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1

Manual del Proyecto para el Control Biologico de la Cochinilla Rosada del Hibisco (Biological Control of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Project Manual).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a serious economic threat to agriculture, forestry, and the nursery industry. This pest attacks many plants, trees, and shrubs. It infests hibiscus, citrus, coffee, sugar cane, annonas...

D. E. Meyerdirk R. Warkentin B. Attavian E. Gersabeck A. Francis

2003-01-01

2

Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene.  

PubMed

Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 microg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S; Franqui, Rosa A; Oliver, James E; Klun, Jerome A; Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Meyerdirk, Dale E; Lapointe, Stephen L

2004-06-29

3

Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene  

PubMed Central

Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 ?g per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product.

Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

4

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax.

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

5

Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?  

PubMed Central

Abstract It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

Williams, D.J.; Hodgson, Chris J.

2013-01-01

6

Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?  

PubMed

It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed. PMID:24453543

Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

2013-12-17

7

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... conjunctivitis with redness of the eye and mucoid debris on the eyelashes. Overview Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is ... Inflammatory causes such as chemicals, fumes, dust, and debris Allergies Injuries Oral genital contact with someone who ...

8

Pink Water Treatment Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs) perform two functions that generate a waste stream known as pink water. These functions are (1) load, assemble, and pack (LAP), and (2) demilitarization of munitions. Associated housekeeping and processing operations, for exa...

M. Qazi B. Freward M. Scher B. Nelson

1995-01-01

9

Survey of the natural enemies of Dysmicoccus mealybugs on pineapple in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for mealybugs, associated natural enemies and ants were conducted in abandoned pineapple fields on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu and Maui from July 1992 to November 1993. Whole plant samples were taken, and mealybugs and ants found were identified. Mealybug-infested plant parts were isolated and held until natural enemies emerged from parasitized host material. At sample sites where only

Héctor González-Hernández; Neil J. Reimer; Marshall W. Johnson

1999-01-01

10

Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard. PMID:20568606

Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

2010-06-01

11

Development of a multiplex PCR for identification of vineyard mealybugs.  

PubMed

A simple molecular tool was developed and tested to identify seven mealybug species found in North American vineyards: Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzeti), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Planococcus citri (Risso), and Ferrisia gilli Gullan. The developed multiplex PCR is based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene. In tests, this single-step multiplex PCR correctly identified 95 of 95 mealybug samples, representing all seven species and collected from diverse geographic regions. To test the sensitivity, single specimen samples with different Pl. ficus developmental stages (egg to adult female and adult male) were processed PCR and the resulting output provided consistent positive identification. To test the utility of this protocol for adult males caught in sex baited pheromone traps, Pl. ficus adult males were placed in pheromone traps, aged at a constant temperature of 26±2°C, and processed with the multiplex each day thereafter for 8 d. Results showed consistent positive identification for up to 6 d (range, 6-8 d). Results are discussed with respect to the usefulness of this molecular tool for the identification of mealybugs in pest management programs and biosecurity of invasive mealybugs. PMID:22217778

Daane, Kent M; Middleton, Mathew C; Sforza, René; Cooper, Monica L; Walton, Vaughn M; Walsh, Douglas B; Zaviezo, Tania; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-12-01

12

Molecular and Histological Characterization of Primary (Betaproteobacteria) and Secondary (Gammaproteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Three Mealybug Species  

PubMed Central

Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A.; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T.

2012-01-01

13

Pink and Chum Salmon Prediction Studies, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue consists of the following reports: Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Chum Salmon forecast for 1972, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, juvenile abusdance te...

R. C. Johnson D. W. Heiser R. J. Gerke S. B. Mathews

1972-01-01

14

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

15

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

16

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

17

First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest  

PubMed Central

Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

2014-01-01

18

Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1  

PubMed Central

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability.

Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

1985-01-01

19

An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs.  

PubMed

Highly reduced genomes of 144-416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1-5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations with pairs of bacterial symbionts that live in specialized cells and provide them with essential nutrients; genomic data from these systems have revealed remarkable levels of metabolic complementarity between the symbiont pairs [3, 4, 6, 7]. The mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) contains dual bacterial symbionts existing with an unprecedented organization: an unnamed gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Candidatus Moranella endobia, lives inside the betaproteobacteria Candidatus Tremblaya princeps [8]. Here we describe the complete genomes and metabolic contributions of these unusual nested symbionts. We show that whereas there is little overlap in retained genes involved in nutrient production between symbionts, several essential amino acid pathways in the mealybug assemblage require a patchwork of interspersed gene products from Tremblaya, Moranella, and possibly P. citri. Furthermore, although Tremblaya has the smallest cellular genome yet described, it contains a genomic inversion present in both orientations in individual insects, starkly contrasting with the extreme structural stability typical of highly reduced bacterial genomes [4, 9, 10]. PMID:21835622

McCutcheon, John P; von Dohlen, Carol D

2011-08-23

20

Germline cyst development and imprinting in male mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

In the epigenetic modifications involved in the phenomenon of imprinting, which is thought to take place during gametogenesis, one of the primary roles is exerted by histone tail modifications acting on chromatin structure. What is more, in insects like mealybugs, with a lecanoid chromosome system, imprinting is strictly related to sex determination. In many diverse species gametes originate in specific, highly evolutionarily conserved structures called germline cysts. The use of staining techniques specific for fusomal components like F-actin has allowed us to describe for the first time the morphogenesis of male germline cysts in the mealybug Planococcus citri. Antibodies to anti-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (MeLy9-H3) and anti-heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) were used during cyst formation to investigate the involvement of these epigenetic modifications in the phenomenon of imprinting and their possible concerted action in sex determination in P. citri. These observations indicate: (i) a specific role for F-actin in the segregation, typical of the lecanoid chromosome system, of genomes of paternal origin; (ii) that the two vital gametes originating from a given meiosis, although carrying the same genome, differ in the levels of both MeLy9-H3 and HP1, one of them being more heavily labelled by both antibodies. PMID:15503092

Buglia, Giovanni Luigi; Ferraro, Marina

2004-12-01

21

An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs  

PubMed Central

Summary Highly reduced genomes of 144–416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1–5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations with pairs of bacterial symbionts that live in specialized cells and provide them with essential nutrients; genomic data from these systems have revealed remarkable levels of metabolic complementary between the symbiont pairs [3, 4, 6, 7]. The mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), contains dual bacterial symbionts existing with an unprecedented organization: an unnamed Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Candidatus Moranella endobia, lives inside the Betaproteobacteria Candidatus Tremblaya princeps [8]. Here we describe the complete genomes and metabolic contributions of these unusual nested symbionts. We show that while there is little overlap in retained genes involved in nutrient production between symbionts, several essential amino acid pathways in the mealybug assemblage require a patchwork of interspersed gene products from Tremblaya, Moranella, and possibly P. citri. Furthermore, while Tremblaya has the smallest cellular genome yet described, it contains a genomic inversion present in both orientations in individual insects, starkly contrasting the extreme structural stability typical of highly reduced bacterial genomes [4, 9, 10].

McCutcheon, John P.; von Dohlen, Carol D.

2011-01-01

22

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

23

The Pink Rim Sign: Location of Pink as an Indicator of Melanoma in Dermoscopic Images  

PubMed Central

Background. In dermoscopic images, multiple shades of pink have been described in melanoma without specifying location of these areas within the lesion. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistics for the presence of centrally and peripherally located pink melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions. Methods. Three observers, untrained in dermoscopy, each retrospectively analyzed 1290 dermoscopic images (296 melanomas (170 in situ and 126 invasive), 994 benign melanocytic nevi) and assessed the presence of any shade of pink in the center and periphery of the lesion. Results. Pink was located in the peripheral region in 14.5% of melanomas and 6.3% of benign melanocytic lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 2.51 (95% CI: 1.7–3.8, P < 0.0001). Central pink was located in 12.8% of melanomas and 21.8% of benign lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 0.462 (95% CI: 0.67, P = 0.204). Pink in melanoma in situ tended to be present throughout the lesion (68% of pink lesions). Pink in invasive melanoma was present in 17% of cases, often presenting as a pink rim. Conclusions. The presence of pink in the periphery or rim of a dermoscopic melanocytic lesion image provides an indication of malignancy. We offer the “pink rim sign” as a clue to the dermoscopic diagnosis of invasive melanoma.

Rader, Ryan K.; Payne, Katie S.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Maggie C.; Drugge, Rhett J.; Malters, Joseph J.; Stoecker, William V.

2014-01-01

24

Development, life history characteristics and behaviour of mealybug predator, Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of immature stages, life history and behaviour of mealybug predator, Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) reared on mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) was studied in the laboratory. Larvae of S. epius are a potential predator of different species of mealybugs in India. The predator completed its life cycle in 23.8 days with\\u000a four larval instars. Mean incubation period

Anegunda S. Dinesh; Melally G. Venkatesha; Sompalyam Ramakrishna

2010-01-01

25

Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogen; Isaria farinosa, on citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using

Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk

26

A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed. PMID:18076775

Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

2008-02-01

27

PINK1-Parkin Pathway Activity Is Regulated by Degradation of PINK1 in the Mitochondrial Matrix.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1, which encodes a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, result in an early-onset heritable form of Parkinson's disease. Previous work has shown that PINK1 is constitutively degraded in healthy cells, but selectively accumulates on the surface of depolarized mitochondria, thereby initiating their autophagic degradation. Although PINK1 is known to be a cleavage target of several mitochondrial proteases, whether these proteases account for the constitutive degradation of PINK1 in healthy mitochondria remains unclear. To explore the mechanism by which PINK1 is degraded, we performed a screen for mitochondrial proteases that influence PINK1 abundance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that genetic perturbations targeting the matrix-localized protease Lon caused dramatic accumulation of processed PINK1 species in several mitochondrial compartments, including the matrix. Knockdown of Lon did not decrease mitochondrial membrane potential or trigger activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (UPRmt), indicating that PINK1 accumulation in Lon-deficient animals is not a secondary consequence of mitochondrial depolarization or the UPRmt. Moreover, the influence of Lon on PINK1 abundance was highly specific, as Lon inactivation had little or no effect on the abundance of other mitochondrial proteins. Further studies indicated that the processed forms of PINK1 that accumulate upon Lon inactivation are capable of activating the PINK1-Parkin pathway in vivo. Our findings thus suggest that Lon plays an essential role in regulating the PINK1-Parkin pathway by promoting the degradation of PINK1 in the matrix of healthy mitochondria. PMID:24874806

Thomas, Ruth E; Andrews, Laurie A; Burman, Jonathon L; Lin, Wen-Yang; Pallanck, Leo J

2014-05-01

28

PINK1-Parkin Pathway Activity Is Regulated by Degradation of PINK1 in the Mitochondrial Matrix  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1, which encodes a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, result in an early-onset heritable form of Parkinson's disease. Previous work has shown that PINK1 is constitutively degraded in healthy cells, but selectively accumulates on the surface of depolarized mitochondria, thereby initiating their autophagic degradation. Although PINK1 is known to be a cleavage target of several mitochondrial proteases, whether these proteases account for the constitutive degradation of PINK1 in healthy mitochondria remains unclear. To explore the mechanism by which PINK1 is degraded, we performed a screen for mitochondrial proteases that influence PINK1 abundance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that genetic perturbations targeting the matrix-localized protease Lon caused dramatic accumulation of processed PINK1 species in several mitochondrial compartments, including the matrix. Knockdown of Lon did not decrease mitochondrial membrane potential or trigger activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (UPRmt), indicating that PINK1 accumulation in Lon-deficient animals is not a secondary consequence of mitochondrial depolarization or the UPRmt. Moreover, the influence of Lon on PINK1 abundance was highly specific, as Lon inactivation had little or no effect on the abundance of other mitochondrial proteins. Further studies indicated that the processed forms of PINK1 that accumulate upon Lon inactivation are capable of activating the PINK1-Parkin pathway in vivo. Our findings thus suggest that Lon plays an essential role in regulating the PINK1-Parkin pathway by promoting the degradation of PINK1 in the matrix of healthy mitochondria.

Thomas, Ruth E.; Andrews, Laurie A.; Burman, Jonathon L.; Lin, Wen-Yang; Pallanck, Leo J.

2014-01-01

29

Mealybug Chromosome Cycle as a Paradigm of Epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Recently, epigenetics has had an ever-growing impact on research not only for its intrinsic interest but also because it has been implied in biological phenomena, such as tumor emergence and progression. The first epigenetic phenomenon to be described in the early 1960s was chromosome imprinting in some insect species (sciaridae and coccoideae). Here, we discuss recent experimental results to dissect the phenomenon of imprinted facultative heterochromatinization in Lecanoid coccids (mealybugs). In these insect species, the entire paternally derived haploid chromosome set becomes heterochromatic during embryogenesis in males. We describe the role of known epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, in this phenomenon. We then discuss the models proposed to explain the noncanonical chromosome cycle of these species.

Prantera, Giorgio; Bongiorni, Silvia

2012-01-01

30

Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurelie; Germain, Jean-Francois; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylene; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

2014-01-01

31

Cloning and expression of Drosophila HP1 homologs from a mealybug, Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

The mealybug chromosome cycle is one of the most dramatic examples of genomic imprinting known. In embryos that are to become male the entire paternal chromosome set becomes heterochromatic and inactive at the blastoderm stage, while the maternal set remains active and euchromatic. HP1 is a protein from Drosophila melanogaster, which binds preferentially to heterochromatin on polytene chromosomes and is likely to be a modifier of position effect variegation. This paper describes the isolation and sequencing of two cDNA clones encoding HP1 homologs from the mealybug, Planococcus citri. The protein product of the cDNA clone that was closer to HP1 in sequence was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal rat antibodies were raised against it. Immunohistochemistry to mealybug squash preparations showed that this protein was a male-specific nuclear protein, but that it was not specifically associated with the heterochromatic set of chromosomes. PMID:1629256

Epstein, H; James, T C; Singh, P B

1992-02-01

32

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2011-03-01

33

Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks. PMID:24620572

Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

2013-03-01

34

Maternal Inheritance of Enzymes in the Mealybug PSEUDOCOCCUS OBSCURUS (Homoptera)  

PubMed Central

In the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig (Pseudococcidae) two esterases, a tyrosinase and a mannosephosphate isomerase, exhibited an unusual type of maternal inheritance. Electromorphs (alleles) were transmitted by both parents but segregation was delayed by one generation and full sisters always had the same phenotype. Moreover, for esterase-1, in which three alleles were present, some of the females exhibited all three alleles. Several other polymorphic loci exhibited normal transmission and segregation. This mode of inheritance can be readily explained by assuming that most or all of the enzymes coded for by these loci are produced by the mycetocytes. The mycetocytes house intracellular bacteria-like symbionts and are usually formed by the fusion of the polar bodies and one or more cleavage nuclei. For a locus with two alleles exhibiting this type of inheritance, the expected frequencies of the three phenotypes are p3, 3pq and q3. An equation is presented for estimating the frequency of alleles from the frequencies of the phenotypes and it is shown that for three samples from wild populations there is a good agreement between the expected and observed frequencies of the phenotypes.

Nur, Uzi

1977-01-01

35

Genetic characterization of a putative Densovirus from the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

Total genomic DNA preparations from the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, contained a DNA band corresponding to 5.5 kilobases. This DNA was a linear molecule and was cloned into pUC18. Nucleotide sequence determination indicated that it was the replicative form of a densovirus, most closely related to the virus from Periplaneta fuliginosa (smokybrown cockroach). PMID:11685517

Thao, M L; Wineriter, S; Buckingham, G; Baumann, P

2001-12-01

36

Vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a Key Pest in South African vineyards. A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret), is a key pest in vineyards in the Western Cape and North-West Provinces of South Africa and more recently in the USA. This pest was first reported in the Western Cape Province in 1943. The taxonomy and identification of this species are made difficult by complex slide-mounting techniques and the lack of qualitative characteristics. Vine

V. M. Walton; K. L. Pringle

37

A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

2012-07-01

38

Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense in Cotton Plant by the Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of

Pengjun Zhang; Xiaoyun Zhu; Fang Huang; Yong Liu; Jinming Zhang; Yaobin Lu; Yongming Ruan

2011-01-01

39

Mass rearing of Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), a potential predator of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has been recorded as a potential predator of various species of mealybug crop pests worldwide. We describe the mass rearing of S. epius, as no information on this topic is available. Outdoor nylon tent cages of different dimensions were provided to achieve mating and oviposition as S. epius adults did not mate in the laboratory cages.

Melally Giddegowda Venkatesha; Anegunda Shankar Dinesh

2011-01-01

40

Pink1 forms a multiprotein complex with Miro and Milton, linking Pink1 function to mitochondrial trafficking.  

