled Hibiscus aqueous extract. Hibiscus extract was administered orally daily for 4 weeks in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/mouse. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, mice were decapitated and the testes and epididymides were excised and processed for transmission electron microscopy to assess ultrastructural and sperm abnormalities. The results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extracts from dried calyx of H. sabdariffa, either cold or boiled, alter normal sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure and adversely influence the male reproductive fertility in albino mice. The current data suggest that Hibiscus extract should be consumed with caution, and reasonable estimates of the human risk associated with its consumption should be provided. PMID:21798576

Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

2012-07-01

66

Short Mitochondrial ARF Triggers Parkin/PINK1-dependent Mitophagy.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Multiple genes have been associated with PD, including Parkin and PINK1. Recent studies have established that the Parkin and PINK1 proteins function in a common mitochondrial quality control pathway, whereby disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to PINK1 stabilization at the mitochondrial outer surface. PINK1 accumulation leads to Parkin recruitment from the cytosol, which in turn promotes the degradation of the damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). Most studies characterizing PINK1/Parkin mitophagy have relied on high concentrations of chemical uncouplers to trigger mitochondrial depolarization, a stimulus that has been difficult to adapt to neuronal systems and one unlikely to faithfully model the mitochondrial damage that occurs in PD. Here, we report that the short mitochondrial isoform of ARF (smARF), previously identified as an alternate translation product of the tumor suppressor p19ARF, depolarizes mitochondria and promotes mitophagy in a Parkin/PINK1-dependent manner, both in cell lines and in neurons. The work positions smARF upstream of PINK1 and Parkin and demonstrates that mitophagy can be triggered by intrinsic signaling cascades. PMID:25217637

Grenier, Karl; Kontogiannea, Maria; Fon, Edward A

2014-10-24

67

M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

2007-01-01

68

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

69

Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.  

PubMed

The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species. PMID:22703121

Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

2012-07-01

70

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

71

Mitochondrial autophagy as a compensatory response to PINK1 deficiency  

PubMed Central

Macroautophagy (hereafter, autophagy) plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by degrading protein aggregates and dysfunctional/damaged organelles. We recently reported that silencing the recessive familial Parkinson disease gene encoding PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) leads to neuronal cell death accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and Drp1-dependent fragmentation. In this model, mitochondrial fission and Beclin 1-dependent autophagy play protective roles, cooperating to sequester and eliminate damaged mitochondria. We discuss the role of superoxide and other reactive oxygen species upstream of mitochondrial depolarization, fission and autophagy in PINK1 knockdown lines. PINK1 deficiency appears to trigger several compensatory responses that together facilitate clearance of depolarized mitochondria, through a mechanism that is further enhanced by increased expression of parkin. These data offer additional insights that broaden the spectrum of potential interactions between PINK1 and parkin with respect to the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis and mitophagy. PMID:19786829

Cherra, Salvatore J.; Dagda, Ruben K.; Tandon, Anurag; Chu, Charleen T.

2010-01-01

72

Tickled PINK1: Mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in recessive Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dysregulation of mitochondrial structure and function has emerged as a central factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related parkinsonian disorders (PD). Toxic and environmental injuries and risk factors perturb mitochondrial complex I function, and gene products linked to familial PD often affect mitochondrial biology. Autosomal recessive mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause an L-DOPA responsive parkinsonian syndrome, stimulating extensive interest in the normal neuroprotective and mitoprotective functions of PINK1. Recent data from mammalian and invertebrate model systems converge upon interactions between PINK1 and parkin, as well as DJ-1, ?-synuclein and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). While all studies to date support a neuroprotective role for wild type, but not mutant PINK1, there is less agreement on subcellular compartmentalization of PINK1 kinase function and whether PINK1 promotes mitochondrial fission or fusion. These controversies are reviewed in the context of the dynamic mitochondrial lifecycle, in which mitochondrial structure and function are continuously modulated not only by the fission-fusion machinery, but also by regulation of biogenesis, axonal/dendritic transport and autophagy. A working model is proposed, in which PINK1 loss of function results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), cristae/respiratory dysfunction and destabilization of calcium homeostasis, which trigger compensatory fission, autophagy and biosynthetic repair pathways that dramatically alter mitochondrial structure. Concurrent strategies to identify pathways that mediate normal PINK1 function and to identify factors that facilitate appropriate compensatory responses are both needed to halt the aging-related penetrance and incidence of familial and sporadic PD. PMID:19595762

Chu, Charleen T.

2009-01-01

73

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate ?-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking ?-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin. PMID:23525905

Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H.; Muller-Rischart, A. Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Schulz, Jorg B.; Voigt, Aaron

2013-01-01

74

The post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon: a case report.  

PubMed

This study presents the case of the post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon observed during an autopsy procedure performed on the body of a man who was kidnapped and murdered approximately 30 days before the examination. The corpse was in an advanced stage of decomposition and putrefaction. Both maxillary and jaw bones were intact, as well as the permanent teeth which presented the "pink teeth phenomenon", probably due to a haemorrhage in the pulp chambers. The pink discolouration was most pronounced at the neck of the teeth. The cause of death was asphyxia. Although the examiners stressed that post-mortem pink teeth must not be considered as a reliable odontological parameter for determining the cause of death, the results of other studies have shown that the pink teeth phenomenon is a common finding related to cases of asphyxia such as strangulation, drowning or suffocation. Thus, the pink teeth phenomenon must be studied in order to determine its role as a post-mortem finding. As of now, an exact relationship between the cause of death and this phenomenon remains unknown. PMID:19300367

Soriano, Evelyne-Pessoa; Carvalho, Marcus-Vitor-Diniz de; Santos, Francisco-Bernardo Dos; Mendoza, Clóvis-César de; Araújo, Maria-do Socorro-Dantas de; Campello, Reginaldo-Inojosa-Carneiro

2009-07-01

75

Beyond the mitochondrion: cytosolic PINK1 remodels dendrites through protein kinase A.  

PubMed

The subcellular compartmentalization of kinase activity allows for regulation of distinct cellular processes involved in cell differentiation or survival. The PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to Parkinson's disease, is a neuroprotective kinase localized to cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. While mitochondrial targeting of PINK1 is important for its activities regulating mitochondrial homeostasis, the physiological role of the cytosolic pool of PINK1 remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for cytosolic PINK1 in neuronal differentiation/neurite maintenance. Over-expression of wild-type PINK1, but not a catalytically inactive form of PINK1(K219M), promoted neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y cells and increased dendritic lengths in primary cortical and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. To identify the subcellular pools of PINK1 involved in promoting neurite outgrowth, we transiently transfected cells with PINK1 constructs designed to target PINK1 to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM-PINK1) or restrict PINK1 to the cytosol (?N111-PINK1). Both constructs blocked cell death associated with loss of endogenous PINK1. However, transient expression of ?N111-PINK1, but not of OMM-PINK1 or ?N111-PINK1(K219M), promoted dendrite outgrowth in primary neurons, and rescued the decreased dendritic arborization of PINK1-deficient neurons. Mechanistically, the cytosolic pool of PINK1 regulated neurite morphology through enhanced anterograde transport of dendritic mitochondria and amplification of protein kinase A-related signaling pathways. Our data support a novel role for PINK1 in regulating dendritic morphogenesis. PMID:24151868

Dagda, Ruben K; Pien, Irene; Wang, Ruth; Zhu, Jianhui; Wang, Kent Z Q; Callio, Jason; Banerjee, Tania Das; Dagda, Raul Y; Chu, Charleen T

2014-03-01

76

Forecast and Production Dynamics of the Pink Salmon of Kamchatka  

E-print Network

The importance of pink salmon to the fishery of the Russian Far East can scarcely be exaggerated because this species determines the total catch of Pacific salmon in the region. Fishery science already has provided a wealth of biological data about density and stock abundance of pink salmon during different periods of the life cycle, but often we find ourselves running into something we cannot explain. For example, abrupt transformations in populations when seemingly there is nothing to indicate a forthcoming, and potentially striking, change. It is well known that pink salmon have the simplest lifecycle among Pacific salmon species, but forecasting the stock dynamics of this species is more complicated and results are more uncertain than with other species. For this study we used a cluster analysis to examine the basis of the dynamics of pink salmon escapement in different rivers of West and East Kamchatka. It has been demonstrated that the even- and odd-year lines of pink salmon in West Kamchatka have, at minimum, two well recognized population groups: the southern group that comprises populations from the Ozernaya River to the Kol River, and the northern group that includes populations from the Vorovskaya River to the Pyatibratka River (Fig. 1). In West Kamchatka the boundary between the two groups for both odd- and even-year brood lines is located along 55 ° N latitude. East Kamchatka pink salmon populations are poorly structured. Major pink salmon populations exist in the Karaginsky and Olutorisky Gulfs, and minor populations are located in the Karaginsky, Kronotsky and Avachinsky Gulfs.

Evgeny A. Shevlyakov; Maxim V. Koval

77

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.  

PubMed

In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. Our objective in this study was to examine the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 pre- and mildly hypertensive adults, age 30-70 y, not taking blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications, with either 3 240-mL servings/d of brewed hibiscus tea or placebo beverage for 6 wk. A standardized method was used to measure BP at baseline and weekly intervals. At 6 wk, hibiscus tea lowered systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-7.2 +/- 11.4 vs. -1.3 +/- 10.0 mm Hg; P = 0.030). Diastolic BP was also lower, although this change did not differ from placebo (-3.1 +/- 7.0 vs. -0.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.160). The change in mean arterial pressure was of borderline significance compared with placebo (-4.5 +/- 7.7 vs. -0.8 +/- 7.4 mm Hg; P = 0.054). Participants with higher SBP at baseline showed a greater response to hibiscus treatment (r = -0.421 for SBP change; P = 0.010). No effects were observed with regard to age, gender, or dietary supplement use. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions. PMID:20018807

McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Saltzman, Edward; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2010-02-01

78

Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen  

PubMed Central

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

79

Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity-dependent refractive index n 2 and the nonlinear susceptibility ? (3) of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions in the nanosecond regime at 532 nm are reported. More presicely, the variation of n 2, ?, and real and imaginary parts of ? (3) versus the natural dye extract concentration has been carried out by z-scan and optical limiting techniques. The third-order nonlinearity of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions was found to be dominated by nonlinear refraction, which leads to strong optical limiting of laser.

Diallo, A.; Zongo, S.; Mthunzi, P.; Rehman, S.; Alqaradawi, S. Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Maaza, M.

2014-07-01

80

Reduction of Protein Translation and Activation of Autophagy Protect against PINK1 Pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause familial, early onset Parkinson's disease. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINK1 and Parkin mutants show similar phenotypes, such as swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria, muscle degeneration, energy depletion, and dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. We previously showed that PINK1 and Parkin genetically interact with the mitochondrial fusion/fission pathway, and PINK1 and Parkin were recently proposed to form a mitochondrial quality control system that involves mitophagy. However, the in vivo relationships among PINK1/Parkin function, mitochondrial fission/fusion, and autophagy remain unclear; and other cellular events critical for PINK1 pathogenesis remain to be identified. Here we show that PINK1 genetically interacted with the protein translation pathway. Enhanced translation through S6K activation significantly exacerbated PINK1 mutant phenotypes, whereas reduction of translation showed suppression. Induction of autophagy by Atg1 overexpression also rescued PINK1 mutant phenotypes, even in the presence of activated S6K. Downregulation of translation and activation of autophagy were already manifested in PINK1 mutant, suggesting that they represent compensatory cellular responses to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by PINK1 inactivation, presumably serving to conserve energy. Interestingly, the enhanced PINK1 mutant phenotype in the presence of activated S6K could be fully rescued by Parkin, apparently in an autophagy-independent manner. Our results reveal complex cellular responses to PINK1 inactivation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies through manipulation of the compensatory responses. PMID:21151574

Liu, Song; Lu, Bingwei

2010-01-01

81

Pink Root Disease of Onions and Its Control in Texas.  

E-print Network

, and our estimates necessarily apply to that time. In gen- eral, the conservative estimator may easily place the losses from pink root, in badly diseased fields, from 35 or 43 per cent. to an occasional total failure. Assuming a normal yield on a healthy... field to average about 400 crates per acre, one may see that the losses from pink root, all things being equal. will vary accorcling to the following conditions: (1) The yields tvill be reclucecl when slightly or badly infected set? are planted in a...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

1921-01-01

82

How Does Tremblaya princeps Get Essential Proteins from Its Nested Partner Moranella endobia in the Mealybug Planoccocus citri?  

PubMed Central

Many insects maintain intracellular mutualistic symbiosis with a wide range of bacteria which are considered essential for their survival (primary or P-endosymbiont) and typically suffer drastic genome degradation. Progressive loss of P-endosymbiont metabolic capabilities could lead to the recruitment of co-existent facultative endosymbiont (secondary or S-endosymbiont), thus adding more complexity to the symbiotic system. Planococcus citri, among other mealybug species, harbors an unconventional nested endosymbiotic system where every Tremblaya princeps cell (?-proteobacterium) harbors many Moranella endobia cells (?-proteobacterium). In this system, T. princeps possess one of the smallest prokaryote genome known so far. This extreme genome reduction suggests the supply of many metabolites and essential gene products by M. endobia. Although sporadic cell lysis is plausible, the bacterial participation on the regulation of the predicted molecular exchange (at least to some extent) cannot be excluded. Although the comprehensive analysis of the protein translocation ability of M. endobia PCVAL rules out the existence of specific mechanisms for the exportation of proteins from M. endobia to T. princeps, immunolocation of two M. endobia proteins points towards a non-massive but controlled protein provision. We propose a sporadic pattern for the predicted protein exportation events, which could be putatively controlled by the host and/or mediated by local osmotic stress. PMID:24204799

Lopez-Madrigal, Sergio; Balmand, Severine; Latorre, Amparo; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Moya, Andres; Gil, Rosario

2013-01-01

83

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Calyce) Extract on Biochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that substances incorporated into milk before and after fermentation elicit profound influence on the physicochemical properties of yogurt and consumers' sensory perception of their acceptability as healthy and refreshing drinks. This study examined the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on pH, titratable acidity (TA), syneresis, ash and moisture contents in two brands of low fat

2007-01-01

84

Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract

V. S Kasture; C. T Chopde; V. K Deshmukh

2000-01-01

85

Diversity of Foliar Trichomes and Their Systematic Relevance in the Genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative micromorphological characters, distribution and systematic relevance of both glandular and eglandular foliar trichomes in species of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) including H. caesius, H. mutabilis, H. rosa-sinensis, H. sabdariffa, H. schizopetalus, H. syriacus and H. trionum were characterized. Diversity of these epidermal appendages were separated into eight main types. Glandular capitate trichomes were the most abundant on both

NIGHAT SHAHEEN; MIR AJAB; GHAZALAH YASMIN; MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT

86

A taxonomic re-evaluation of Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae) in Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus trionum has generally been regarded as naturalised in Australia and New Zealand. Two varieties are sometimes accepted as occurring in Australia: H. trionum var. trionum and H. trionum var. vesicarius, with the latter occasionally treated as indigenous. Following studies of the variation within H. trionum in Australia and New Zealand we propose that there are three indigenous species in

LA Craven; PJ de Lange; TR Lally; BG Murray; SB Johnson

2011-01-01

87

Postweaning Consumption of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa May Predispose Rats to Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether consumption of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa during the juvenile-pubertal period will affect the BMI and visceral organ weights at onset of puberty in rats. Weaned 21 days old rats, whose mothers were given food and water ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, were divided randomly into three groups of nine rats each. Control group had

E. E. Iyare; U. I. Nwagha

2009-01-01

88

The post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the case of the post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon observed during an autopsy procedure performed on the body of a man who was kidnapped and murdered approximately 30 days before the examination. The corpse was in an advanced stage of decomposition and putrefaction. Both maxillary and jaw bones were in- tact, as well as the permanent teeth which

Evelyne-Pessoa Soriano; Marcus-Vitor-Diniz de Carvalho; Francisco-Bernardo Dos Santos; Clóvis-César de Mendoza; Maria-do Socorro-Dantas de Araújo; Reginaldo-Inojosa-Carneiro Campello

89

Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

Azzam, Amy M.

2014-01-01

90

ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN  

E-print Network

operations from year to year and complicates management of the fishery. Reliable methods for predicting. Timing and duration of migration of chum and pink salmon fry were recorded, and recommendations were made runs based on the abundance of young salmon at some time in their life cycle after the greater

91

Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.  

PubMed

The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO?, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage. PMID:25005962

Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

2012-10-01

92

SARM1 and TRAF6 bind to and stabilize PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Recent work suggests that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 and that accumulated PINK1 recruits parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for elimination of depolarized mitochondria, which is known as mitophagy. In this study, we find that PINK1 forms a complex with sterile ? and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which is important for import of PINK1 in the outer membrane and stabilization of PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria. SARM1, which is known to be an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor, binds to PINK1 and promotes TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 chain ubiquitination of PINK1 at lysine 433. Down-regulation of SARM1 and TRAF6 abrogates accumulation of PINK1, followed by recruitment of parkin to damaged mitochondria. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 reduce the complex formation and ubiquitination. These results indicate that association of PINK1 with SARM1 and TRAF6 is an important step for mitophagy. PMID:23885119

Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

2013-01-01

93

Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence in Tomato Leaves Infested With an Invasive Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (?) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis. PMID:24073741

Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang

2013-10-01

94

Predatory Potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Larvae on Different Stages of the Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: A Threat to Cotton in South Asia  

PubMed Central

The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators. PMID:23464378

Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H.; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

2012-01-01

95

Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

2014-10-01

96

PINK1 Is Necessary for Long Term Survival and Mitochondrial Function in Human Dopaminergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease, we studied PINK1 loss of function in human and primary mouse neurons. Using RNAi, we created stable PINK1 knockdown in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from foetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, as well as in an immortalised human neuroblastoma cell line. We sought to validate our findings in primary neurons derived from a transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse. For the first time we demonstrate an age dependent neurodegenerative phenotype in human and mouse neurons. PINK1 deficiency leads to reduced long-term viability in human neurons, which die via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Human neurons lacking PINK1 demonstrate features of marked oxidative stress with widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. We report that PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in the mitochondria of mammalian neurons, especially against stress such as staurosporine. In addition we provide evidence that cellular compensatory mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of lysosomal degradation pathways occur in PINK1 deficiency. The phenotypic effects of PINK1 loss-of-function described here in mammalian neurons provides mechanistic insight into the age-related degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons seen in PD. PMID:18560593

Yao, Zhi; Abramov, Andrey S. Y.; Miljan, Erik A.; Keen, Gregory; Stanyer, Lee; Hargreaves, Iain; Klupsch, Kristina; Deas, Emma; Downward, Julian; Mansfield, Louise; Jat, Parmjit; Taylor, Joanne; Heales, Simon; Duchen, Michael R.; Latchman, David; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Wood, Nicholas W.

2008-01-01

97

"Josh wears pink cleats": inclusive masculinity on the soccer field.  

PubMed

In this ethnographic research of a college-based soccer team at a large liberal college in Northeast America, I document the existence of more inclusive versions of masculinity that contrast conventional understandings of male teamsport athletes. Using participant observation and 21 in-depth interviews, I show that these men demonstrate metrosexual and inclusive behaviors and attitudes. The styles of masculinity these men enact are more relaxed, liberal, and inclusive; they are well styled, well groomed, gay friendly, and they are emotionally and physically close to other men. They are far removed from the traditional orthodox sporting masculinities of previous generations. Symbolizing their difference, their gendered expressions also extend to the wearing of pink soccer boots (cleats), without homophobic judgment from teammates. I discuss the wearing of pink cleats as a symbolic sociological moment, revealing the changing nature of masculinities among this group of college-based soccer players. PMID:21534071

Adams, Adi

2011-01-01

98

Cellulase Production by Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Strains (PPFMs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil\\u000a samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC\\u000a agar medium flooded with

Shanmugam Jayashree; Rajendran Lalitha; Ponnusamy Vadivukkarasi; Yuko Kato; Sundaram Seshadri

2011-01-01

99

Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

2011-07-01

100

Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Acetaminophen, a common antipyretic-analgesic OTC drug is often administered orally anytime of the day with water or beverages\\u000a irrespective of possible interactions. Zobo drink, is a sweetened water extract of the driedcalyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa. This work is designed to investigate the effect of zobo drink on an oral dose of acetaminophen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Six healthy male volunteers, ages 28.50±1.76 years, weighing

J. A. Kolawole; A. Maduenyi

2004-01-01

101

Fermentation studies on roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyx neutralized with trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) at different concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of trona at different concentrations on the fermentation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx was studied. Mixed flora of bacteria and fungi were isolated and identified from the fermenting calyx. The isolates\\u000a were Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger\\u000a and A. flavus. The addition of trona to the samples raised the initial pH

A. O. Ojokoh

2010-01-01

102

Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

2008-09-01

103

A study on some physico-chemical properties of Turkey okra ( Hibiscus esculenta L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical properties of mature okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) seeds from Mersin (Büyükeceli–Gülnar) in Turkey were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, crude energy, water-soluble extract, ether-soluble extract and non-soluble HCl acid ash. The physical properties were evaluated at three moisture content levels of 6.35%, 9.87% and 15.22% d.b. In

Sedat Çal???r; Musa Özcan; Haydar Hac?sefero?ullar?; M. U?ur Y?ld?z

2005-01-01

104

First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera sp. on Hibiscus sabdariffa in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdery mildew was observed on Hibiscus sabdariffa during October 2009. Calyces and leaves of this plant are used as an ingredient in preparation of non-vegetarian food in\\u000a the north-eastern hills region of India. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of the anamorph of Podosphaera. This is the first report of powdery mildew on H. sabdariffa caused by Podosphaera

Pankaj Baiswar; Satish Chandra; Rajesh Kumar; S. V. Ngachan; G. C. Munda

2010-01-01

105

Rheology of okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut ( Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide extracts were prepared from two traditional food thickeners with extensive domestic use in central and western parts of Africa: okra (Hibiscus esculentis L.) and the seed kernel from ‘dika nut’ (Irvingia gabonensis). Both demonstrated typical polyelectrolyte behaviour in solution, and were therefore studied under fixed ionic conditions (0.1 M NaCl), yielding intrinsic viscosities of [?] = 7.6 dl g?1

R. Ndjouenkeu; F. M. Goycoolea; E. R. Morrisa; J. O. Akingbala

1996-01-01

106

Influence of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal on cadmium toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on some selected biochemical parameters, as well as the possible protective\\u000a role of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L petal were studied in 12-wk-old male Wistar albino rats. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in plasma l-alanine aminotransferases (ALT) only but with a corresponding decrease in liver l-alanine and l-aspartate aminotransferases

S. O. Asagba; M. A. Adaikpoh; H. Kadiri; F. O. Obi

2007-01-01

107

The flower of Hibiscus trionum is both visibly and measurably iridescent.  

PubMed

Living organisms can use minute structures to manipulate the reflection of light and display colours based on interference. There has been debate in recent literature over whether the diffractive optical effects produced by epoxy replicas of petals with folded cuticles persist and induce iridescence in the original flowers when the effects of petal pigment and illumination are taken into account. We explored the optical properties of the petal of Hibiscus trionum by macro-imaging, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and visible and ultraviolet (UV) angle-resolved spectroscopy of the petal. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is visibly iridescent, and the iridescence can be captured photographically. The iridescence derives from a diffraction grating generated by folds of the cuticle. The iridescence of the petal can be quantitatively characterized by spectrometric measurements with several square-millimetres of sample area illuminated. The flower of Hibiscus trionum has the potential to interact with its pollinators (honeybees, other bees, butterflies and flies) through iridescent signals produced by its cuticular diffraction grating. PMID:25040014

Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Hingant, Thomas; Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

2015-01-01

108

Depletion of PINK1 affects mitochondrial metabolism, calcium homeostasis and energy maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a major cause of early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have highlighted an important function for PINK1 in clearing depolarized mitochondria by mitophagy. However, the role of PINK1 in mitochondrial and cellular functioning in physiological conditions is still incompletely understood. Here, we investigate mitochondrial and

B. Heeman; C. Van den Haute; S. A. Aelvoet; F. Valsecchi; R. J. T. Rodenburg; V. Reumers; Z. Debyser; G. Callewaert; W. J. H. Koopman; P. H. G. M. Willems; V. Baekelandt

2011-01-01

109

Pink Ribbons, Blue Moons, and Silver Linings: Communicating, Coping, and Caring  

E-print Network

Kunkel, A., Dennis, M. R., & Keyton, J. (2010). Pink ribbons, blue moons, and silver linings: Communicating, coping, and caring. Health Communication, 25, 583-584. Publisher’s official version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2010.496825. Open...). Pink ribbons, blue moons, and silver linings: Communicating, coping, and caring. Health Communication, 25, 583-584. Text of paper: Pink Ribbons, Blue Moons, and Silver Linings: Communicating, Coping, and Caring Adrianne Kunkel, University...

Kunkel, Adrianne; Dennis, Michael Robert; Keyton, Joann

2010-01-01

110

PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.  