PubMed

Recessive mutations in Pink1 lead to a selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is characteristic of Parkinson disease. Pink1 is a kinase that is targeted in part to mitochondria, and loss of Pink1 function can alter mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, thus supporting a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson disease etiology. Here, we report the unbiased identification and confirmation of a mitochondrial multiprotein complex that contains Pink1, the atypical GTPase Miro, and the adaptor protein Milton. Our screen also identified an interaction between Pink1 and Mitofilin. Based on previously established functions for Miro and Milton in the trafficking of mitochondria along microtubules, we postulate here a role for Pink1 in mitochondrial trafficking. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that the overexpression of Miro and Milton, both of which are known to reside at the outer mitochondrial membrane, increases the mitochondrial Pink1 pool, suggesting a function of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Further, we document that Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence can still be targeted to a mitochondria-enriched subcellular fraction via Miro and Milton. The latter finding is important for the interpretation of a previously reported protective effect of Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Finally, we find that Miro and Milton expression suppresses altered mitochondrial morphology induced by loss of Pink1 function in cell culture. Our findings suggest that Pink1 functions in the trafficking of mitochondria in cells. PMID:19152501

Weihofen, Andreas; Thomas, Kelly Jean; Ostaszewski, Beth L; Cookson, Mark R; Selkoe, Dennis J

2009-03-10

41

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

42

Baby T (Pink) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

43

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

44

The mitochondrial intramembrane protease PARL cleaves human Pink1 to regulate Pink1 trafficking.  

PubMed

Intramembrane proteolysis is a conserved mechanism that regulates a variety of cellular processes ranging from transcription control to signaling. In mitochondria, the inner membrane rhomboid protease PARL has been implicated in the control of life span and apoptosis by a so far uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we show that PARL cleaves human Pink1, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease, within its conserved membrane anchor. Mature Pink1 is then free to be released into the cytosol or the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Upon depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the canonical import of Pink1 and PARL-catalyzed processing is blocked, leading to accumulation of the Pink1 precursor. As targeting of this precursor to the outer mitochondrial membrane has been shown to trigger mitophagy, we suggest that the PARL-catalyzed removal of the Pink1 signal sequence in the canonical import pathway acts as a cellular checkpoint for mitochondrial integrity. Furthermore, we show that two Parkinson's disease-causing mutations decrease the processing of Pink1 by PARL, with attendant implications for pathogenesis. PMID:21426348

Meissner, Cathrin; Lorenz, Holger; Weihofen, Andreas; Selkoe, Dennis J; Lemberg, Marius K

2011-06-01

45

Infection Dynamics of Coexisting Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the Nested Endosymbiotic System of Mealybugs?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the ?-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the ?-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the ?-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the ?-endosymbiont cells were located in the ?-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the ?-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the ?-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the ?-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the ?-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the ?- and ?-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote-prokaryote endosymbiotic system.

Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2008-01-01

46

Wrap attack of the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum (Araneae: Theridiidae) by preying on mealybugs Planococcus citri (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation by Achaearanea tepidariorum (Koch 1841) on mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso 1813) is facilitated by the design of its web, which features a tangle of sticky gumfooted lines, and wrap attacks\\u000a as well as the ability to handle the prey, whose body is covered with a waxy secretion, via silk. Crawling, i.e., wingless,\\u000a mealybugs (in particular those in the nymphal

Jaromír HajerLenka Hrubá; Lenka Hrubá

2007-01-01

47

Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.  

PubMed

Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants. PMID:25026682

Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

2014-06-01

48

Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma  

PubMed Central

The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

2012-01-01

49

Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma.  

PubMed

The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kang, Si-Yong; Yun, Bong-Sik

2012-06-01

50

Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.  

PubMed

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

51

Dyeing cotton, wool and silk with Hibiscus mutabilis (Gulzuba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus mutabilis (Gulzuba)\\/Cotton rose\\/ belongs to family Malvaceae produces natural dye which has been used for dyeing textiles. Aqueous extract of Gulzuba flowers yield shades with good fastness properties. The dye has good scope in the commercial dyeing of cotton, silk for garment industry and wool yarn for carpet industry. In the present study dyeing with gulzuba has been shown

Rakhi Shanker; Padma S. Vankar

2007-01-01

52

Acquisition, transmission and host range of a begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow vein mosaic, a disease causing serious reductions in fibre yield of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and associated with a begomovirus, was effectively transmitted by cleft grafting and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), but not through seed or by mechanical means. Association of the begomovirus with infected experimental host plants was\\u000a determined by Southern hybridisation using a DNA A targeting

A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; S. K. Ghosh

2008-01-01

53

Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that these insecticides are compatible with both natural enemies when used together for control of citrus mealybug in greenhouses and conservatories. PMID:17066788

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-10-01

54

Function and Characteristics of PINK1 in Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for the PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. PARL is a mitochondrial resident rhomboid serine protease, and it has been reported to mediate the cleavage of the PINK1. Interestingly, impaired mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that clears the cells of damaged mitochondria, may also be an underlying mechanism of disease pathogenesis in patients for Parkinson's disease with the PARL mutations. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate the mitophagy. PINK1 is posttranslationally processed, whose level is definitely regulated in healthy steady state of mitochondria. As a consequence, PINK1 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial healthy homeostasis.

Kitagishi, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mayumi

2013-01-01

55

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee  

PubMed Central

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs.

Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

2006-01-01

56

Horizontal gene transfer from diverse bacteria to an insect genome enables a tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis.  

PubMed

The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterial endosymbiont, Moranella endobia. Genome and transcriptome sequencing, including genome sequencing from a Tremblaya lineage lacking intracellular bacteria, reveals that the extreme genomic degeneracy of Tremblaya PCIT likely resulted from acquiring Moranella as an endosymbiont. In addition, at least 22 expressed horizontally transferred genes from multiple diverse bacteria to the mealybug genome likely complement missing symbiont genes. However, none of these horizontally transferred genes are from Tremblaya, showing that genome reduction in this symbiont has not been enabled by gene transfer to the host nucleus. Our results thus indicate that the functioning of this three-way symbiosis is dependent on genes from at least six lineages of organisms and reveal a path to intimate endosymbiosis distinct from that followed by organelles. PMID:23791183

Husnik, Filip; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Ross, Laura; Duncan, Rebecca P; Fujie, Manabu; Tanaka, Makiko; Satoh, Nori; Bachtrog, Doris; Wilson, Alex C C; von Dohlen, Carol D; Fukatsu, Takema; McCutcheon, John P

2013-06-20

57

First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.  

PubMed

Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

2006-01-01

58

PINK1-dependent recruitment of Parkin to mitochondria in mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and PARK2/Parkin mutations cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Upon a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in human cells, cytosolic Parkin has been reported to be recruited to mitochondria, which is followed by a stimulation of mitochondrial autophagy. Here, we show that the relocation of Parkin to mitochondria induced by a collapse of ??m relies on PINK1 expression and that overexpression of WT but not of mutated PINK1 causes Parkin translocation to mitochondria, even in cells with normal ??m. We also show that once at the mitochondria, Parkin is in close proximity to PINK1, but we find no evidence that Parkin catalyzes PINK1 ubiquitination or that PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin. However, co-overexpression of Parkin and PINK1 collapses the normal tubular mitochondrial network into mitochondrial aggregates and/or large perinuclear clusters, many of which are surrounded by autophagic vacuoles. Our results suggest that Parkin, together with PINK1, modulates mitochondrial trafficking, especially to the perinuclear region, a subcellular area associated with autophagy. Thus by impairing this process, mutations in either Parkin or PINK1 may alter mitochondrial turnover which, in turn, may cause the accumulation of defective mitochondria and, ultimately, neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease.

Vives-Bauza, Cristofol; Zhou, Chun; Huang, Yong; Cui, Mei; de Vries, Rosa L.A.; Kim, Jiho; May, Jessica; Tocilescu, Maja Aleksandra; Liu, Wencheng; Ko, Han Seok; Magrane, Jordi; Moore, Darren J.; Dawson, Valina L.; Grailhe, Regis; Dawson, Ted M.; Tieu, Kim; Przedborski, Serge

2009-01-01

59

Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.  

PubMed

The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs. PMID:20464943

Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally

2010-03-01

60

Facultative heterochromatization in parahaploid male mealybugs: involvement of a heterochromatin-associated protein.  

PubMed

The behavior of chromosomes during development of the mealybug Planococcus citri provides one of the most dramatic examples of facultative heterochromatization. In male embryos, the entire haploid paternal chromosome set becomes heterochromatic at mid-cleavage. Male mealybugs are thus functionally haploid, owing to heterochromatization (parahaploidy). To understand the mechanisms underlying facultative heterochromatization in male mealybugs, we have investigated the possible involvement of an HP-1-like protein in this process. HP-1 is a conserved, nonhistone chromosomal protein with a proposed role in heterochromatinization in other species. It was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster as a protein enriched in the constitutive heterochromatin of polytene chromosome. Using a monoclonal antibody raised against the Drosophila HP-1 in immunoblot and immunocytological experiments, we provide evidence for the presence of an HP-1-like in Planococcus citri males and females. In males, the HP-1-like protein is preferentially associated with the male-specific heterochromatin. In the developing male embryos, its appearance precedes the onset of heterochromatization. In females, the HP-1-like protein displays a scattered but reproducible localization pattern along chromosomes. The results indicate a role for an HP-1-like protein in the facultative heterochromatization process. PMID:11585806

Bongiorni, S; Mazzuoli, M; Masci, S; Prantera, G

2001-10-01

61

Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.  

PubMed

Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa. PMID:22360997

Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

2012-10-01

62

Hot water treatment and insecticidal coatings for disinfesting limes of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment. PMID:10902365

Gould, W P; McGuire, R G

2000-06-01

63

Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision. PMID:16813342

Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

2006-06-01

64

The PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial morphology.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin genes, which encode a mitochondrially localized serine/threonine kinase and a ubiquitin-protein ligase, respectively, result in recessive familial forms of Parkinsonism. Genetic studies in Drosophila indicate that PINK1 acts upstream of Parkin in a common pathway that influences mitochondrial integrity in a subset of tissues, including flight muscle and dopaminergic neurons. The mechanism by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity is currently unknown, although mutations in the PINK1 and parkin genes result in enlarged or swollen mitochondria, suggesting a possible regulatory role for the PINK1/Parkin pathway in mitochondrial morphology. To address this hypothesis, we examined the influence of genetic alterations affecting the machinery that governs mitochondrial morphology on the PINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes. We report that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of drp1, which encodes a key mitochondrial fission-promoting component, are largely lethal in a PINK1 or parkin mutant background. Conversely, the flight muscle degeneration and mitochondrial morphological alterations that result from mutations in PINK1 and parkin are strongly suppressed by increased drp1 gene dosage and by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations affecting the mitochondrial fusion-promoting factors OPA1 and Mfn2. Finally, we find that an eye phenotype associated with increased PINK1/Parkin pathway activity is suppressed by perturbations that reduce mitochondrial fission and enhanced by perturbations that reduce mitochondrial fusion. Our studies suggest that the PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes mitochondrial fission and that the loss of mitochondrial and tissue integrity in PINK1 and parkin mutants derives from reduced mitochondrial fission. PMID:18230723

Poole, Angela C; Thomas, Ruth E; Andrews, Laurie A; McBride, Heidi M; Whitworth, Alexander J; Pallanck, Leo J

2008-02-01

65

Determination of complete nucleotide sequence of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus : Evidence for the presence of an internal poly(A) tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. We have sequenced the complete genome of a hibiscus-infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV). The experimental host range of HLSV is similar to that of another distinct species of hibiscus infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV). The genomic structure of HLSV is similar to other tobamoviruses in general. It consists of a 5? untranslated region (UTR),

K. G. Srinivasan; B. E. Min; K. H. Ryu; S. Adkins; S. M. Wong

2005-01-01

66

The kinase domain of mitochondrial PINK1 faces the cytoplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein exhibits a topology in which the kinase domain faces the cytoplasm

Chun Zhou; Yong Huang; Yufang Shao; Jessica May; Delphine Prou; Celine Perier; William Dauer; Eric A. Schon; Serge Przedborski

2008-01-01

67

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate ?-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking ?-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin.

Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H.; Muller-Rischart, A. Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Schulz, Jorg B.; Voigt, Aaron

2013-01-01

68

M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

2007-01-01

69

Natural enemies of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus and effects of some insecticides on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) in South Africa.  

PubMed

The population density of mealybug species in some South African citrus orchards has increased to pest status in recent years. The characterization of the natural enemy complex and quantification of their contribution to the control of Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell) on Citrus limon (L.) and Citrus reticulata (Blanco) was investigated through intensive sampling. Eight primary and four secondary parasitoids, and two predator species were identified from P. citri and P. calceolariae. Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault) and Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake) were the most common species, accounting for 44% and 21% of the total. Of the five primary parasitoids reared from P. longispinus, A. pseudococci and Anagyrus sp. were predominant, comprising 41% and 30%. Nymphal and adult parasitism (range = 0-26% vs. 0-66%) and predation (range = 0-5.6% vs. 0-4.1%) varied significantly between host trees and mealybug species (P < 0.001). The numbers of nymphal instars and adult stages of P. calceolariae and P. longispinus and the nymphal stage of P. citri that were parasitized and killed by predators correlated significantly with the total number of hosts on which they acted (P < 0.01), suggesting a density-dependent association. Laboratory bioassay of nine contact insecticides (methidathion, methomyl, methyl-parathion, parathion, profenofos and prothiofos) against C. peregrinus indicated that all were highly toxic, causing 98-100% mortality in < 6 h of treatment. The IGRs fenoxycarb and triflumuron did not cause significant parasitoid mortality (P > 0.05). However, a mixture of pyriproxyfen and mineral oil caused a marginally significant mortality (P < 0.05). PMID:12762866

Wakgari, W M; Giliomee, J H

2003-06-01

70

Synthesis of the female sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) is a common pest in the Southern U. S. and the Mediterranean. Two alternative syntheses of the female sex pheromone, (1R)-(+)-cis-2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropenyl-cyclobutane methanol acetate, have been developed. Key transformations include an allylic oxidation of (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene to (+)-R-verbenone, oxidative decarboxylation using RuCl(3)-NaIO(4), and methylenation with Zn/CH(2)Br(2)/TiCl(4). PMID:15137832

Passaro, Linda C; Webster, Francis X

2004-05-19

71

Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. PMID:24345408

Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

2014-04-01

72

Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of Natural and Irradiated Pink Tourmaline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian natural pink tourmaline is studied through the polarized optical absorption measurements. The effect of increasing doses of gamma -rays from sup 60 Co in the spectra were determined (maximum of 20MGy). The following optical absorption bands ...

M. B. Camargo S. Isotani

1985-01-01

73

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate ?-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking ?-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin. PMID:23525905

Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H; Müller-Rischart, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron

2013-07-15

74

Effects of insect growth regulators on citrus mealybug parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).  

PubMed

In this study, we measured the effects of three commonly used insecticides classified as insect growth regulators, on the encyrtid parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Howard) when parasitizing citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). Kinoprene, pyriproxyfen, and azadirachtin were evaluated in both petri dish and a cage experiment at label-recommended rates to measure their effects on the mortality, parasitization rate, and sex ratio of L. dactylopii. Insecticides were applied to petri dishes and plants either immediately before, 24 h before, or 48 h before release of the parasitoid. Kinoprene applied 24 h before parasitoid release caused 100% mortality of L. dactylopii in petri dishes within 48 h. Mortality rates for L. dactylopii exposed to azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen did not exceed 5% regardless of release time. There were no release time x insecticide interactions on L. dactylopii parasitization rate. The insecticide alone, however, did significantly affect parasitization rates of L. dactylopii on P. citri; the kinoprene treatment significantly reduced L. dactylopii parasitization rates compared with azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen. In a cage experiment with coleus, Solenostemon scutellaroides (L.) Codd, applications of both pyriproxyfen and kinoprene resulted in fewer P. citri parasitized by L. dactylopii than azadirachtin or the control. The sex ratio was equivalent in the petri dish experiment, whereas in the cage experiment the sex ratio was biased toward males, particularly for the kinoprene treatment. Based on the results from this study, we suggest that kinoprene is not compatible with releases of L. dactylopii to control citrus mealybugs. PMID:15384332

Rothwangl, Katharina B; Cloyd, Raymond A; Wiedenmann, Robert N

2004-08-01

75

Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 micro by 300 micro) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07-0.09 micro diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 micro by 750 micro and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement. PMID:5761921

Ross, J; Robison, W G

1969-02-01

76

Loss of PINK1 Increases the Heart's Vulnerability to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mutations in PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson’s disease. Although PINK1 is present in the heart its exact role there is unclear. We hypothesized that PINK1 protects the heart against acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods and Results Over-expressing PINK1 in HL-1 cardiac cells reduced cell death following simulated IRI (29.2±5.2% PINK1 versus 49.0±2.4% control; N?=?320 cells/group P<0.05), and delayed the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 1.3 fold; P<0.05). Hearts excised from PINK1+/+, PINK1+/? and PINK1?/? mice were subjected to 35 minutes regional ischemia followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. Interestingly, myocardial infarct size was increased in PINK1?/? hearts compared to PINK1+/+ hearts with an intermediate infarct size in PINK1+/? hearts (25.1±2.0% PINK1+/+, 38.9±3.4% PINK1+/? versus 51.5±4.3% PINK1?/? hearts; N>5 animals/group; P<0.05). Cardiomyocytes isolated from PINK1?/? hearts had a lower resting mitochondrial membrane potential, had inhibited mitochondrial respiration, generated more oxidative stress during simulated IRI, and underwent rigor contracture more rapidly in response to an uncoupler when compared to PINK1+/+ cells suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in hearts deficient in PINK1. Conclusions We show that the loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This may be due, in part, to increased mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings implicate PINK1 as a novel target for cardioprotection.