PubMed

PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

Kane, Lesley A; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

2014-04-28

111

PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity  

PubMed Central

PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin’s ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

Kane, Lesley A.; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I.; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Banerjee, Soojay

2014-01-01

112

Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in autosomal recessive forms of the disease caused by mutations encoding PINK1. Although mitochondrial pathology can be demonstrated in many cell types, it is neurons that bear the brunt of cell death in PD. We studied the mitochondrial physiology of neurons and muscle cells with loss of function of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein PINK1. PINK1 is widely expressed in many types of tissues, but deficiency selectively induces death in neurons. We report here that the same genetic defect results in opposing phenotypes in different cell types, depending on the metabolic properties of the cell. Thus, PINK1-deficient myocytes exhibit high basal mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), whereas PINK1-deficient neurons have been shown to exhibit a low ??m. PINK1 deficiency induces impaired respiration in both cell types, with a concomitant increase in glycolytic activity. We demonstrate that the high glycolytic capacity in myocytes compared with neurons enables them to produce more ATP and, therefore, compensates for the metabolic defects induced by PINK1 deficiency. Furthermore, the high ??m generated in PINK1 knockout (KO) muscle mitochondria enables them to buffer cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes, rendering them resistant to Ca2+ stress effectively. Conversely, PINK1 KO neurons were previously shown to develop mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarisation. Prevention of Ca2+ dysregulation in myocytes might therefore account for the sparing of these cells in PD. PMID:22223879

Yao, Zhi; Gandhi, Sonia; Burchell, Victoria S.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2011-01-01

113

Upregulation of human PINK1 gene expression by NF?B signalling  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria and more than 70 PINK1 mutations have been identified to cause early-onset PD. However, the regulation of PINK1 gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the transcription start site (TSS) of the human PINK1 gene using switching mechanism at 5’end of RNA transcription (SMART RACE) assay. The TSS is located at 91 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG. The region with 104 bp was identified as the minimal promoter region by deletion analysis followed by dual luciferase assay. Four functional cis-acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B)-binding sites within the PINK1 promoter were identified. NF?B overexpression led to the up-regulation of PINK1 expression in both HEK293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. Consistently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong activator of NF?B, significantly increased PINK1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results clearly suggested that PINK1 expression is tightly regulated at its transcription level and NF?B is a positive regulator for PINK1 expression. PMID:25108683

2014-01-01

114

PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (PINK1)/Park6 is indispensable for normal heart function  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the ability of an organism to eliminate these toxic intermediates. Mutations in PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (PINK1) link mitochondrial dysfunction, increased sensitivity to ROS, and apoptosis in Parkinson's disease. Whereas PINK1 has been linked to the regulation of oxidative stress, the exact mechanism by which this occurs has remained elusive. Oxidative stress with associated mitochondrial dysfunction leads to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that loss of PINK1 in the heart would have deleterious consequences on mitochondrial function. Here, we observed that PINK1 protein levels are markedly reduced in end-stage human HF. We also report that PINK1 localizes exclusively to the mitochondria. PINK1?/? mice develop left ventricular dysfunction and evidence of pathological cardiac hypertrophy as early as 2 mo of age. Of note, PINK1?/? mice have greater levels of oxidative stress and impaired mitochondrial function. There were also higher degrees of fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and a reciprocal reduction in capillary density associated with this baseline cardiac phenotype. Collectively, our in vivo data demonstrate that PINK1 activity is crucial for postnatal myocardial development, through its role in maintaining mitochondrial function, and redox homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, PINK1 possesses a distinct, nonredundant function in the surveillance and maintenance of cardiac tissue homeostasis. PMID:21606348

Billia, Filio; Hauck, Ludger; Konecny, Filip; Rao, Vivek; Shen, Jie; Mak, Tak Wah

2011-01-01

115

Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.  

PubMed

Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. PMID:21848751

Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

2011-09-01

116

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing. PMID:19253611

Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

2009-02-01

117

Parkinson's Disease–Associated Kinase PINK1 Regulates Miro Protein Level and Axonal Transport of Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD). PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. PMID:22396657

Lee, Seongsoo; Yu, Wendou; Silverio, George; Alapatt, Philomena; Millan, Ivan; Shen, Alice; Saxton, William; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2012-01-01

118

The Classical Pink-Eyed Dilution Mutation Affects Angiogenic Responsiveness  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

Rogers, Michael S.; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M.; Birsner, Amy E.; Dietrich, William F.; D'Amato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

119

A comparison of two parasitoids (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) of the vine mealybug: rapid, non-discriminatory oviposition is favored when ants tend the host.  

PubMed

The encyrtid parasitoids Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault and Anagyrus nr. sp. pseudococci (Girault) were compared in the laboratory as parasitoids of the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Female C. perminutus preferred second-instar P. ficus for oviposition, and produced more adult offspring (149.3 per female) than A. nr. sp. pseudococci (54.1 per female). The development time, from egg to adult emergence, of C. perminutus decreased with increasing constant temperatures between 18.5 and 30.1°C; at lower (12.0 and 15.0°C) and higher (31.1, 32.7, and 34.2°C) temperatures, the parasitoid did not develop. The lower threshold was calculated by linear methods to be 10.97°C, and the thermal constant was calculated to be 507.98 degree-days. The development times of C. perminutus were longer than those of A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and C. perminutus had narrower temperature tolerances than P. ficus or A. pseudococci. Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) reduced the amount of time C. perminutus foraged on mealybug-infested squash, but did not affect the number of oviposition attempts or offspring produced, whereas Argentine ants reduced A. nr. sp. pseudococci foraging time, oviposition attempts, and number of offspring obtained. Overall, the results suggest that under certain conditions, including optimal conditions of temperature and host-stage availability, C. perminutus outperforms A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and may be an effective augmentative control agent even when ants are tending the hosts. However, temperature limitations and host-stage selection behaviors would reduce C. perminutus performance in the field, and in the absence of ants, other parasitoids may be favored. PMID:25182618

Sime, Karen R; Daane, Kent M

2014-08-01

120

Bloggers as Citizen Journalists: The 2012 Pink Slime Incident  

E-print Network

the USDA planned to buy seven million pounds of LFTB for the national school lunch program (Fielding et al., 2012). A day later, Houston-based food blogger Bettina Elias Siegel started an online petition asking the USDA to ban the beef product from... the federal school lunch program; when the petition closed, it had 258, 632 signatures (Fielding et al., 2012). Two days later, March 7, 2012, ABC News reported 70% of ground beef at supermarkets contained pink slime (Fielding et al., 2012). LeVaux (2012...

Pannone, Anthony

2013-08-22

121

Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

Foord, E. E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F. E.; Briggs, P. H.

1995-01-01

122

ORIGINAL PAPER Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus  

E-print Network

November 2009 /Published online: 19 December 2009 # Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract In pink-footed goose vulnerable. Observations of morning flights of pink-footed geese to the feeding grounds from two of the major targeted goose flock size in proportion to the general probability of encounter. The rate at which hunters

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

123

Caenorhabditits elegans LRK-1 and PINK-1 Act Antagonistically in Stress Response and Neurite Outgrowth*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in two genes encoding the putative kinases LRRK2 and PINK1 have been associated with inherited variants of Parkinson disease. The physiological role of both proteins is not known at present, but studies in model organisms have linked their mutants to distinct aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, increased vulnerability to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and intracellular protein sorting. Here, we show that a mutation in the Caenorhabditits elegans homologue of the PTEN-induced kinase pink-1 gene resulted in reduced mitochondrial cristae length and increased paraquat sensitivity of the nematode. Moreover, the mutants also displayed defects in axonal outgrowth of a pair of canal-associated neurons. We demonstrate that in the absence of lrk-1, the C. elegans homologue of human LRRK2, all phenotypic aspects of pink-1 loss-of-function mutants were suppressed. Conversely, the hypersensitivity of lrk-1 mutant animals to the endoplasmic reticulum stressor tunicamycin was reduced in a pink-1 mutant background. These results provide the first evidence of an antagonistic role of PINK-1 and LRK-1. Due to the similarity of the C. elegans proteins to human LRRK2 and PINK1, we suggest a common role of both factors in cellular functions including stress response and regulation of neurite outgrowth. This study might help to link pink-1/PINK1 and lrk-1/LRRK2 function to the pathological processes resulting from Parkinson disease-related mutants in both genes, the first manifestations of which are cytoskeletal defects in affected neurons. PMID:19251702

Samann, Julia; Hegermann, Jan; von Gromoff, Erika; Eimer, Stefan; Baumeister, Ralf; Schmidt, Enrico

2009-01-01

124

Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

Kim, Bo Sun

2012-01-01

125

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

126

PINK1 Is Selectively Stabilized on Impaired Mitochondria to Activate Parkin  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause parkinsonism in humans and mitochondrial dysfunction in model organisms. Parkin is selectively recruited from the cytosol to damaged mitochondria to trigger their autophagy. How Parkin recognizes damaged mitochondria, however, is unknown. Here, we show that expression of PINK1 on individual mitochondria is regulated by voltage-dependent proteolysis to maintain low levels of PINK1 on healthy, polarized mitochondria, while facilitating the rapid accumulation of PINK1 on mitochondria that sustain damage. PINK1 accumulation on mitochondria is both necessary and sufficient for Parkin recruitment to mitochondria, and disease-causing mutations in PINK1 and Parkin disrupt Parkin recruitment and Parkin-induced mitophagy at distinct steps. These findings provide a biochemical explanation for the genetic epistasis between PINK1 and Parkin in Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, they support a novel model for the negative selection of damaged mitochondria, in which PINK1 signals mitochondrial dysfunction to Parkin, and Parkin promotes their elimination. PMID:20126261

Narendra, Derek P.; Jin, Seok Min; Tanaka, Atsushi; Suen, Der-Fen; Gautier, Clement A.; Shen, Jie; Cookson, Mark R.; Youle, Richard J.

2010-01-01

127

A zebrafish model of PINK1 deficiency reveals key pathway dysfunction including HIF signaling.  

PubMed

The PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is mutated in patients with hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The targets of PINK1 and the mechanisms in PD are still not fully understood. Here, we carried out a high-throughput and unbiased microarray study to identify novel functions and pathways for PINK1. In larval zebrafish, the function of pink1 was inhibited using splice-site morpholino oligonucleotides and the samples were hybridized on a two-color gene expression array. We found 177 significantly altered genes in pink1 morphants compared with the uninjected wildtype controls (log fold change values from -1.6 to +0.9). The five most prominent pathways based on critical biological processes and key toxicological responses were hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, TGF-? signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, RAR activation, and biogenesis of mitochondria. Furthermore, we verified that potentially important genes such as hif1?, catalase, SOD3, and atp1a2a were downregulated in pink1 morphants, whereas genes such as fech, pax2a, and notch1a were upregulated. Some of these genes have been found to play important roles in HIF signaling pathways. The pink1 morphants were found to have heart dysfunction, increased erythropoiesis, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors, and increased ROS. Our findings suggest that a lack of pink1 in zebrafish alters many vital and critical pathways in addition to the HIF signaling pathway. PMID:23454196

Priyadarshini, M; Tuimala, J; Chen, Y C; Panula, P

2013-06-01

128

PINK1-mediated Phosphorylation of Miro Inhibits Synaptic Growth and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 cause Parkinson's disease. One of the substrates of PINK1 is the outer mitochondrial membrane protein Miro, which regulates mitochondrial transport. In this study, we uncovered novel physiological functions of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro, using Drosophila as a model. We replaced endogenous Drosophila Miro (DMiro) with transgenically expressed wildtype, or mutant DMiro predicted to resist PINK1-mediated phosphorylation. We found that the expression of phospho-resistant DMiro in a DMiro null mutant background phenocopied a subset of phenotypes of PINK1 null. Specifically, phospho-resistant DMiro increased mitochondrial movement and synaptic growth at larval neuromuscular junctions, and decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons in adult brains. Therefore, PINK1 may inhibit synaptic growth and protect dopaminergic neurons by phosphorylating DMiro. Furthermore, muscle degeneration, swollen mitochondria and locomotor defects found in PINK1 null flies were not observed in phospho-resistant DMiro flies. Thus, our study established an in vivo platform to define functional consequences of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of its substrates. PMID:25376463

Tsai, Pei-I; Course, Meredith M.; Lovas, Jonathan R.; Hsieh, Chung-Han; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Wang, Xinnan

2014-01-01

129

PINK1 Is Necessary for Long Term Survival and Mitochondrial Function in Human Dopaminergic Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease,

Alison Wood-Kaczmar; Sonia Gandhi; Zhi Yao; Andrey S. Y. Abramov; Erik A. Miljan; Gregory Keen; Lee Stanyer; Iain Hargreaves; Kristina Klupsch; Emma Deas; Julian Downward; Louise Mansfield; Parmjit Jat; Joanne Taylor; Simon Heales; Michael R. Duchen; David Latchman; Sarah J. Tabrizi; Nicholas W. Wood; Henry Waldvogel

2008-01-01

130

Onboard processing of deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) with liquid ice: Effect on quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) of onboard chilling with liquid ice versus the traditional chilling with flaked ice. Quality was estimated by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters after 24 h and 4 days of chilled storage. Application of liquid ice immediately after catch for the fast chilling of pink shrimp

Almudena Huidobro; María Elvira López-Caballero; Rogério Mendes

2002-01-01

131

PINK1 deficiency in ?-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice  

PubMed Central

The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function. PMID:24806840

Deas, Emma; Piipari, Kaisa; Machhada, Asif; Li, Abi; Gutierrez-del-Arroyo, Ana; Withers, Dominic J.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2014-01-01

132

SURVIVAL, SIZE, AND EMERGENCE OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, ALEVINS AFfER  

E-print Network

SURVIVAL, SIZE, AND EMERGENCE OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, ALEVINS AFfER SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EXPOSURES TO AMMONIA STANLEY D. RICE AND JACK E. BAILEyl ABSTRACf Eggs and alevins ofpink salmon ofimmature fry was tested at various stages ofdevelopment. Pink salmon alevins were most sensitive

133

Antibiosis and Preferences as Factors in the Resistance of Certain Cottons to Pink Bollworm Attack  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 16 23 23 23 Handling cotton stocks ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Obtaining eggs ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ Infesting boils . Boll ~tion Micmtechnique . Obtaining boll material . Sectioning and. staining boll saterial . Examining... . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 39 Results of preliminary tests where adult boll weevils were allowed to oviposit in boils of Texas 373 . Number of pink bollworm eggs laid. on cotton terminals having various degrees of hairiness ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Number of pink...

Reed, David Kent

2012-06-07

134

MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS AND SANIBEL GROUNDS,  

E-print Network

patterns on the offshore grounds. The migrations and geographic distribution of pink shrimp, Penae'u8 d'IW1MIGRATIONS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, OF THE TORTUGAS on the offshore Tortugas and Sanibel trawling grounds in the Gulf of Mexico. To study the Tortugas and Sanibel

135

Antibiosis as a factor in host plant resistance to the pink bollworm and the effect of certain organic insecticides on mortality and oviposition of the pink bollworm adult  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 65 Table l. Number of boils from each apscise of cotton in- fested with pink bollworm eggs at each infesta- 'tion date? ~ ~ ? ~ e ? ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 66 2? Pink bollworm adult toxicity test installed June 20? 1955? and removed June 25... of this insect is feasible with insecticides other than those having contact properties Even contact in- secticides may bs only partially effective as a great many eggs are deposited beneath the calyxes of ths cotton boils and ths newly hatched larva...

Williams, Robert Kenneth

2012-06-07

136

The Loss of PGAM5 Suppresses the Mitochondrial Degeneration Caused by Inactivation of PINK1 in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is required for mitochondrial homeostasis, is a gene product responsible for early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Another early onset PD gene product, Parkin, has been suggested to function downstream of the PINK1 signalling pathway based on genetic studies in Drosophila. PINK1 is a serine/threonine kinase with a predicted mitochondrial target sequence and a probable transmembrane domain at the N-terminus, while Parkin is a RING-finger protein with ubiquitin-ligase (E3) activity. However, how PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial activity is largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between PINK1 and Parkin, we biochemically purified PINK1-binding proteins from human cultured cells and screened the genes encoding these binding proteins using Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) models to isolate a molecule(s) involved in the PINK1 pathology. Here we report that a PINK1-binding mitochondrial protein, PGAM5, modulates the PINK1 pathway. Loss of Drosophila PGAM5 (dPGAM5) can suppress the muscle degeneration, motor defects, and shorter lifespan that result from dPINK1 inactivation and that can be attributed to mitochondrial degeneration. However, dPGAM5 inactivation fails to modulate the phenotypes of parkin mutant flies. Conversely, ectopic expression of dPGAM5 exacerbated the dPINK1 and Drosophila parkin (dParkin) phenotypes. These results suggest that PGAM5 negatively regulates the PINK1 pathway related to maintenance of the mitochondria and, furthermore, that PGAM5 acts between PINK1 and Parkin, or functions independently of Parkin downstream of PINK1. PMID:21151955

Sawada, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Yosuke; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Lu, Bingwei; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2010-01-01

137

Hydroxocobalamin association during cell culture results in pink therapeutic proteins  

PubMed Central

Process control of protein therapeutic manufacturing is central to ensuring the product is both safe and efficacious for patients. In this work, we investigate the cause of pink color variability in development lots of monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Fc-fusion proteins. Results show pink-colored product generated during manufacturing is due to association of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), a form of vitamin B12. OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing. PMID:23924851

Prentice, Kenneth M; Gillespie, Ronald; Lewis, Nathan; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; McCoy, Rebecca; Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Eakin, Catherine M

2013-01-01

138

Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

2013-11-01

139

Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

2011-01-01

140

ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE  

PubMed

Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing-tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same time as local wind speeds. The photographs were used to test for savings in induced power from wing positioning relative to the predicted positions of vortices generated by other wings, using a theoretical model. The mean wing-tip spacing corresponded to a saving in induced power of 14 %, less than one-third of the maximum possible. The saving in total power might be as low as 2.4 %. The high variation in wing-tip spacing suggests that pink-footed geese found difficulty maintaining position and thus adopted a strategy of flying outboard of the optimal position that maximises savings. This may minimise the risk of straying into a zone where savings are negative. There was a significant correlation between depth and wing-tip spacing, supporting an alternative communication hypothesis, whereby the birds position themselves to obtain maximum information on their neighbour's position. In high winds, there was little change in wing-tip spacing variation but a decrease in depth variation, suggesting a shift towards more regularly spaced skeins. PMID:9317742

Cutts; Speakman

1994-04-01

141

Biochemical and chemical characterization of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The biochemical and chemical characteristics were determined for 156 clinical isolates of pink-pigmented bacteria that are similar to but distinct from Methylobacterium extorquens (synonymous with Pseudomonas mesophilica). These isolates were gram-negative, nonfermentative, usually nonvacuolated, coccoid rods; all grew at 35 degrees C and were catalase and urease positive; the majority grew on MacConkey agar and were variable for oxidase production and motility. On the basis of oxidation of xylose and mannitol and hydrolysis of esculin, these 156 strains were subdivided into four groups that were designated "pink coccoid" groups I, II, III, and IV. Groups I, II, and III are similar to an unnamed taxon described by Gilardi and Faur in 1984; only strains of group IV hydrolyze esculin. The cellular fatty acid compositions of strains of groups I, II, and III were essentially identical and differed from strains of group IV by the absence of 3-OH-C14:0 and the presence of C19:0 delta and 2-OH-C19:0 delta. The fatty acid composition of group IV strains was most similar to that of M. extorquens but differed by the presence of small amounts of two C17:1 acids, 3-OH-C16:0, and 2-OH-C18:1. PMID:2332467

Wallace, P L; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W

1990-01-01

142

MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001 PMID:24898855

Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

2014-01-01

143

Oxidative Stress and Regulation of Pink1 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. A lack of dopamine in the striatum is the most characteristic feature of PD, and the cause of the most dominant symptoms. Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) gene cause autosomal recessive PD. This study explored the basic mechanisms underlying the involvement of pink1 in oxidative stress-mediated PD pathology using zebrafish as a tool. We generated a transgenic line, Tg(pink1:EGFP), and used it to study the effect of oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2) on pink1 expression. GFP expression was enhanced throughout the brain of zebrafish larvae subjected to oxidative stress. In addition to a widespread increase in pink1 mRNA expression, mild oxidative stress induced a clear decline in tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2), but not tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (th1) expression, in the brain of wild-type larvae. The drug L-Glutathione Reduced (LGR) has been associated with anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. Administration of LGR normalized the increased fluorescence intensity indicating pink1 transgene expression and endogenous pink1 mRNA expression in larvae subjected to oxidative stress by H2O2. In the pink1 morpholino oliogonucleotide-injected larvae, the reduction in the expression of th1 and th2 was partially rescued by LGR. The pink1 gene is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in zebrafish, and LGR effectively normalizes the consequences of mild oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of pink1 and LGR may be significant and useful in drug development. PMID:24324558

Priyadarshini, Madhusmita; Orosco, Lori A.; Panula, Pertti J.

2013-01-01

144

Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.  

PubMed

Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

2014-02-01

145

Isolation of methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate--a new oleanane Triterpenoid from the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius.  

PubMed

A new oleanane triterpenoid, methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate (2), together with eight known compounds viz. oleanolic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-D-rhamnopyranoside, gossypin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mangiferin were isolated from the ethanol extract of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated from spectroscopic, ESI-MS and physical data. The eight known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. PMID:23738444

Ramasamy, Duraisamy; Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

2013-04-01

146

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

147

Chemical, morphology and thermal evaluation of cellulose microfibers obtained from Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature and finds a range of application. Cellulose microfibers were extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa fibers by steam explosion technique. Structural and surface analysis of the microfibers showed a reduction in diameter and changes in surface morphology from that of the raw fibers. The chemical composition of fibers were analyzed according to the TAPPI standards and showed increase in ?-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicelluloses for the microfibers. This has been further confirmed by SEM, XRD and FTIR results. Thermal characterization showed enhanced thermal stability of celluloses microfibers compared to raw fibers. PMID:23218352

Sonia, A; Priya Dasan, K

2013-01-30

148

Growth and biomass productivity of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) under different agricultural inputs and management practices in central Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) cultivars Tainung 2 and Everglades 41 were determined under three irrigation applications (low: 25%, moderate: 50% and fully: 100% of maximum evapotranspiration; ETm), four nitrogen dressings (0, 50, 100 and 150kgha?1), two sowing dates, and two plant densities (20 and 30plm?2) in two field experiments carried out on an representative

N. G. Danalatos; S. V. Archontoulis

2010-01-01

149

Temporal and Geographic Variation in Predispersal Seed Predation on Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae) in Ohio and Maryland, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed predation has the potential to strongly reduce seed production and thereby act as a selective force on the evolution of flowering traits and other defenses against herbivory. We characterized levels of predispersal seed predation on Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) during 2001 and 2002 at four sites in Ohio and Maryland, USA. The seed predators were a weevil, Conotrachelus fissinguis (Coleoptera,

ROBERT A. KLIPS; PATRICIA M. SWEENEY; ELISABETH K. F. BAUMAN; ALLISON A. SNOW

2005-01-01

150

PINK1 as a Molecular Checkpoint in the Maintenance of Mitochondrial Function and Integrity  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by an age-dependent selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Although most PD cases are sporadic, more than 20 responsible genes in familial cases were identified recently. Genetic studies using Drosophila models demonstrate that PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase encoded by a PD-linked gene PINK1, is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. This suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is the main cause of PD pathogenesis. Further genetic and cell biological studies revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase encoded by another PD-linked gene parkin, to mitochondria and regulates the mitochondrial remodeling process via the Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of various mitochondrial proteins. PINK1 also directly phosphorylates the mitochondrial proteins Miro and TRAP1, subsequently inhibiting mitochondrial transport and mitochondrial oxidative damage, respectively. Moreover, recent Drosophila genetic analyses demonstrate that the neuroprotective molecules Sir2 and FOXO specifically complement mitochondrial dysfunction and DA neuron loss in PINK1 null mutants, suggesting that Sir2 and FOXO protect mitochondria and DA neurons downstream of PINK1. Collectively, these recent results suggest that PINK1 plays multiple roles in mitochondrial quality control by regulating its mitochondrial, cytosolic, and nuclear targets. PMID:22610403

Koh, Hyongjong; Chung, Jongkyeong

2012-01-01

151

Alpha-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration is exacerbated in PINK1 knockout mice.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in the PINK1 gene lead to recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Animal models with depleted PINK1 expression have failed to reproduce significant nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration and clear alpha-synuclein pathology, main characteristics of the disease. In this study, we investigated whether alpha-synuclein pathology is altered in the absence of PINK1 in cell culture and in vivo. We observed that downregulation of PINK1 enhanced alpha-synuclein aggregation and apoptosis in a neuronal cell culture model for synucleinopathy. Silencing of PINK1 expression in mouse substantia nigra using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors did not induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a long-term study up to 10 months, nor did it enhance or accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration after alpha-synuclein overexpression. However, in PINK1 knockout mice, overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra resulted in enhanced dopaminergic neurodegeneration as well as significantly higher levels of alpha-synuclein phosphorylation at serine 129 at 4 weeks postinjection. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that total loss of PINK1 leads to an increased sensitivity to alpha-synuclein-induced neuropathology and cell death in vivo. PMID:25037286

Oliveras-Salvá, Marusela; Macchi, Francesca; Coessens, Valérie; Deleersnijder, Angélique; Gérard, Melanie; Van der Perren, Anke; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle

2014-11-01

152

Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

153

Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (Ret(MEN?B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Ret(MEN?B) significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-02-18

154

Parkinson's disease mutations in PINK1 result in decreased Complex I activity and deficient synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the mitochondrial PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue)-induced kinase1 (PINK1) are important causes of recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Studies on loss of function and overexpression implicate PINK1 in apoptosis, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, impaired dopamine release and motor deficits. However, the fundamental mechanism underlying these various phenotypes remains to be clarified. Using fruit fly and mouse models we show that PINK1 deficiency or clinical mutations impact on the function of Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in mitochondrial depolarization and increased sensitivity to apoptotic stress in mammalian cells and tissues. In Drosophila neurons, PINK1 deficiency affects synaptic function, as the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles is not mobilized during rapid stimulation. The fundamental importance of PINK1 for energy maintenance under increased demand is further corroborated as this deficit can be rescued by adding ATP to the synapse. The clinical relevance of our observations is demonstrated by the fact that human wild type PINK1, but not PINK1 containing clinical mutations, can rescue Complex 1 deficiency. Our work suggests that Complex I deficiency underlies, at least partially, the pathogenesis of this hereditary form of PD. As Complex I dysfunction is also implicated in sporadic PD, a convergence of genetic and environmental causes of PD on a similar mitochondrial molecular mechanism appears to emerge. PMID:20049710

Morais, Vanessa A; Verstreken, Patrik; Roethig, Anne; Smet, Joél; Snellinx, An; Vanbrabant, Mieke; Haddad, Dominik; Frezza, Christian; Mandemakers, Wim; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Van Coster, Rudy; Wurst, Wolfgang; Scorrano, Luca; De Strooper, Bart

2009-01-01

155

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

156

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

1972-01-01

157

Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series.  