Siddall, Hilary K.; Yellon, Derek M.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Mukherjee, Uma A.; Burke, Niall; Hall, Andrew R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Deas, Emma; Davidson, Sean M.; Mocanu, Mihaela M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

2013-01-01

77

Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri  

PubMed Central

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

78

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

2000-01-01

79

Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats.

Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

2013-01-01

80

PINK1 heterozygous rare variants: prevalence, significance and phenotypic spectrum.  

PubMed

Heterozygous rare variants in the PINK1 gene, as well as in other genes causing autosomal recessive parkinsonism, have been reported both in patients and healthy controls. Their pathogenic significance is uncertain, but they have been suggested to represent risk factors to develop Parkinson disease (PD). The few large studies that assessed the frequency of PINK1 heterozygotes in cases and controls yielded controversial results, and the phenotypic spectrum is largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of PINK1 heterozygous rare variants in over 1100 sporadic and familial patients of all onset ages and in 400 controls. Twenty patients and 6 controls were heterozygous, with frequencies (1.8% vs. 1.5%) not significantly different in the two groups. Clinical features of heterozygotes were indistinguishable to those of wild-type patients, with mean disease onset 10 years later than in carriers of two mutations but worse disease progression. A meta-analysis indicated that, in PINK1 heterozygotes, the PD risk is only slightly increased with a non significant odds ratio of 1.62. These findings suggest that PINK1 heterozygous rare variants play only a minor susceptibility role in the context of a multifactorial model of PD. Hence, their significance should be kept distinct from that of homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations, that cause parkinsonism inherited in a mendelian fashion. PMID:18330912

Marongiu, Roberta; Ferraris, Alessandro; Ialongo, Tàmara; Michiorri, Silvia; Soleti, Francesco; Ferrari, Francesca; Elia, Antonio E; Ghezzi, Daniele; Albanese, Alberto; Altavista, Maria Concetta; Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Brusa, Livia; Cortelli, Pietro; Martinelli, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Scaglione, Cesa; Stanzione, Paolo; Tinazzi, Michele; Zecchinelli, Anna; Zeviani, Massimo; Cassetta, Emanuele; Garavaglia, Barbara; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Valente, Enza Maria

2008-04-01

81

Reduction of protein translation and activation of autophagy protect against PINK1 pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause familial, early onset Parkinson's disease. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINK1 and Parkin mutants show similar phenotypes, such as swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria, muscle degeneration, energy depletion, and dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. We previously showed that PINK1 and Parkin genetically interact with the mitochondrial fusion/fission pathway, and PINK1 and Parkin were recently proposed to form a mitochondrial quality control system that involves mitophagy. However, the in vivo relationships among PINK1/Parkin function, mitochondrial fission/fusion, and autophagy remain unclear; and other cellular events critical for PINK1 pathogenesis remain to be identified. Here we show that PINK1 genetically interacted with the protein translation pathway. Enhanced translation through S6K activation significantly exacerbated PINK1 mutant phenotypes, whereas reduction of translation showed suppression. Induction of autophagy by Atg1 overexpression also rescued PINK1 mutant phenotypes, even in the presence of activated S6K. Downregulation of translation and activation of autophagy were already manifested in PINK1 mutant, suggesting that they represent compensatory cellular responses to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by PINK1 inactivation, presumably serving to conserve energy. Interestingly, the enhanced PINK1 mutant phenotype in the presence of activated S6K could be fully rescued by Parkin, apparently in an autophagy-independent manner. Our results reveal complex cellular responses to PINK1 inactivation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies through manipulation of the compensatory responses. PMID:21151574

Liu, Song; Lu, Bingwei

2010-01-01

82

Reduction of Protein Translation and Activation of Autophagy Protect against PINK1 Pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause familial, early onset Parkinson's disease. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINK1 and Parkin mutants show similar phenotypes, such as swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria, muscle degeneration, energy depletion, and dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. We previously showed that PINK1 and Parkin genetically interact with the mitochondrial fusion/fission pathway, and PINK1 and Parkin were recently proposed to form a mitochondrial quality control system that involves mitophagy. However, the in vivo relationships among PINK1/Parkin function, mitochondrial fission/fusion, and autophagy remain unclear; and other cellular events critical for PINK1 pathogenesis remain to be identified. Here we show that PINK1 genetically interacted with the protein translation pathway. Enhanced translation through S6K activation significantly exacerbated PINK1 mutant phenotypes, whereas reduction of translation showed suppression. Induction of autophagy by Atg1 overexpression also rescued PINK1 mutant phenotypes, even in the presence of activated S6K. Downregulation of translation and activation of autophagy were already manifested in PINK1 mutant, suggesting that they represent compensatory cellular responses to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by PINK1 inactivation, presumably serving to conserve energy. Interestingly, the enhanced PINK1 mutant phenotype in the presence of activated S6K could be fully rescued by Parkin, apparently in an autophagy-independent manner. Our results reveal complex cellular responses to PINK1 inactivation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies through manipulation of the compensatory responses.

Liu, Song; Lu, Bingwei

2010-01-01

83

Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2014-01-01

84

Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, Jose Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2014-01-01

85

Mealybugs and the spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in a New Zealand vineyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) through a newly planted block of Merlot and Chardonnay grapevines\\u000a in a commercial vineyard was measured between 1998 and 2003. The population changes of the mealybug vector (Pseudococcus longispinus) were recorded over the same period in 12–17-year-old GLRaV-3-infected grapevines immediately adjacent to two sides of the\\u000a new block. Relationships between the spread

J. G. Charles; K. J. Froud; R. van den Brink; D. J. Allan

2009-01-01

86

Secondary ( -Proteobacteria) Endosymbionts Infect the Primary ( -Proteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Mealybugs Multiple Times and Coevolve with Their Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) are plant sap-sucking insects that have within their body cavities specialized cells containing prokaryotic primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts). The P- endosymbionts have the unusual property of containing within their cytoplasm prokaryotic secondary endo- symbionts (S-endosymbionts) (C. D. von Dohlen, S. Kohler, S. T. Alsop, and W. R. McManus, Nature (London) 412:433-436, 2001). Four-kilobase fragments containing 16S-23S ribosomal

M. L. Thao; Penny J. Gullan; Paul Baumann

2002-01-01

87

Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

2014-12-01

88

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

89

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

90

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property.

Alqasoumi, S.I.

2011-01-01

91

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

Alqasoumi, S I

2012-04-01

92

Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg?1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS.

Essa, M. Mohamed

2007-01-01

93

Photochromic charge transfer processes in natural pink and brown diamonds.  

PubMed

Natural pink and brown diamonds exhibit surprising photochromic phenomena when optically pumped with ultraviolet light of photon energy ? ? 4.1 eV, including a subsequent sensitivity to infrared pumps, which is not evident prior to UV exposure. In this study, we observe the dependence of photochromism on pump photon energy and intensity, for both UV and IR pumps. From these observations, we propose a model of several distinct charge transfer processes between multiple species of optically active defect centres. We show it is likely that the UV-induced behaviour of pink diamond photochromism is linked to the vacancy clusters responsible for brown colouration in diamonds. PMID:24351435

Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N

2014-01-22

94

Drosophila pink1 is required for mitochondrial function and interacts genetically with parkin.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important trigger for Parkinson's disease-like pathogenesis because exposure to environmental mitochondrial toxins leads to Parkinson's disease-like pathology. Recently, multiple genes mediating familial forms of Parkinson's disease have been identified, including PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1; PARK6) and parkin (PARK2), which are also associated with sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 encodes a putative serine/threonine kinase with a mitochondrial targeting sequence. So far, no in vivo studies have been reported for pink1 in any model system. Here we show that removal of Drosophila PINK1 homologue (CG4523; hereafter called pink1) function results in male sterility, apoptotic muscle degeneration, defects in mitochondrial morphology and increased sensitivity to multiple stresses including oxidative stress. Pink1 localizes to mitochondria, and mitochondrial cristae are fragmented in pink1 mutants. Expression of human PINK1 in the Drosophila testes restores male fertility and normal mitochondrial morphology in a portion of pink1 mutants, demonstrating functional conservation between human and Drosophila Pink1. Loss of Drosophila parkin shows phenotypes similar to loss of pink1 function. Notably, overexpression of parkin rescues the male sterility and mitochondrial morphology defects of pink1 mutants, whereas double mutants removing both pink1 and parkin function show muscle phenotypes identical to those observed in either mutant alone. These observations suggest that pink1 and parkin function, at least in part, in the same pathway, with pink1 functioning upstream of parkin. The role of the pink1-parkin pathway in regulating mitochondrial function underscores the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction as a central mechanism of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. PMID:16672981

Clark, Ira E; Dodson, Mark W; Jiang, Changan; Cao, Joseph H; Huh, Jun R; Seol, Jae Hong; Yoo, Soon Ji; Hay, Bruce A; Guo, Ming

2006-06-29

95

Inter- and intraspecific interactions in two mealybug predators Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri in the presence and absence of prey.  

PubMed

Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are the two potential predators of different species of mealybugs. However, the mode of their interactions is not known to use these predators together in the field. Hence, we investigated on the possible interactions i.e., cannibalism, intraguild predation (IGP) and competition between the predators in the presence and absence of prey Planococcus citri. In the presence of prey, no cannibalism and predation were observed in both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae. A pair of S. epius larvae consumed significantly more number of mealybugs than one S. epius/C. montrouzieri larva or a pair of C. montrouzieri larvae. The predation of S. epius larva by C. montrouzieri larva was significantly more than the predation of C. montrouzieri by S. epius. Conspecific and interspecific egg predation was absent both in S. epius and C. montrouzieri. Cannibalism in C. montrouzieri was more than that in S. epius. The study indicated that C. montrouzieri larvae can be used as an additive along with voracious S. epius larvae under abundant prey population. IGP was asymmetric between the two predators in the absence of prey. Both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae can maintain a stable coexistence when prey is abundantly available, however, in the complete absence of prey C. montrouzieri may dominate the guild. This study provides an insight into the possible complex inter- and intraspecific predatory phenomena in the field to use these two predators in the biological control of mealybugs. PMID:24044725

Dinesh, A S; Venkatesha, M G

2014-02-01

96

78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation...proposed designation of critical habitat for Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle under the...Conservation Agreement and Strategy for the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, and an...

2013-05-06

97

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ROSELLE (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) SEED MEAL AND KENAF (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) SEED MEAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR SOYBEAN MEAL IN PRACTICAL DIETS FOR FINGERLINGS OF NILE TILAPIA, Oreochromis niloticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) values for crude protein and gross energy contents of mechanically-extracted meals derived from soybean meal, roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa) and kenaf (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) seeds were determined using an inert marker in the diets and by faeces collection using the dissection method. Soybean, roselle seed and kenaf seed meals had similar ADC values for

O. A. Fagbenro; T. T. Akande; O. O. Fapohunda; Y. Akegbejo-Samsons

98

ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese ( Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing- tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same

C. J. CUTTS; J. R. SPEAKMAN

1994-01-01

99

PINK1 protein in normal human brain and Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is a common incurable neurodegenerative disease whose molecular aetiology remains unclear. The identification of Mendelian genes causing rare familial forms of Parkinson's disease has revealed novel proteins and pathways that are likely to be relevant in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease. Recently, mutations in a novel gene, PINK1, encoding a 581 amino acid protein with both mitochondrial

S. Gandhi; M. M. K. Muqit; L. Stanyer; D. G. Healy; P. M. Abou-Sleiman; I. Hargreaves; S. Heales; M. Ganguly; L. Parsons; A. J. Lees; D. S. Latchman; J. L. Holton; N. W. Wood; T. Revesz

2006-01-01

100

Paramagnetic Resonance Absorption of Phonons in Pink Ruby.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spin-phonon interaction in pink ruby was studied at 1.4 degrees by measurement of the absorption spectra for 5.33 gc/s acoustic pulses. EPR spectra were also measured in the 12.4 - 18.0 gc/s band. Both the EPR and acoustic line shapes were found to be...

G. A. Weeks

1964-01-01

101

What Causes Variability in Pink Salmon Family Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study family-specific variation in the survival of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, we partitioned family size into four life history divisions: (1) maternal fecundity, (2) deposition of fertilized eggs and egg loss from the redd, (3) freshwater survival (and male potency), and (4) marine survival. We directly measured the variability in fecundity and then measured the family-specific variability of freshwater

Harold J. Geiger; Ivan Wang; Pat Malecha; Kyle Hebert; William W. Smoker; Anthony J. Gharrett

2007-01-01

102

BAG5 Protects against Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage through Regulating PINK1 Degradation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause PARK6 familial Parkinsonism, and loss of the stability of PINK1 may also contribute to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Degradation of PINK1 occurs predominantly through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), however, to date, few of the proteins have been found to regulate the degradation of PINK1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and pull-down methods, we identified bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5), a BAG family member, directly interacted with PINK1. We showed that BAG5 stabilized PINK1 by decreasing the ubiquitination of PINK1. Interestingly, BAG5 rescued MPP+- and rotenone-induced mitochondria dysfunction by up-regulating PINK1 in vitro. In PINK1-null mice and MPTP-treated mice, BAG5 significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) although PINK1 was decreased. Our findings indicated that BAG5, as a key protein to stabilize PINK1, is a promising therapeutic tool for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress.

Fei, Erkang; Mu, Yingfeng; He, Shuang; Che, Xiangqian; Tan, Jieqiong; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Beisha

2014-01-01

103

SARM1 and TRAF6 bind to and stabilize PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Recent work suggests that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 and that accumulated PINK1 recruits parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for elimination of depolarized mitochondria, which is known as mitophagy. In this study, we find that PINK1 forms a complex with sterile ? and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which is important for import of PINK1 in the outer membrane and stabilization of PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria. SARM1, which is known to be an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor, binds to PINK1 and promotes TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 chain ubiquitination of PINK1 at lysine 433. Down-regulation of SARM1 and TRAF6 abrogates accumulation of PINK1, followed by recruitment of parkin to damaged mitochondria. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 reduce the complex formation and ubiquitination. These results indicate that association of PINK1 with SARM1 and TRAF6 is an important step for mitophagy.

Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

2013-01-01

104

PINK1 deficiency sustains cell proliferation by reprogramming glucose metabolism through HIF1.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) is a Ser/Thr kinase implicated in familial early-onset Parkinson's disease, and was first reported as a growth suppressor. PINK1 loss-of-function compromises both mitochondrial autophagy and oxidative phosphorylation. Here we report that PINK1 deficiency triggers hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF1?) stabilization in cultured Pink1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary cortical neurons as well as in vivo. This effect, mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, led to the upregulation of the HIF1 target, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1, which inhibits PDH activity. Furthermore, we show that HIF1? stimulates glycolysis in the absence of Pink1, and that the promotion of intracellular glucose metabolism by HIF1? stabilization is required for cell proliferation in Pink1(-/-) mice. We propose that loss of Pink1 reprograms glucose metabolism through HIF1?, sustaining increased cell proliferation. PMID:25058378

Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Lopez-Fabuel, Irene; Fernandez, Emilio; Martins, Luis M; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P

2014-01-01

105

Quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling of PINK1-deficient cells identifies phosphorylation changes in nuclear proteins.  

PubMed

The Parkinson's disease (PD) associated gene PINK1 encodes a protein kinase that mediates the phosphorylation of multiple proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. The broader downstream signaling events mediated by PINK1 kinase activity have not been well documented. We combine quantitative phosphoproteomic strategies with siRNA mediated PINK1 knock down in mammalian cells to identify alterations of phosphorylation events downstream of PINK1. Although down-regulation of PINK1 has no major effect on the proteome expression in these cells, phosphorylation of over one hundred proteins was reduced reflecting basal levels of phosphorylation signaling events downstream of PINK1. Motif analysis of the residues flanking the phosphorylation sites indicates proline-directed kinase specificity. Surprisingly, we found that the downstream signaling nodes included many transcription factors, as well as nuclear proteins involved in DNA and RNA metabolism. Thus, PINK1 dependent phosphorylation signaling may regulate nuclear activities. PMID:24626860

Qin, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Chaoya; Yates Iii, John R; Liao, Lujian

2014-07-01

106

The yeast complex I equivalent NADH dehydrogenase rescues pink1 mutants.  

PubMed

Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC); however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I-associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling. PMID:22242018

Vilain, Sven; Esposito, Giovanni; Haddad, Dominik; Schaap, Onno; Dobreva, Mariya P; Vos, Melissa; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Morais, Vanessa A; De Strooper, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

2012-01-01

107

Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

2014-04-01

108

Mealybugs nested endosymbiosis: going into the 'matryoshka' system in Planococcus citri in depth  

PubMed Central

Background In all branches of life there are plenty of symbiotic associations. Insects are particularly well suited to establishing intracellular symbiosis with bacteria, providing them with metabolic capabilities they lack. Essential primary endosymbionts can coexist with facultative secondary symbionts which can, eventually, establish metabolic complementation with the primary endosymbiont, becoming a co-primary. Usually, both endosymbionts maintain their cellular identity. An exception is the endosymbiosis found in mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudoccinae, such as Planococcus citri, with Moranella endobia located inside Tremblaya princeps. Results We report the genome sequencing of M. endobia str. PCVAL and the comparative genomic analyses of the genomes of strains PCVAL and PCIT of both consortium partners. A comprehensive analysis of their functional capabilities and interactions reveals their functional coupling, with many cases of metabolic and informational complementation. Using comparative genomics, we confirm that both genomes have undergone a reductive evolution, although with some unusual genomic features as a consequence of coevolving in an exceptional compartmentalized organization. Conclusions M. endobia seems to be responsible for the biosynthesis of most cellular components and energy provision, and controls most informational processes for the consortium, while T. princeps appears to be a mere factory for amino acid synthesis, and translating proteins, using the precursors provided by M. endobia. In this scenario, we propose that both entities should be considered part of a composite organism whose compartmentalized scheme (somehow) resembles a eukaryotic cell.

2013-01-01

109

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

110

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response.

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

111

Sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri: synthesis and optimization of trap parameters.  

PubMed

A simple synthesis of the pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), has been developed. Various factors affecting capture of males have been assessed to optimize the trap design and to develop a lure with high efficacy and longevity. Male capture was the same with the racemic and chiral pheromone; technical pheromone (85% purity) was statistically as attractive as pure pheromone (97%). A special formulation was used to determine the actual release rate of the pheromone under field conditions as related to male capture. Generally, plate traps caught more males than delta traps, and large traps caught more than small ones. The effects of aging on the performance of three types of rubber dispensers were evaluated. It was found that the American dispenser displayed the most consistent trapping performance and could be used for monitoring for at least 16 wk with a load of 200 microg of pheromone. The dose-response of the males to sex pheromone was tested within the range of 25-1,600 microg. PMID:15154456

Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Harel, M; Assael, F; Gross, S; Mendel, Z

2004-04-01

112

Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsmealybug.

The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

2012-01-01

113

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles). The Argentine ant is a widespread and ecologically damaging invasive species native to South America. In its native range, it co-occurs with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), another widespread invasive that is native to the same region. A recent study documented strong and symmetric competitive interactions between these two species in areas within their native ranges where they occur in the same habitats. The species were observed to forage at similar times, occupy similar trophic positions, and frequently engage in intense conflicts over food resources. Carbohydrate-rich resources, such as honeydew, were found to facilitate interspecific competition. The research results strongly suggest that release from interspecific competition contributes to the success of the Argentine ant and the red imported fire ant when these species are introduced into new areas. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:1) in January of 2007.

Wild, Alex

2010-02-12

114

Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production.

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

2013-01-01

115

Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen  

PubMed Central

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process.

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

116

PINK1 Is Necessary for Long Term Survival and Mitochondrial Function in Human Dopaminergic Neurons  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease, we studied PINK1 loss of function in human and primary mouse neurons. Using RNAi, we created stable PINK1 knockdown in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from foetal ventral mesencephalon stem cells, as well as in an immortalised human neuroblastoma cell line. We sought to validate our findings in primary neurons derived from a transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse. For the first time we demonstrate an age dependent neurodegenerative phenotype in human and mouse neurons. PINK1 deficiency leads to reduced long-term viability in human neurons, which die via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Human neurons lacking PINK1 demonstrate features of marked oxidative stress with widespread mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial morphology. We report that PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in the mitochondria of mammalian neurons, especially against stress such as staurosporine. In addition we provide evidence that cellular compensatory mechanisms such as mitochondrial biogenesis and upregulation of lysosomal degradation pathways occur in PINK1 deficiency. The phenotypic effects of PINK1 loss-of-function described here in mammalian neurons provides mechanistic insight into the age-related degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons seen in PD.

Yao, Zhi; Abramov, Andrey S. Y.; Miljan, Erik A.; Keen, Gregory; Stanyer, Lee; Hargreaves, Iain; Klupsch, Kristina; Deas, Emma; Downward, Julian; Mansfield, Louise; Jat, Parmjit; Taylor, Joanne; Heales, Simon; Duchen, Michael R.; Latchman, David; Tabrizi, Sarah J.; Wood, Nicholas W.

2008-01-01

117

PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1.  

PubMed

Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone also known as heat shock protein 75 (Hsp75), as a cellular substrate for PINK1 kinase. PINK1 binds and colocalizes with TRAP1 in the mitochondria and phosphorylates TRAP1 both in vitro and in vivo. We show that PINK1 protects against oxidative-stress-induced cell death by suppressing cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and this protective action of PINK1 depends on its kinase activity to phosphorylate TRAP1. Moreover, we find that the ability of PINK1 to promote TRAP1 phosphorylation and cell survival is impaired by PD-linked PINK1 G309D, L347P, and W437X mutations. Our findings suggest a novel pathway by which PINK1 phosphorylates downstream effector TRAP1 to prevent oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis and implicate the dysregulation of this mitochondrial pathway in PD pathogenesis. PMID:17579517

Pridgeon, Julia W; Olzmann, James A; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

2007-07-01

118

Endothelial PINK1 mediates the protective effects of NLRP3 deficiency during lethal oxidant injury.  

PubMed

High levels of inspired oxygen, hyperoxia, are frequently used in patients with acute respiratory failure. Hyperoxia can exacerbate acute respiratory failure, which has high mortality and no specific therapies. We identified novel roles for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial protein, and the cytosolic innate immune protein NLRP3 in the lung and endothelium. We generated double knockouts (PINK1(-/-)/NLRP3(-/-)), as well as cell-targeted PINK1 silencing and lung-targeted overexpression constructs, to specifically show that PINK1 mediates cytoprotection in wild-type and NLRP3(-/-) mice. The ability to resist hyperoxia is proportional to PINK1 expression. PINK1(-/-) mice were the most susceptible; wild-type mice, which induced PINK1 after hyperoxia, had intermediate susceptibility; and NLRP3(-/-) mice, which had high basal and hyperoxia-induced PINK1, were the least susceptible. Genetic deletion of PINK1 or PINK1 silencing in the lung endothelium increased susceptibility to hyperoxia via alterations in autophagy/mitophagy, proteasome activation, apoptosis, and oxidant generation. PMID:24778451

Zhang, Yi; Sauler, Maor; Shinn, Amanda S; Gong, Huan; Haslip, Maria; Shan, Peiying; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J

2014-06-01

119

Experimental microevolution: transplantation of pink salmon into the European North  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-mediated translocations of species beyond their native ranges can enhance evolutionary processes in populations introduced\\u000a to novel environments. We studied such processes in several generations of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha introduced to the European North of Russia using a set of morphological and life-history traits as well as molecular genetic\\u000a markers with different selective values: protein-coding loci, mtDNA, microsatellites, and

Natalia V. Gordeeva; Elena A. Salmenkova

2011-01-01

120

Cellulase Production by Pink Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophic Strains (PPFMs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil\\u000a samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC\\u000a agar medium flooded with

Shanmugam Jayashree; Rajendran Lalitha; Ponnusamy Vadivukkarasi; Yuko Kato; Sundaram Seshadri

2011-01-01

121

Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Planococcus citri, the citrus mealybug, is the most important species of mealybug known to infest citrus in South Africa. Various laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control P. citri. Adult female P. citri were screened for susceptibility to six indigenous nematode species. P. citri was found to be most susceptible to Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica, causing 97% and 91% mortality, respectively. The development of nematodes after infecting adult female P. citri showed both H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense were able to complete their life cycles inside the host. Further bioassays illustrated a linear relationship between mealybug mortality and the concentration of nematodes applied, with the highest level of control using a concentration of 80 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect. As nematodes would be used as an above-ground application to control P. citri in citrus orchards, available water is a major limiting factor. Insecticidal activity proved to be dependent on the available surface moisture after nematode application. The water activity (a(w)) bioassay indicated that S. yirgalemense to be two times more tolerant to lower levels of free water, with a(w50)=0.96 and a(w90)=0.99, compared to H. zealandica with a(w50)=0.98 and a(w)90=1.0. After application, nematodes have a limited time frame in which to locate and infect hosts, as the level of available free water gradually decreases, as trees dry out. S. yirgalemense proved able to locate and infect P. citri quicker than H. zealandica. Nematode activity was not significantly affected when exposed to 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. IJs were able to infect P. citri at an exposure time as short as half an hour. Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri. PMID:22884676

van Niekerk, Sonnica; Malan, Antoinette P

2012-10-01

122

Cultural and biochemical diversity of pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from paper mill slimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A study of 25 paper mill slime deposits and one additive revealed nine pink-pigmented bacterial isolates, eight of which were\\u000a different from pink-pigmented bacteria identified in the paper industry in the middle 1900s. The pink-pigmented bacteria described\\u000a previously in pulp and paper included Micrococcus agilis, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia sp. and Alcaligenes viscosus. With the exception of one isolate, Micrococcus sp.,

D Oppong; V M King; X Zhou; J A Bowen

2000-01-01

123

PINK1\\/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is dependent on VDAC1 and p62\\/SQSTM1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN are the most frequent causes of recessive Parkinson's disease. However, their molecular contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we reveal important mechanistic steps of a PINK1\\/Parkin-directed pathway linking mitochondrial damage, ubiquitylation and autophagy in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. PINK1 kinase activity and its mitochondrial localization sequence

Sven Geisler; Kira M. Holmström; Diana Skujat; Fabienne C. Fiesel; Oliver C. Rothfuss; Philipp J. Kahle; Wolfdieter Springer

2010-01-01

124

The effect of metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) on ‘Hass’ avocado fruit physiology and mortality of longtailed mealybug ( Pseudococcus longispinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a potential quarantine treatment in which a combination of cycles of rapid decompression and compression are followed by exposure to ethanol vapour under decompression. The response of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill., cv. Hass) to MSDD treatment for control of longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) was investigated. The best treatment for the most resistant

F. Zulhendri; L. E. Jamieson; C. O. Perera; R. M. McDonald; P. G. Connolly; S. Y. Quek; A. B. Woolf

125

Loss of PINK1 Impairs Stress-Induced Autophagy and Cell Survival  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase Parkin are participating in quality control after CCCP- or ROS-induced mitochondrial damage, and their dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, PINK1 expression is also induced by starvation indicating an additional role for PINK1 in stress response. Therefore, the effects of PINK1 deficiency on the autophago-lysosomal pathway during stress were investigated. Under trophic deprivation SH-SY5Y cells with stable PINK1 knockdown showed downregulation of key autophagic genes, including Beclin, LC3 and LAMP-2. In good agreement, protein levels of LC3-II and LAMP-2 but not of LAMP-1 were reduced in different cell model systems with PINK1 knockdown or knockout after addition of different stressors. This downregulation of autophagic factors caused increased apoptosis, which could be rescued by overexpression of LC3 or PINK1. Taken together, the PINK1-mediated reduction of autophagic key factors during stress resulted in increased cell death, thus defining an additional pathway that could contribute to the progression of Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations.

Dominguez-Bautista, Jorge; Hetzel, Miriam; Gispert, Suzana; Chimi, Marthe A.; Drose, Stefan; Mai, Soren; Brandt, Ulrich; Auburger, Georg; Jendrach, Marina

2014-01-01

126

Relationship of DNA methylation level to the presence of heterochromatin in mealybugs.  

PubMed Central

Purified nuclear DNA from two mealybug species was analyzed for its 5-methylcytosine (m5C) content by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We observed that the percent m5C (percentage of cytosines which are methylated) varied between the two species, between males and females of the same species, and between lines with and without supernumerary B chromosomes. This is the first case of a sex-specific difference in overall DNA methylation level. In contrast to a recent report (Deobagkar et al., J. Biosci. [India] 4:513-526, 1982), we found no other modified bases in the DNA. Overall, the percent m5C in Pseudococcus obscurus was two to three times higher than in Pseudococcus calceolariae. In both species, the percent m5C in males was higher than in females, although only in P. calceolariae was the difference statistically significant (0.68 +/- 0.02 versus 0.44 +/- 0.04). The high m5C content in males was correlated with the presence of a paternally derived, genetically inactive set of chromosomes which is facultatively heterochromatic. The presence of constitutive heterochromatin, however, was associated with a lower m5C content. Thus, for example, the percent m5C in females of a P. obscurus line with heterochromatic B chromosomes (1.09 +/- 0.04) was significantly lower than that of a related line lacking such chromosomes (1.26 +/- 0.06). Our findings are discussed with respect to the possible relationship between DNA methylation and heterochromatization.

Scarbrough, K; Hattman, S; Nur, U

1984-01-01

127

Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus.  

PubMed

Abstract The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

2013-12-01

128

Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus  

PubMed Central

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, ?ntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

2013-01-01

129

Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

2010-12-01

130

Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.  

PubMed

The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5MPa, 8% CO2, 6.5min, and 40°C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75°C for 15s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4°C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14weeks of storage. PMID:25005962

Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

2012-10-01

131

Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps. PMID:21510204

Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

2011-04-01

132

Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD). PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. PMID:22396657

Liu, Song; Sawada, Tomoyo; Lee, Seongsoo; Yu, Wendou; Silverio, George; Alapatt, Philomena; Millan, Ivan; Shen, Alice; Saxton, William; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2012-01-01

133

First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.  

PubMed

The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented. PMID:23917571

Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

2013-05-01

134

Caenorhabditits elegans LRK-1 and PINK-1 Act Antagonistically in Stress Response and Neurite Outgrowth*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in two genes encoding the putative kinases LRRK2 and PINK1 have been associated with inherited variants of Parkinson disease. The physiological role of both proteins is not known at present, but studies in model organisms have linked their mutants to distinct aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, increased vulnerability to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and intracellular protein sorting. Here, we show that a mutation in the Caenorhabditits elegans homologue of the PTEN-induced kinase pink-1 gene resulted in reduced mitochondrial cristae length and increased paraquat sensitivity of the nematode. Moreover, the mutants also displayed defects in axonal outgrowth of a pair of canal-associated neurons. We demonstrate that in the absence of lrk-1, the C. elegans homologue of human LRRK2, all phenotypic aspects of pink-1 loss-of-function mutants were suppressed. Conversely, the hypersensitivity of lrk-1 mutant animals to the endoplasmic reticulum stressor tunicamycin was reduced in a pink-1 mutant background. These results provide the first evidence of an antagonistic role of PINK-1 and LRK-1. Due to the similarity of the C. elegans proteins to human LRRK2 and PINK1, we suggest a common role of both factors in cellular functions including stress response and regulation of neurite outgrowth. This study might help to link pink-1/PINK1 and lrk-1/LRRK2 function to the pathological processes resulting from Parkinson disease-related mutants in both genes, the first manifestations of which are cytoskeletal defects in affected neurons.

Samann, Julia; Hegermann, Jan; von Gromoff, Erika; Eimer, Stefan; Baumeister, Ralf; Schmidt, Enrico

2009-01-01

135

Caenorhabditits elegans LRK-1 and PINK-1 act antagonistically in stress response and neurite outgrowth.  

PubMed

Mutations in two genes encoding the putative kinases LRRK2 and PINK1 have been associated with inherited variants of Parkinson disease. The physiological role of both proteins is not known at present, but studies in model organisms have linked their mutants to distinct aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, increased vulnerability to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and intracellular protein sorting. Here, we show that a mutation in the Caenorhabditits elegans homologue of the PTEN-induced kinase pink-1 gene resulted in reduced mitochondrial cristae length and increased paraquat sensitivity of the nematode. Moreover, the mutants also displayed defects in axonal outgrowth of a pair of canal-associated neurons. We demonstrate that in the absence of lrk-1, the C. elegans homologue of human LRRK2, all phenotypic aspects of pink-1 loss-of-function mutants were suppressed. Conversely, the hypersensitivity of lrk-1 mutant animals to the endoplasmic reticulum stressor tunicamycin was reduced in a pink-1 mutant background. These results provide the first evidence of an antagonistic role of PINK-1 and LRK-1. Due to the similarity of the C. elegans proteins to human LRRK2 and PINK1, we suggest a common role of both factors in cellular functions including stress response and regulation of neurite outgrowth. This study might help to link pink-1/PINK1 and lrk-1/LRRK2 function to the pathological processes resulting from Parkinson disease-related mutants in both genes, the first manifestations of which are cytoskeletal defects in affected neurons. PMID:19251702

Sämann, Julia; Hegermann, Jan; von Gromoff, Erika; Eimer, Stefan; Baumeister, Ralf; Schmidt, Enrico

2009-06-12

136

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon

Alexander N. Ivanov; Alexej Shershnev; Nina P. Kaplanova; Konstantin L. Pusankov; Lubov V. Ivanova; Ekaterina N. Pusankova

2002-01-01

137

PINK1 deficiency in ?-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice.  