PubMed

Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. PMID:23066249

Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

2012-08-01

158

Pink1 Kinase and Its Membrane Potential (??)-dependent Cleavage Product Both Localize to Outer Mitochondrial Membrane by Unique Targeting Mode*  

PubMed Central

The Parkinson disease-associated kinase Pink1 is targeted to mitochondria where it is thought to regulate mitochondrial quality control by promoting the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. Nevertheless, the targeting mode of Pink1 and its submitochondrial localization are still not conclusively resolved. The aim of this study was to dissect the mitochondrial import pathway of Pink1 by use of a highly sensitive in vitro assay. Mutational analysis of the Pink1 sequence revealed that its N terminus acts as a genuine matrix localization sequence that mediates the initial membrane potential (??)-dependent targeting of the Pink1 precursor to the inner mitochondrial membrane, but it is dispensable for Pink1 import or processing. A hydrophobic segment downstream of the signal sequence impeded complete translocation of Pink1 across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Additionally, the C-terminal end of the protein promoted the retention of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Thus, multiple targeting signals featured by the Pink1 sequence result in the final localization of both the full-length protein and its major ??-dependent cleavage product to the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Full-length Pink1 and deletion constructs resembling the natural Pink1 processing product were found to assemble into membrane potential-sensitive high molecular weight protein complexes at the mitochondrial surface and displayed similar cytoprotective effects when expressed in vivo, indicating that both species are functionally relevant. PMID:22547060

Becker, Dorothea; Richter, Judith; Tocilescu, Maja A.; Przedborski, Serge; Voos, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

159

PINK1 loss-of-function mutations affect mitochondrial complex I activity via NdufA10 ubiquinone uncoupling.  

PubMed

Under resting conditions, Pink1 knockout cells and cells derived from patients with PINK1 mutations display a loss of mitochondrial complex I reductive activity, causing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analyzing the phosphoproteome of complex I in liver and brain from Pink1(-/-) mice, we found specific loss of phosphorylation of serine-250 in complex I subunit NdufA10. Phosphorylation of serine-250 was needed for ubiquinone reduction by complex I. Phosphomimetic NdufA10 reversed Pink1 deficits in mouse knockout cells and rescued mitochondrial depolarization and synaptic transmission defects in pink(B9)-null mutant Drosophila. Complex I deficits and adenosine triphosphate synthesis were also rescued in cells derived from PINK1 patients. Thus, this evolutionary conserved pathway may contribute to the pathogenic cascade that eventually leads to Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24652937

Morais, Vanessa A; Haddad, Dominik; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Swerts, Jef; Vilain, Sven; Aerts, Liesbeth; Overbergh, Lut; Grünewald, Anne; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine; Gevaert, Kris; Verstreken, Patrik; De Strooper, Bart

2014-04-11

160

Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth  

SciTech Connect

Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

1988-11-01

161

Women are more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility.  

PubMed

Although females of many species closely related to humans signal their fertile window in an observable manner, often involving red or pink coloration, no such display has been found for humans. Building on evidence that men are sexually attracted to women wearing or surrounded by red, we tested whether women show a behavioral tendency toward wearing reddish clothing when at peak fertility. Across two samples (N = 124), women at high conception risk were more than 3 times more likely to wear a red or pink shirt than were women at low conception risk, and 77% of women who wore red or pink were found to be at high, rather than low, risk. Conception risk had no effect on the prevalence of any other shirt color. Our results thus suggest that red and pink adornment in women is reliably associated with fertility and that female ovulation, long assumed to be hidden, is associated with a salient visual cue. PMID:23842955

Beall, Alec T; Tracy, Jessica L

2013-09-01

162

Tricornered/NDR kinase signaling mediates PINK1-directed mitochondrial quality control and tissue maintenance  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotes employ elaborate mitochondrial quality control (MQC) to maintain the function of the power-generating organelle. Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 and Parkin actively participate in MQC. However, the signaling events involved are largely unknown. Here we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (mTORC2) and Tricornered (Trc) kinases act downstream from PINK1 to regulate MQC. Trc is phosphorylated in mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent manners and is specifically localized to mitochondria in response to PINK1, which regulates mTORC2 through mitochondrial complex-I activity. Genetically, mTORC2 and Trc act upstream of Parkin. Thus, multiplex kinase signaling is acting between PINK1 and Parkin to regulate MQC, a process highly conserved in mammals. PMID:23348839

Wu, Zhihao; Sawada, Tomoyo; Shiba, Kahori; Liu, Song; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2013-01-01

163

Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations affecting the PINK1 kinase domain in three

Enza Maria Valente; Patrick M. Abou-Sleiman; Viviana Caputo; Miratul M. K. Muqit; Kirsten Harvey; Suzana Gispert; Zeeshan Ali; Domenico Del Turco; Anna Rita Bentivoglio; Daniel G. Healy; Alberto Albanese; Robert Nussbaum; Rafael González-Maldonado; Thomas Deller; Sergio Salvi; Pietro Cortelli; William P. Gilks; David S. Latchman; Robert J. Harvey; Bruno Dallapiccola; Georg Auburger; Nicholas W. Wood

2004-01-01

164

Factors affecting persistent pinkness and premature browning of ground beef patties  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Animal Science FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENT PINKNESS AND PREMATURE BROWNING OF GROUND BEEF PATTIES A Thesis by ERIN ANN CUREINGTON Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Cureington, Erin Ann

2012-06-07

165

Pink/White (ladies' only) Light Blue/White (ladies' only)  

E-print Network

Pink/White (ladies' only) Light Blue/White (ladies' only) White/Stone Dill/Dark Green Slate Blue, Dill/Dark Green, Light Blue/White, Navy/White, Pink/White, Stone/Fawn, White/Stone Men's Colors: Black/Navy (men's only) Stone/Fawn Red/Black (men's only) Navy/White Black/Heather (men's only) Black/White

Wechsler, Risa H.

166

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65  

PubMed Central

Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2012-01-01

167

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2013-01-01

168

Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

2008-08-01

169

Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.  

PubMed

In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3?- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13?-olide (1), 3?- acetoxy-11?,12?-epoxy-olean-28,13?-olide (2), 19?-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17?,19?-lupan-3?-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 ?M). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. PMID:24862067

Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

2014-09-01

170

Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review.  

PubMed

This article reviews the reported phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (English: roselle, red sorrel; Arabic: karkade), the calyces of which are used in many parts of the world to make cold and hot drinks. Nutritionally, these contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C). In folk medicine, the calyx extracts are used for the treatment of several complaints, including high blood pressure, liver diseases and fever. The pharmacological actions of the calyx extracts include strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. In rats and rabbits, the extract showed antihypercholesterolaemic, antinociceptive and antipyretic, but not antiinflammatory activities. In rat and man a strong antihypertensive action has been demonstrated. The effects of the calyx extracts on smooth muscles in vitro are variable, but they mostly inhibit the tone of the isolated muscles. In healthy men, consumption of H. sabdariffa has resulted in significant decreases in the urinary concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate, but not oxalate. Oil extracted from the plant's seeds has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on some bacteria and fungi in vitro. The plant extracts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. The LD50 of H. sabdariffa calyx extract in rats was found to be above 5000 mg/kg. A single report has suggested that excessive doses for relatively long periods could have a deleterious effect on the testes of rats. In view of its reported nutritional and pharmacological properties and relative safety, H. sabdariffa and compounds isolated from it (for example, anthocyanins and Hibiscus protocatechuic acid) could be a source of therapeutically useful products. PMID:16106391

Ali, Badreldin H; Al Wabel, Naser; Blunden, Gerald

2005-05-01

171

Plant Growth Retardation and Conserved miRNAs Are Correlated to Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

2013-01-01

172

Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.  

PubMed

Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

2013-01-01

173

Mitochondrial Morphogenesis, Distribution, and Parkinson Disease: Insights From PINK1  

PubMed Central

The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) has been assumed to be a complex combination of environmental factors, intrinsic cellular metabolic properties, and susceptible genetic alleles. The primary obstacles to the development of a neuroprotective therapy in PD include uncertainties with regard to the precise cause(s) of neuronal dysfunction and what to target. The discoveries of Mendelian genes associated with inherited forms of PD in the last 10 years have revolutionized the understanding of the cellular pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction. Common themes of the pathogenesis of PD are beginning to emerge with mitochondrial dysfunction at the center stage. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of the pathogenesis of PD, revisit some aspects of mitochondrial biology, and discuss the insights from the study of Pink1, a familial PD-associated gene. We propose that mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution might be a novel and potential common paradigm for PD and other neurodegenerative disease research and that modulation of such mitochondrial processes may prove to be a valuable therapeutic avenue for PD. PMID:19680148

Yang, Yufeng; Lu, Bingwei

2011-01-01

174

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

175

Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Pink Tomatoes: Deregulated Expression of the Gene Encoding Transcription Factor SlMYB12 Leads to Pink Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the

Ana-Rosa Ballester; Jos Molthoff; Ric de Vos; Diego Orzaez; Pasquale Tripodi; Silvana Grandillo; Cathie Martin

2010-01-01

176

Antioxidant Actions of Dried Flower Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. On Sodium Arsenite - Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The antioxidant actions of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) - induced oxidative stress in rats. The oral administration of the extracts (200 and 300mg\\/kg body

2005-01-01

177

In vitro culture of callus tissues and cell suspensions from okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton ( gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods are described for starting and maintaining callus-tissue cultures of twoMalvaceae, okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Okra callus was slow to initiate, but once started it was easy to maintain, in contrast to cotton, which was difficult\\u000a to initiate and grow. Different media were required to establish the two species. The inclusion of 5 mg per

David G. Davis; Kendall E. Dusbabek; Roland A. Hoerauf

1974-01-01

178

The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

1998-01-01

179

Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the emulsifying properties of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) and khan\\u000a (Belschmiedia sp.), three African food hydrocolloids used to thicken and flavor soups. Results showed that khan has an emulsion\\u000a potential approximately 20 and 100 times higher than the second and the first, respectively. A kinetic study indicated that\\u000a the mechanism involved formation of thick

R. Ndjouenkeu; J. O. Akingbala; G. B. Oguntimein

1997-01-01

180

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

2013-01-01

181

Hibiscus flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

182

Function of ?-synuclein and PINK1 in Lewy body dementia (Review).  

PubMed

?-synuclein (?-syn) is the major protein component of Lewy bodies, a key pathological characteristic of the degenerating brain. The misfolding and aggregation of ?-syn is associated with both the idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the function of ?-syn is poorly understood, as it shows both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) also cause recessively inherited PD. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. PINK1 plays an essential role in mitochondrial quality control and its homeostasis is maintained through mitochondrial stabilization. The ?-syn aggregation is linked to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1-related mitophagy. Determination of the molecular pathways that lead to ?-syn oligomerization and further aggregation may be the basis for the successful design and development of treatments for these neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the function of PINK1 underlying ?-syn aggregation and the mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this process. PMID:25355138

Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Ogura, Yasunori

2015-01-01

183

The PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes both mitophagy and selective respiratory chain turnover in vivo.  

PubMed

The accumulation of damaged mitochondria has been proposed as a key factor in aging and the pathogenesis of many common age-related diseases, including Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, in vitro studies of the PD-related proteins Parkin and PINK1 have found that these factors act in a common pathway to promote the selective autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). However, whether Parkin and PINK1 promote mitophagy under normal physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. To address this question, we used a proteomic approach in Drosophila to compare the rates of mitochondrial protein turnover in parkin mutants, PINK1 mutants, and control flies. We found that parkin null mutants showed a significant overall slowing of mitochondrial protein turnover, similar to but less severe than the slowing seen in autophagy-deficient Atg7 mutants, consistent with the model that Parkin acts upstream of Atg7 to promote mitophagy. By contrast, the turnover of many mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) subunits showed greater impairment in parkin than Atg7 mutants, and RC turnover was also selectively impaired in PINK1 mutants. Our findings show that the PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes mitophagy in vivo and, unexpectedly, also promotes selective turnover of mitochondrial RC subunits. Failure to degrade damaged RC proteins could account for the RC deficits seen in many PD patients and may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. PMID:23509287

Vincow, Evelyn S; Merrihew, Gennifer; Thomas, Ruth E; Shulman, Nicholas J; Beyer, Richard P; MacCoss, Michael J; Pallanck, Leo J

2013-04-16

184

Drosophila Trap1 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in a PINK1/parkin model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by protein aggregation has been shown to have an important role in neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondria have evolved at least two levels of defence mechanisms that ensure their integrity and the viability of their host cell. First, molecular quality control, through the upregulation of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases, guarantees the clearance of damaged proteins. Second, organellar quality control ensures the clearance of defective mitochondria through their selective autophagy. Studies in Drosophila have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction linked with the loss of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) as a mechanism of PD pathogenesis. The mitochondrial chaperone TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was recently reported to be a cellular substrate for the PINK1 kinase. Here, we characterise Drosophila Trap1 null mutants and describe the genetic analysis of Trap1 function with Pink1 and parkin. We show that loss of Trap1 results in a decrease in mitochondrial function and increased sensitivity to stress, and that its upregulation in neurons of Pink1 mutant rescues mitochondrial impairment. Additionally, the expression of Trap1 was able to partially rescue mitochondrial impairment in parkin mutant flies; and conversely, expression of parkin rescued mitochondrial impairment in Trap1 mutants. We conclude that Trap1 works downstream of Pink1 and in parallel with parkin in Drosophila, and that enhancing its function may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:23328674

Costa, A C; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L Miguel

2013-01-01

185

Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods  

PubMed Central

Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

2013-01-01

186

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil  

PubMed Central

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

187

Radiation-induced pink nickel oligomeric clusters in water. Pulse radiolysis study.  

PubMed

?-rays and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Ni(2+) ions in the presence of polyacrylate (PA(-)) and 2-propanol leads to the formation of metastable species absorbing at 540 nm that are ascribed to "pink" oligomeric clusters of a few nickel atoms only. The molar absorption coefficient is evaluated as ?540 nm = 3300 ± 300 L mol(-1) cm(-1) per Ni(0) atom. The successive steps from the reduction of Ni(2+) into Ni(+) ions to the formation of the pink clusters at 540 nm under conditions of complexation by PA(-) are investigated by pulse radiolysis. The yield of the formation of pink clusters increases markedly with the irradiation dose rate, demonstrating the occurrence of the disproportionation of the [Ni(+), PA(-)] complex after a single electron pulse. The reduction and nucleation mechanisms, including rate constants, in competition with the back oxidation by protons, particularly at low dose rate, are discussed. PMID:25198291

Hioul, Mohamed Larbi; Lin, Mingzhang; Belloni, Jacqueline; Keghouche, Nassira; Marignier, Jean-Louis

2014-10-01

188

Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in several countries for more than a decade. In China, the frequency of resistance to Cry1Ac has increased, but control failures have not been reported. In western India, pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac has caused widespread control failures of Bt cotton. By contrast, in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States, monitoring data from bioassays and DNA screening demonstrate sustained susceptibility to Cry1Ac for 16 y. From 1996-2005, the main factors that delayed resistance in Arizona appear to be abundant refuges of non-Bt cotton, recessive inheritance of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance and incomplete resistance. From 2006-2011, refuge abundance was greatly reduced in Arizona, while mass releases of sterile pink bollworm moths were made to delay resistance as part of a multi-tactic eradication program. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona has provided a cornerstone for the pink bollworm eradication program and for integrated pest management in cotton. Reduced insecticide use against pink bollworm and other cotton pests has yielded economic benefits for growers, as well as broad environmental and health benefits. We encourage increased efforts to combine Bt crops with other tactics in integrated pest management programs. PMID:22572905

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Morin, Shai; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

2012-01-01

189

Diminishing Returns from Increased Percent Bt Cotton: The Case of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-01-01

190

Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.  

PubMed

Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

1990-11-01

191

Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-01-01

192

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuschaeach year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more than

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

193

FOXO3a-dependent regulation of Pink1 (Park6) mediates survival signaling in response to cytokine deprivation  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations of phosphatase/tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1) (also known as Park6) identified in familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with compromised mitochondrial function. Emerging data suggest that Pink1 is an essential pro-survival factor that is induced in response to oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms regulating Pink1 expression under stress conditions remain unknown. Forkhead box, subgroup O (FOXO) transcription factors carry out distinct biological functions in response to different extracellular signals. Notably, FOXO factors possess evolutionarily conserved roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced death. Here we report that the FOXO family member FOXO3a controls Pink1 transcription in both mouse and human cells subjected to growth factor deprivation and that this regulation is exerted through evolutionarily conserved FOXO binding elements. Induction of Pink1 by FOXO3a is crucial for survival signals in lymphocytes, as depletion of Pink1 sensitizes these cells to death induced by deprivation of an essential growth factor. Our data reveal that the role of FOXO factors in protecting cells from growth factor deprivation-triggered apoptosis has been underestimated and that FOXOs mediate this protection by transactivating anti-apoptotic effectors like Pink1. Given the essential role of Pink1 in combating cell death, our findings may help to dissect the mechanisms by which FOXO proteins function as anti-oxidative stress factors. PMID:19276113

Mei, Yang; Zhang, Yiru; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Xie, Wei; Mak, Tak W.; You, Han

2009-01-01

194

Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).  

PubMed

Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway ruptured after decreases in ~2.5 and 2.75 times the hydrostatic pressure to which the fish were acclimated, respectively. Differences in buoyancy, gas exchange rates, limitations to vertical movements and acclimation times between the two species are discussed in terms of their differing behaviour and ecology. PMID:23979722

Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

2014-04-01

195

Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30?nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38?kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9?kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2?Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5?Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV. PMID:19478438

Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

2009-01-01

196

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

197

Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. PMID:21839160

Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

2011-11-01

198

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

2012-12-01

199

Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h). PMID:24204204

Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

2013-01-01

200

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract and anthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls. PMID:22428240

Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumyia; Ziada, Amal; Al Salam, Suhail; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Blunden, Gerald

2012-01-01

201

Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts  

PubMed Central

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15?min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360??g/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerova, Tana

2011-01-01

202

Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinesis flowers and acetone soluble part of petroleum ether extract of B. monosperma flowers. The fractions protected animals from maximum electro shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. The fractions also inhibited convulsions induced by lithium-pilocarpine and electrical kindling. However, they failed to protect animals from strychnine-induced convulsions. The fractions antagonised the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep. The fractions raised brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. These fractions were found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of central nervous system. PMID:10904147

Kasture, V S; Chopde, C T; Deshmukh, V K

2000-07-01

203

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

2012-01-01

204

Evaluation of mucilage of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of diclofenac.  

PubMed

This article reports the exploitation of novel hydrophilic excipient, that is, mucilage from Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn, for the development of sustained release tablet. Swelling ratio and flow properties analyses of dried mucilage powder were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used. In factorial design, amounts of dried mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) were taken as independent factors and percentage drug release in 60 and 300 min and time for 80% drug release as dependent variables. Matrix tablet containing dried mucilage and diclofenac sodium (DS) was prepared through direct compression techniques. DS tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro drug release and water uptake, and mass loss study. The dried mucilage powder shows superior swelling capacity and excellent flow properties. Prepared tablets have acceptable hardness, friability, and uniformity in weight. It was found that batch HD8 fulfills all selected criteria. Drug release kinetics from these formulations corresponded best to the zero-order kinetics. Water uptake was independent whereas mass loss was dependent on agitation speed. The concept of similarity factor (f(2)) was used to prove similarity of dissolution profile in distilled water and phosphate buffer and was found to be 90.68. It was concluded that mucilage can be used as release-retarding agent for 12 h when the drug-mucilage ratio was 1:1.5. So, matrix tablet containing dried mucilage is most suitable for sustained release of DS. PMID:18686091

Jani, Girish K; Shah, Dhiren P

2008-08-01

205

Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf. PMID:25342553

Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

206

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

207

Review of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Effects on Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Exxon Valdez oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March of 1989 was the largest crude oil spill in the United States at that time, and it was anticipated to have disastrous effects on the ecology and fisheries of that coastal region. The large pink salmon returns to the sound, a major commercial species in Alaska,

E. L. Brannon; K. Collins; M. A. Cronin; L. L. Moulton; A. L. Maki; K. R. Parker

2012-01-01

208

Changes in biosynthesis of aroma volatile compounds during on-tree maturation of ‘Pink Lady ®’ apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of aroma volatile compounds and standard quality attributes, in addition to lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol o-acyltransferase (AAT) activities, were assessed during maturation of ‘Pink Lady®’ apples. Low production of aroma volatiles was observed in early harvested fruit, which gradually increased as ripeness approached. Hexyl acetate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl hexanoate,

C. Villatoro; R. Altisent; G. Echeverría; J. Graell; M. L. López; I. Lara

2008-01-01

209

A novel pattern of smoltification in the most anadromous salmonid: pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)  

E-print Network

pink salmon in fresh water or transferring them to seawater every 2 weeks. A window of salinity-osmoregulatory ability at the time of yolk-sac absorption was indicated in fish held in fresh water under constant+] observed in fresh water at yolk-sac absorption may represent a unique strategy for maintaining water

Wood, Spencer

210

METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR  

E-print Network

FOR SEVERAL SHRIMP PRODUCTS CAROLYN E. KELLEY' AND ANTHONY W. HARMON" ABSTRACf An extraction method and marketingpractices. The carotenoid in Alaska pink shrimp is pri- marily astaxanthin. Both total astaxanthin as a filter aid, is not essential but makes subsequent extraction and filtration easier. Blend just enough

211

Pink shrimp ( P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: Influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w\\/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain

Natália Mezzomo; Bianca Maestri; Renata Lazzaris dos Santos; Marcelo Maraschin; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

212

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbus-cha, are the most abundant Pacific  

E-print Network

(Parker, 1971; Hargreaves and LeBrasseur, 1985). Growth and mortality of juvenile fish is thought of juvenile fish in relation to secondary production influence feeding success and may in turn affect growth juvenile pink salmon (fry) emerge from the gravel and emigrate downstream to salt water and begin feeding

213

Germination of three selections of Lantana species.: L. camara, L. camara 'Pink Caprice', and L. depressa.  

E-print Network

invasive species, was thought to have been introduced as an ornamental species that escaped cultivation. LGermination of three selections of Lantana species.: L. camara, L. camara 'Pink Caprice', and L and is currently listed as a Category 1 invasive species by the Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council, meaning

Ma, Lena

214

Parkin-catalyzed Ubiquitin-Ester Transfer Is Triggered by PINK1-dependent Phosphorylation*  

PubMed Central

PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for autosomal recessive familial Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, whereas Parkin functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Under steady-state conditions, Parkin localizes to the cytoplasm where its E3 activity is repressed. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential triggers Parkin E3 activity and recruits it to depolarized mitochondria for ubiquitylation of mitochondrial substrates. The molecular basis for how the E3 activity of Parkin is re-established by mitochondrial damage has yet to be determined. Here we provide in vitro biochemical evidence for ubiquitin-thioester formation on Cys-431 of recombinant Parkin. We also report that Parkin forms a ubiquitin-ester following a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, and that this event is essential for substrate ubiquitylation. Importantly, the Parkin RING2 domain acts as a transthiolation or acyl-transferring domain rather than an E2-recruiting domain. Furthermore, formation of the ubiquitin-ester depends on PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin Ser-65. A phosphorylation-deficient mutation completely inhibited formation of the Parkin ubiquitin-ester intermediate, whereas phosphorylation mimics, such as Ser to Glu substitution, enabled partial formation of the intermediate irrespective of Ser-65 phosphorylation. We propose that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Parkin leads to the ubiquitin-ester transfer reaction of the RING2 domain, and that this is an essential step in Parkin activation. PMID:23754282

Iguchi, Masahiro; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Koyano, Fumika; Kosako, Hidetaka; Kimura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

215

Restoring avian island endemics: use of supplementary food by the endangered Pink Pigeon ( Columba mayeri )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wild population of Pink Pigeons (Columba mayeri) of Mauritius has recovered from ten individuals in 1990 to ~390 birds in 2008. Limited availability of native feeding habitat is a primary factor restricting further increases in population. Current management of the species includes provision of supplementary food (wheat) and restoration of native forest habitat. This study investigated dependence on supplementary

Kelly Edmunds; Nancy Bunbury; Shivananden Sawmy; Carl G. Jones; Diana J. Bell

2008-01-01

216

Grizzly bear use of pink hedysarum roots following shrubland fire in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedysarum (Hedysarum spp.) roots are a major food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) over much of their Canadian and Alaskan range. In Banff National Park, grizzly bears typically dig roots of pink hedysarum (H. alpinum) in willow (Salix glauca, S. farriae) - dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) shrubland. This shrubland type often burned in the past, but the effects of shrubland

Ian Pengelly; David Hamer

2006-01-01

217

Response of Marguerite Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink' to Plant Growth Regulators1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of pinching, daminozide, flurprimidol, uniconazole, or paclobutrazol + daminozide tank mix for plant height control, diameter control, and days to anthesis were inves- tigated on marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink'. Plants were pinched 14 d after transplanting or treated 23 d after transplanting with foliar sprays of five concentra- tions from each plant growth regulator. Pinching reduced

Todd J. Cavins; James L. Gibson; Brian E. Whipker; John M. Dole

218

Mitochondrial import and enzymatic activity of PINK1 mutants associated to recessive parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness associated with a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway of the brain. Despite the overall rarity of the familial forms of PD, the identification of single genes linked to the disease has yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Recently, a putative mitochondrial kinase, PINK1, has been found

Laura Silvestri; Viviana Caputo; Emanuele Bellacchio; Luigia Atorino; Bruno Dallapiccola; Enza Maria Valente; Giorgio Casari

2005-01-01

219

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

220

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

221

Pink herring & the fourth persona: J. Edgar Hoover's sex crime panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1930s, sexuality significantly shaped J. Edgar Hoover's public discourse. In response to a homosexual panic that plagued the nation's men and endangered his public persona, Hoover engaged in a passing performance. His masking rhetoric employed the pink herring, a tactic that manipulated a moral panic about sex crime to stabilize gender and sexual norms, divert attention from his

Charles E. Morris III

2002-01-01

222

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY  

E-print Network

characteristics of the blood of adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuschtl) were studied in fish at three stages in the immediate vicinity of the spawning stream but in the The blood chemistry of salmon of the genus Oncorhynchus. nerka) on their spawning migration up the Fraser River lost 11 to 30 percent of their body weight

223

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

224

Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (?Ubl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho?Ser65) can also activate ?Ubl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho?Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65. We propose that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 serves to prime the E3 ligase enzyme for activation by ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, suggesting that small molecules that mimic ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65 could hold promise as novel therapies for Parkinson's disease. PMID:24660806

Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2014-01-01

225

A comparative study of LRRK2, PINK1 and genetically undefined familial Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Genetic classification of Parkinson's disease (PD) subtypes may become the preferred diagnostic tool for neurologists. Herein we compare clinical features from a large cohort of patients with familial PD of unknown aetiology or attributable to distinct genetic forms. Comprehensive neurological examinations were performed in 231 familial PD patients from Tunisia. Analysis was previously performed to screen for mutations in leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), PTEN induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin (PRKN). Clinical features were compared between patients with genetically undefined PD (n=107) and those with LRRK2 (n=73) and PINK1 (n=42) mutations using regression analyses adjusted for gender, age of onset and disease duration. PRKN cases (n=9) were too few for meaningful statistical analysis. In comparison with genetically undefined patients, LRRK2 mutation carriers had more severe motor symptoms (median Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores approximately 1.6 times higher, p<0.001), a higher rate of dyskinesia (OR 4.21, p=0.002) and use of dopamine agonists (OR 3.64, p<0.001), and less postural tremor (OR 0.21, p<0.001). PINK1 mutation carriers presented an increased rate of drug induced dyskinesia (OR 3.81, p=0.007) and a lower rate of postural tremor (OR 0.16, p<0.001) than genetically undefined patients. As expected, PINK1 patients had younger ages and ages at disease onset, and a longer disease duration compared with LRRK2 mutation carriers and genetically undefined patients. Clinical differences between LRRK2, PINK1 and genetically undefined familial PD appear more pronounced than previously appreciated, and may prove useful in clinical practice. As future therapies are targeted to specific protein abnormalities, identifying the genetic causes and associated clinical and pathological features will determine diagnosis, preventative medicine and drug intervention strategies. PMID:19726410

Nishioka, Kenya; Kefi, Mounir; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Wider, Christian; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Ross, Owen A; Heckman, Michael G; Middleton, Lefkos T; Ishihara-Paul, Lianna; Gibson, Rachel A; Amouri, Rim; Ben Yahmed, Samia; Ben Sassi, Samia; Zouari, Mourad; El Euch, Ghada; Farrer, Matthew J; Hentati, Faycal

2010-04-01

226

Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction on loss of Pink1 as a central mechanism of PD pathogenesis. Here we show that global analysis of transcriptional changes in Drosophila pink1 mutants reveals an upregulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, critical for neuronal mitochondrial DNA synthesis. These key transcriptional changes were also detected in brains of PD patients harbouring PINK1 mutations. We demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the nucleotide salvage pathway in neurons of pink1 mutant flies rescues mitochondrial impairment. In addition, pharmacological approaches enhancing nucleotide pools reduce mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Pink1 deficiency. We conclude that loss of Pink1 evokes the activation of a previously unidentified metabolic reprogramming pathway to increase nucleotide pools and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. PMID:24441527

Tufi, Roberta; Gandhi, Sonia; de Castro, Ines P.; Lehmann, Susann; Angelova, Plamena R.; Dinsdale, David; Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Willis, Anne E.; Mallucci, Giovanna R.; Loh, Samantha H. Y.; Martins, L. Miguel

2014-01-01

227

The Complex I Subunit NDUFA10 Selectively Rescues Drosophila pink1 Mutants through a Mechanism Independent of Mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

Pogson, Joe H.; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J.

2014-01-01

228

Rescue of PINK1 Protein Null-specific Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficits by Ginsenoside Re Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling*  

PubMed Central

PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor l-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H.

2012-01-01

229

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

230

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C(2)C(12) muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 mug/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 mug/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 mug/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5 mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

Hasson, S S; Al-Jabri, A A; Sallam, T A; Al-Balushi, M S; Mothana, R A A

2010-01-01

231

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism. PMID:12228601

Fromm, J.; Hajirezaei, M.; Wilke, I.

1995-01-01

232

Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. rosa sinesis extract using a disc diffusion method. Crude petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract from the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant were prepared using a cold extraction technique. These extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 4 mg/disc to 0.017 mg/disc against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The petroleum ether extract from the leaves, stems and flowers and methanol extract from the leaves showed inhibition zones with diameters > 12 mm against MRSA. Overall, the petroleum ether extract from flowers at concentrations of 4 mg/disc and 2 mg/disc displayed the strongest inhibition zones of 18.6 ± 2.85 mm and 18.5 ± 0.29 mm, respectively, as compared to vancomycin (30 ?g/ml), which did not differ significantly from the 18.0 ± 0.10 mm size of the vancomycin (30 ?g/ml) inhibition zone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. rosa sinensis extract is a potential antibacterial agent for treating MRSA infection. PMID:24575183

Arullappan, Sangeetha; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

2009-01-01

233

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

234

Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ?20 to ?50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given that previously observed inter-decadal cycles of oceanic zooplankton abundance were climatically driven, exchange between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska may be an important process for effecting synoptic changes in marine populations of higher trophic levels, and thus an important consideration for climate-change models and scenarios.

Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

2008-05-01

235

For Immediate Release --Tuesday, February 26, 2013 Pink Shirt Day: U of L Cyber-bullying experts available  

E-print Network

of L Cyber-bullying experts available As thousands of people across Canada gear up to wear pink shirts to support anti- bullying initiatives tomorrow, two University of Lethbridge researchers are working to reduce the effects of bullying

Morris, Joy

236

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

237

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

238

Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm 3+-doped CdSiO 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel pink light emitting long-lasting afterglow CdSiO 3:Sm 3+ phosphors are prepared by the conventional high-temperature solid-state method and their luminescent properties are investigated. XRD and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are used to characterize the synthesized phosphors. The phosphors are well crystallized by calcinations at 1050°C for 5 h. These phosphors emit pink light and show long-lasting phosphorescence after they are excited with 254 nm ultraviolet light. The phosphorescence lasts for nearly 5 h in the light perception of the dark-adapted human eye (0.32 mcd/m 2). The phosphorescence mechanism is also investigated. All the results indicate that these phosphors have promising potential practical applications.

Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Liu, Jie; Ye, Zeren; Shi, Chunshan

2004-04-01

239

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of Parkinson’s disease related kinase PINK1  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal recessive form of early onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered since no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD related mutant PINK1G309D and PINK1wt. Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T.; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Burlingame, Al L.; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M.

2014-01-01

240

Gas Bubble Disease Due to Helicopter Transport of Young Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 0.2-g pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were carried by helicopter in Alaska, total gas pressure in the transport water reached 71.3 mm Hg (109.4% of barometric pressure). Gross and microscopic lesions in swim bladders of fish progressed during transport to tympanitic dilatation, then to separation of laminae and rupture. Other associated signs and lesions were exophthalmos, cranial swelling, edematous gill

A. K. Hauck

1986-01-01

241

Ethanol vapour reduces leaf blackening in cut flower Protea ‘Pink Ice’ stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol vapour on postharvest leaf blackening of Protea susannae X compacta ‘Pink Ice’ stems stored in plastic bags under darkness at 20°C (±1°C) was assessed over a 19 day period. Application of ethanol vapour to the stems significantly reduced leaf blackening. Stems exposed to 5.6 g ethanol kg?1 stem weight, had the least amount of leaf blackening

S. G Crick; R McConchie

1999-01-01

242

Isolation of N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (Deet) from Female Pink Bollworm Moths  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical search for a natural activator of propylure, the sex pheromone of the pink bollworm moth, revealed that the female moths produce N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, an outstanding insect repellent synthesized commercially and never before reported from natural sources. The compound occurs in fairly large amount in female adults and in much lesser amount in female pupae, but it is completely absent

William A. Jones; Martin Jacobson

1968-01-01

243

Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

Johnson, Fred A.

2013-01-01

244

Transgenic Potatoes Expressing a Novel Cationic Peptide are Resistant to Late Blight and Pink Rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world’s largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates\\u000a of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy\\u000a for disease control

Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; Robert E. Hancock; William W. Kay; Santosh Misra

2004-01-01

245

Effects of Resistance to Bt Cotton on Diapause in the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are expected to delay the evolution of resistance. In a previous study where pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), larvae overwintered in outdoor insectaries, individuals from Bt-resistant strains had lower survival than individuals from Bt-susceptible strains or F1 progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible adults. To investigate the physiological

Yves Carrière; Christa Ellers-Kirk; Robert W. Biggs; Maria A. Sims; Timothy J. Dennehy; Bruce E. Tabashnik

2007-01-01

246

Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the 'pink berry' consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and (34) S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0-500??m. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while ?(34) S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to -31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate-sulfide isotopic fractionations (15-53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

2014-11-01

247

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

248

Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1.  

PubMed

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. PMID:24743735

Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R

2014-01-01

249

Loss of PINK1 Attenuates HIF-1? Induction by Preventing 4E-BP1-Dependent Switch in Protein Translation under Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1?/? mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1? protein, HIF-1? transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1? pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress. PMID:24553947

Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L.; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R.

2014-01-01

250

Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.  

PubMed

The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration. PMID:21535486

Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2010-10-01

251

PCR-mediated recombination of the amplification products of the Hibiscus tiliaceus cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

PCR-mediated recombination describes the process of in vitro chimera formation from related template sequences present in a single PCR amplification. The high levels of genetic redundancy in eukaryotic genomes should make recombination artifacts occur readily. However, few evolutionary biologists adequately consider this phenomenon when studying gene lineages. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GapC), which encodes a NADP-dependent nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol, is a classical low-copy nuclear gene marker and is commonly used in molecular evolutionary studies. Here, we report on the occurrence of PCR-mediated recombination in the GapC gene family of Hibiscus tiliaceus. The study suggests that recombinant areas appear to be correlated with DNA template secondary structures. Our observations highlight that recombination artifacts should be considered when studying specific and allelic phylogenies. The authors suggest that nested PCR be used to suppress PCR-mediated recombination. PMID:17394766

Wu, Linghui; Tang, Tian; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

2007-03-31

252

Emulsifying properties of three African food hydrocolloids: okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis), and khan (Belschmiedia sp.).  

PubMed

This study investigated the emulsifying properties of okra (Hibiscus esculentus), dika nut (Irvingia gabonensis) and khan (Belschmiedia sp.), three African food hydrocolloids used to thicken and flavor soups. Results showed that khan has an emulsion potential approximately 20 and 100 times higher than the second and the first, respectively. A kinetic study indicated that the mechanism involved formation of thick and strong interfacial gum films around the oil globules, in addition to a high Water Absorption Capacity and weak gelling behavior of khan gum in solution. These results indicated that, when used in soups, which are typical oil/water emulsions, khan contribute both to thickening and stabilizing of the emulsion, whereas okra and dika nut functioned more as thickeners than as emulsion stabilizers. PMID:9629864

Ndjouenkeu, R; Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B

1997-01-01

253

Long-term ingestion of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract enhances myocardial capillarization in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed

The effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in lowering blood pressure in human and animal hypertension have been documented. This study investigated the effect of the water extract of the dried calyx of HS and Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) on left ventricular myocardial capillary length and surface area in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Twelve-week-old male SHRs were divided into eight groups (six rats in each group). Three groups were given three doses; 10%, 15% and 20% of the water extract of HS in lieu of drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks (HS10, HS15 and HS20) with one group kept as control (C). Another three groups were given three doses of the HAs orally at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for five consecutive days with one group kept as a control (C). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, as well as heart rate (HR), were measured weekly. After the experimental protocols, the left ventricles (LV) of all rats were obtained. Capillary surface area density and length density were determined by unbiased sterological methods on 3 ?m LV tissue samples from perfusion-fixed hearts. HS ingestion significantly reduced SBP, DBP and LV mass in a dose-dependent fashion but did not affect the HR. HS significantly increased surface area and length density of myocardial capillaries by 59%, 65% and 86%, and length density by 57%, 77% and 57%, respectively. Myocyte nuclear volume was significantly decreased in HS-treated rats. There was a decrease (although insignificant) in SBP and DBP with HA ingestion compared with controls. These changes suggest that the observed beneficial effect of HS on high BP in SHRs could be mediated through a reduction in the diffusion distance between capillaries and myocytes, as well as new vessel formation. It is proposed that these effects might be beneficial in restoring myocyte normal nutritional status compromised by the hypertrophic state of hypertension. PMID:22678012

Inuwa, Ibrahim; Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumaya; Ziada, Amal; Blunden, Gerald

2012-05-01

254

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2009-01-01

255

Oestrogenicity and effect on hepatic metabolism of the aqueous extract of the leaf mixture of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis.  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of the leaf mixtures of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis given by oral route to immature female rats, at doses of 13, 49 and 94 mg/kg per day for 15 days induced a significant increase in ovarian and uteri weight as well as serum and ovarian oestradiol. Moreover, a significant decrease in liver of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was noticed in treated animals. PMID:12385869

Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

2002-10-01

256

DJ-1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway to control mitochondrial function and autophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in DJ-1, PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) and parkin all cause recessive parkinsonism in humans, but the relationships between these genes are not clearly defined. One event associated with loss of any of these genes is altered mitochondrial function. Recent evidence suggests that turnover of damaged mitochondria by autophagy might be central to the process of recessive parkinsonism. Here, we show that loss of DJ-1 leads to loss of mitochondrial polarization, fragmentation of mitochondria and accumulation of markers of autophagy (LC3 punctae and lipidation) around mitochondria in human dopaminergic cells. These effects are due to endogenous oxidative stress, as antioxidants will reverse all of them. Similar to PINK1 and parkin, DJ-1 also limits mitochondrial fragmentation in response to the mitochondrial toxin rotenone. Furthermore, overexpressed parkin will protect against loss of DJ-1 and, although DJ-1 does not alter PINK1 mitochondrial phenotypes, DJ-1 is still active against rotenone-induced damage in the absence of PINK1. None of the three proteins complex together using size exclusion chromatography. These data suggest that DJ-1 works in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway to maintain mitochondrial function in the presence of an oxidative environment. PMID:20940149

Thomas, Kelly Jean; McCoy, Melissa K.; Blackinton, Jeff; Beilina, Alexandra; van der Brug, Marcel; Sandebring, Anna; Miller, David; Maric, Dragan; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Cookson, Mark R.

2011-01-01

257

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)  

PubMed Central

Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

2014-01-01

258

Increased Frequency of Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac in China  

PubMed Central

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as “refuges” to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The “natural” refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005–2007 to 56% in 2008–2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22238687

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

259

Water settlement alters faeces composition and digestibilities of pink snapper diets.  

PubMed

Background - Digestibility is often estimated in fish by collecting settled faeces. Markers like Cr(2)O(3) in diets allow calculation of digestibility from their content in faeces. This works well for fish like silver perch that excrete mucous-bound faeces. However, pink snapper excrete loose faeces with little mucous. Experiments with pink snapper using settlement have given some low faecal Cr contents and untenable digestibilities. One suggestion is that during settlement, faeces disintegrated, fine faecal matter and Cr remained suspended, and was lost. Objective - To improve the accuracy of the settlement method by using the indigestible binder, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) to retain fine matter and Cr in settled faeces. Design - Diets contained basal mix (55%) with CMC (5%) or cellulose (5%) and 40% plant or animal meal. Settled faeces was wet-sieved, then weights and Cr contents of fine, medium and course fractions were determined. Faeces were also collected by purging, to avoid contact of faeces with water and to provide reference Cr contents and digestibilities of diets. Outcomes - CMC increased fine faecal matter and Cr from canola and bloodmeal diets, but not from soybean meal, sheep meal, goat meal, meat meal, and two lupin kernel meal diets. Settled faeces from canola and animal meal diets had lower total Cr contents than purged faeces, while the basal diet and the other plant meal diets had higher Cr. Settled faeces had more variable Cr contents than purged faeces. CMC reduced digestibility by an average of 8% in purged faeces and did not improve the accuracy or precision of the settlement method. Conclusions - Using settlement to collect fish faeces that will disintegrate in water is not recommended. Purging appears best for collection from carnivorous fish like pink snapper. PMID:15023637

Saxby, S A; Williams, I H

2003-01-01

260

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hyperthermophilic Pink Filament Community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journal article reports the molecular phylogenetic approach used to analyze a microbial community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring. The authors perform techniques such as microscopy, DNA extraction and amplification, cloning and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, phylogenetic analysis, and in situ hybridization to determine the limited phylogenetic diversity of the pink filaments including hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Located in PubMed, this article contains a link to a printable PDF version.

Pace, Norman R.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Wickham, Gene S.

2010-02-19

261

Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1)-dependent Ubiquitination of Endogenous Parkin Attenuates Mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin and the mitochondrial PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) have been identified to cause autosomal recessive forms of familial Parkinson disease, with PINK1 functioning upstream of Parkin in a pathway important for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and morphology. Upon the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, Parkin translocates to mitochondria in a PINK1-dependent manner to ubiquitinate mitochondrial proteins. Parkin-mediated polyubiquitination of outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) proteins recruits the ubiquitin- and LC3-binding adaptor protein p62 to mitochondria and induces mitophagy. Although previous studies examined mitophagy in established cell lines through overexpression approaches, there is an imperative to study the role of endogenous Parkin and PINK1 in human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here, we demonstrate in human primary fibroblasts and induced pluripotent stem-derived neurons from controls and PINK1 mutation carriers that endogenous levels of Parkin are not sufficient to initiate mitophagy upon loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caused by its (self-)ubiquitination, followed by degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Next, we showed differential PINK1-dependent, Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of OMM proteins, which is Parkin dose-dependent and affects primarily OMM proteins of higher molecular mass. In contrast to the situation fibroblasts, we did not detect mitophagy in induced pluripotent stem-derived neurons even upon overexpression of Parkin. Taken together, our data demonstrate that mitophagy differs between human non-neuronal and neuronal cells and between “endogenous” and “Parkin-overexpressing” cellular models. PMID:23212910

Rakovic, Aleksandar; Shurkewitsch, Katharina; Seibler, Philip; Grunewald, Anne; Zanon, Alessandra; Hagenah, Johann; Krainc, Dimitri; Klein, Christine

2013-01-01

262

Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass.  

PubMed

Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg/kg), zinc (500 mg/kg), and lead (1000 mg/kg) in pot experiments. Three concentrations of Na2-EDTA solution (0, 5, and 10 mmol/kg soil) were added to the contaminated soils to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytoextraction by rainbow pink or phytostabilization by vetiver grass. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in a soil solution of rainbow pink significantly increased following the addition of EDTA (p < 0.05). The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink also significantly increased after EDTA solution was applied (p < 0.05), but the increase for Zn was insignificant. EDTA treatment significantly increased the total uptake of Pb in the shoot, over that obtained with the control treatment (p < 0.001), but it did not significantly increase the total uptake of Cd and Zn. The concentrations of Zn and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink are significantly correlated with those in the soil solution, but no relationship exists with concentrations in vetiver grass. The toxicity of highly contaminating metals did not affect the growth of vetiver grass, which was found to grow very well in this study. Results of this study indicate that rainbow pink can be considered to be a potential phytoextraction plant for removing Cd or Zn from metal-contaminated soils, and that vetiver grass can be regarded as a potential phytostabilization plant that can be grown in a site contaminated with multiple heavy metals. PMID:14987941

Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

2004-04-01

263

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K. W.; Nielsen, J. L.; Rogers, D. E.

2003-01-01

264

Phosphorylation of parkin by Parkinson disease-linked kinase PINK1 activates parkin E3 ligase function and NF-?B signaling  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson disease (PD), but how these mutations trigger neurodegeneration is poorly understood and the exact functional relationship between PINK1 and parkin remains unclear. Here, we report that PINK1 regulates the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase function of parkin through direct phosphorylation. We find that phosphorylation of parkin by PINK1 activates parkin E3 ligase function for catalyzing K63-linked polyubiquitination and enhances parkin-mediated ubiquitin signaling through the I?B kinase/nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) pathway. Furthermore, the ability of PINK1 to promote parkin phosphorylation and activate parkin-mediated ubiquitin signaling is impaired by PD-linked pathogenic PINK1 mutations. Our findings support a direct link between PINK1-mediated phosphorylation and parkin-mediated ubiquitin signaling and implicate the deregulation of the PINK1/parkin/NF-?B neuroprotective signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:19880420

Sha, Di; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

2010-01-01

265

The neurodegenerative effects of selenium are inhibited by FOXO and PINK1/PTEN regulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling  

E-print Network

The neurodegenerative effects of selenium are inhibited by FOXO and PINK1/PTEN regulation Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK 1. Introduction Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient January 2014 Keywords: Selenium Neurodegeneration Insulin/insulin-like signaling PTEN PINK1 Amyotrophic

Gems, David

266

PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

2013-01-01

267

Certain factors involved in the larval diapause and its termination in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders  

E-print Network

in relation to rains. boils spr ing 47 Pink bollworm moth emergence in 1960 from infested held on the soil surface, buried ln fall or spring relation to spring rains. boils in 10. Pink bollworm moth emergenoe ln 1961 from infested held on the soil... surface, burled, in fall or spring relation to spring rains. boils in the adult in the orop. This oould be of value in t1ning certain oontrol neasures. In addition, a study of this type should finish infornation of a basio nature for future...

Wellso, Stanley Gordon

2012-06-07

268

An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Gal?pagos  

PubMed Central

Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as “rosada,” meaning “pink” in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction. PMID:19124773

Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L.; Snell, Heidi M.; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

2009-01-01

269

Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Moss, J. H.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Cross, A. D.; Myers, K. W.; Farley, Jr. , E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Helle, J. H.

2005-01-01

270

Pink Book  

Cancer.gov

Although communicating effectively about health is an exacting task, those who have the earlier version of this publication know that it is possible. We hope the ideas and information in this revision will help new health communication programs start soundly and mature programs work even better. T Acknowledgments Many health communication experts contributed to the revision of this book.

271

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000 mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hypolipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

Hopkins, Allison L.; Lamm, Marnie G.; Funk, Janet; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2013-01-01

272

The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)

Peng Wan; Yunxin Huang; Bruce E. Tabashnik; Minsong Huang; Kongming Wu

2012-01-01

273

From Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity  

E-print Network

implica- tions for the developmental trajectory of implicit and explicit gender attitudes and stereotypes trucks and superheroes), gender identity during middle childhood takes on larger meanings in termsFrom Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity

274

INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL OF GROWTH OF YOUNG  

EPA Science Inventory

Maturation, mating, and spawning of pink shrimp, Panaeus duorarum, are described. hree temperature cycles over 130 days produced three separate periods of maturation and spawning within 7 to 14 days after the water temperature increased from the minimum of 20.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C ...