PubMed

The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function. PMID:24806840

Deas, Emma; Piipari, Kaisa; Machhada, Asif; Li, Abi; Gutierrez-Del-Arroyo, Ana; Withers, Dominic J; Wood, Nicholas W; Abramov, Andrey Y

2014-01-01

138

PINK1 deficiency in ?-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice  

PubMed Central

The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function.

Deas, Emma; Piipari, Kaisa; Machhada, Asif; Li, Abi; Gutierrez-del-Arroyo, Ana; Withers, Dominic J.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2014-01-01

139

Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

Pugh, Greg L.

2014-01-01

140

Evidence of an active laccase-like enzyme in deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the presence of an active laccase-like enzyme from deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This enzyme was found in all anatomical parts of the deepwater pink shrimp, but particularly in the cephalothorax, and became active during the course of storage. Gel staining with laccase-specific substrates such as ADA, DMP and DAB was used to

Oscar Martínez-Alvarez; Pilar Montero; Carmen Gómez-Guillén

2008-01-01

141

EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

142

Outbreak of pink disease caused by Corticium salmonicolor in Eucalyptus grandis in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of pink disease caused by Corticium salmonicolor Berk. & Br. in Eucalyptus grandis plantations in Kerala State is reported. The sporadic infection recorded during 1979 spread to an epidemic proportion within four years, affecting more than 50% of trees in the two plantations surveyed. Probable factors responsible for this outbreak of pink disease are discussed.

J. K. Sharma; C. Mohanan; E. J. Maria Florence

1984-01-01

143

PINK1 Is Necessary for Long Term Survival and Mitochondrial Function in Human Dopaminergic Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common age-related neurodegenerative disease and it is critical to develop models which recapitulate the pathogenic process including the effect of the ageing process. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic PD is unknown, the identification of the mendelian genetic factor PINK1 has provided new mechanistic insights. In order to investigate the role of PINK1 in Parkinson's disease,

Alison Wood-Kaczmar; Sonia Gandhi; Zhi Yao; Andrey S. Y. Abramov; Erik A. Miljan; Gregory Keen; Lee Stanyer; Iain Hargreaves; Kristina Klupsch; Emma Deas; Julian Downward; Louise Mansfield; Parmjit Jat; Joanne Taylor; Simon Heales; Michael R. Duchen; David Latchman; Sarah J. Tabrizi; Nicholas W. Wood; Henry Waldvogel

2008-01-01

144

Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

Kim, Bo Sun

2012-01-01

145

Diuretic effect of compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa by modulation of the aldosterone activity.  

PubMed

Recent studies of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. have demonstrated that it presents diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects. However, the mechanism that induces these effects has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of action for the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and its fractions.The aqueous extract from this plant and the fractions obtained with solvents of different polarities were administered to adrenalectomized rats, and the diuretic effect was measured in the presence of deoxycorticosterone acetate (aldosterone analog).The effect on renal filtration was also evaluated in an in situ kidney model, and finally, the effect of diuretic active extracts on gene expression of the alpha subunit from the transporter (?ENaC) of renal epithelial cell was quantified. The subsequent results were obtained: The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa presented the following chemical composition, 32.4?mg/g delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5?mg/g cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5?mg/g quercetin, and chlorogenic acid 2.7?mg/g. The concentration of anthocyanins was diminished until disappearance due to decrease of the polarity of the solvents used in the extraction process, in contrast to the flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, which had their concentration increased. The diuretic effect caused by adrenalectomy in rats was reversed by deoxycorticosterone acetate activity. However, the effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate was antagonized by spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, and the acetonitrile?:?methanol 5?:?5 mixture extract, administered orally. A similar effect was observed on renal filtration obtained from the isolated kidney model.When the gene expression levels of ?ENaC was measured in adrenalectomized rats, it was observed that spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, the acetonitrile?:?methanol 5?:?5 mixture, as well as the acetonitrile extract significantly decreased the expression of this protein.The conclusion of this work is that the diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa are due in part to the modulation of aldosterone activity by the presence in the extract of this plant of compounds potentially responsible for this modulation, as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and chlorogenic acid. PMID:23150077

Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Alarcón-Alonso, Javier; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer C, Itzia; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

2012-12-01

146

The loss of PGAM5 suppresses the mitochondrial degeneration caused by inactivation of PINK1 in Drosophila.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is required for mitochondrial homeostasis, is a gene product responsible for early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Another early onset PD gene product, Parkin, has been suggested to function downstream of the PINK1 signalling pathway based on genetic studies in Drosophila. PINK1 is a serine/threonine kinase with a predicted mitochondrial target sequence and a probable transmembrane domain at the N-terminus, while Parkin is a RING-finger protein with ubiquitin-ligase (E3) activity. However, how PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial activity is largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between PINK1 and Parkin, we biochemically purified PINK1-binding proteins from human cultured cells and screened the genes encoding these binding proteins using Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) models to isolate a molecule(s) involved in the PINK1 pathology. Here we report that a PINK1-binding mitochondrial protein, PGAM5, modulates the PINK1 pathway. Loss of Drosophila PGAM5 (dPGAM5) can suppress the muscle degeneration, motor defects, and shorter lifespan that result from dPINK1 inactivation and that can be attributed to mitochondrial degeneration. However, dPGAM5 inactivation fails to modulate the phenotypes of parkin mutant flies. Conversely, ectopic expression of dPGAM5 exacerbated the dPINK1 and Drosophila parkin (dParkin) phenotypes. These results suggest that PGAM5 negatively regulates the PINK1 pathway related to maintenance of the mitochondria and, furthermore, that PGAM5 acts between PINK1 and Parkin, or functions independently of Parkin downstream of PINK1. PMID:21151955

Imai, Yuzuru; Kanao, Tomoko; Sawada, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Yosuke; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Lu, Bingwei; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2010-01-01

147

An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galapagos.  

PubMed

Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as "rosada," meaning "pink" in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction. PMID:19124773

Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

2009-01-13

148

Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

2013-11-01

149

Plant colonization by pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs).  

PubMed

Bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium are characterized by being able to rely on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source and by presenting a more or less intense pink reddish pigmentation. These bacteria, also referred to as pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere and are found in many other environmental samples. Since they grow slowly they are often overlooked and their impact on phyllosphere microbial communities and on the plants harboring them is not well studied nor has their ecology been elucidated. In a survey of PPFM colonization in three different agricultural sites, PPFM populations were identified on both red clover and winter wheat, but red clover was more consistently colonized. Isolations from collected leaves showed PPFM populations to decrease from spring towards summer, but they increased again towards the end of the cropping season. Isolates from red clover readily colonized winter wheat leaves and vice versa in greenhouse experiments, but population sizes were dependent on the application procedure. Tested isolates had also good potential to colonize the rhizosphere, especially after seed inoculations. Confocal scanning laser microscopy showed gfp-tagged isolates to colonize the surface of clover leaves by forming large aggregates. PMID:19712320

Omer, Zahra S; Tombolini, Riccardo; Gerhardson, Berndt

2004-03-01

150

Hydroxocobalamin association during cell culture results in pink therapeutic proteins.  

PubMed

Process control of protein therapeutic manufacturing is central to ensuring the product is both safe and efficacious for patients. In this work, we investigate the cause of pink color variability in development lots of monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Fc-fusion proteins. Results show pink-colored product generated during manufacturing is due to association of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), a form of vitamin B12. OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing. PMID:23924851

Prentice, Kenneth M; Gillespie, Ronald; Lewis, Nathan; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; McCoy, Rebecca; Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Eakin, Catherine M

2013-01-01

151

Taxonomy of the bean goose-pink-footed goose.  

PubMed

The bean goose Anser fabalis and the pink-footed goose A. brachyrhynchus breed in the tundra and taiga zones of Eurasia and eastern Greenland, and the taxonomy of the group based on morphology has been controversial. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships within the bean goose-the pink-footed goose complex using mitochondrial control region sequences of 199 individuals collected from the breeding areas in the Palaearctic and Eastern Nearctic. We found three mitochondrial clades geographically distributed to (1) Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard (A. brachyrhynchus), (2) the eastern taiga zone (former subspecies A. fabalis middendorffii), and (3) the western taiga and the tundra zone (subspecies A. fabalisrossicus, serrirostris and fabalis). MtDNA phylogeny suggests that morphological affinities between the taxa, e.g. in the bill structure, result from convergent evolution due to adaptation to similar habitats. Although a latitudinal cline in morphology was observed, clear phylogenetic discontinuities exist in the taiga and tundra zones supporting a species status for brachyrhynchus and middendorffii. PMID:18550388

Ruokonen, M; Litvin, K; Aarvak, T

2008-08-01

152

MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001. PMID:24898855

Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

2014-01-01

153

MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001

Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

2014-01-01

154

Pink1-deficiency in mice impairs gait, olfaction and serotonergic innervation of the olfactory bulb.  

PubMed

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Autosomal-recessive mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) account for 1-2% of the hereditary early-onset cases. To study the mechanisms underlying disease development, we generated Pink1-deficient mice. In analogy to other genetic loss-of-function mouse models, Pink1(-/-) mice did not show morphological alterations in the dopaminergic system. As a consequence, no gross motor dysfunctions were observed indicating that these mice do not develop the cardinal symptoms of PD. Nonetheless, symptoms which develop mainly before bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor were clearly evident in Pink1-deficient mice. These symptoms were gait alterations and olfactory dysfunctions. Remarkably in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb the density of serotonergic fibers was significantly reduced. Concerning mitochondrial morphology, neurons in Pink1(-/-) mice had less fragmented mitochondria. In contrast, upon acute knock-down of Pink1 increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed in neuronal cultures. This fragmentation was, however, evened out within days. Taken together, we demonstrate that Pink1-deficient mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of early phases of PD and present systematic experimental evidence for compensation of Pink1-deficiency at the cellular level. Thus, Pink1-deficient mice represent a model for the early phases of PD in which compensation may still impede the onset of neurodegeneration. Consequently, these mice are a valuable tool for studying Pink1-related PD development, as well as for searching for reliable PD biomarkers. PMID:22265660

Glasl, Lisa; Kloos, Karina; Giesert, Florian; Roethig, Anne; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Kühn, Ralf; Zhang, Jingzhong; Hafen, Ulrich; Zerle, Julia; Hofmann, Andreas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Hölter, Sabine M; Vogt Weisenhorn, Daniela M; Wurst, Wolfgang

2012-05-01

155

Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.  

PubMed

Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

2014-02-01

156

Synthesis and field bioassay of some analogs of sex pheromone of citrus mealybug,Planococcus citri (Risso).  

PubMed

A series of structural analogs of (s+)-cis-(1R)-3-isopropenyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutanemethanol acetate, sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug,Planococcus citri (Risso), was synthesized. The analogs were tested in a field bioassay in order to determine the structure-activity relationships of the pheromone. All changes in structure reduced the activity of the test compounds, to various degrees. The most active analog tested was the homolog (+)-cis-(1R)-3-isopropenyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutaneethanol acetate (IV), whose activity, at a higher dosage, was comparable to that of the pheromone. The alcohol (+)-cis-(1R)-3-isopropenyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutanemethanol was tested in mixtures with the pheromone and found to be neither an inhibitor nor a Synergist. The results show that all functional groups of the pheromone molecule are essential for optimal biological activity. PMID:24302052

Dunkelblum, E; Ben-Dov, Y; Goldschmidt, Z; Wolk, J L; Somekh, L

1987-04-01

157

Phytotreatment of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Hibiscus cannabinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which\\u000a poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and\\u000a a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with

O. P. Abioye; P. Agamuthu; A. R. Abdul Aziz

158

Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Acetaminophen, a common antipyretic-analgesic OTC drug is often administered orally anytime of the day with water or beverages\\u000a irrespective of possible interactions. Zobo drink, is a sweetened water extract of the driedcalyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa. This work is designed to investigate the effect of zobo drink on an oral dose of acetaminophen.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Six healthy male volunteers, ages 28.50±1.76 years, weighing

J. A. Kolawole; A. Maduenyi

2004-01-01

159

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF AS AND FE USING HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. FROM SOIL POLLUTED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants

M. Meera; P. Agamuthu

2012-01-01

160

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from Soil Polluted with Landfill Leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants

Meera Munusamy; Agamuthu Pariathamby

2011-01-01

161

Characteristics of Coloured Wine Produced from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Calyx Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 115(2), 91-94, 2009 Wine was produced from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx ex- tract using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and subjected to physico-chemical analyses using standard analytical methods. Imported commercial red wine was used as the reference for sensory evaluation. The results showed that ameliorated roselle calyx extract (must) had 4.21% protein, 0.69% titratable acidity, and 21°Brix total

Arubi P. Alobo; S. U. Offonry

162

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on reserpine-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.  

PubMed

Effect of methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (100-300 mg/kg) was studied on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and neurochemical alterations. The rats were treated with intraperitoneal reserpine (1 mg/kg, ip) for 3 days every other day. On day 5, vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions were counted for 5 min. Reserpine treated rats significantly developed vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions however, coadministration of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, per orally) attenuated the effects. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the reserpine treatment significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH), an index of oxidative stress process. Coadministration of extract significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain SOD, CAT and GSH levels. The results of the present study suggested that Hibiscus rosa sinensis had a protective role against reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress. PMID:19761039

Nade, V S; Dwivedi, Subhash; Kawale, L A; Upasani, C D; Yadav, A V

2009-07-01

163

Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 iPS cells  

PubMed Central

Genetic Parkinson disease (PD) has been associated with mutations in PINK1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial kinase implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial degradation. While the studies so far examined PINK1 function in non-neuronal systems or through PINK1 knockdown approaches, there is an imperative to examine the role of endogenous PINK1 in appropriate human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts taken from three PD patients with nonsense (c.1366C>T; p.Q456X) or missense mutations (c.509T>G; p.V170G) in the PINK1 gene. These cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons that upon mitochondrial depolarization showed impaired recruitment of lentivirally expressed Parkin to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial copy number and upregulation of PGC-1?, an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, these alterations were corrected by lentiviral expression of wild-type PINK1 in mutant iPS cell-derived PINK1 neurons. In conclusion, our studies suggest that fibroblasts from genetic PD can be reprogrammed and differentiated into neurons. These neurons exhibit distinct phenotypes that should be amenable to further mechanistic studies in this relevant biological context.

Seibler, Philip; Graziotto, John; Jeong, Hyun; Simunovic, Filip; Klein, Christine; Krainc, Dimitri

2011-01-01

164

Emerging modes of PINK1 signaling: another task for MARK2  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) acts at multiple levels to promote mitochondrial health, including regulatory influence on ATP-synthesis, protein quality control, apoptosis, mitochondrial transport, and destiny. PINK1 mutations are linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and mostly result in loss of kinase activity. But the molecular events responsible for neuronal death as well as the physiological targets and regulators of PINK1 are still a matter of debate. This review highlights the recent progress evolving the cellular functions of the cytosolic pool of PINK1 in mitochondrial trafficking and neuronal differentiation. Regulation of PINK1 signaling occurs by mitochondrial processing to truncated forms of PINK1, differentially targeted to several subcellular compartments. The first identified activating kinase of PINK1 is MAP/microtubule affinity regulating kinase 2 (MARK2), which phosphorylates T313, a frequent mutation site linked to PD. Kinases of the MARK2 family perform diverse functions in neuronal polarity, transport, migration, and neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This new protein kinase signaling axis might provide a link between neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD diseases and opens novel possibilities in targeting pathological signaling processes.

Matenia, Dorthe; Mandelkow, Eva M.