275

Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg\\/kg), zinc (500 mg\\/kg), and

Hung-Yu Lai; Zueng-Sang Chen

2004-01-01

276

VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in VCP cause multisystem degeneration impacting the nervous system, muscle, and/or bone. Patients may present with ALS, Parkinsonism, frontotemporal dementia, myopathy, Paget’s disease or a combination of these. The disease mechanism is unknown. We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect. Indeed, VCP interacts genetically with the PINK1/parkin pathway in vivo. Paradoxically, VCP complements PINK1 deficiency but not parkin deficiency. The basis of this paradox is resolved by mechanistic studies in vitro showing that VCP recruitment to damaged mitochondria requires Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial targets. VCP recruitment coincides temporally with mitochondrial fission, and VCP is required for proteasome-dependent degradation of Mitofusins in vitro and in vivo. Further, VCP and its adaptor Npl4/Ufd1 are required for clearance of damaged mitochondria via the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and this is impaired by pathogenic mutations in VCP. PMID:23498974

Kim, Nam Chul; Tresse, Emilie; Kolaitis, Regina M.; Molliex, Amandine; Thomas, Ruth E.; Alami, Nael H.; Wang, Bo; Joshi, Aashish; Smith, Rebecca B.; Ritson, Gillian P.; Winborn, Brett J.; Moore, Jennifer; Lee, Joo-Yong; Yao, Tso-Pang; Pallanck, Leo; Kundu, Mondira; Taylor, J. Paul

2013-01-01

277

Identification of a Melanosomal Membrane Protein Encoded by the PinkEyed Dilution (Type II Oculocutaneous Albinism) Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in the mouse is critical to melanogenesis; mutations in the homologous locus in humans, P, are a cause of type II oculocutaneous albinism. Although a cDNA encoded by the p gene has recently been identified, nothing is known about the protein product of this gene. To characterize the protein encoded by the p gene, we

Susana Rosemblat; Donna Durham-Pierre; John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Murray H. Brilliant; Seth J. Orlow

1994-01-01

278

A novel PGC-1? isoform in brain localizes to mitochondria and associates with PINK1 and VDAC  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Novel 35 kDa PGC-1? localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on VDAC protein. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on membrane potential. •The 35 kDa PGC-1? associates and colocalizes with PINK in brain mitochondria. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1? (PGC-1?) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1? colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1?. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1? binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain.

Choi, Joungil, E-mail: jochoi@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Schubert, Manfred [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Castellani, Rudolph J. [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Russell, James W. [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

2013-06-14

279

Comparison of the Parasites of Pond-Reared and Wild Pink Shrimp (Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad) in South Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, from natural populations in Biscayne Bay and from cultured populations in ponds operated by the University of Miami at Turkey Point, Florida, were examined for parasites during the summer of 1969. Parasites, with percentage incidence in parentheses, found in pond-reared shrimp were: the gregarines Cephalolobus penaeus Kruse, 1959 (11%), and Nematopsis penaeus Kruse, 1959 (20%);

John B. Villella; Edwin S. Iversen; Carl J. Sindermann

1970-01-01

280

[Genetic differentiation of pink salmon oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range].  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 19 allozyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples of odd- and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation over the allozyme loci, per broodline, were on average 0.43% (GST), while over the microsatellite loci it was 0.26% (the theta(ST) coefficient, F-statistics based on the allele frequency variance), and 0.90% (the rho(ST) coefficient, R-statistics based on the allele size variance). The values of interlinear component constituted 2.34, 0.31, and 1.05% of the total variation, respectively. Using the allozyme loci, statistically significant intralinear heterogeneity was demonstrated among the regions, as well as among the populations of Southern Sakhalin Island. Multivariate scaling based on the allozyme data demonstrated regional clustering of the sample groups, representing certain populations during the spawning run or in different years. Most of the microsatellite loci examined were found to be highly polymorphic (mean heterozygosity > 0.880). The estimates of interlinear, interregional, and interpopulation variation over these loci in terms of theta(ST) values were substantially lower than in terms of rho(ST) values. Regional genetic differentiation, mostly expressed at the allozyme loci among the populations from the northern and southern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk (i.e., between the Sakhalin and Kuril populations), was less expressed at the microsatellite loci. The differentiation between these regions observed can be considered as the evidence in favor of a large-scale isolation by distance characterizing Asian pink salmon. It is suggested that in pink salmon, low genetic differentiation at neutral microsatellite loci can be explained by extremely high heterozygosity,of the loci themselves, as well as by the migration gene exchange among the populations (the estimate of the genetic migration coefficient inferred from the "private" allele data constituted 2.6 to 3.4%), specifically, by the ancient migration exchange, which occurred during postglacial colonization and colonization of the range. PMID:17152707

Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Altukhov, Iu P; Afanas'ev, K I; Rubtsova, G A; Vasil'eva, Iu V

2006-10-01

281

Comparative phylogeography of the two pink salmon broodlines: an analysis based on a mitochondrial DNA genealogy.  

PubMed

Over most of their natural northern Pacific Ocean range, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) spawn in a habitat that was repeatedly and profoundly affected by Pleistocene glacial advances. A strictly two-year life cycle of pink salmon has resulted in two reproductively isolated broodlines, which spawn in alternating years and evolved as temporal replicates of the same species. To study the influence of historical events on phylogeographical and population genetic structure of the two broodlines, we first reconstructed a fine-scale mtDNA haplotype genealogy from a sample of 80 individuals and then determined the geographical distribution of the major genealogical assemblages for 718 individuals sampled from nine Alaskan and eastern Asian even- and nine odd-year pink salmon populations. Analysis of restriction site states in seven polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified mtDNA regions (comprising 97% of the mitochondrial genome) using 13 endonucleases resolved 38 haplotypes, which clustered into five genealogical lineages that differed from 0.065 to 0.225% in net sequence divergence. The lineage sorting between broodlines was incomplete, which suggests a recent common ancestry. Within each lineage, haplotypes exhibited star-like genealogies indicating recent population growth. The depth of the haplotype genealogy is shallow ( approximately 0.5% of nucleotide sequence divergence) and probably reflects repeated decreases in population size due to Pleistocene glacial advances. Nested clade analysis (NCA) of geographical distances showed that the geographical distribution observed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes resulted from alternating influences of historical range expansions and episodes of restricted dispersal. Analyses of molecular variance showed weak geographical structuring of mtDNA variation, except for the strong subdivision between Asian and Alaskan populations within the even-year broodline. The genetic similarities observed among and within geographical regions probably originated from postglacial recolonizations from common sources rather than extensive gene flow. The phylogeographical and population genetic structures differ substantally between broodlines. This can be explained by stochastic lineage sorting in glacial refugia and perhaps different recolonization routes in even- and odd-year broodlines. PMID:12030984

Churikov, D; Gharrett, A J

2002-06-01

282

Adsorption and desorption properties of macroporous resins for anthocyanins from the calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).  

PubMed

Adsorption of roselle anthocynins, a natural pigment, onto various macroporous resins was optimized to develop a simple and efficient process for industrial separation and purification of roselle anthocyanins. Nine different macroporous resins (AB-8, X-5, HPD-100, SP-207, XAD-4, LS-305A, DM-21, LS-610B, and LS-305) were evaluated for the adsorption properties of the anthocyanins extracted from the calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial anthocyanin concentration, and ethanol concentration with different citric acid amounts were studied by the static adsorption/desorption method. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, LS-610B and LS-305 exhibited the highest monolayer sorption capacities of 31.95 and 38.16 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data were modeled using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of LS-305 during operation. The overall yield of pigment product was 49.6 mg/g dried calyces. The content of roselle anthocynins in the pigment product was 4.85%. PMID:22329796

Chang, Xiu-Lian; Wang, Dong; Chen, Bi-Yun; Feng, Yong-Mei; Wen, Shao-Hong; Zhan, Peng-Yuan

2012-03-01

283

The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

284

The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000?ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000?ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500?ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs.

Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Budin, Siti Balkis

2014-01-01

285

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

2004-01-01

286

Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through targeted drug design. PMID:25375667

Caulfield, Thomas R; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Dourado, Daniel F A R; Flores, Samuel C; Springer, Wolfdieter

2014-11-01

287

Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through targeted drug design. PMID:25375667

Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

2014-01-01

288

Environmental Stimulation Does Not Reduce Impulsive Choice in ADHD: A "Pink Noise" Study.  

PubMed

Objective: The preference for sooner smaller over larger later rewards is a prominent manifestation of impulsivity in ADHD. According to the State Regulation Deficit (SRD) model, this impulsive choice is the result of impaired regulation of arousal level and can be alleviated by adding environmental stimulation to increase levels of arousal. Method: To test this prediction, we studied the effects of adding background "pink noise" on impulsive choice using a classical and new adjusting choice delay task in a sample of 25 children with ADHD and 28 controls. Results: Children with ADHD made more impulsive choices than controls. Adding noise did not reduce impulsive choice in ADHD. Conclusion: The findings add to the existing evidence on impulsive choice in ADHD, but no evidence is found for the SRD model's explanation of this behavioral style. Alternative explanations for impulsive choice in ADHD are discussed. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:23511552

Metin, Baris; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R; van der Meere, Jaap J; Gasthuys, Roos; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2013-03-27

289

Cytokinins induce direc somatic embryogenesis of Dendrobium chiengmai pink and subsequent plant regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Four auxins (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA], indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], and naphthaleneacetic\\u000a acid [NAA]), and five cytokinins (N\\u000a 6-[2-isopentenyl]-adenine [2iP], N\\u000a 6-benzyladenine [BA], 6-furfurylaminopurine [kinetin], 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl)-urea [TDZ], and 6-[4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino]purine\\u000a [zeatin]) were examined for their effects on direct embryo induction from leaf explants of Dendrobium cv. Chiengmai Pink cultured on 1\\/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Whether in light or

Hsiao-Hang Chung; Jen-Tsung Chen; Wei-Chin Chang

2005-01-01

290

[The relationship between allozyme and morphometric variation in pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha from Southern Sakhalin].  

PubMed

The relationship between allozyme polymorphism and morphometric variation in pink salmon from Southern Sakhalin was examined in order to determine the effects of individual genes. Dramatic differences were found between individuals of some genotypes. For instance, the difference in average male body length between the two prevailing PGDH* genotypes reached 36sigma, which corresponds to 5% contribution to the total variance of the trait. It would take only several generations for selection in favor of extreme phenotypes to rapidly shift the allele frequencies at loci of such a strong effect, which should be taken into account both in fishery management and in practical hatchery. Long-term selection can result in irreversible genetic changes in the population, which may be hazardous in the context of causing irreparable harm to the biological resources of the Earth. PMID:17486753

Moskale?chik, F F

2007-03-01

291

Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings.  

PubMed

The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by numerous abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During warm interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during warmings. Here we show that, during warmings, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767

Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik

2013-01-01

292

Iodine-xenon studies of Allende inclusions - Eggs and the Pink Angel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The I-Xe systems of six Allende inclusions (five Eggs and the Pink Angel) appear to have been altered by nonnebular secondary processes. Evidence for this includes temperature-ordered variations in the initial I isotopic composition within several objects (with older apparent I-Xe ages associated with higher extraction temperatures) and the absence of primitive I-Xe ages. The span of apparent ages seen in Allende objects (10 Myr or more) is probably too long to reflect any nebular process, so at least some alteration probably occurred ont the parent body. The range in initial (Pu-244)/(U-238) ratios for the Eggs (0.003-0.014) includes the current best estimates of the bulk solar system value (0.004-0.007). For Egg 3, the Pu/U ratio varies by a factor of two between extractions, probably the result of fractionation of Pu from U among different phases.

Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

1988-01-01

293

Effects of Resistance to Bt Cotton on Diapause in the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella  

PubMed Central

Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are expected to delay the evolution of resistance. In a previous study where pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), larvae overwintered in outdoor insectaries, individuals from Bt-resistant strains had lower survival than individuals from Bt-susceptible strains or F1 progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible adults. To investigate the physiological basis of such recessive cost, diapause duration was experimentally manipulated in the laboratory. Compared to a Bt-susceptible strain and F1 progeny, we hypothesized that Bt-resistant strains could exhibit a lower propensity or intensity of diapause, faster weight loss during overwintering, lower initial weight of diapausing larvae, and reduced longevity of moths emerging from diapause. Results were as expected for initial weight of diapausing larvae and longevity of overwintered male moths or female moths remaining in diapause for a short period. However, a higher diapause induction and intensity and slower weight loss occurred in F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains than in a Bt-susceptible strain. Moreover, F1 progeny had greater overwintering survival than the Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains, and F1 female moths had the greatest longevity after sustaining long diapausing periods. All of these unexpected results may be explained by pleiotropic effects of resistance to Bt cotton that increased the strength of diapause in the F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains. Incomplete resistance was reflected in disadvantages suffered by Bt-resistant individuals feeding on a Bt diet instead of a non-Bt diet, including lower diapause propensity, lower diapause intensity and reduced longevity of overwintered male moths. While this study suggests that the evolution of resistance to Bt cotton and feeding on a Bt diet in Bt-resistant individuals have pervasive effects on several traits associated with diapause, further field experiments are needed to elucidate the basis of the overwintering cost in the pink bollworm. PMID:20345287

Carrière, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Biggs, Robert W.; Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

2007-01-01

294

Antidepressant-like activity of anthocyanidins from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers in tail suspension test and forced swim test  

PubMed Central

Aim: Flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn (Malvaceae) popularly known as “China-rose flowers” contain flavonoids. Flavonoids have been found to have antidepressant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flavonoids in H. rosa-sinensis flowers with possible involvement of monoamines. Materials and Methods: Anti-depressant activity of methanol extract containing anthocyanins (MHR) (30 and 100 mg/kg) and anthocyanidins (AHR) (30 and 100 mg/ kg) of H. rosa-sinensis flowers were evaluated in mice using behavioral tests such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The mechanism of action involved in antidepressant activity was investigated by observing the effect of extract after pre-treatment with low dose haloperidol, prazosin and para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA). Results: Present study exhibited significant decrease in immobility time in TST and FST, similar to that of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a positive control. The extract significantly attenuated the duration of immobility induced by Haloperidol (50 ?g/ kg, i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist), Prazosin (62.5 ?g/kg, i.p., an ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, i.p., × 3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) in both TST and FST. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MHR and AHR possess potential antidepressant activity (through dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms) and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of CNS disorders and provides evidence at least at preclinical levels. PMID:23087504

Shewale, Pallavi B.; Patil, Rupali A.; Hiray, Yogesh A.

2012-01-01

295

Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.  

PubMed

The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ?Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

2014-09-01

296

Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts  

PubMed Central

The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2?-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ?Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts.

Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

2014-01-01

297

Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

2014-01-01

298

Enhanced sensitivity to group II mGlu receptor activation at corticostriatal synapses in mice lacking the familial parkinsonism-linked genes PINK1 or Parkin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An altered glutamatergic input at corticostriatal synapses has been shown in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present work, we analyzed the membrane and synaptic responses of striatal neurons to metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor activation in two different mouse models of inherited PD, linked to mutations in PINK1 or Parkin genes.Both in PINK1 and Parkin knockout (?\\/?) mice,

G. Martella; P. Platania; D. Vita; G. Sciamanna; D. Cuomo; A. Tassone; A. Tscherter; T. Kitada; P. Bonsi; J. Shen; A. Pisani

2009-01-01

299

Identification and growth characteristics of pink pigmented oxidative bacteria, Methylobacterium mesophilicum and biovars isolated from chlorinated and raw water supplies.  

PubMed

Pink pigmented bacteria were isolated from a blood bank water purification unit, a municipal town water supply (tap water), and an island (untreated) ground water source. A total of thirteen strains including two reference strains of pink pigmented bacteria were compared in a numerical phenotypic study using 119 binary characters. Three clusters were derived, one major cluster of eleven strains was subdivided into two sub-clusters on the basis of methanol utilization. Five strains were facultative methylotrophs and were classified as Methylobacterium mesophilicum biovar 1. The other six strains did not utilize methanol, but on the basis of high phenotypic similarity of 83.6% were classified as M. mesophilicum biovar 2. The single reference strain comprising cluster 2 Pseudomonas extorquens NCIB 9399 was assigned to the genus Methylobacterium and classified as M. extorquens. Cluster 3 was the single reference strain Rhizobium CB 376. PMID:8469180

O'Brien, J R; Murphy, J M

1993-01-01

300

The effects of certain factors influencing diapause and development of laboratory cultures of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella Saund  

E-print Network

OF COHTEHTS XHTBODUCTIOH RElflEh1 OF I ITERATBRE PROCEDURE DetezucLnation of Dispense Preparation of Diets Pat ~s Life History Studies Hutritional Studies Photoperiod Espsrimsnts Temperature Experiments Drpness of Larval Food Seasonal Iufluenoss...~ different levels of oili 70 Effect of different oil levels in processed cottonseed mal diets cn percentage dispense. Percentage cf dispense occurrLng in pInk bollworms fsd for vexing periods on a low-oil-content casein diet sud then transferred...

Bull, Don Lee

2012-06-07

301

Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus : influence of flocking behaviour on vulnerability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) wintering in Denmark, The Netherlands and Belgium, the proportion of juveniles in the hunting bag is consistently higher\\u000a than that observed in the autumn population. Such juvenile bias in the bag is usually ascribed to young geese lacking experience\\u000a with hunting or disruption of juveniles from families. An alternative explanation may be that flocking behaviour

Jesper Madsen

2010-01-01

302

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 24th Feb. -Fri. 18th Apr. 14 Mon 28th July -Fri. 26th Sept. 14  

E-print Network

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 24th Feb. - Fri. 18th Apr. 14 Mon 28th July - Fri. 26th Sept. 14 Mon. 28th Apr Shuttle Bus Timetable Broadway To Kuring-gai Broadway Departs 7:57 AM 9:10 AM 10:10 AM 10:47 AM 11:32 AM-gai Campus - outside main entry Please note : * Timetables and bus size are indicative only and may

University of Technology, Sydney

303

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 25th Feb. -Fri. 19th Apr. 13 Mon 29th July -Fri. 27th Sept. 13  

E-print Network

PINK TIMETABLE Mon. 25th Feb. - Fri. 19th Apr. 13 Mon 29th July - Fri. 27th Sept. 13 Mon. 29th Apr Shuttle Bus Timetable Broadway To Kuring-gai Broadway Departs 7:57 AM 9:10 AM 10:10 AM 10:47 AM 11:32 AM-gai Campus - outside main entry Please note : * Timetables and bus size are indicative only and may

University of Technology, Sydney

304

Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate.  

PubMed

Little is known of the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of climate change on animals, yet it is clear that some species appear more resilient than others. As pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in British Columbia, Canada, have flourished in the current era of climate warming in contrast to other Pacific salmonids in the same watershed, this study investigated whether the continuing success of pink salmon may be linked with exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance of adult fish during their spawning migration. Sex-specific differences existed in minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates (M(O2,min) and M(O2,max), respectively) across the temperature range of 8 to 28°C, reflected in a higher aerobic scope (M(O2,max)-M(O2,min)) for males. Nevertheless, the aerobic scope of both sexes was optimal at 21°C (T(opt)) and was elevated across the entire temperature range in comparison with other Pacific salmonids. As T(opt) for aerobic scope of this pink salmon population is higher than in other Pacific salmonids, and historic river temperature data reveal that this population rarely encounters temperatures exceeding T(opt), these findings offer a physiological explanation for the continuing success of this species throughout the current climate-warming period. Despite this, declining cardiac output was evident above 17°C, and maximum attainable swimming speed was impaired above ?23°C, suggesting negative implications under prolonged thermal exposure. While forecasted summer river temperatures over the next century are likely to negatively impact all Pacific salmonids, we suggest that the cardiorespiratory capacity of pink salmon may confer a selective advantage over other species. PMID:21865520

Clark, Timothy D; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

2011-09-15

305

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus  

E-print Network

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus G.D. Stentiford,a,* M. Green,a K. Bateman,a H.J. Small,b D.M. Neil,b and S; accepted 2 May 2002 Abstract The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK

Graves, John E.

306

Minimal intra-seasonal dietary overlap of barnacle and pink-footed geese on their breeding grounds in Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed barnacle Branta leucopsis and pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus summer diets (May–July 2003) based on the proportions of different plant constituents in the faecal material of adult breeding\\u000a birds in Sassendalen, Svalbard to assess potential inter-specific competition. Diets were highly restricted and overlapped\\u000a little during pre-nesting and post hatch. During incubation both species showed greatest variety in their diet,

A. D. Fox; E. Bergersen; I. M. Tombre; J. Madsen

2007-01-01

307

Effect of Growth Pattern and Exploitation Features on Yields of Pink Salmon in the Northwestern North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

A “rational” scheme of pink salmon exploitation in the Northwestern North Pacific was described recently by T. Doi. The scheme includes a 4-month term of offshore exploitation and inshore harvests of one-half of the resulting return; additionally, an offshore wastage coefficient equal to 0.5 F was assumed and a monomolecular pattern of weight growth during the last 4 months at

George Hirschhorn

1966-01-01

308

Field longevity of a fluorescent protein marker in an engineered strain of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders).  

PubMed

The cotton pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)), is a significant pest in most cotton-growing areas around the world. In southwestern USA and northern Mexico, pink bollworm is the target of the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on the mass-release of sterile pink bollworm adults to over-flood the wild population and thereby reduce it over time. Sterile moths reared for release are currently marked with a dye provided in their larval diet. There are concerns, however, that this marker fails from time to time, leading to sterile moths being misidentified in monitoring traps as wild moths. This can lead to expensive reactionary releases of sterile moths. We have developed a genetically marked strain that is engineered to express a fluorescent protein, DsRed2, which is easily screened under a specialised microscope. In order to test this marker under field conditions, we placed wild-type and genetically marked moths on traps and placed them in field cages. The moths were then screened, in a double-blind fashion, for DsRed2 fluorescence at regular intervals to determine marker reliability over time. The marker was shown to be robust in very high temperatures and generally proved reliable for a week or longer. More importantly, genotyping of moths on traps by PCR screening of the moths was 100% correct. Our findings indicate that this strain--and fluorescent protein markers in general--could make a valuable contribution to SIT. PMID:22693645

Walters, Michelle; Morrison, Neil I; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Phillips, Caroline E; Young, Robin; Zink, Richard T; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

309

A Novel PGC-1? Isoform in Brain Localizes to Mitochondria and Associates with PINK1 and VDAC  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1? (PGC-1?) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1? colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1?. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1? binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain. PMID:23688429

Choi, Joungil; Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

2013-01-01

310

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-09-15

311

Isolation and characterisation of carotenoproteins from deep-water pink shrimp processing waste.  

PubMed

The effect of barbel (Barbus callensis) trypsin on the recovery and characteristics of carotenoprotein from pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) waste was studied. The recovery of carotenoproteins was maximized by the hydrolysis of shrimp waste using 1.0 trypsin U/g of shrimp waste for 1h at 25°C. Freeze dried partially purified carotenoproteins recovered contained 71.09±0.19% protein, 16.47±0.68% lipid, 7.78±0.12% ash, 1.79±0.04% chitin, 87.42±2.54?g total astaxanthin/g of sample. Protein-pigment splitting, for astaxanthin recuperation, was carried out using barbel and bovine trypsins and the mixture of the two enzymes; then the protein was separated from the pigment by ultrafiltration. The hydrolysate obtained by treatment with the mixture of the two enzymes presented the best levels (p<0.05) of xanthophylls (80.15 ?g/g) and total protein (7.42 mg/g), respectively. Splitting the protein-pigment complex allows studies on pigment absorption, stability and application. PMID:22813933

Sila, Assaad; Nasri, Moncef; Bougatef, Ali

2012-12-01

312

Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse  

SciTech Connect

The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare {open_quotes}escapers{close_quotes} from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1= Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p{sup m} and p{sup x}, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. 43 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Johnson, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-01

313

Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.  

PubMed

Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid. PMID:23575014

Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2013-04-01

314

Comparative transcriptomics of Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha during infections with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis  

PubMed Central

Background Salmon species vary in susceptibility to infections with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Comparing mechanisms underlying responses in susceptible and resistant species is important for estimating impacts of infections on wild salmon, selective breeding of farmed salmon, and expanding our knowledge of fish immune responses to ectoparasites. Herein we report three L. salmonis experimental infection trials of co-habited Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha, profiling hematocrit, blood cortisol concentrations, and transcriptomic responses of the anterior kidney and skin to the infection. Results In all trials, infection densities (lice per host weight (g)) were consistently highest on chum salmon, followed by Atlantic salmon, and lowest in pink salmon. At 43 days post-exposure, all lice had developed to motile stages, and infection density was uniformly low among species. Hematocrit was reduced in infected Atlantic and chum salmon, and cortisol was elevated in infected chum salmon. Systemic transcriptomic responses were profiled in all species and large differences in response functions were identified between Atlantic and Pacific (chum and pink) salmon. Pink and chum salmon up-regulated acute phase response genes, including complement and coagulation components, and down-regulated antiviral immune genes. The pink salmon response involved the largest and most diverse iron sequestration and homeostasis mechanisms. Pattern recognition receptors were up-regulated in all species but the active components were often species-specific. C-type lectin domain family 4 member M and acidic mammalian chitinase were specifically up-regulated in the resistant pink salmon. Conclusions Experimental exposures consistently indicated increased susceptibility in chum and Atlantic salmon, and resistance in pink salmon, with differences in infection density occurring within the first three days of infection. Transcriptomic analysis suggested candidate resistance functions including local inflammation with cytokines, specific innate pattern recognition receptors, and iron homeostasis. Suppressed antiviral immunity in both susceptible and resistant species indicates the importance of future work investigating co-infections of viral pathogens and lice. PMID:24628956

2014-01-01

315

Environmental influences on potential recruitment of pink shrimp, Fatlantopenaeus duorarum, from Florida Bay nursery grounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two modeling approaches were used to explore the basis for variation in recruitment of pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, to the Tortugas fishing grounds. Emphasis was on development and juvenile densities on the nursery grounds. An exploratory simulation modeling exercise demonstrated large year-to-year variations in recruitment contributions to the Tortugas rink shrimp fishery may occur on some nursery grounds, and production may differ considerably among nursery grounds within the same year, simply on the basis of differences in temperature and salinity. We used a growth and survival model to simulate cumulative harvests from a July-centered cohort of early-settlement-stage postlarvae from two parts of Florida Bay (western Florida Bay and northcentral Florida Bay), using historic temperature and salinity data from these areas. Very large year-to-year differences in simulated cumulative harvests were found for recruits from Whipray Basin. Year-to-year differences in simulated harvests of recruits from Johnson Key Basin were much smaller. In a complementary activity, generalized linear and additive models and intermittent, historic density records were used to develop an uninterrupted multi-year time series of monthly density estimates for juvenile rink shrimp in the Johnson Key Basin. The developed data series was based on relationships of density with environmental variables. The strongest relationship was with sea-surface temperature. Three other environmental variables (rainfall, water level at Everglades National Park Well P35, and mean wind speed) also contributed significantly to explaining variation in juvenile densities. Results of the simulation model and two of the three statistical models yielded similar interannual patterns for Johnson Key Basin. While it is not possible to say that one result validates the other, the concordance of the annual patterns from the two models is supportive of both approaches.

Browder, J.A.; Restrepo, V.R.; Rice, J.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Zein-Eldin, Z.

1999-01-01

316

Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

2008-01-01

317

The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon  

PubMed Central

The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci where SmaI SINEs have been species-specifically inserted in chum salmon, insertions of SINEs were polymorphic among populations of chum salmon. By contrast, at four loci where SmaI SINEs had been species-specifically inserted in pink salmon, the SINEs were fixed among all populations of pink salmon. The interspecific and intraspecific variation of the SmaI SINEs cannot be explained by the assumption that the SmaI family was amplified in a common ancestor of these two species. To interpret these observations, we propose several possible models, including introgression and the horizontal transfer of SINEs from pink salmon to chum salmon during evolution. PMID:9136025

Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

1997-01-01

318

Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for ?-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T?=?1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the ?-annulus domain is required in T?=?3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

2014-01-01

319

Effects of four nematode species on fitness costs of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy oftransgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). In conjunction with refuges of non-Bt host plants, fitness costs can delay the evolution of resistance. Furthermore, fitness costs often vary with ecological conditions, suggesting that agricultural landscapes can be manipulated to magnify fitness costs and thereby prolong the efficacy of Bt crops. In the current study, we tested the effects of four species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin CrylAc in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). For more than a decade, field populations of pink bollworm in the United States have remained susceptible to Bt cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. producing CrylAc; however, we used laboratory strains that had a mixture of susceptible and resistant individuals. In laboratory experiments, dominant fitness costs were imposed by the nematode Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, and Raulston but no fitness costs were imposed by Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, Steinernema sp. (ML18 strain), or Heterorhabditis sonorensis Stock, Rivera-Orduño, and Flores-Lara. In computer simulations, evolution of resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm was substantially delayed by treating some non-Bt cotton refuge fields with nematodes that imposed a dominant fitness cost, similar to the cost observed in laboratory experiments with S. riobrave. Based on the results here and in related studies, we conclude that entomopathogenic nematodes could bolster insect resistance management, but the success of this approach will depend on selecting the appropriate species of nematode and environment, as fitness costs were magnified by only two of five species evaluated and also depended on environmental factors. PMID:21061986

Hannon, Eugene R; Sisterson, Mark S; Stock, S Patricia; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gassmann, Aaron J

2010-10-01

320

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome structure of a Japanese isolate of hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus, a unique tobamovirus that contains an internal poly(A) region in its 3' end.  

PubMed

In this study, we detected a Japanese isolate of hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV-J), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, in a hibiscus plant in Japan and determined the complete sequence and organization of its genome. HLFPV-J has four open reading frames (ORFs), each of which shares more than 98 % nucleotide sequence identity with those of other HLFPV isolates. Moreover, HLFPV-J contains a unique internal poly(A) region of variable length, ranging from 44 to 78 nucleotides, in its 3'-untranslated region (UTR), as is the case with hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV), another hibiscus-infecting tobamovirus. The length of the HLFPV-J genome was 6431 nucleotides, including the shortest internal poly(A) region. The sequence identities of ORFs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of HLFPV-J to other tobamoviruses were 46.6-68.7, 49.9-70.8, 31.0-70.8 and 39.4-70.1 %, respectively, at the nucleotide level and 39.8-75.0, 43.6-77.8, 19.2-70.4 and 31.2-74.2 %, respectively, at the amino acid level. The 5'- and 3'-UTRs of HLFPV-J showed 24.3-58.6 and 13.0-79.8 % identity, respectively, to other tobamoviruses. In particular, when compared to other tobamoviruses, each ORF and UTR of HLFPV-J showed the highest sequence identity to those of HLSV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HLFPV-J, other HLFPV isolates and HLSV constitute a malvaceous-plant-infecting tobamovirus cluster. These results indicate that the genomic structure of HLFPV-J has unique features similar to those of HLSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete genome sequence of HLFPV. PMID:25023335

Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kitazawa, Yugo; Komatsu, Ken; Neriya, Yutaro; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Fujita, Naoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

2014-11-01

321

Pink manganian phengite in a high P/ T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new occurrence of Mn-rich rocks was discovered within the high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks on the Palos peninsula of Syros (Greece). Near the summit of Mount Príonas, a meta-conglomerate consists of calcite (~63 wt%), pink manganian phengite, blue-purple manganian aegirine-jadeite, microcline, albite and quartz. In addition, it contains abundant braunite-rich aggregates (up to ~1.5 cm in diameter) that include hollandite [(Ba0.98-1.02K<0.01Na<0.02Ca<0.03) (Mn{1.02-1.52/3+}Fe{0.38-0.88/3+}Ti0.29-0.92Mn{5.11-5.76/4+})O16], barite and manganian hematite. Due to metamorphic recrystallization and deformation, the contacts between clasts and matrix are blurred and most clasts have lost their identity. In back-scattered electron images, many aegirine-jadeite grains appear patchy and show variable jadeite contents (Jd10-67). These pyroxenes occur in contact with either quartz or albite. Manganian phengite (3.41-3.49 Si per 11 oxygen anions) is of the 3T type and contains 1.4-2.2 wt% of Mn2O3. At the known P- T conditions of high-pressure metamorphism on Syros (~1.4 GPa/ 470 °C), the mineral sub-assemblage braunite + quartz + calcite (former aragonite) suggests high oxygen fugacities relative to the HM buffer (+7 ? ?fO2 ? + 17) and relatively high CO2 fugacities. The exact origin of the conglomerate is not known, but it is assumed that the Fe-Mn-rich and the calcite-rich particles originated from different sources. Braunite has rather low contents of Cu (~0.19 wt%) and the concentrations of Co, Ni and Zn are less than 0.09 wt%. Hollandite shows even lower concentrations of these elements. Furthermore, the bulk-rock compositions of two samples are characterized by low contents of Cu, Co and Ni, suggesting a hydrothermal origin of the manganese ore. Most likely, these Fe-Mn-Si oxyhydroxide deposits consisted of ferrihydrite, todorokite, birnessite, amorphous silica (opal-A) and nontronite. Al/(Al + Fe + Mn) ratios of 0.355 and 0.600 suggest the presence of an aluminosilicate detrital component.

Altherr, Rainer; Soder, Christian; Panienka, Sandra; Peters, Daniel; Meyer, Hans-Peter

2013-11-01

322

A genetic analysis of early development in pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) at three different temperatures.  

PubMed

A factorial mating design was employed in which five males were mated to each of five females in each of two stocks for both pink and chum salmon. The resulting embryos and alevins were incubated at constant water temperatures of 4, 8, and 16 degrees C for pink salmon and 3, 8, and 15 degrees C for chum salmon. Variation among families in alevin and fry survival rates, hatching, button-up time, length, and weight was the least at 8 degrees C. Heritability of traits directly correlated with fitness, such as survival rates and button-up time, was low at all temperatures (h2 less than or equal to 0.25). Maternal effects could account for a substantial portion of the variation in alevin and fry size characters. Nonadditive genetic variance accounted for more of the variation in fry size characters than in those of alevins. Negative genetic correlations were observed between embryo survival and subsequent alevin size and between hatching time and subsequent alevin and fry size. Genotype-temperature interactions could underlie a substantial amount of phenotypic variation in the developmental characters examined for both species. PMID:3371656

Beacham, T D

1988-02-01

323

Temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon reveal unique signatures of selection on distinct pools of standing genetic variation.  

PubMed

A species' genetic diversity bears the marks of evolutionary processes that have occurred throughout its history. However, robust detection of selection in wild populations is difficult and often impeded by lack of replicate tests. Here, we investigate selection in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) using genome scans coupled with inference from a haploid-assisted linkage map. Pink salmon have a strict 2-year semelparous life history which has resulted in temporally isolated (allochronic) lineages that remain sympatric through sharing of spawning habitats in alternate years. The lineages differ in a range of adaptive traits, suggesting different genetic backgrounds. We used genotyping by sequencing of haploids to generate a high-density linkage map with 7035 loci and screened an existing panel of 8036 loci for signatures of selection. The linkage map enabled identification of novel genomic regions displaying signatures of parallel selection shared between lineages. Furthermore, 24 loci demonstrated divergent selection and differences in genetic diversity between lineages, suggesting that adaptation in the 2 lineages has arisen from different pools of standing genetic variation. Findings have implications for understanding asynchronous population abundances as well as predicting future ecosystem impacts from lineage-specific responses to climate change. PMID:25292170

Limborg, Morten T; Waples, Ryan K; Seeb, James E; Seeb, Lisa W

2014-01-01

324

The Impact of Weather on Women's Tendency to Wear Red or Pink when at High Risk for Conception  

PubMed Central

Women are particularly motivated to enhance their sexual attractiveness during their most fertile period, and men perceive shades of red, when associated with women, as sexually attractive. Building on this research, we recently found that women are more likely to wear reddish clothing when at peak fertility (Beall & Tracy, 2013), presumably as a way of increasing their attractiveness. Here, we first report results from a methodological replication, conducted during warmer weather, which produced a null effect. Investigating this discrepancy, we considered the impact of a potentially relevant contextual difference between previous research and the replication: current weather. If the red-dress effect is driven by a desire to increase one’s sexual appeal, then it should emerge most reliably when peak-fertility women have few alternative options for accomplishing this goal (e.g., wearing minimal clothing). Results from re-analyses of our previously collected data and a new experiment support this account, by demonstrating that the link between fertility and red/pink dress emerges robustly in cold, but not warm, weather. Together, these findings suggest that the previously documented red-dress effect is moderated by current climate concerns, and provide further evidence that under certain circumstances red/pink dress is reliably associated with female fertility. PMID:24586414

Tracy, Jessica L.; Beall, Alec T.

2014-01-01

325

X-15A-2 with full-scale ablative coating (pink X-15) in Building 4821  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 1967, the X-15A-2 rocket-powered research aircraft received a full-scale ablative coating to protect the craft from the high temperatures associated with hypersonic flight (above Mach 5). This pink eraser-like substance, applied to the X-15A-2 aircraft (56-6671), was then covered with a white sealant coat before flight. This coating would help the #2 aircraft reach the record speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7). The basic X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. However, the X-15A-2 had been elongated to 52 ft 5 in. Like the other two X-15s, it was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the normal 10 to 11 min. flight was powerless and ended with a 200-mph glide landing. Generally, one of two types of X-15 flight profiles was used; a high-altitude flight plan that called for the pilot to maintain a steep rate of climb, or a speed profile that called for the pilot to push over and maintain a level altitude. The X-15 was flown over a period of nearly 10 years -- June 1959 to Oct. 1968 -- and set the world's unofficial speed and altitude records of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7) and 354,200 ft in a program to investigate all aspects of manned hypersonic flight. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the development of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo manned spaceflight programs, and also the Space Shuttle program. The X-15s made a total of 199 flights, and were manufactured by North American Aviation. X-15-1, serial number 56-6670, is now located at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC. North American X-15A-2, serial number 56-6671, is at the United States Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. X-15-3, serial number 56-6672, crashed on 15 November 1967, resulting in the death of Maj. Michael J. Adams.

1967-01-01

326

X-15A-2 with full scale ablative coating (pink X-15) on NASA ramp  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 1967, the X-15A-2 rocket powered research aircraft received a full-scale ablative coating to protect the craft from the high temperatures associated with supersonic flight. This pink eraser-like substance, applied to the #2 aircraft (56-6671), was then covered with a white sealant coat before flight. This coating would help the #2 aircraft reach the record speed of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7). The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. However, the X-15A-2 had been elongated to 52 ft 5 in. Like the other two X-15s, it was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the normal 10 to 11 min. flight was powerless and ended with a 200-mph glide landing. Generally, one of two types of X-15 flight profiles was used; a high-altitude flight plan that called for the pilot to maintain a steep rate of climb, or a speed profile that called for the pilot to push over and maintain a level altitude. The X-15 was flown over a period of nearly 10 years -- June 1959 to Oct. 1968 -- and set the world's unofficial speed and altitude records of 4,520 mph (Mach 6.7) and 354,200 ft in a program to investigate all aspects of piloted hypersonic flight. Information gained fromthe highly successful X-15 program contributed to the development of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo piloted spaceflight programs, and also the Space Shuttle program. The X-15s made a total of 199 flights, and were manufactured by North American Aviation. X-15-1, serial number 56-6670, is now located at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC. North American X-15A-2, serial number 56-6671, is at the United States Air Force Museum, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. X-15-3, serial number 56-6672, crashed on 15 November 1967, resulting in the death of Maj. Michael J Adams.

1967-01-01

327

Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.50mm) whilst Sungkai var was 79.71% (July 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm). There was no significant difference in correlation coefficient of DPPH and rainfall (mm). Meanwhile, there was significant correlation between TPC and FRAP (r = 0.794, p<0.05, r2 = 0.629), TPC and DPPH (r = 0.901,p<0.05, r2= 0.812) and FRAP and DPPH (r = 0.889, p<0.05, r2 = 0.792).

Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

2014-09-01

328

Design and Test of a Topless Shrimp Trawl to Reduce Pelagic Fish Bycatch in the Gulf of Maine Pink Shrimp Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new innovative topless shrimp trawl was designed and tested in the flume tank, and at sea to evaluate its potential of reducing finfish bycatch in the pink shrimp fishery in the Gulf of Maine. The trawl design removed the square and the top part of the section after the square (first belly section), to become \\

Pingguo He; David Goethel; Tracey Smith

2007-01-01

329

Seasonal pattern of infestation by pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) in field plots of Bt transgenic cotton in the Yangtze River valley of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two transgenic cotton lines (BG1560 and GK19) carrying a Cry1A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Berliner), developed, respectively, by Monsanto Co. and Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, were evaluated for resistance to pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) in field plots in Tianmen County of Hubei Province, located in the Yangtze River valley of China during 2001

P. Wan; K. Wu; M. Huang; J. Wu

2004-01-01

330

Sea lice ( Lepeophtheirus salmonis ) infection rates on juvenile pink ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) and chum ( Oncorhynchus keta ) salmon in the nearshore marine environment of British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation rates on juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon in five nearshore areas of the British Columbia coast selected on the basis of proximity to salmon farms. A 10-week study in the Broughton Archipelago found sea lice were 8.8 times more abundant on wild fish near farms holding adult salmon

Alexandra Morton; Richard Routledge; Corey Peet; Aleria Ladwig

2004-01-01

331

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea  

PubMed Central

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M.; van Vliet, Gus B.

2014-01-01

332

Fitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) upon arrival at spawning grounds  

E-print Network

Fitness and behavioral correlates of pre-stress and stress-induced plasma cortisol titers in pink online 2 August 2011 Keywords: Stress response Cortisol Fish Cort-fitness hypothesis Pacific salmon-induced plasma cortisol concentrations were assessed in relation to behavior, longevity and reproductive success

Hinch, Scott G.

333

Changes in the Distribution and Density of Pink, Chum, and Chinook Salmon Spawning in the Upper Skagit River in Response to Flow Management Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the abundance and spatial distribution of spawning pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in a 27-mi section of the upper Skagit River, Washington, regulated by the Skagit Hydroelectric Project. Densities of spawning salmon were compared among three contiguous reaches of the upper Skagit River before and after the implementation of flow

Edward J. Connor; David E. Pflug

2004-01-01

334

Susceptibility of Arizona Pink Bollworm to Cry1Ac Following Six Years of Intensive Use of Transgenic Bt Cotton in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize information on the performance of Bt cotton against pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella, in Arizona following six years of use of this new technology. Monitoring of PBW susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was conducted annually since 1997 by collecting insects from ten to 17 cotton fields, culturing strains in the laboratory, and measuring susceptibility to Cry1Ac in diet

Timothy J. Dennehy; Laura Shriver; Maria A. Sims; Danny Holley; Yves Carrière; Bruce Tabashnik; Larry Antilla; Mike Whitlow

335

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.  

PubMed

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

2014-05-01

336

First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sexually mature sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and one sexually mature pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) were captured in the subsistence fishery in the Sachs River estuary at Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, Northwest Territories (NT) in August 1993. We also report a first record for coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Great Bear Lake, NT. These capture locations are well outside the known

JOHN A. BABALUK; JAMES D. REIST; JAMES D. JOHNSON; LIONEL JOHNSON

337

Chaddars and Pink Collars in Pakistan: Gender, Work and the Global Economy A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Sociology and  

E-print Network

policy. Using the concepts of "doing gender", gender performances, empowerment and role identity theoryChaddars and Pink Collars in Pakistan: Gender, Work and the Global Economy A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Sociology and The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis

Fraden, Seth

338

Ecological controls on the shell geochemistry of pink and white Globigerinoides ruber in the northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for paleoceanographic reconstruction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluate the relationship between foraminiferal test size and shell geochemistry (?13C, ?18O, and Mg/Ca) for two of the most commonly used planktonic foraminifers for paleoceanographic reconstruction in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean: the pink and white varieties of Globigerinoides ruber. Geochemical analyses were performed on foraminifera from modern core-top samples of high-accumulation rate basins in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mg/Ca analysis indicates a positive relationship with test size, increasing by 1.1 mmol/mol (~ 2.5 °C) from the smallest (150–212 ?m) to largest (> 500 ?m) size fractions of G. ruber (pink), but with no significant relationship in G. ruber (white). In comparison, oxygen isotope data indicate a negative relationship with test size, decreasing by 0.6‰ across the size range of both pink and white G. ruber. The observed increase in Mg/Ca and decrease in ?18O are consistent with an increase in calcification temperature of 0.7 °C per 100 ?m increase in test size, suggesting differences in the seasonal and/or depth distribution among size fractions. Overall, these results stress the necessity for using a consistent size fraction in downcore paleoceanographic studies. In addition, we compare downcore records of ?18O and Mg/Ca from pink and white G. ruber in a decadal-resolution 1000-year sedimentary record from the Pigmy Basin. Based on this comparison we conclude that pink G. ruber is calcifying in warmer waters than co-occurring white G. ruber, suggesting differences in the relative seasonal distribution and depth habitat of the two varieties.

Richey, Julie N.; Poore, Richard Z.; Flower, Benjamin P.; Hollander, David J.

2012-01-01

339

Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism. ?? Inter-Research 2007 .

Criales, M. M.; Browder, J. A.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Robblee, M. B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T. L.

2007-01-01

340

Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased during the last decades and is giving rise to agricultural conflicts along their migration route, as well as causing grazing impacts on tundra vegetation. An adaptive flyway management plan has been implemented, which will be based on predictive population models including environmental variables expected to affect goose population development, such as weather conditions on the breeding grounds. A local study in Svalbard showed that snow cover prior to egg laying is a crucial factor for the reproductive output of pink-footed geese, and MODIS satellite images provided a useful estimator of snow cover. In this study, we up-scaled the analysis to the population level by examining various measures of snow conditions and compared them with the overall breeding success of the population as indexed by the proportion of juveniles in the autumn population. As explanatory variables, we explored MODIS images, satellite-based radar measures of onset of snow melt, winter NAO index, and the May temperature sum and May thaw days. To test for the presence of density dependence, we included the number of adults in the population. For 2000–2011, MODIS-derived snow cover (available since 2000) was the strongest indicator of breeding conditions. For 1981–2011, winter NAO and May thaw days had equal weight. Interestingly, there appears to have been a phase shift from density-dependent to density-independent reproduction, which is consistent with a hypothesis of released breeding potential due to the recent advancement of spring in Svalbard.

Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Johnson, Fred A.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

2014-01-01

341

Variation of oceanographic processes affecting the size of pink shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae and their supply to Florida Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae were collected monthly with moored channel nets from October 1997 to June 1999 at Whale Harbor (WH) and Long Key (LK) Channels, two channels at the east and west ends of the Middle Florida Keys that connect the Atlantic Ocean with Florida Bay, the main nursery ground of this species in south Florida. The density influx of pink shrimp postlarvae through these two channels differed in magnitude and seasonal patterns. The monthly influx of postlarvae at LK was lower in magnitude but steadier than at WH. LK showed the highest postlarval influx in late spring-summer. Postlarval influx through WH further downstream showed both spring-summer and winter peaks. The spring-summer peaks correspond with favorable wind and current conditions. In contrast, the winter peaks occurred when cyclonic eddies were detected passing through the Middle Florida Keys. These cyclonic eddies induced coastal countercurrent flow that favors onshore larval transport. The position of the leading edge of the eddy relative to the channels may cause the temporal variability observed in the temporal postlarval influx patterns between channels. A seasonal size variation in postlarvae was also observed at both sampling sites. Postlarvae captured during the winter months were significantly larger than those captured during the summer months. The number of rostral spines, a morphological feature generally correlating with the number of moults and age, also varied seasonally but with a trend opposite to that of the body size, which may indicate a lengthening of the intermoult period during wintertime. The reasons for the seasonal differences in growth rates and, possibly, different lengths of time in the currents, are yet to be resolved.

Criales, Maria M.; Yeung, Cynthia; Jones, David L.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Richards, William J.

2003-06-01

342

Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24?g/kg) tested. All guinea pigs (n = 3) when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n = 18) treated with venom and the plant extract below 400?mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75??g) alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently) at concentrations between 500 and 1000?mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60%) compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage. PMID:22666294

Hasson, S. S.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Said, E. A.; Habbal, O.; Idris, M. A.; Mothana, R. A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Jabri, A. A.

2012-01-01

343

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

344

Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.  

PubMed

Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis. PMID:23571124

Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

2013-05-15

345

Effects of an aqueous extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus, Dicliptera verticillata on some physiological and biochemical parameters of reproduction in immature female rats.  

PubMed

Different doses of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus and Dicliptera verticillata, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or infertility in women, were given daily to 22 day old rats for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days by gastric intubation. At the end of each experimental period, the weights of ovaries and uteri, levels of uterine and ovarian proteins, ovarian cholesterol and serum oestradiol were evaluated. The results showed a decrease in growth rate of animals treated with 94 mg/kg per day at the end of the experimental period. The ovarian and uterine weights were high in all treated groups especially within the pubertal period (36-41 days old) when compared to the respective controls. During the same period, the parameters analysed showed significant differences in treated rats when compared to the controls. This was seen with ovarian and uterine protein levels, as well as with serum oestradiol whose level was especially high in the groups given 49 or 94 mg/kg per day of the plant extracts (52 and 42%, respectively when compared with the respective controls). A concomitant decrease in ovarian cholesterol was observed in the same treated groups. These results suggested a possible presence of oestrogenic compounds in the plant extracts. PMID:10030723

Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchana, A N; Tchouanguep Dzickotze, C; Mbiapo, F T

1998-12-01

346

Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.  

PubMed

In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis. PMID:15120443

Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

2004-04-01

347

Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract inhibits LDL oxidation and foam cell formation involving up-regulation of LXR?/ABCA1 pathway.  

PubMed

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract (HLP), which is rich in flavonoid. The inhibitory effect of HLP on oxidation and lipid peroxidation of LDL was defined in vitro. HLP showed potential in reducing foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation in oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage J774A.1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed these influences of HLP might be mediated via liver-X receptor ? (LXR?)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of LXR? siRNA. Our data implied that HLP up-regulated the LXR?/ABCA1 pathway, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that HLP potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. PMID:23768373

Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong; Wang, Chi-Ping; Sheu, Jenn-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Liang; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

2013-11-01

348

Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10? CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log?? CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log?? CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens. PMID:24460771

Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2014-01-01

349

Exxon Valdez oil spill. State/federal natural resource damage assessment. Impact of the oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon and their prey in critical nearshore habitats. Fish/shellfish study number 4. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on juvenile pink and chum salmon during their initial period of residency in nearshore marine habitats of western Prince William Sound. In oiled locations, both pink and chum salmon fry in the nearshore marine environment observations and laboratory experiments indicated that ingestion of whole oil or oil-contaminated prey was an important route of contamination.

NONE

1994-01-01

350

[Density, size structure and reproductive activity of the pink conch Eustrombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) in Banco Chinchorro, Mexico].  