2014-01-01

165

Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (Ret(MEN?B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of Ret(MEN?B) significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-02-18

166

Loss of PINK1 causes mitochondrial functional defects and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder thought to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Loss of function mutations in the putative mitochondrial protein PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) have been linked to familial forms of PD, but the relation of PINK1 to mammalian mitochondrial function remains unclear. Here, we report that germline deletion of the PINK1 gene in mice significantly impairs mitochondrial functions. Quantitative electron microscopic studies of the striatum in PINK1(-/-) mice at 3-4 and 24 months revealed no gross changes in the ultrastructure or the total number of mitochondria, although the number of larger mitochondria is selectively increased. Functional assays showed impaired mitochondrial respiration in the striatum but not in the cerebral cortex at 3-4 months of age, suggesting specificity of this defect for dopaminergic circuitry. Aconitase activity associated with the Krebs cycle is also reduced in the striatum of PINK1(-/-) mice. Interestingly, mitochondrial respiration activities in the cerebral cortex are decreased in PINK1(-/-) mice at 2 years compared with control mice, indicating that aging can exacerbate mitochondrial dysfunction in these mice. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration defects can be induced in the cerebral cortex of PINK1(-/-) mice by cellular stress, such as exposure to H(2)O(2) or mild heat shock. Together, our findings demonstrate that mammalian PINK1 is important for mitochondrial function and provides critical protection against both intrinsic and environmental stress, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism by which loss of PINK1 may lead to nigrostriatal degeneration in PD. PMID:18687901

Gautier, Clement A; Kitada, Tohru; Shen, Jie

2008-08-12

167

The Genetic Properties of the Primary Endosymbionts of Mealybugs Differ from Those of Other Endosymbionts of Plant Sap-Sucking Insects  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), like aphids and psyllids, are plant sap-sucking insects that have an obligate association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are acquired through vertical, maternal transmission. We sequenced two fragments of the genome of Tremblaya princeps, the endosymbiont of mealybugs, which is a member of the ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Each of the fragments (35 and 30 kb) contains a copy of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes. A total of 37 open reading frames were detected, which corresponded to putative rRNA proteins, chaperones, and enzymes of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA replication, protein translation, and RNA synthesis. The genome of T. princeps has a number of properties that distinguish it from the genomes of Buchnera aphidicola and Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbionts of aphids and psyllids, respectively. Among these properties are a high G+C content (57.1 mol%), the same G+C content in intergenic spaces and structural genes, and similar G+C contents of the genes encoding highly and poorly conserved proteins. The high G+C content has a substantial effect on protein composition; about one-third of the residues consist of four amino acids with high-G+C-content codons. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments containing the rRNA operon and adjacent regions from endosymbionts of several mealybug species suggested that there was a single duplication of the rRNA operon and the adjacent genes in an ancestor of the present T. princeps. Subsequently, in one mealybug lineage rpS15, one of the duplicated genes, was retained, while in another lineage it decayed. These results extend the diversity of the types of endosymbiotic associations found in plant sap-sucking insects.

Baumann, Linda; Thao, MyLo Ly; Hess, Justin M.; Johnson, Marshall W.; Baumann, Paul

2002-01-01

168

Cellulase production by pink pigmented facultative methylotrophic strains (PPFMs).  

PubMed

Pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM) isolated from water samples of Cooum and Adyar rivers in Chennai and soil samples of forests located in various districts of Tamil Nadu, India were screened for cellulase production using carboxymethylcellulose agar (CMC agar) medium. The strains showed wide variations in the production of clearing zones around the colonies on CMC agar medium flooded with Congo red. CMCase and filter paper assays were used to quantitatively measure the cellulase activity of 13 PPFM strains. Among the strains, Methylobacterium gregans, MNW 60, MHW 109, MSF 34, and MSF 40 showed cellulolytic activity ranging from 0.73 to 1.16 U?mL(-1) with wide temperature (35-65°C) and pH (5 to 8) tolerance. SDS-PAGE analysis of the crude enzyme of PPFM strain MNW 60 exhibited several protein bands, and zymogram analysis revealed two dimeric cellulase bands with molecular mass of ~92 and 42 kDa. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed significant morphological differences between the cells grown in normal and CMC amended medium. The strain MNW 60 was identified as Methylobacterium sp. based on biochemical, physiological, and morphological analyses, and the methylotrophic nature was authenticated by the presence of mxaF gene, encoding methanol dehydrogenase as a key indicator enzyme of methylotrophs, with 99% similarity to Methylobacterium lusitanum. With the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence showing 97% similarity to M. lusitanum strain MP2, this can be proposed as a novel taxon of the genus Methylobacterium. The study forms the first detailed report on the extracellular cellulase production by pink pigmented Methylobacterium sp., and it is expected that this might be the basis for further studies on cellulase production by PPFMs to explore the molecular mechanism, strain improvement, and large-scale cellulase production for its application. PMID:21274656

Jayashree, Shanmugam; Lalitha, Rajendran; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

2011-07-01

169

PINK1 loss-of-function mutations affect mitochondrial complex I activity via NdufA10 ubiquinone uncoupling.  

PubMed

Under resting conditions, Pink1 knockout cells and cells derived from patients with PINK1 mutations display a loss of mitochondrial complex I reductive activity, causing a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analyzing the phosphoproteome of complex I in liver and brain from Pink1(-/-) mice, we found specific loss of phosphorylation of serine-250 in complex I subunit NdufA10. Phosphorylation of serine-250 was needed for ubiquinone reduction by complex I. Phosphomimetic NdufA10 reversed Pink1 deficits in mouse knockout cells and rescued mitochondrial depolarization and synaptic transmission defects in pink(B9)-null mutant Drosophila. Complex I deficits and adenosine triphosphate synthesis were also rescued in cells derived from PINK1 patients. Thus, this evolutionary conserved pathway may contribute to the pathogenic cascade that eventually leads to Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24652937

Morais, Vanessa A; Haddad, Dominik; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Bock, Pieter-Jan; Swerts, Jef; Vilain, Sven; Aerts, Liesbeth; Overbergh, Lut; Grünewald, Anne; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine; Gevaert, Kris; Verstreken, Patrik; De Strooper, Bart

2014-04-11

170

Tricornered/NDR kinase signaling mediates PINK1-directed mitochondrial quality control and tissue maintenance  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotes employ elaborate mitochondrial quality control (MQC) to maintain the function of the power-generating organelle. Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 and Parkin actively participate in MQC. However, the signaling events involved are largely unknown. Here we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (mTORC2) and Tricornered (Trc) kinases act downstream from PINK1 to regulate MQC. Trc is phosphorylated in mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent manners and is specifically localized to mitochondria in response to PINK1, which regulates mTORC2 through mitochondrial complex-I activity. Genetically, mTORC2 and Trc act upstream of Parkin. Thus, multiplex kinase signaling is acting between PINK1 and Parkin to regulate MQC, a process highly conserved in mammals.

Wu, Zhihao; Sawada, Tomoyo; Shiba, Kahori; Liu, Song; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2013-01-01

171

Commercial Brown, White and Pink Shrimp Tail Size: Total Size Conversions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equations for converting tail length to total length and tail weight to total weight and vice versa were obtained for white, brown and pink shrimp (Penaeus setiferus, Penaeus aztecus and Penaeus duorarum, respectively), using linear regression analyses. T...

S. L. Brunenmeister

1980-01-01

172

Experiment on the Reuse of Artificial Medium for Rearing Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora Gossypiella (Saunders).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) was compared on rearing on used-diet (the medium remaining after larval use) with no added supplements versus used-diet supplemented with vitamins, choline chloride and the heat sensiti...

S. N. Chiravathanapong

1983-01-01

173

Women are more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility.  

PubMed

Although females of many species closely related to humans signal their fertile window in an observable manner, often involving red or pink coloration, no such display has been found for humans. Building on evidence that men are sexually attracted to women wearing or surrounded by red, we tested whether women show a behavioral tendency toward wearing reddish clothing when at peak fertility. Across two samples (N = 124), women at high conception risk were more than 3 times more likely to wear a red or pink shirt than were women at low conception risk, and 77% of women who wore red or pink were found to be at high, rather than low, risk. Conception risk had no effect on the prevalence of any other shirt color. Our results thus suggest that red and pink adornment in women is reliably associated with fertility and that female ovulation, long assumed to be hidden, is associated with a salient visual cue. PMID:23842955

Beall, Alec T; Tracy, Jessica L

2013-09-01

174

Genetic monitoring of northern sea of Okhotsk populations of pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the 1993–2004 genetic monitoring of pink salmon populations reproducing in the rivers of Tauy Bay on the Sea\\u000a of Okhotsk are analyzed. A statistically significant heterogeneity of samples as determined by gene frequencies is found only\\u000a in the pink salmon generations of even years. The genetic differentiation of samples from even years (GST = 1.39 ± 0.41) is

I. S. Golovanov; S. L. Marchenko; S. P. Pustovoit

2009-01-01

175

[Genetic changes in pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum during acclimatization in the White sea basin].  

PubMed

Genetic parameters of pink salmon introduced into the White Sea basin in 1985 and 1998 were compared to the corresponding parameters of the donor population from the Ola River (Magadan oblast). The detected genetic differences indicate that colonization of a new area is accompanied by impoverishment of the gene pool of the native population. This effect was particularly marked in the odd-year line of pink salmon introduced in 1985. The probable causes of these genetic changes are discussed. PMID:12722641

Gordeeva, N V; Salmenkova, E A; Altukhov, Iu P; Makhrov, A A; Pustovo?t, S P

2003-03-01

176

Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations affecting the PINK1 kinase domain in three

Enza Maria Valente; Patrick M. Abou-Sleiman; Viviana Caputo; Miratul M. K. Muqit; Kirsten Harvey; Suzana Gispert; Zeeshan Ali; Domenico Del Turco; Anna Rita Bentivoglio; Daniel G. Healy; Alberto Albanese; Robert Nussbaum; Rafael González-Maldonado; Thomas Deller; Sergio Salvi; Pietro Cortelli; William P. Gilks; David S. Latchman; Robert J. Harvey; Bruno Dallapiccola; Georg Auburger; Nicholas W. Wood

2004-01-01

177

Characterization of PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) mutations associated with Parkinson disease in mammalian cells and Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) are tightly linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Although more than 50 mutations in PINK1 have been discovered, the role of these mutations in PD pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we characterized 17 representative PINK1 pathogenic mutations in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. These mutations did not affect the typical cleavage patterns and subcellular localization of PINK1 under both normal and damaged mitochondria conditions in mammalian cells. However, PINK1 mutations in the kinase domain failed to translocate Parkin to mitochondria and to induce mitochondrial aggregation. Consistent with the mammalian data, Drosophila PINK1 mutants with mutations in the kinase domain (G426D and L464P) did not genetically interact with Parkin. Furthermore, PINK1-null flies expressing the transgenic G426D mutant displayed defective phenotypes with increasing age, whereas L464P mutant-expressing flies exhibited the phenotypes at an earlier age. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that the kinase activity of PINK1 is essential for its function and for regulating downstream Parkin functions in mitochondria. We believe that this study provides the basis for understanding the molecular and physiological functions of various PINK1 mutations and provides insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of PINK1-linked PD. PMID:23303188

Song, Saera; Jang, Seoyeon; Park, Jeehye; Bang, Sunhoe; Choi, Sekyu; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Kim, Eunjoon; Chung, Jongkyeong

2013-02-22

178

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65.  

PubMed

Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser(65). We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser(65). We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65) leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser(65) or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr(257), which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65) and/or PINK1 at Thr(257) represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I; Campbell, David G; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R; Muqit, Miratul M K

2012-05-01

179

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.  

PubMed

Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

2013-08-15

180

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of Parkinson's disease related kinase PINK1  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal recessive form of early onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered since no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD related mutant PINK1G309D and PINK1wt. Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity.

Hertz, Nicholas T.; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Burlingame, Al L.; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M.

2014-01-01

181

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in Prunus incisa cv. February Pink.  

PubMed

Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Prunus incisa Thunb. cv. February Pink were investigated. Using a medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts and vitamins supplemented with 10 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D), we evaluated the effects of light, growth regulators, amino acids, carbohydrate source, and root induction medium. Explants cultured under light or dark conditions both resulted in the formation of embryos. Embryogenesis was inhibited by the addition of 6-benzyladenine, thidiazuron, or gibberellic acid to the medium. Amino acids were not effective in promoting embryogenesis, with high levels of amino acids actually inhibiting it. Sucrose and glucose effectively induced embryogenesis, while sorbitol and mannitol completely inhibited it. Sucrose and glucose also promoted secondary embryogenesis. Embryos that formed in medium containing 4% or 5% sucrose were abnormally shaped and did not fully develop, while those that formed in medium with sucrose concentrations of 2% or 3% were much more vigorous. Root explants that were induced on medium containing 1.0 micro M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced more somatic embryos than explants induced on medium without IBA. Approximately 50% of the roots induced on medium containing 1.0 microM IBA produced somatic embryos on medium containing 10 microM 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. PMID:15022015

Cheong, E J; Pooler, M R

2004-06-01

182

Stabilizing oils from smoked pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).  

PubMed

Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extraction. Salmon heads that were subjected to high temperatures (95 degrees C) during smoking unexpectedly produced oils with fewer products of oxidation than their unprocessed counterparts, as measured by peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and fatty acids (FA). Higher temperatures and longer smoking times resulted in correspondingly lower quantities of oxidative products in the oils. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of smoke-processed oils confirmed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were not being destroyed. Smoke-processing also imparted antioxidant potential to the extracted oils. Even when antioxidants, such as ethoxyquin or butylated hydroxytoluene, were added to raw oils, the smoke-processed oils still maintained lower levels of oxidation after 14 d of storage. However, decreased antioxidant capacity of smoke-processed oils was noted when they were heated above 75 degrees C. Vitamin studies supported the antioxidant results, with smoke-processed oils displaying higher levels of alpha-tocopherol than raw oils. Results suggest that smoking salmon prior to oil extraction can protect valuable PUFA-rich oils from oxidation. Improved preservation methods for marine oils may extend their usefulness when added as a supplement to enhance levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in foods. PMID:19397710

Bower, C K; Hietala, K A; Oliveira, A C M; Wu, T H

2009-04-01

183

Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.  

PubMed

Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

Regehr, Kaitlyn

2012-01-01

184

High spatial resolution FTIR and Raman mapping of highly strained pink diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink diamonds are among the rarest and most valuable of gems, yet, the origin of the pink color is still not fully understood. The pink color is restricted to micrometer-thick lamellae or bands oriented along <111>, which are created by plastic deformation, during a post growth event. Studies showed that plastic deformation is accommodated by twinning (e.g. Mineeva et al., 2009; Gaillou et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to better understand the physics and rheology of diamonds in Earth's mantle conditions. For that purpose, we used high spatial resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy which gave us information about the repartition of the defects and of the remaining strain in the diamond structure, respectively. All diamonds are type Ia diamonds, with different amount of nitrogen and hydrogen. FTIR mapping mainly showed zoning of nitrogen defects following growth sectors, when compared to cathodoluminescence (CL) images. When present, the amber center is localized in the thin (about 1?m) pink lamellae. Raman spectroscopy shows that the pink lamellae are defective zones, with presence of unknown photoluminescent (PL) defects. Raman mapping revealed that the strain is mostly localized at the pink lamellae (Fig. 1). The highest amount of strain recorded was 3 GPa over 1?m (Fig.1). At the intersection of two pink lamellae, the strain is so intense that the diamond Raman band displays 4 lines, indicating at least two highly stressed regions in the probed volume, which is the first time such a phenomenon is reported in a natural sample. Natural diamond shows that it can accommodate a large amount of stress during plastic deformation in mantle conditions by mechanical twinning. Still, large amount of strain remains in the diamond structure, which does not seem to affect the diamond integrity. Plastic deformation creates new PL (and CL) centers and most likely also the center responsible for the pink color, which is still unidentified. High resolution mapping of the Raman line position across 5 pink lamellae (3 sub-vertical, 2 sub-horizontal) in a pink diamond from South Africa. The scale on the right represents the remaining strain corresponding to the shift of the Raman line, following Grimsditch et al. (1978)'s equation.

Gaillou, E.; Post, J. E.; Steele, A.; Butler, J. E.

2013-12-01

185

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

186

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect.

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

187

Chemical, morphology and thermal evaluation of cellulose microfibers obtained from Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature and finds a range of application. Cellulose microfibers were extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa fibers by steam explosion technique. Structural and surface analysis of the microfibers showed a reduction in diameter and changes in surface morphology from that of the raw fibers. The chemical composition of fibers were analyzed according to the TAPPI standards and showed increase in ?-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicelluloses for the microfibers. This has been further confirmed by SEM, XRD and FTIR results. Thermal characterization showed enhanced thermal stability of celluloses microfibers compared to raw fibers. PMID:23218352

Sonia, A; Priya Dasan, K

2013-01-30

188

Mitochondrial pathology and muscle and dopaminergic neuron degeneration caused by inactivation of Drosophila Pink1 is rescued by Parkin.  

PubMed

Mutations in Pink1, a gene encoding a Ser/Thr kinase with a mitochondrial-targeting signal, are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common movement disorder characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. The mechanism by which loss of Pink1 leads to neurodegeneration is not understood. Here we show that inhibition of Drosophila Pink1 (dPink1) function results in energy depletion, shortened lifespan, and degeneration of select indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons. The muscle pathology was preceded by mitochondrial enlargement and disintegration. These phenotypes could be rescued by the wild type but not the pathogenic C-terminal deleted form of human Pink1 (hPink1). The muscle and dopaminergic phenotypes associated with dPink1 inactivation show similarity to that seen in parkin mutant flies and could be suppressed by the overexpression of Parkin but not DJ-1. Consistent with the genetic rescue results, we find that, in dPink1 RNA interference (RNAi) animals, the level of Parkin protein is significantly reduced. Together, these results implicate Pink1 and Parkin in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial physiology and cell survival in Drosophila. PMID:16818890

Yang, Yufeng; Gehrke, Stephan; Imai, Yuzuru; Huang, Zhinong; Ouyang, Yingshi; Wang, Ji-Wu; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei

2006-07-11

189

PINK1 regulates histone H3 trimethylation and gene expression by interaction with the polycomb protein EED/WAIT1  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are associated to early-onset recessive forms of Parkinson disease. PINK1 function is related to mitochondria homeostasis, but the molecular pathways in which PINK1 is involved are largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of the embryonic ectoderm development polycomb histone-methylation modulator (EED/WAIT1) as a PINK1-interacting and -regulated protein. The PINK1:EED/WAIT1 physical interaction was mediated by the PINK1 kinase domain and the EED/WAIT1 40 amino acid ending with tryptophan and aspartate (WD40)-repeat region, and PINK1 phosphorylated EED/WAIT1 in vitro. PINK1 associated with EED/WAIT1 in cells and relocated EED/WAIT1 to the mitochondria. This interaction reduced the trimethylation of lysine 27 from histone H3, which affected polycomb-regulated gene transcription during RA differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our findings unveil a pathway by which PINK1 regulates histone methylation and gene expression through the polycomb repressor complex.