PubMed

The pink conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource. At the regional level in the Caribbean, over-exploitation and habitat destruction have caused a decrease in the abundance of this resource. In order to provide necessary information for the species management in Mexico, this work aimed to analyze the total density, adult density, size structure and reproductive behavior of pink conch population at Banco Chinchorro during 2009-2010. Data from three seasons were obtained (rainy, dry and cold fronts periods) in three areas: Norte (North), Centro (Center) and Sur (South). The organisms were separated into two groups: (a) the criteria based upon legal harvest in Mexico: legal size conchs (siphonal length > 200 mm) and illegal size conchs (siphonal length < 200 mm), and (b) the criteria based upon sexual maturity using the 15 mm lip thickness standard: lip < 15 mm as juvenile conch and lip > or = 15 mm as adult conch. Copulation, spawning, egg masses and aggregations were evaluated as reproductive evidences. The highest total density was observed during the dry season with 384ind./ha, and the lowest during the rainy season with 127ind./ha. The highest density was reported at Sur (385ind./ha) and the lowest at Norte (198ind./ ha). The highest adult density was observed during the rainy season (8.33ind./ha), and the lowest occurred in the dry season (6.1 ind./ha). Adult density values were 5.55, 7.05 and 8.33ind./ha for Centro, Sur and Norte areas, respectively. Adult densities were lower than the threshold needed for reproduction, and 42% of the population may be vulnerable to fishing, as they had the minimum size for catch (Lsi 200 mm). Furthermore, only 2.2% of the population reached a Gl > 15 mm as sexual maturity indicator. During the study period, only six evidences of reproductive activity were observed. The smaller densities reported at Banco Chinchorro may cause reproduction events to be almost absent which in turn is sufficient evidence to show that the Allee Effect is acting on the queen conch population and there is an urgent need of fishery closure. Three important points were proposed for management of queen conch at Banco Chinchorro: total closure of fishing, systematic assessment of the conch population and the implementation of conch fishing refuge. PMID:24432526

Cala, Yuself R; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Ocaña, Frank A; Rivera, José Oliva

2013-12-01

351

Effects of wind turbines and other physical elements on field utilization by pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A landscape perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wind turbines and other physical landscape elements on field utilization by wintering pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were studied in a Danish farmland landscape. Within the study area geese were feeding on pastures, which together with cereals were the main crop types. Apart from wind turbines a variety of potentially disturbing landscape elements was present, e.g., high-power lines,

JesperKyed Larsen; Jesper Madsen

2000-01-01

352

Effect of biofloc technology (BFT) on the early postlarval stage of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis : growth performance, floc composition and salinity stress tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofloc rearing media provides a potential food source for shrimp reared in limited or zero water exchange systems. This culture\\u000a system is environmentally friendly as it is based on limited water use and minimal effluent is released into the surrounding\\u000a environment. In this study, we evaluated the survival, growth performance and salinity stress tolerance of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis postlarvae

Maurício Emerenciano; Eduardo L. C. Ballester; Ronaldo O. Cavalli; Wilson Wasielesky

353

Reproducibility of the Pink Esthetic Score-Rating Soft Tissue Esthetics Around Single-Implant Restorations with Regard to Dental Observer Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The pink esthetic score (PES) evaluates the esthetic outcome of soft tissue around implant-supported single crowns in the anterior zone by awarding seven points for the mesial and distal papilla, soft-tissue level, soft-tissue contour, soft-tissue color, soft-tissue texture, and alveolar process deficiency. The aim of this study was to measure the reproducibility of the PES and assess the influence

PETER GEHRKE; MARKUS LOBERT; GÜNTER DHOM

2008-01-01

354

Enhanced sensitivity to group II mGlu receptor activation at corticostriatal synapses in mice lacking the familial parkinsonism-linked genes PINK1 or Parkin.  

PubMed

An altered glutamatergic input at corticostriatal synapses has been shown in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present work, we analyzed the membrane and synaptic responses of striatal neurons to metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor activation in two different mouse models of inherited PD, linked to mutations in PINK1 or Parkin genes. Both in PINK1 and Parkin knockout ((-/-)) mice, activation of group I mGlu receptors by 3,5-DHPG caused a membrane depolarization coupled to an increase in firing frequency in striatal cholinergic interneurons that was comparable to the response observed in the respective wild-type (WT) interneurons. The sensitivity to group II and III mGlu receptors was tested on cortically-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Both LY379268 and L-AP4, agonists for group II and III, respectively, had no effect on intrinsic membrane properties, but dose-dependently reduced the amplitude of corticostriatal EPSPs. However, both in PINK1(-/-) and Parkin(-/-) mice, LY379268, but not L-AP4, exhibited a greater potency as compared to WT in depressing EPSP amplitude. Accordingly, the dose-response curve for the response to LY379268 in both knockout mice was shifted leftward. Moreover, consistent with a presynaptic site of action, both LY379268 and L-AP4 increased the paired-pulse ratio either in PINK1(-/-) and Parkin(-/-) or in WT mice. Acute pretreatment with L-dopa did not rescue the enhanced sensitivity to LY379268. Together, these results suggest that the selective increase in sensitivity of striatal group II mGlu receptors represents an adaptive change in mice in which an altered dopamine metabolism has been documented. PMID:19071114

Martella, G; Platania, P; Vita, D; Sciamanna, G; Cuomo, D; Tassone, A; Tscherter, A; Kitada, T; Bonsi, P; Shen, J; Pisani, A

2009-02-01

355

Enhanced sensitivity to group II mGlu receptor activation at corticostriatal synapses in mice lacking the familial parkinsonism-linked genes PINK1 or Parkin  

PubMed Central

An altered glutamatergic input at corticostriatal synapses has been shown in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present work, we analyzed the membrane and synaptic responses of striatal neurons to metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor activation in two different mouse models of inherited PD, linked to mutations in PINK1 or Parkin genes. Both in PINK1 and Parkin knockout (?/?) mice, activation of group I mGlu receptors by 3,5-DHPG caused a membrane depolarization coupled to an increase in firing frequency in striatal cholinergic interneurons that was comparable to the response observed in the respective wild-type (WT) interneurons. The sensitivity to group II and III mGlu receptors was tested on cortically-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Both LY379268 and L-AP4, agonists for group II and III, respectively, had no effect on intrinsic membrane properties, but dose-dependently reduced the amplitude of corticostriatal EPSPs. However, both in PINK1?/? and Parkin?/? mice, LY379268, but not L-AP4, exhibited a greater potency as compared to WT in depressing EPSP amplitude. Accordingly, the dose–response curve for the response to LY379268 in both knockout mice was shifted leftward. Moreover, consistent with a presynaptic site of action, both LY379268 and L-AP4 increased the paired-pulse ratio either in PINK1?/? and Parkin?/? or in WT mice. Acute pretreatment with L-dopa did not rescue the enhanced sensitivity to LY379268. Together, these results suggest that the selective increase in sensitivity of striatal group II mGlu receptors represents an adaptive change in mice in which an altered dopamine metabolism has been documented. PMID:19071114

Martella, G.; Platania, P.; Vita, D.; Sciamanna, G.; Cuomo, D.; Tassone, A.; Tscherter, A.; Kitada, T.; Bonsi, P.; Shen, J.; Pisani, A.

2009-01-01

356

Hybridization of CdSe\\/ZnS Quantum Dots on InGaN\\/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Light-Emitting Diodes for Pink Light Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink light emission has been demonstrated from the hybrid CdSe\\/ZnS quantum dot-InGaN\\/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The QDs in toluene are blended in the resin matrix to become the nanophosphor. For the fabricated hybrid LED, it is found the light output power is greatly reduced due to the poor quantum yield (QY) of QDs (<50%). Besides, the comparison of

Chun-Yuan Huang; Yan-Kuin Su; Ying-Chih Chen; Cheng-Tien Wan

2008-01-01

357

Similar Genetic Basis of Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-Selected and Diet-Selected Strains of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]). The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R) was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3) in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1) linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F1 progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4) predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. PMID:22530065

Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

2012-01-01

358

The relationship between pink salmon biomass and the body condition of short-tailed shearwaters in the Bering Sea: can fish compete with seabirds?  

PubMed Central

Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in even-numbered years) and the body condition and diet of the short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris) that spends the post-breeding season there. Samples were collected with research gill nets over seven summers. Both species feed on krill, small fishes and squid. Although the mean pink salmon catch per unit effort (in mass) over the study region was not related significantly with shearwater's stomach content mass or prey composition, the pink salmon biomass showed a negative and significant relationship with the shearwater's body mass and liver mass (proxies of energy reserve). We interpret these results as evidence that fishes can negatively affect mean prey intake of seabirds if they feed on a shared prey in the pelagic ecosystem. PMID:21270043

Toge, Kanako; Yamashita, Rei; Kazama, Kentaro; Fukuwaka, Masaaki; Yamamura, Orio; Watanuki, Yutaka

2011-01-01

359

Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

2014-01-01

360

The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2) against red blood cell (RBC) membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?10 rats each): control group (N), roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients. PMID:24212844

Mohamed, Jamaludin; Shing, Saw Wuan; Md Idris, Muhd Hanis; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

2013-01-01

361

Epiphytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by producing phytohormone.  

PubMed

Methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phyllosphere of different crop plants such as sugarcane, pigeonpea, mustard, potato and radish. The methylotrophic isolates were differentiated based on growth characteristics and colony morphology on methanol supplemented ammonium mineral salts medium. Amplification of the mxaF gene helped in the identification of the methylotrophic isolates as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium. Cell-free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with highest values of 98.3% observed using Methylobacterium sp. (NC4). Highest values of seedling length and vigour were recorded with Methylobacterium sp. (NC28). HPLC analysis of production by bacterial strains ranged from 1.09 to 9.89 ?g ml(-1) of cytokinins in the culture filtrate. Such cytokinin producing beneficial methylotrophs can be useful in developing bio-inoculants through co-inoculation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs with other compatible bacterial strains, for improving plant growth and productivity, in an environment-friendly manner. PMID:22200783

Meena, Kamlesh K; Kumar, Manish; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

2012-05-01

362

White Beam Slits and Pink Beam Slits for the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam. The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits' accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Maser, J.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.

2007-01-01

363

Effects of presentation method and duration on alarm detection threshold in the presence of loud pink noise.  

PubMed

Detection of pure tone signals in the presence of noise has been thoroughly studied. Most of these studies have used monaural presentation of audio stimuli. Also, studies testing alarm detection in the presence of noise are limited. In 2013, Karunarathne et al., conducted a study and found out that human listeners were able to detect an alarm in negative signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), as low as -24 dB. This study aims to investigate the effects of presentation method and duration of the alarms on detection threshold. Eight conditions varied by presentation method (monaural vs spatial) and alarm duration were tested. Sixteen human subjects with normal hearing were given the task of identifying which one of two sound intervals contained an alarm along with 80dBA pink noise. Thresholds were estimated as the 79.4% points on the psychometric functions, using adaptive 2-Interval Forced Choice (2IFC) procedure with a 3-down 1-up rule. Results indicated that detection thresholds were statistically significantly lower in spatial condition compared to monaural. The effect of alarm duration was not significant in both spatial and monaural conditions. Thresholds lower than -30 dB SNR were observed in the spatial condition, which agreed with the findings of Karunarathne et al. and further extended threshold boundaries. PMID:25235188

Karunarathne, Buddhika; So, Richard; Kam, Anna

2014-04-01

364

Mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, on semi artificial diets.  

PubMed

The effect of two different semi-artificial diets (S.A.D1 and S.A.D2) as well as a natural corn diet on the biology and bionomics of the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica was studied under laboratory conditions. The insect was successfully mass reared for ten successive generations at the conditions of 27 +/- 2 C degrees and 60-80% R.H. In addition, a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) for larvae and 12:12 (L:D) in concern to the other stages, respectively. ALong the ten successive generations, there were no significant differences between the larval periods for both the artificial diets. The S.A.D2 induced the shortest (24.0 days) larval period compared with the natural diet (27.5 days) and S.A.D1 (31.5 days). Rearing larvae on the natural diets revealed a pupal period of 11.0 days, while it was 10.0 days and 8.5 days for the artificial diets (S.A.D1) and in (S.A.D2), in respect. Moth longevity (pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods), to a certain extent, was affected by the larval diets. The maximal moth longevity (13.0 days) was observed for larva reared on corn plants (4, 8 and 1 days). On the other hand, the shortest period (10.5 days) of moth longevity was noticed in SAD2 (1, 9 and 0.5 days). S.A.D1 showed 11.0 days moth longevity (3,7 and 1 days). The longest oviposition period (9.0 days) was recorded in the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was only 7.0 days in the artificial diet S.A.D1 compared with 8.0 days in case of the natural diet. The number of deposited eggs increased with the progress of the 10 successive generations (G1:G10) from 150 to 265 and from 384 eggs to 564 eggs / female for the S.A.D1 and S.A.D2, in sequence. The highest mean number of deposited eggs per female (564) was for the derived females from larvae fed on the artificial diet in G10 of S.A.D2. The rate of the deposited eggs in S.A.D2 was gradually increased (from 9.70 to 61.14% increase) more than those reared on the natural diet throughout the ten generations. The highest significant percent hatchability (92.69%) has been resulted from the artificial diet SAD2. But, it has been decreased to 85.59% in the artificial diet S.A.D1 in comparison to 65.71% in the natural diet. In addition, the significant shortest total generation period was 44.0 days resulted from the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was 53.5 and 54.0 days for corn plants and the artificial diet S.A.D1, consequently. In short, results indicated that the S.A.D2 could be considered as a suitable artificial diet for a feasible mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica led. The S.A.D2 showed the shortest larval, pupal and life span for the generation periods. Moreover, it induced the longest oviposition period and the highest mean number of deposited eggs per female and the highest significant percent of eggs hatchability/fertility. The utilization of this artificial diet (S.A.D2) would supply the researchers with high-quality insects in adequate numbers, at specified times and specific stages of development for the bioassay, toxicological and biological studies. PMID:21539247

Masoud, M A; Saad, A S S; Mourad, A K; Ghorab, M A S

2010-01-01

365

Histochemical study of the hepatopancreas in adult females of the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis Latreille, 1817.  

PubMed

This study provides histochemical data of the hepatopancreatic cells of adult female pink-shrimp (Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis) at two different developmental stages (those with developed gonads and those with exhausted gonads). The F. brasiliensis females were collected in seawater off the Guarapari coast, Espirito Santo, Brazil. Five cell types were identified in this digestive gland: B (vesicular), E (embryonic), F (fibrillar), M (basal) and R (resorptive). The digestive gland was stained with the following techniques: PAS/Alcian blue (for polysaccharides), bromophenol blue (for protein), von Kossa (for bound calcium) and Baker (for lipids). Acid glycoconjugates were found inside vacuoles in the R cells, while neutral polysaccharides were present in the B cells and near to the microvilli. In females with exhausted gonads polysaccharides were also seen in the intertubular spaces and inside the lumina of the tubules. The F and M cells were the most marked by the presence of large amounts of proteins observed in R cells and also inside the vacuoles of B cells. The bound calcium was mainly found in the F and M cells. The F cells showed strong positive staining for lipid while the R cell only stained weakly. The E cells did not react to any of the applied staining techniques. The similarities in the histochemical composition of these hepatopancreatic cells in females with developed gonads, compared to exhausted ones, is justified by the fact that transfer of these elements to the oocytes occurs, in significant quantity, only during the initial stages of gonadal development in F. brasiliensis. Also, they may be more related to the molt stage, as in the case of calcium salts. PMID:23992941

Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Araújo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

2014-01-01

366

Direct and indirect effects of simulated calcareous dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus.  

PubMed

The direct and indirect effects of a simulated, calcarenite-based dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus were assessed. Direct effects were assessed by measuring hatch rate or survival of eggs and pre-feeding larvae, respectively, over a range of concentrations and exposure durations. Exposure of eggs to suspended solid concentrations up to 10 000 mg l(-1) for 24 h did not affect egg buoyancy or hatch rate, despite sediment adherence occurring at the two highest concentrations tested. Newly hatched larvae, whose mouths were still closed, were relatively tolerant of suspended solids, with a 12 h lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality, LC(50), of 2020 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 150 mg l(-1). Once the larvae's mouths opened, tolerance was significantly reduced, with a 12 h LC(50) of 157 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 4 mg l(-1). Tolerance of larvae to suspended solids was negatively correlated with suspended solids concentration and exposure time, with exposure durations of

Partridge, G J; Michael, R J

2010-07-01

367

Methylobacterium trifolii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium thuringiense sp. nov., methanol-utilizing, pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from leaf surfaces.  

PubMed

Three pink-pigmented, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and facultatively methylotrophic strains were isolated from the phyllosphere of Trifolium repens and Cerastium holosteoides. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis support the affiliation of all strains to the genus Methylobacterium. The closest relatives of strains C34(T) and T5 were Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.0 and 98.5 % sequence similarity, respectively) and Methylobacterium organophilum JCM 2833(T) (97.0 and 97.2 %, respectively). Strain TA73(T) showed the highest sequence similarities to Methylobacterium marchantiae JT1(T) and Methylobacterium bullatum F3.2(T) (both 97.9 %), followed by Methylobacterium phyllosphaerae CBMB27(T) and Methylobacterium brachiatum DSM 19569(T) (both 97.8 %), Methylobacterium cerastii C15(T) and Methylobacterium radiotolerans JCM 2831(T) (both 97.7 %). The major components in the fatty acid profiles were C18 : 1?7c, C16 : 0 and one unknown fatty acid for strain TA73(T) and C18 : 1?7c, C16 : 1?7c/iso-C15 : 0 2-OH, C18 : 0 and C16 : 0 for strains C34(T) and T5. Physiological and biochemical analysis, including DNA-DNA hybridization, revealed clear differences between the investigated strains and their closest phylogenetic neighbours. DNA-DNA hybridization studies also showed high similarities between strains C34(T) and T5 (59.6-100 %). Therefore, the isolates represent two novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium trifolii sp. nov. (type strain TA73(T) = LMG 25778(T) = CCM 7786(T)) and Methylobacterium thuringiense sp. nov. (type strain C34(T) = LMG 25777(T) = CCM 7787(T)) are proposed. PMID:23291886

Wellner, S; Lodders, N; Glaeser, S P; Kämpfer, P

2013-07-01

368

Pink frilly dresses and the avoidance of all things "girly": children's appearance rigidity and cognitive theories of gender development.  

PubMed

Many young children pass through a stage of gender appearance rigidity; girls insist on wearing dresses, often pink and frilly, whereas boys refuse to wear anything with a hint of femininity. In 2 studies, we investigated the prevalence of this apparent hallmark of early gender development and its relation to children's growing identification with a gender category. Study 1a examined the prevalence of this behavior and whether it would exhibit a developmental pattern of rigidity followed by flexibility, consistent with past research on identity-related cognitions. Interviews with 76 White, middle-class parents and their 3- to 6-year-old children revealed that about two thirds of parents of 3- and 4-year-old girls and almost half (44%) of parents of 5- and 6-year-old boys reported that their children had exhibited a period of rigidity in their gender-related appearance behavior. Appearance rigidity was not related to parents' preferences for their children's gender-typed clothing. Study 1b examined whether cognitive theories of identity development could shed light on gender appearance rigidity. The more important and positive children considered their gender and the more children understood that gender categories remain stable over time (gender stability), the more likely children were to wear gender-typed outfits. In Study 2, we extended this research to a more diverse population and found that gender appearance rigidity was also prevalent in 267 4-year-old children in the United States from African American, Chinese, Dominican, and Mexican immigrant low-income backgrounds. Results suggest that rigid gender-related appearance behavior can be seen among young children from different backgrounds and might reflect early developing cognitions about gender identity. PMID:24274727

Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Zosuls, Kristina M; Lurye, Leah E; Greulich, Faith K

2014-04-01

369

Responsiveness to distracting stimuli, though increased in Parkinson's disease, is decreased in asymptomatic PINK1 and Parkin mutation carriers.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are more sensitive than healthy controls to response-triggering by irrelevant flanking stimuli in speeded choice-response tasks. This increased responsiveness may either indicate a lack of executive control or reflect compensatory efforts to cope with the reduced internal motor drive. Of interest in this context is whether responsiveness is already enhanced in the presymptomatic stage of PD. To address these questions, we studied a group of non-manifesting carriers of heterozygous Parkin and PINK1 mutations while they performed a choice-response task with response-compatible or incompatible flankers. These mutation carriers may be considered a model for pre-clinical PD because the mutant allele leads to a latent nigrostriatal dysfunction and may increase the risk for PD. For comparison, we studied groups of medicated patients with idiopathic PD and of healthy persons age-matched to the mutation carriers and to the patients. Measurements of reaction time, error rate, and the lateralized readiness potential of the EEG provided converging evidence that the mutation carriers were less responsive to distracting flankers than their healthy control group. In contrast, PD patients were more distractible by flankers than their control group, which replicated previous results. Mutation carriers also showed a smaller N2 component of the event-related EEG potential in trials with incompatible flankers relative to their control group, which might indicate reduced inhibitory control. We hypothesize that faulty executive control is the primary deficit, reflected by the reduced N2 component in the mutation carriers. To compensate for this deficit, mutation carriers change their strategy of speed-accuracy trade-off, in order to dampen the excitability of their lateral motor system. Disease progression might prevent symptomatic PD patients from using this compensatory mechanism, leading to increased disinhibition of their lateral motor system. PMID:19822161

Verleger, Rolf; Hagenah, Johann; Weiss, Manuel; Ewers, Thomas; Heberlein, Ilse; Pramstaller, Peter P; Siebner, Hartwig R; Klein, Christine

2010-01-01

370

Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from Bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment.  

PubMed

Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditional Bikalga were examined for their antimicrobial activity against a panel of 36 indicator organisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The Bacillus spp. isolates showed variable inhibitory abilities depending on the method used. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited in the agar spot assay while only Gram-positive pathogens were inhibited in the agar well diffusion assay. Cell free supernatants (CFS) of pure cultures of 3 B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (G2, H4 and F1) strains inhibited growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, while CFS of 2 B. licheniformis (E3 and F9) strains only inhibited M. luteus. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by B. subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 was further characterized. The antimicrobial substance(s) produced by H4 was detected from mid-exponential growth phase. The activity was sensitive to protease and trypsin, but resistant to the proteolytic action of proteinase K and papain. Treatment with ?-amylase and lipase II resulted in a complete loss of antimicrobial effect, indicating that a sugar moiety and lipid moiety are necessary for the activity. Treatment with mercapto-ethanol resulted in a significant loss, indicative of the presence of disulfide bridges. The antimicrobial activity of H4 was heat resistant and active at pH3-10. PCR detection of yiwB, sboA, spoX, albA and spaS, etnS genes and genes coding for surfactins and plipastatins (fengycins) indicated a potential for subtilosin, subtilin and lipopeptide production, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was carried out and a single band of approximately 4kDa had antimicrobial activity. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOFMS) analysis of the 4kDa band allowed identification of surfactin and a protein with a monoisotopic mass of 3346.59Da, which is dissimilar in size to subtilosin and subtilin. Surfactin is a cyclic lipoheptapeptide, which contains a ?-hydroxy fatty acid, but no di-sulfide bridges or sugar residues. The complete loss of activity upon amylase treatment indicates that surfactin was not responsible for the observed antimicrobial effect. However, it cannot completely be ruled out that surfactin acts synergistically with the detected protein, though further investigations are needed to confirm this. PMID:23466466

Compaoré, Clarisse S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Ouoba, Labia I I; Berner, Torben S; Nielsen, Kristian F; Sawadogo-Lingani, Hagrétou; Diawara, Bréhima; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Jakobsen, Mogens; Thorsen, Line

2013-04-01

371

An assessment of oil-spill effects on pink salmon populations following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 2: Adults and escapement  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of a field program designed to monitor the status of wildstock pink salmon populations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Field counts of spawning salmon were conducted each year from 1989 through 1992 to test for spill effects o the distribution nd abundance of pink salmon adults spawning in selected streams in the southwestern portion of Prince William Sound, including streams from the most heavily oiled areas. Counts of whole-stream and intertidal escapement density were statistically compared for 40 study streams in 1989 and for a subset of those streams in successive years. Measurements of residual hydrocarbons were made from stream-bed sediments to test for correlations with spawning behavior. Adult pink salmon in the postspill years of 1990 and 1991, progeny of the year classes considered most vulnerable to the oil spill, returned in high numbers, with the wildstock spawners exceeding their parent year returns. In 1989, adult returns reflected the relatively weak run for that year with a mean spawner density of 0.68 fish/m{sup 2} in reference streams and 0.69 fish/m{sup 2} in oiled streams. In 1990, mean escapement density for reference streams was 1.40 fish/m{sup 2} and 1.55 fish/m{sup 2} for oiled streams, indicating the strongest run of the four study years. Trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations for the majority of oiled streams show a general decline from 1989 to background levels by 1990. 45 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Maki, A.W. [Exxon Co. U.S.A., Houston, TX (United States); Brannon, E.J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Gilbertson, L.G. [Genesis Technical Services, Pacific Beach, WA (United States); Moulton, L.L. [MJM Research, Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Skalski, J.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

372

Efficacy of Genetically Modified Bt Toxins Alone and in Combinations Against Pink Bollworm Resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab  

PubMed Central

Evolution of resistance in pests threatens the long-term efficacy of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used in sprays and transgenic crops. Previous work showed that genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod effectively countered resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac in some pests, including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Here we report that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were also effective against a laboratory-selected strain of pink bollworm resistant to Cry2Ab as well as to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Resistance ratios based on the concentration of toxin killing 50% of larvae for the resistant strain relative to a susceptible strain were 210 for Cry2Ab, 270 for Cry1Ab, and 310 for Cry1Ac, but only 1.6 for Cry1AbMod and 2.1 for Cry1AcMod. To evaluate the interactions among toxins, we tested combinations of Cry1AbMod, Cry1Ac, and Cry2Ab. For both the resistant and susceptible strains, the net results across all concentrations tested showed slight but significant synergism between Cry1AbMod and Cry2Ab, whereas the other combinations of toxins did not show consistent synergism or antagonism. The results suggest that the modified toxins might be useful for controlling populations of pink bollworm resistant to Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, or both. PMID:24244692

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Masson, Luke; Zhang, Jie; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberon, Mario

2013-01-01

373

Growth and development of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on bolls of cotton grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), was reared on the bolls of cotton plants grown in CO/sub 2/-enriched (649 ..mu..l/liter) and ambient CO/sub 2/ (371 ..mu..l/liter) chambers and in two open field plots, one with free-air CO/sub 2/ enrichment (522 ..mu..l/liter) and one without enrichment (ambient CO/sub 2/, 360 ..mu..l/liter). The effects of increased CO/sub 2/ levels on growth and development were examined. There was no difference in pupal weights of pink bollworm raised on CO/sub 2/-enriched cotton compared with those raised on ambient CO/sub 2/ cotton (26.80 versus 26.64 mg, respectively). Also, there was no difference in developmental time (21-27 d). Analysis of percent seed damage by larvae showed no differences between CO/sub 2/-enriched and ambient CO/sub 2/ cotton. These results were attributed to the nutritional qualities of the seed remaining the same (specifically the carbon/nitrogen ratio) despite CO/sub 2/ and photosynthetic changes in the plant.