Berthier, Arnaud; Jimenez-Sainz, Judit; Pulido, Rafael

2013-01-01

190

How does Tremblaya princeps get essential proteins from its nested partner Moranella endobia in the Mealybug Planoccocus citri?  

PubMed

Many insects maintain intracellular mutualistic symbiosis with a wide range of bacteria which are considered essential for their survival (primary or P-endosymbiont) and typically suffer drastic genome degradation. Progressive loss of P-endosymbiont metabolic capabilities could lead to the recruitment of co-existent facultative endosymbiont (secondary or S-endosymbiont), thus adding more complexity to the symbiotic system. Planococcus citri, among other mealybug species, harbors an unconventional nested endosymbiotic system where every Tremblaya princeps cell (?-proteobacterium) harbors many Moranella endobia cells (?-proteobacterium). In this system, T. princeps possess one of the smallest prokaryote genome known so far. This extreme genome reduction suggests the supply of many metabolites and essential gene products by M. endobia. Although sporadic cell lysis is plausible, the bacterial participation on the regulation of the predicted molecular exchange (at least to some extent) cannot be excluded. Although the comprehensive analysis of the protein translocation ability of M. endobia PCVAL rules out the existence of specific mechanisms for the exportation of proteins from M. endobia to T. princeps, immunolocation of two M. endobia proteins points towards a non-massive but controlled protein provision. We propose a sporadic pattern for the predicted protein exportation events, which could be putatively controlled by the host and/or mediated by local osmotic stress. PMID:24204799

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Balmand, Séverine; Latorre, Amparo; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2013-01-01

191

Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

2013-01-01

192

How Does Tremblaya princeps Get Essential Proteins from Its Nested Partner Moranella endobia in the Mealybug Planoccocus citri?  

PubMed Central

Many insects maintain intracellular mutualistic symbiosis with a wide range of bacteria which are considered essential for their survival (primary or P-endosymbiont) and typically suffer drastic genome degradation. Progressive loss of P-endosymbiont metabolic capabilities could lead to the recruitment of co-existent facultative endosymbiont (secondary or S-endosymbiont), thus adding more complexity to the symbiotic system. Planococcus citri, among other mealybug species, harbors an unconventional nested endosymbiotic system where every Tremblaya princeps cell (?-proteobacterium) harbors many Moranella endobia cells (?-proteobacterium). In this system, T. princeps possess one of the smallest prokaryote genome known so far. This extreme genome reduction suggests the supply of many metabolites and essential gene products by M. endobia. Although sporadic cell lysis is plausible, the bacterial participation on the regulation of the predicted molecular exchange (at least to some extent) cannot be excluded. Although the comprehensive analysis of the protein translocation ability of M. endobia PCVAL rules out the existence of specific mechanisms for the exportation of proteins from M. endobia to T. princeps, immunolocation of two M. endobia proteins points towards a non-massive but controlled protein provision. We propose a sporadic pattern for the predicted protein exportation events, which could be putatively controlled by the host and/or mediated by local osmotic stress.

Lopez-Madrigal, Sergio; Balmand, Severine; Latorre, Amparo; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Moya, Andres; Gil, Rosario

2013-01-01

193

Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) with regard to protection of LDL oxidation in vivo and ex vivo in rats made hypercholesterolemic by continuous cholesterol feeding. Administering the dried calyx extracts of roselle at doses of 500 and 1000mg\\/kg together with continuous cholesterol feeding to hypercholesterolemic rats for

Vilasinee Hirunpanich; Anocha Utaipat; Noppawan Phumala Morales; Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara; Hitoshi Sato; Angkana Herunsale; Chuthamanee Suthisisang

2006-01-01

194

The p23 Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Is Indispensable for Host-Specific Replication  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein.

Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lucy, Andrew P.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Wong, Sek-Man

2002-01-01

195

The p23 protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is indispensable for host-specific replication.  

PubMed

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein. PMID:12414971

Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lucy, Andrew P; Ding, Shou-Wei; Wong, Sek-Man

2002-12-01

196

Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

197

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

198

Ancestry of Pink Disease (Infantile Acrodynia) Identified as a Risk Factor for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Pink disease (infantile acrodynia) was especially prevalent in the first half of the 20th century. Primarily attributed to exposure to mercury (Hg) commonly found in teething powders, the condition was developed by approximately 1 in 500 exposed children. The differential risk factor was identified as an idiosyncratic sensitivity to Hg. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have also been postulated to be produced by Hg. Analogous to the pink disease experience, Hg exposure is widespread yet only a fraction of exposed children develop an ASD, suggesting sensitivity to Hg may also be present in children with an ASD. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with a known hypersensitivity to Hg (pink disease survivors) may be more likely to have descendants with an ASD. Five hundred and twenty-two participants who had previously been diagnosed with pink disease completed a survey on the health outcomes of their descendants. The prevalence rates of ASD and a variety of other clinical conditions diagnosed in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome) were compared to well-established general population prevalence rates. The results showed the prevalence rate of ASD among the grandchildren of pink disease survivors (1 in 25) to be significantly higher than the comparable general population prevalence rate (1 in 160). The results support the hypothesis that Hg sensitivity may be a heritable/genetic risk factor for ASD.

Kerrie, Shandley; Austin, David W.

2011-01-01

199

Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1?/? motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation  

PubMed Central

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1?/? mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14–P21) wild-type or PINK1?/? mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1?/? M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1?/? M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1?/? cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization.

Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J.; Humphries, Mark D.; Hammond, Constance

2014-01-01

200

Drosophila Trap1 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in a PINK1/parkin model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by protein aggregation has been shown to have an important role in neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondria have evolved at least two levels of defence mechanisms that ensure their integrity and the viability of their host cell. First, molecular quality control, through the upregulation of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases, guarantees the clearance of damaged proteins. Second, organellar quality control ensures the clearance of defective mitochondria through their selective autophagy. Studies in Drosophila have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction linked with the loss of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) as a mechanism of PD pathogenesis. The mitochondrial chaperone TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was recently reported to be a cellular substrate for the PINK1 kinase. Here, we characterise Drosophila Trap1 null mutants and describe the genetic analysis of Trap1 function with Pink1 and parkin. We show that loss of Trap1 results in a decrease in mitochondrial function and increased sensitivity to stress, and that its upregulation in neurons of Pink1 mutant rescues mitochondrial impairment. Additionally, the expression of Trap1 was able to partially rescue mitochondrial impairment in parkin mutant flies; and conversely, expression of parkin rescued mitochondrial impairment in Trap1 mutants. We conclude that Trap1 works downstream of Pink1 and in parallel with parkin in Drosophila, and that enhancing its function may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:23328674

Costa, A C; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L Miguel

2013-01-01

201

The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process  

SciTech Connect

The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jongkyeong [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jchung@kaist.ac.kr

2009-01-16

202

Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.  

PubMed

Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field. PMID:23080301

McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

2013-05-01

203

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon is less studied of all the fishery regions on the island. So far, their migratory ways from feeding and wintering areas to the spawning rivers have not been ascertained. The results of monitoring for pink salmon have shown that by some biological indices, commercial-statistic data, and also by the data of satellites NOAA-10, NOAA-12, NOAA-14, their commercial catches near the northwestern Sakhalin are formed by fish groups migrating both through the Amur Estuary from the south, and through the Sakhalin Bay from the north. The base of spawning fish in rivers of northwestern Sakhalin is formed by the summer pink salmon migrating from the north. A preliminary computation of distinguished pink salmon groups (summer southern and northern autumn) shows a ratio 0.1:5.7:1 in odd years and 1:2:1 in even years.

Ivanov, Alexander N.; Shershnev, Alexej; Kaplanova, Nina P.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

2002-03-01

204

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil  

PubMed Central

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product.

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

205

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.  

PubMed

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

206

Adult Sockeye and Pink Salmon Tagging Experiments for Separating Stocks in Northern British Columbia and Southern Southeast Alaska, 1982-1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon were captured, tagged, and released in coastal fisheries of southern Southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia between 1982 and 1985. Sockeye salmon were tagged in 1982 and 1983; pink ...

J. Pella M. Hoffman S. Hoffman M. Masuda S. Nelson

1993-01-01

207

Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-01-01

208

Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in several countries for more than a decade. In China, the frequency of resistance to Cry1Ac has increased, but control failures have not been reported. In western India, pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac has caused widespread control failures of Bt cotton. By contrast, in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States, monitoring data from bioassays and DNA screening demonstrate sustained susceptibility to Cry1Ac for 16 y. From 1996-2005, the main factors that delayed resistance in Arizona appear to be abundant refuges of non-Bt cotton, recessive inheritance of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance and incomplete resistance. From 2006-2011, refuge abundance was greatly reduced in Arizona, while mass releases of sterile pink bollworm moths were made to delay resistance as part of a multi-tactic eradication program. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona has provided a cornerstone for the pink bollworm eradication program and for integrated pest management in cotton. Reduced insecticide use against pink bollworm and other cotton pests has yielded economic benefits for growers, as well as broad environmental and health benefits. We encourage increased efforts to combine Bt crops with other tactics in integrated pest management programs. PMID:22572905

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Morin, Shai; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

2012-01-01

209

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth

G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers

2003-01-01

210

Association of Parkinson disease-related protein PINK1 with Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis brain lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase, have been linked to the occurrence of early onset parkinsonism. Currently, various studies support the notion of a neuroprotective role for PINK1, as it protects cells from stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress,

Micha M. M. Wilhelmus; Quentin Jansen; Maarten E. Witte; Paul van der Valk; Annemieke J. M. Rozemuller; Benjamin Drukarch; Helga E. de Vries; Jack Van Horssen

2011-01-01

211

Presence of diverse ratios of lycopene\\/?-carotene in five pink or red-fleshed citrus cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink or red-fleshed fruit mutations are commonly found in grapefruit, sweet orange, and occasionally in lemon, which combine novel appearance with fine eating quality. In order to identify the major coloured pigments, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied for the separation and characterization of carotenoids from five pink or red-fleshed citrus cultivars. As a result, both

Juan Xu; Nengguo Tao; Qing Liu; Xiuxin Deng

2006-01-01

212

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuschaeach year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more than

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

213

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha each year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

214

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migratory energetics: response to migratory difficulty and comparisons with sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) are generally considered weak upriver migrants relative to sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), though this assertion is largely anecdotal. To assess energy-use patterns during migra - tion, we collected pink salmon from two major Fraser River stocks (Weaver and Seton in British Columbia, Canada) in 1999 at three times and locations: (1) at the start of

G. T. Crossin; S. G. Hinch; A. P. Farrell; M. P. Whelly; M. C. Healey

2004-01-01

215

Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle.  

PubMed

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power and metal chelating activity of protein hydrolysates increased with increase in concentration. Lipid peroxidation was strongly inhibited by 64% by protein hydrolysates produced by trypsin. The results revealed that the functional properties and antioxidant activities of pink perch were greatly affected by the enzymes used. PMID:24426005

Naqash, Shabeena Yousuf; Nazeer, R A

2013-10-01

216

Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice  

PubMed Central

Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1?/? mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1?/? mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1?/? mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1?/? mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1?/? mice had increased levels of IL-1?, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1?/? embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-? (NF-?B) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1?/? mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1?/? mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1?/? mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate innate immune responses. While some differentially expressed genes may mitigate neurodegeneration, increased LPS-induced brain cytokine expression and impaired cytokine-induced NF-?B activation may predispose neurons of Pink1?/? mice to inflammation and injury-induced cell death.

Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Bueler, Hansruedi

2011-01-01

217

PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of the Parkin ubiquitin-like domain primes mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and regulates mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease genes PINK1 and parkin encode kinase and ubiquitin ligase, respectively. The gene products PINK1 and Parkin are implicated in mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy. Upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), cytosolic Parkin is recruited to the mitochondria by PINK1 through an uncharacterised mechanism – an initial step triggering sequential events in mitophagy. This study reports that Ser65 in the ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl) of Parkin is phosphorylated in a PINK1-dependent manner upon depolarisation of ??m. The introduction of mutations at Ser65 suggests that phosphorylation of Ser65 is required not only for the efficient translocation of Parkin, but also for the degradation of mitochondrial proteins in mitophagy. Phosphorylation analysis of Parkin pathogenic mutants also suggests Ser65 phosphorylation is not sufficient for Parkin translocation. Our study partly uncovers the molecular mechanism underlying the PINK1-dependent mitochondrial translocation and activation of Parkin as an initial step of mitophagy.

Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Imai, Yuzuru; Yoshida, Shigeharu; Ishihama, Yasushi; Kanao, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeto; Hattori, Nobutaka

2012-01-01

218

Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation. PMID:21625649

Ross, Laura; Dealey, Elizabeth J; Beukeboom, Leo W; Shuker, David M

2011-05-01

219

A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2).  

PubMed

An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a segment of the coat protein gene of the PMWaV-2. The outer primers were designed to anneal at higher temperatures than the nested primers to prevent primer competition in consecutive amplification reactions. To reduce potential competition further, the outer primers were used at one-thousandth the concentration of the nested primers. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay are much greater than PCR using only a single primer-pair. A TaqMan(®) probe was also designed for use in quantitative PCR to detect and quantify the PCR amplification products directly in a single-tube assay. The advantages of the single-tube assays using both conventional and quantitative PCR are reduced handling time and prevention of cross contamination compared to regular nested PCR in which the reactions are carried out in two separate tubes. PMID:22484612

Dey, K K; Lin, Hong; Borth, W B; Melzer, M J; Hu, J S

2012-08-01

220

Predatory Potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Larvae on Different Stages of the Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: A Threat to Cotton in South Asia  

PubMed Central

The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators.

Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H.; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

2012-01-01

221

The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin promote mitochondrial fission and/or inhibit fusion in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (pink1) or parkin cause autosomal-recessive and some sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. pink1 acts upstream of parkin in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity in Drosophila. Mitochondrial morphology is maintained by a dynamic balance between the opposing actions of mitochondrial fusion, controlled by Mitofusin (mfn) and Optic atrophy 1 (opa1), and mitochondrial fission, controlled by drp1. Here, we explore interactions between pink1/parkin and the mitochondrial fusion/fission machinery. Muscle-specific knockdown of the fly homologue of Mfn (Marf) or opa1, or overexpression of drp1, results in significant mitochondrial fragmentation. Mfn-knockdown flies also display altered cristae morphology. Interestingly, knockdown of Mfn or opa1 or overexpression of drp1, rescues the phenotypes of muscle degeneration, cell death, and mitochondrial abnormalities in pink1 or parkin mutants. In the male germline, we also observe genetic interactions between pink1 and the testes-specific mfn homologue fuzzy onion, and between pink1 and drp1. Our data suggest that the pink1/parkin pathway promotes mitochondrial fission and/or inhibits fusion by negatively regulating mfn and opa1 function, and/or positively regulating drp1. However, pink1 and parkin mutant flies show distinct mitochondrial phenotypes from drp1 mutant flies, and flies carrying a heterozygous mutation in drp1 enhance the pink1-null phenotype, resulting in lethality. These results suggest that pink1 and parkin are likely not core components of the drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission machinery. Modification of fusion and fission may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease. PMID:18799731

Deng, Hansong; Dodson, Mark W; Huang, Haixia; Guo, Ming

2008-09-23

222

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

2012-01-01

223

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2013-01-01

224

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:15922006

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Chau-Jong

2005-06-15

225

Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review.  