Akey, D.H.; Kimball, B.A.; Mauney, J.R.

1988-06-01

374

[Sex ratio control in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) populations: the possible causes and mechanisms of changes in the sex ratio].  

PubMed

Long-term changes in the sex ratio have been studied in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) populations of Kamchatka and Sakhalin. It has been demonstrated that these changes are an adaptation to population dynamics: an increase in the population size is accompanied by a shift towards a higher proportion of males; a decrease in population size, by a shift towards a higher proportion of females. The correspondence between morphological and molecular characters in populations of the two species has been analyzed in order to determine the mechanism of sex ratio control. In some pink salmon and chum salmon populations, there is a discrepancy between sex identifications based on morphological characters and molecular markers. This discrepancy is assumed to be accounted for by sex inversion mechanisms, which may be population- or region-specific. In two cases, it has been found that the sex ratio discrepancy in populations is related to the numbers of fish in subsequent generations. These findings suggest that sex inversion may be related to population size control. PMID:18767538

Brykov, V A; Kukhlevski?, A D; Shevliakov, E A; Kinas, N M; Zavarina, L O

2008-07-01

375

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Notice This Site and third parties who place advertisements on this Site may collect and use information ... Site and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. ...

376

pink-book  

Cancer.gov

Susan Hager Hager Sharp Jane Lewis, Dr.P.H. UMDNJ, School of Public Health Terry Long National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Kathleen Loughrey, M.S., R.D. Health Communications Consultant Susan K. Maloney, M.H.S. Health Communications Consultant Joy R. Mara, M.A. Joy R.

377

Photography in Pink Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…

Ashburn, Liz

2007-01-01

378

Pink salmon..........................................................................................................44  

E-print Network

Chinook salmon review by W. R. Heard Worksheet A – New species-specific habitat information since the EFH EIS 1. Published reports New publications related to Chinook salmon EFH-EIS not in earlier cited references. Ford, J.K.B., and G. M. Ellis.2005. Prey selection and food sharing by fish-eating “resident ’ killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Can.Sci. Advisory Secretariat. Res. Doc.2005/041. Fisheries

Coho Salmon; Sockeye Salmon

379

Pink_Book  

Cancer.gov

Although communicating effectively about health is an exacting task, those who have the earlier version of this publication know that it is possible. We hope the ideas and information in this revision will help new health communication programs start soundly and mature programs work even better. T Acknowledgments Many health communication experts contributed to the revision of this book.

380

Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd-numbered years.

Ruggerone, G. T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, J.; Hagen, P.

2005-01-01

381

Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

NONE

1993-12-01

382

Morphological subtyping of acute myeloid leukemia with maturation (AML-M2): homogeneous pink-colored cytoplasm of mature neutrophils is most characteristic of AML-M2 with t(8;21)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologic and cytochemical features of 30 acute myeloid leukemia subtype M2 (AML-M2) patients with t(8;21) were compared with those of 50 AML-M2 patients without t(8;21). It was disclosed that irregular nuclear shape, Auer bodies, and at least 90% myeloperoxidase positivity in blast cells, and pseudo-Pelger-Huët anomaly of the nuclei and homogeneous pink-colored cytoplasm of mature neutrophils were observed in 90–100%

H Nakamura; K Kuriyama; N Sadamori; M Mine; T Itoyama; I Sasagawa; K Matsumoto; Y Tsuji; N Asou; S-I Kageyama; H Sakamaki; N Emi; R Ohno; M Tomonaga

1997-01-01

383

Identification of the chemical form of sulfur compounds in the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) skeleton using ?-XRF/XAS speciation mapping.  

PubMed

The distributions and chemical forms of sulfur compounds in the skeleton of Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) were investigated using X-ray spectroscopic techniques combined with micro-focused soft X-ray radiation. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence/soft X-ray photoabsorption (?-XRF/XAS) speciation mapping clarified that sulfate is the primary species in the coral skeleton, with minor amounts of organic sulfur, whereas both sulfate and organic sulfur coexist in coenenchyme. Analysis of the post-edge region of the XAS spectra confirmed that sulfate ions in the coral skeleton are mainly in the form of gypsum-like inorganic sulfate substituting for the carbonate ions in the calcite skeleton. The sulfate concentration was negatively correlated with the magnesium concentration and positively correlated with that of phosphorus. Speciation mapping of sulfate in the coral skeleton showed clear fluctuations with sulfate concentrations being higher at dark bands, whereas the small amount of organic sulfur had unclear dark/bright bands. These results suggest that the little organic sulfur that is present is contained in the organic matter embedded in the biocrystal of coral skeleton. PMID:24727132

Tamenori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu

2014-05-01

384

Response to Rotenone Is Glucose-Sensitive in a Model of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Involvement of Oxidative Stress Mechanism, DJ-1, Parkin, and PINK-1 Proteins  

PubMed Central

To establish the effect of low (11?mM) and high (55?mM) glucose concentrations (G11, G55) on Jurkat cells exposed to rotenone (ROT, a class 5 mitocan). We demonstrated that ROT induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells cultured in G11 by oxidative stress (OS) mechanism involving the generation of anion superoxide radical (O2??, 68%)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 54%), activation of NF-?B (32%), p53 (25%), c-Jun (17%) transcription factors, and caspase-3 (28%), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, 36%) nuclei translocation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and loss of mitochondria transmembrane potential (??m, 62%) leading to nuclei fragmentation (~10% and ~40% stage I-II fragmented nuclei, resp.). ROT induces massive cytoplasmic aggregates of DJ-1 (93%), and upregulation of Parkin compared to untreated cells, but no effect on PINK-1 protein was observed. Cell death marker detection and DJ-1 and Parkin expression were significantly reduced when cells were cultured in G55 plus ROT. Remarkably, metformin sensitized Jurkat cells against ROT in G55. Our results indicate that a high-glucose milieu promotes resistance against ROT/H2O2-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Our data suggest that combined therapy by using mitochondria-targeted damaging compounds and regulation of glucose (e.g., metformin) can efficiently terminate leukemia cells via apoptosis in hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:24949116

Mendivil-Perez, Miguel; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

2014-01-01

385

The pink topaz-bearing calcite, quartz, white mica veins from Ghundao Hill (North West Frontier Province, Pakistan): K/Ar age, stable isotope and REE data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the area of the Ghundao Hill (Northern Frontier Province, Pakistan) an orange-yellow to cherry-red topaz is found in calcite, quartz, white mica veins crosscutting the schistosity of probably Silurian to Devonian gray limestones. Topaz with such a range of colours is traded as Imperial Topaz. Low fluorine contents of about 15 wt.%, oxygen isotope thermometry, K/Ar age determination on white mica, fluid inclusion data and mineral textures indicate that the topaz from Ghundao Hill crystallized at temperatures of about 230 °C during the Eocene Himalayan tectonothermal event and not from a late to postmagmatic granite-related fluid. The pink Topaz from Ghundao Hill shares the coexistence with carbonates, low fluorine content and a crystallization at low temperature and pressure during a regional tectonothermal event with the Imperial Topaz from Ouro Preto (Brazil) and from the Sanarka/Kamenka rivers (South Urals, Russia). The efficiency of topaz to remove fluorine from fluids at low temperature explains how topaz can be formed from metamorphic fluids that are typically poor in fluorine. High CO2 activity produced in the fluids by metamorphic decarbonatisation reactions and Al buffering by white mica prevented fluorination of carbonates stabilising topaz relative to fluorite.

Morteani, G.; Voropaev, A.

2007-01-01

386

Aporocotyle mariachristinae n. sp., and A. ymakara Villalba & Fern?ndez, 1986 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of the pink cusk-eel, Genypterus blacodes (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) from Patagonia, Argentina  

PubMed Central

Aporocotyle mariachristinae n. sp. and A. ymakara Villalba & Fernández, 1986 were collected from the bulbus arteriosus and ventral aorta of pink cusk-eels, Genypterus blacodes (Forster, 1801) from Patagonia, Argentina. A. mariachristinae n. sp. can be distinguished from all the species of Aporocotyle by the asymmetrical extension of posterior caeca (right posterior caecum longer, terminating at the area between mid-level of ovary and posterior body end; left posterior caecum shorter, terminating at the area between mid-level of cirrus sac and posterior to reproductive organs), the distribution of spines along the ventro-lateral body margins and the number of testes. The new species clearly differs from A. ymakara, from the same host species, in the esophagus / body length ratio, the absence of distal loops at caeca, the anterior caeca / posterior caeca length ratio, and the number of testes. Additionally, in A. ymakara the left posterior caecum may be longer than right posterior caecum, while in the new species left posterior caecum is always shorter. The specimen of A. ymakara collected from Argentina is also described. We also provide observations of the distribution of spines in different species of Aporocotyle, including new specimens of A. argentinensis Smith, 1969 from Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933. Molecular sequence data obtained from partial 18S and 28S rDNA regions were compared between the new species and other two species of Aporocotyle (A. argentinensis and A. spinosicanalis Williams, 1958). This is a new locality record for A. ymakara, extending the known geographical distribution for this species from Chile to Argentina, and the first report of two species of Aporocotyle in the same host species and locality. PMID:23193516

Hernandez-Orts, J.S.; Alama-Bermejo, G.; Carrillo, J.M.; Garcia, N.A.; Crespo, E.A.; Raga, J.A.; Montero, F.E.

2012-01-01

387

Aporocotyle mariachristinae n. sp., and A. ymakara Villalba & Fernández, 1986 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of the pink cusk-eel, Genypterus blacodes (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) from Patagonia, Argentina.  

PubMed

Aporocotyle mariachristinae n. sp. and A. ymakara Villalba & Fernández, 1986 were collected from the bulbus arteriosus and ventral aorta of pink cusk-eels, Genypterus blacodes (Forster, 1801) from Patagonia, Argentina. A. mariachristinae n. sp. can be distinguished from all the species of Aporocotyle by the asymmetrical extension of posterior caeca (right posterior caecum longer, terminating at the area between mid-level of ovary and posterior body end; left posterior caecum shorter, terminating at the area between mid-level of cirrus sac and posterior to reproductive organs), the distribution of spines along the ventro-lateral body margins and the number of testes. The new species clearly differs from A. ymakara, from the same host species, in the esophagus / body length ratio, the absence of distal loops at caeca, the anterior caeca / posterior caeca length ratio, and the number of testes. Additionally, in A. ymakara the left posterior caecum may be longer than right posterior caecum, while in the new species left posterior caecum is always shorter. The specimen of A. ymakara collected from Argentina is also described. We also provide observations of the distribution of spines in different species of Aporocotyle, including new specimens of A. argentinensis Smith, 1969 from Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933. Molecular sequence data obtained from partial 18S and 28S rDNA regions were compared between the new species and other two species of Aporocotyle (A. argentinensis and A. spinosicanalis Williams, 1958). This is a new locality record for A. ymakara, extending the known geographical distribution for this species from Chile to Argentina, and the first report of two species of Aporocotyle in the same host species and locality. PMID:23193516

Hernández-Orts, J S; Alama-Bermejo, G; Carrillo, J M; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Montero, F E

2012-11-01

388

Different roles suggested by sex-biased expression and pheromone binding affinity among three pheromone binding proteins in the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to specific pheromone receptors on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons. A maximum of 3 PBP genes have been consistently identified in noctuid species, and each of them shares high identity with its counterparts in other species within the family. The functionality differences of the 3 proteins are poorly understood. In the present study, 3 PBP cDNAs (SinfPBP1, 2, 3) were identified from the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens, for the first time. The quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the 3 PBPs displayed similar temporal but very different sex related expression profiles. Expression of SinfPBP1 and SinfPBP2 were highly and moderately male biased, respectively, while SinfPBP3 was slightly female biased, as SinfPBPs were expressed at very different levels (PBP1>PBP2?PBP3) in male antennae, but at similar levels in female antennae. Furthermore, the 3 SinfPBPs displayed different ligand binding profiles in fluorescence competitive binding assays. SinfPBP1 exhibited high and similar binding affinities to all 3 sex pheromone components (Ki=0.72-1.60 ?M), while SinfPBP2 showed selective binding to the alcohol and aldehyde components (Ki=0.78-1.71 ?M), and SinfPBP3 showed no obvious binding to the 3 sex pheromone components. The results suggest that SinfPBP1 plays a major role in the reception of female sex pheromones in S. inferens, while SinfPBP3 plays a least role (if any) and SinfPBP2 functions as a recognizer of alcohol and aldehyde components. PMID:24862154

Jin, Jun-Yan; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Nai-Yong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

2014-07-01

389

The b Gene of Pea Encodes a Defective Flavonoid 3?,5?-Hydroxylase, and Confers Pink Flower Color1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The inheritance of flower color in pea (Pisum sativum) has been studied for more than a century, but many of the genes corresponding to these classical loci remain unidentified. Anthocyanins are the main flower pigments in pea. These are generated via the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which has been studied in detail and is well conserved among higher plants. A previous proposal that the Clariroseus (B) gene of pea controls hydroxylation at the 5? position of the B ring of flavonoid precursors of the anthocyanins suggested to us that the gene encoding flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H), the enzyme that hydroxylates the 5? position of the B ring, was a good candidate for B. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined mutants generated by fast neutron bombardment. We found allelic pink-flowered b mutant lines that carried a variety of lesions in an F3?5?H gene, including complete gene deletions. The b mutants lacked glycosylated delphinidin and petunidin, the major pigments present in the progenitor purple-flowered wild-type pea. These results, combined with the finding that the F3?5?H gene cosegregates with b in a genetic mapping population, strongly support our hypothesis that the B gene of pea corresponds to a F3?5?H gene. The molecular characterization of genes involved in pigmentation in pea provides valuable anchor markers for comparative legume genomics and will help to identify differences in anthocyanin biosynthesis that lead to variation in pigmentation among legume species. PMID:22492867

Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike J.; Turner, Lynda; Hill, Lionel; Ellis, T.H. Noel; Hofer, Julie M.I.

2012-01-01

390

Impact of Pheidole megacephala (F.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on the Biological Control of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments designed as the biological check method (interference) and the paired-cage technique (exclusion) were used to evaluate the effectiveness of natural enemies in maintaining low densities of the pink pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), in pineapple plantings in Hawaii. In the biological check method, the treatments were ant-free plots and ant-infested plots. The numbers of D. brevipes, parasitized

Hector González-Hernández; Marshall W Johnson; Neil J Reimer

1999-01-01

391

Pink Book 2014 Spring Semester  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................ 6-19 African and African Diaspora Studies....................................................................................... 6-7 American Studies.......................................................................................................................................... 8 English

Texas at Austin, University of

392

Conjunctivitis: What Is Pink Eye?  

MedlinePLUS

... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Email address © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology medical disclaimer privacy policy sponsorship & advertising policies about us Educational Resources ...

393

Pink Book 2012 Spring Semester  

E-print Network

History 15 Journalism 17 Latin American Studies 17 Mexican American Studies 17 African American Women's Literature 6, 12, 23 Cult Movies and Gender Issues 19, 23 Index by Course Title 5 Spring Semester Courses 6 African and African American

Texas at Austin, University of

394

A novel pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum sp. nov., capable of growth on thiocyanate or cyanate as sole nitrogen sources.  

PubMed

The isolation and properties of a novel species of pink-pigmented methylotroph, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, are described. This organism satisfied all the morphological, biochemical, and growth-substrate criteria to be placed in the genus Methylobacterium. Sequencing of the gene encoding its 16S rRNA confirmed its position in this genus, with its closest phylogenetic relatives being M. rhodesianum, M. zatmanii and M. extorquens, from which it differed in its ability to grow on several diagnostic substrates. Methanol-grown organisms contained high activities of hydroxypyruvate reductase -3 micromol NADH oxidized min-1 (mg crude extract protein)-1], showing that the serine pathway was used for methylotrophic growth. M. thiocyanatum was able to use thiocyanate or cyanate as the sole source of nitrogen for growth, and thiocyanate as the sole source of sulfur in the absence of other sulfur compounds. It tolerated high concentrations (at least 50 mM) of thiocyanate or cyanate when these were supplied as nitrogen sources. Growing cultures degraded thiocyanate to produce thiosulfate as a major sulfur end product, apparently with the intermediate formation of volatile sulfur compounds (probably hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide). Enzymatic hydrolysis of thiocyanate by cell-free extracts was not demonstrated. Cyanate was metabolized by means of a cyanase enzyme that was expressed at approximately sevenfold greater activity during growth on thiocyanate [Vmax 634 +/- 24 nmol NH3 formed min-1 (mg protein)-1] than on cyanate [89 +/- 9 nmol NH3 min-1 (mg protein)-1]. Kinetic study of the cyanase in cell-free extracts showed the enzyme (1) to exhibit high affinity for cyanate (Km 0.07 mM), (2) to require bicarbonate for activity, (3) to be subject to substrate inhibition by cyanate and competitive inhibition by thiocyanate (Ki 0.65 mM), (4) to be unaffected by 1 mM ammonium chloride, (5) to be strongly inhibited by selenocyanate, and (6) to be slightly inhibited by 5 mM thiosulfate, but unaffected by 0.25 mM sulfide or 1 mM thiosulfate. Polypeptides that might be a cyanase subunit (mol.wt. 17.9 kDa), a cyanate (and/or thiocyanate) permease (mol.wt. 25.1 and 27.2 kDa), and a putative thiocyanate hydrolase (mol.wt. 39.3 kDa) were identified by SDS-PAGE. Correlation of the growth rate of cultures with thiocyanate concentration (both stimulatory and inhibitory) and the kinetics of cyanase activity might indicate that growth on thiocyanate involved the intermediate formation of cyanate, hence requiring cyanase activity. The very high activity of cyanase observed during growth on thiocyanate could be in compensation for the inhibitory effect of thiocyanate on cyanase. Alternatively, thiocyanate may be a nonsubstrate inducer of cyanase, while thiocyanate degradation itself proceeds by a carbonyl sulfide pathway not involving cyanate. A formal description of the new species (DSM 11490) is given. PMID:9446686

Wood, A P; Kelly, D P; McDonald, I R; Jordan, S L; Morgan, T D; Khan, S; Murrell, J C; Borodina, E

1998-02-01

395

Evaluation of genetic variability in a collection of Hibiscus cannabinus (L.) and Hibiscus spp (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Malvaceae. Stem height varies from 1.5–4 m. The stem presents a central core rich in short fibres and an external bark with long fibres. Kenaf is raising a considerable interest in the paper industry as a source of good quality cellulose fibres. A collection of 103 genotypes belonging

T Siepe; D Ventrella; E Lapenta

1997-01-01

396

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Spot Anthracnose Pythium Blight Rust Diseases Powdery Mildew Slime Mold Fairy Ring Take All Patch extension BP-110-W Rust Diseases Richard Latin, Professor of Plant Pathology Turfgrass Disease Profiles Rust fungi cause rust (common names include leaf rust, crown rust, and stem rust), and the disease occurs

397

The Idea Gap in Pink and Black  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have found large gender and racial differences in commercialization of invention. Using novel data that permit enhanced identification of women and African American inventors, we find that gender and racial differences in commercial activity related to invention are lower than once thought. This is despite relatively lower patent activity among women and African Americans. Further, among determinants of

Lisa D. Cook; Chaleampong Kongcharoen

2010-01-01

398

The particulate instantiation of homogeneous pink  

Microsoft Academic Search

If one examines the sky at sunset on a clear night, one seems to see a continuum of colors from reds, oranges, and yellows to a deep blueblack. Between any two colored points in the sky there seem to be other colored points. Furthermore, the changes in color across the sky appear to be continuous. Although the colors at the

Austen Clark

1989-01-01

399

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA,  

E-print Network

of metabolism than eggs and early alevins (Bailey et al. 1980) and are undergoing physiological changes to enable them to actively swim and feed rather than reside quietly in the gravel. Salmonid alevins nearing the end of yolk absorption excrete ammonia at a higher rate than eggs or early alevins (Rice and Stokes

400

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

golf greens, sports turf and manicured landscapes is often unacceptable, even though the symptoms to the programs and facilities without regard to race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, marital status on very high maintenance golf and sports turf. Fungicides and Fumigation Flutolanil (Prostar

401

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

, and appear to cause the most damage to golf course roughs, sports turf, and residential lawns. Both pathogens and access to its educational programs, services, activities, and facilities without regard to race, religion

402

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

(Leptosphaeria korrae), that affects Kentucky bluegrass and annual bluegrass on golf courses, sports turf, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, marital status, parental status, sexual orientation

403

Endosymbiosis: Bacteria Sharing the Load A nested set of bacterial endosymbionts within mealybug cells collectively  

E-print Network

adaptations affecting both hosts and endosymbionts [2­4]. One emerging theme is the role of endosymbionts, the genomes of bacterial endosymbionts in relatively simple systems (e.g., a long-term symbiosis with a single to the animal [5]. A new twist was added with the recognition that some insects contained two distinct bacterial

Keeling, Patrick

404

A New Pest Species of the Mealybug Genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new pest species of Ferrisia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Ferrisia gilli Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, third-instar female, and Þrst- and second-instar nymphs. Observation of pharate third-instar males and females failed to reveal sexual dimorphism of the second instar. Diagnosis of this new species was facilitated by the collection of nucleotide sequence data from fragments of

P. J. Gullan; D. A. Downie; S. A. Steffan

2003-01-01

405

WATER ADSORPTION AND DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF OKRA Hibiscus Esculentus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture adsorption characteristics of okra were evaluated at 10, 20, 30° C. Isotherms were found to be of type III. Monolayer moisture contents were evaluated with GAB model. Drying was carried out at 60, 70, 80° C and drying data were analysed to obtain diffusivity values from the period of first felling drying rate. Effective diffusivity increased with increasing temperature.

FAHRETTIN GÖGUS; MEDENI MASKAN

1999-01-01

406

The timing and effectiveness of sequential pollinations in Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many species with animal-pollinated flowers, pollen arrives on the stigma in pulses and late-arriving pollen may be precluded from fertilizing ovules. When seed set per fruit is not pollen limited, the fate of pollen from later cohorts is affected by the time between pollinator visits, variation in pollen tube growth rates, and the amounts of pollen deposited relative to

Timothy P. Spira; Allison A. Snow; Mary N. Puterbaugh

1996-01-01

407

First Recorded Mating Flight of the Hypogeic Ant, Acropyga epedana, with its Obligate Mutualist Mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported

Chris R. Smith; Jan Oettler; Adam Kay; Carrie Deans

2007-01-01

408

Pink Card: Tax Issues Affecting International Students, Faculty, and Staff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internal Revenue Service and Immigration and Naturalization Service have increased monitoring of tax withholding for international scholars. Higher education institutions and scholars alike will benefit from a thorough understanding of tax treaties, nonresident alien status, income taxation, and social security tax obligations and periodic…

Somers, Patricia; And Others

1993-01-01

409

Pink Truck Ads: Second-Wave Feminism and Gendered Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Second-wave feminist media had a contentious relationship with corporate advertisers. This article uses automotive advertisements to explore the role of gender, class, and race in the construction of consumer markets from the 1970s through the 1980s. It analyzes the struggle of Gloria Steinem and other liberal feminists to navigate the terrain between the women's movement and corporate advertisers. The increased

Ella Howard

2010-01-01

410

Pink Truck Ads: Second-Wave Feminism and Gendered Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second-wave feminist media had a contentious relationship with corporate advertisers. This article uses automotive advertisements to explore the role of gender, class, and race in the construction of consumer markets from the 1970s through the 1980s. It analyzes the struggle of Gloria Steinem and other liberal feminists to navigate the terrain between the women's movement and corporate advertisers. The increased

Ella Howard

2010-01-01

411

Pink truck ads: second-wave feminism and gendered marketing.  

PubMed

Second-wave feminist media had a contentious relationship with corporate advertisers. This article uses automotive advertisements to explore the role of gender, class, and race in the construction of consumer markets from the 1970s through the 1980s. It analyzes the struggle of Gloria Steinem and other liberal feminists to navigate the terrain between the women's movement and corporate advertisers. The increased economic power of women, stemming from the Equal Credit Opportunity Act as well as broader social and political shifts, facilitated their efforts. In the 1980s, automobiles continued to be marketed to women, albeit through "feminine" imagery conforming to the era's dominant trends. PMID:21174889

Howard, Ella

2010-01-01

412

Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum  

E-print Network

transmission, and activity in relation to moon phase. Catches were larger during darkness and rose of transmitted light. In dark phases of the moon greater numbers of shrimp were caught than during light phases

413

"PINK1"-Linked Parkinsonism Is Associated with Lewy Body Pathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene mutations have been associated with autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. To date, no neuropathological reports have been published from patients with Parkinson's disease with both phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 gene copies mutated. We analysed…

Samaranch, Lluis; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Arbelo, Jose M.; Ferrer, Isidre; Lorenzo, Elena; Irigoyen, Jaione; Pastor, Maria A.; Marrero, Carmen; Isla, Concepcion; Herrera-Henriquez, Joanna; Pastor, Pau

2010-01-01

414