PubMed

This article reviews the reported phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (English: roselle, red sorrel; Arabic: karkade), the calyces of which are used in many parts of the world to make cold and hot drinks. Nutritionally, these contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C). In folk medicine, the calyx extracts are used for the treatment of several complaints, including high blood pressure, liver diseases and fever. The pharmacological actions of the calyx extracts include strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. In rats and rabbits, the extract showed antihypercholesterolaemic, antinociceptive and antipyretic, but not antiinflammatory activities. In rat and man a strong antihypertensive action has been demonstrated. The effects of the calyx extracts on smooth muscles in vitro are variable, but they mostly inhibit the tone of the isolated muscles. In healthy men, consumption of H. sabdariffa has resulted in significant decreases in the urinary concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate, but not oxalate. Oil extracted from the plant's seeds has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on some bacteria and fungi in vitro. The plant extracts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. The LD50 of H. sabdariffa calyx extract in rats was found to be above 5000 mg/kg. A single report has suggested that excessive doses for relatively long periods could have a deleterious effect on the testes of rats. In view of its reported nutritional and pharmacological properties and relative safety, H. sabdariffa and compounds isolated from it (for example, anthocyanins and Hibiscus protocatechuic acid) could be a source of therapeutically useful products. PMID:16106391

Ali, Badreldin H; Al Wabel, Naser; Blunden, Gerald

2005-05-01

226

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

Chang, Y.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-D. [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

2005-06-15

227

Drosophila Parkin requires PINK1 for mitochondrial translocation and ubiquitinates Mitofusin  

PubMed Central

Loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin causes early onset Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Parkin has been linked to multiple cellular processes including protein degradation, mitochondrial homeostasis, and autophagy; however, its precise role in pathogenesis is unclear. Recent evidence suggests that Parkin is recruited to damaged mitochondria, possibly affecting mitochondrial fission and/or fusion, to mediate their autophagic turnover. The precise mechanism of recruitment and the ubiquitination target are unclear. Here we show in Drosophila cells that PINK1 is required to recruit Parkin to dysfunctional mitochondria and promote their degradation. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin mediate the ubiquitination of the profusion factor Mfn on the outer surface of mitochondria. Loss of Drosophila PINK1 or parkin causes an increase in Mfn abundance in vivo and concomitant elongation of mitochondria. These findings provide a molecular mechanism by which the PINK1/Parkin pathway affects mitochondrial fission/fusion as suggested by previous genetic interaction studies. We hypothesize that Mfn ubiquitination may provide a mechanism by which terminally damaged mitochondria are labeled and sequestered for degradation by autophagy.

Ziviani, Elena; Tao, Ran N.; Whitworth, Alexander J.

2010-01-01

228

The use of pink porcelain to manage a malposed anterior implant: case report.  

PubMed

Pink porcelain was used in a custom zirconia abutment with a zirconia implant-supported anterior crown to compensate for a malposed anterior implant with horizontal bone deficiency and lack of keratinized tissue. This clinical procedure was able to reduce abutment height, mask the horizontal defect and create a symmetrical and esthetic effect. PMID:24059481

Kalman, Les; MacIntosh, Kayleigh

2013-01-01

229

Mitochondrial import and enzymatic activity of PINK1 mutants associated to recessive parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness associated with a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway of the brain. Despite the overall rarity of the familial forms of PD, the identification of single genes linked to the disease has yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Recently, a putative mitochondrial kinase, PINK1, has been found

Laura Silvestri; Viviana Caputo; Emanuele Bellacchio; Luigia Atorino; Bruno Dallapiccola; Enza Maria Valente; Giorgio Casari

2005-01-01

230

Genetic Changes in Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum during Acclimatization in the White Sea Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters of pink salmon introduced into the White Sea basin in 1985 and 1998 were compared to the corresponding parameters of the donor population from the Ola River (Magadan oblast). The detected genetic differences indicate that colonization of a new area is accompanied by impoverishment of the gene pool of the native population. This effect was particularly marked in

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov; A. A. Makhrov; S. P. Pustovoit

2003-01-01

231

76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XA803 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2011-11-10

232

78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC965 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2013-11-18

233

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

234

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

235

Unusual Occurrence of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Snake River of Southeastern Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first positively identified adult pink salrnon (Oncothlncb*: gotbuscba) is reported lor the Snake River of Southestertr \\\\fashington State. The sightings were in the Tucanrion River and at little Goose ard Lower Gra.nite Dams, approximately 625 to 694 km from dre Parific Ocean. Slrnt female pinl salmon carcasses indicated that these fi-sh can migtate loog distances and afftve ln flme

Lyle Gilbrealh

236

Assessment of the phototoxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to juvenile pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum products are known to have greater toxicity to the translucent embryos and larvae of aquatic organisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) compared to toxicity determined in tests performed under standard laboratory lighting with minimal UV. This study assessed the acute phototoxicity of the water accommodated fractions of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANS) to juvenile pink

Mace G. Barron; Mark G. Carls; Jeffrey W. Short; Stanley D. Rice; Ron A. Heintz; Michelle Rau; Richard Di Giulio

2005-01-01

237

White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.  

PubMed

In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking). PMID:24468979

Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

2014-05-01

238

Acoustic Monitoring of the Juvenile Pink Salmon Food Supply and Predators in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research conducted under the Sound Ecosystem Assessment (SEA) Program during the mid-1990s indicated that juvenile pink salmon survival in Prince William Sound was positively correlated with the abundance of the large-bodied copepod, Neocalanus, and negatively correlated with the abundance of walleye pollock. From 2000 to 2006, the Prince William Sound Science Center conducted annual monitoring of the spring abundance and

R. E. Thorne; G. L. Thomas

2007-01-01

239

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

240

Empirical Evaluation of Cell Critical Volume Dose Vs. Cell Response Function for Pink Mutations in Tradescantia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i...

M. N. Varma V. P. Bond

1982-01-01

241

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Atomic Hydrogen (H sup 0) Centers in Pink Tourmaline from Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for explaining the atom of hydrogen (H/sup 0/) in pink tourmaline irradiated with gamma rays is presented. The concentration of H/sup 0/ was evaluated and the H/sup 0/ lines using the electron paramagnetic resonance were analysed. The g factor and...

M. B. Camargo

1985-01-01

242

Dealing with Prejudice and Conflict in the Classroom: The Pink Triangle Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a class exercise designed to confront homophobic attitudes. Students wear pink triangles to identify with gay/lesbian prejudice and peer pressures. Explores social conflict, prejudice, and oppression using conflict management techniques. Includes excerpts from students writing assignments and finds fear of being stigmatized pervades…

Chesler, Mark A.; Zuniga, Ximena

1991-01-01

243

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

244

Parkin is activated by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that the Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) is activated by mitochondrial depolarization and stimulates the Parkin E3 ligase by phosphorylating Ser65 within its Ubl (ubiquitin-like) domain. Using phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified a novel ubiquitin phosphopeptide phosphorylated at Ser65 that was enriched 14-fold in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 stimulated with the mitochondrial uncoupling agent CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), to activate PINK1, compared with cells expressing kinase-inactive PINK1. Ser65 in ubiquitin lies in a similar motif to Ser65 in the Ubl domain of Parkin. Remarkably, PINK1 directly phosphorylates Ser65 of ubiquitin in vitro. We undertook a series of experiments that provide striking evidence that Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65) functions as a critical activator of Parkin. First, we demonstrate that a fragment of Parkin lacking the Ubl domain encompassing Ser65 (?Ubl-Parkin) is robustly activated by ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, but not by non-phosphorylated ubiquitin. Secondly, we find that the isolated Parkin Ubl domain phosphorylated at Ser65 (UblPhospho?Ser65) can also activate ?Ubl-Parkin similarly to ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65. Thirdly, we establish that ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, but not non-phosphorylated ubiquitin or UblPhospho?Ser65, activates full-length wild-type Parkin as well as the non-phosphorylatable S65A Parkin mutant. Fourthly, we provide evidence that optimal activation of full-length Parkin E3 ligase is dependent on PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both Parkin at Ser65 and ubiquitin at Ser65, since only mutation of both proteins at Ser65 completely abolishes Parkin activation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study reveal that PINK1 controls Parkin E3 ligase activity not only by phosphorylating Parkin at Ser65, but also by phosphorylating ubiquitin at Ser65. We propose that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 serves to prime the E3 ligase enzyme for activation by ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65, suggesting that small molecules that mimic ubiquitinPhospho?Ser65 could hold promise as novel therapies for Parkinson's disease.

Kazlauskaite, Agne; Kondapalli, Chandana; Gourlay, Robert; Campbell, David G.; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Hofmann, Kay; Alessi, Dario R.; Knebel, Axel; Trost, Matthias; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2014-01-01

245

Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Ley dig cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull, and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes.Methods:The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig

Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboyl; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

2005-01-01

246

Effects of extracts from Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba mixture on testosterone production in vitro in adult rat testes slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To find an in vitro system for the measurement of the androgenic effects of different extracts of Hibiscus macranthus (Malvaceae) and Basella alba (Basellaceae).Methods:The production of testosterone from testes slices incubated in two media, either Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Dubecco's Modified Eagle's medium-F12 Ham nutrient mixture (DME\\/Ham F12), under a mixture of 5 %

Paul F. Moundipa; Silvère Ngouela; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Felicite M. Tchouanguep; Serge Carreau

2006-01-01

247

Presence of cholinergic and calcium channel blocking activities explains the traditional use of Hibiscus rosasinensis in constipation and diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) was studied for the possible presence of spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents to rationalize its traditional use in gastrointestinal disorders. The crude extract (Hr.Cr) caused a concentration-dependent (1–10mg\\/mL) spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum, which was blocked in the presence of atropine (0.1?M). In spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum, the

Anwar H. Gilani; Samra Bashir; Khalid H. Janbaz; Abdul Jabbar Shah

2005-01-01

248

The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

1998-01-01

249

PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions. PMID:24901221

Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

2014-06-01

250

The Bioenergetic Status Relates to Dopamine Neuron Loss in Familial PD with PINK1 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). The gene encodes a mitochondrial protein kinase that plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. However, the pathophysiological link between mutation-related bioenergetic deficits and the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons remains to be elucidated. We performed phosphorous (31P) and proton (1H) 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in 11 members of a German family with hereditary PD due to PINK1 mutations (PARK6) compared to 23 age-matched controls. All family members had prior 18-Fluorodopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET). The striatal FDOPA uptake was correlated with quantified metabolic brain mapping in MRSI. At group level, the heterozygous PINK1 mutation carriers did not show any MRSI abnormalities relative to controls. In contrast, homozygous individuals with manifest PD had putaminal GPC, PCr, HEP and ?-ATP levels well above the 2SD range of controls. Across all subjects, the FDOPA Ki values correlated positively with MI (r?=?0.879, p<0.001) and inversely with ?-ATP (r?=??0.784, p?=?0.008) and GPC concentrations (r?=??0.651, p?=?0.030) in the putamen. Our combined imaging data suggest that the dopaminergic deficit in this family with PD due to PINK1 mutations relates to osmolyte dysregulation, while the delivery of high energy phosphates was preserved. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that PINK1 mutations result in reduced neuronal survival, most likely due to impaired cellular stress resistance.

Hilker, Ruediger; Pilatus, Ulrich; Eggers, Carsten; Hagenah, Johann; Roggendorf, Julia; Baudrexel, Simon; Klein, Johannes C.; Neumaier, Bernd; Fink, Gereon R.; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Christine; Hattingen, Elke

2012-01-01

251

PINK1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Parkin Boosts Parkin Activity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions.

Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

2014-01-01

252

Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction on loss of Pink1 as a central mechanism of PD pathogenesis. Here we show that global analysis of transcriptional changes in Drosophila pink1 mutants reveals an upregulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, critical for neuronal mitochondrial DNA synthesis. These key transcriptional changes were also detected in brains of PD patients harbouring PINK1 mutations. We demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the nucleotide salvage pathway in neurons of pink1 mutant flies rescues mitochondrial impairment. In addition, pharmacological approaches enhancing nucleotide pools reduce mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Pink1 deficiency. We conclude that loss of Pink1 evokes the activation of a previously unidentified metabolic reprogramming pathway to increase nucleotide pools and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. PMID:24441527

Tufi, Roberta; Gandhi, Sonia; de Castro, Inês P; Lehmann, Susann; Angelova, Plamena R; Dinsdale, David; Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Hélène; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Abramov, Andrey Y; Willis, Anne E; Mallucci, Giovanna R; Loh, Samantha H Y; Martins, L Miguel

2014-02-01

253

Glutathione S-transferase omega suppresses the defective phenotypes caused by PINK1 loss-of-function in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Loss-of-function mutation of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is a common cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Glutathione S-transferase omega (GSTO) is a phase II detoxification enzyme that conjugates targets to glutathione, and has recently been implicated in parkin-associated PD. In this study, we found Drosophila GstO2 to be a novel genetic suppressor of the PINK1 loss-of-function mutant. We show that GstO2A expression is reduced in PINK1 mutants. Moreover, the upregulation of GstO2A restores muscle degeneration and dopaminergic neuron loss in PINK1 mutants. Given the previous data of a reduced expression of GstO2A and decreased glutathionylation of ATP synthase ? subunit in parkin or PINK1 mutants, these results suggest that the function of GstO2 is regulated by the PINK1/parkin pathway and that GstO2 also has a protective role in PINK1-associated PD. PMID:23867819

Kim, Kiyoung; Yim, Jeongbin

2013-08-01

254

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization.

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

2013-01-01

255

The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. Results Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1) that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of the protein kinase. Naturally occurring non-coding antisense provides sophisticated mechanisms for diversifying genomes and we describe a human specific non-coding antisense expressed at the PINK1 locus (naPINK1). We further demonstrate that PINK1 varies in vivo when human skeletal muscle mitochondrial content is enhanced, supporting the idea that PINK1 has a physiological role in mitochondrion. The observation of concordant regulation of svPINK1 and naPINK1 during in vivo mitochondrial biogenesis was confirmed using RNAi, where selective targeting of naPINK1 results in loss of the PINK1 splice variant in neuronal cell lines. Conclusion Our data presents the first direct observation that a mammalian non-coding antisense molecule can positively influence the abundance of a cis-transcribed mRNA under physiological abundance conditions. While our analysis implies a possible human specific and dsRNA-mediated mechanism for stabilizing the expression of svPINK1, it also points to a broader genomic strategy for regulating a human disease locus and increases the complexity through which alterations in the regulation of the PINK1 locus could occur.

Scheele, Camilla; Petrovic, Natasa; Faghihi, Mohammad A; Lassmann, Timo; Fredriksson, Katarina; Rooyackers, Olav; Wahlestedt, Claes; Good, Liam; Timmons, James A

2007-01-01

256

Genetic differentiation among Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations living on different host plants.  

PubMed

The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) is a dangerous pest that damages a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were used to characterize the genetic variation of 11 M. hirsutus populations infesting three plant species in Nayarit, Mexico. Analysis was carried out using four primers combinations, producing 590 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis, as well as bootstrap dendrogram and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, grouped M. hirsutus populations according to their host plant. The estimated F(ST) values indicated a high differentiation in M. hirsutus populations among the three host plant species. These results were also supported by a Bayesian analysis, which indicated a population clustering robustness according to their host plant. Genetic variation among populations is not caused by geographic distances, as shown by a Mantel test. PMID:20550821

Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Sarmiento-Benavides, Sandra L; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

2010-06-01

257

Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing. PMID:19253611

Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

2009-02-01

258

Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp Assessment Modeling Update from a Static VPA to an Integrated Assessment Model Stock Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) pink shrimp stocks were deemed undergoing overfishing in 2008 at the conclusion of the 2007 fishing season (National Marine Fisheries Service 2009). This designation was made because the SEFSC Galveston Laboratory's Virtual Popula...

J. M. Nance R. A. Hart

2010-01-01

259

Thermocrinis ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a Pink-Filament-Forming Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hyperthermophilic bacterium was isolated from pink filamentous streamers (pink filaments) occur- ring in the upper outflow channel (temperature, 82 to 88°C) of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. The gram-negative cells grew at low salinity at temperatures up to 89°C in the neutral to alkaline pH range. Depending on the culture conditions, the organisms occurred as single

ROBERT HUBER; WOLFGANG EDER; STEFAN HELDWEIN; GERHARD WANNER; HARALD HUBER; REINHARD RACHEL; KARL O. STETTER

1998-01-01

260

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

261

Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins.

Trempe, Jean-Francois; Fon, Edward A.

2013-01-01

262

Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.  

PubMed

Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed. PMID:22980141

Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

2012-11-30

263

The captive husbandry and reproduction of the pink-eared turtle (Emydura victoriae) at Perth Zoo.  

PubMed

In 1997, Perth Zoo acquired six pink-eared turtles (Emydura victoriae) from the wild for display in the reptile facility. There is very little documented information on pink-eared turtles in captivity. This article looks at the reproductive biology, ecology, behavior, diet, and captive husbandry of the species. Eight clutches of eggs were documented over a 2-year period with an average clutch size of 10 eggs. Egg size was recorded with three clutches incubated to hatching. Ten hatchlings were maintained for a growth and development study. Measurements of weight, carapace length, width, height, and plastron length were recorded weekly for about 12 months, and then monthly for approximately 2 years. The data were analyzed and showed positive growth curves in all animals. Sexual dimorphism was observed after 20 weeks and sexual maturity in males observed after 2 years. PMID:21319211

Gaikhorst, G S; Clarke, B R; McPharlin, M; Larkin, B; McLaughlin, J; Mayes, J

2011-01-01

264

Drosophila HtrA2 is dispensable for apoptosis but acts downstream of PINK1 independently from Parkin  

PubMed Central

High Temperature Requirement A2 (HtrA2/Omi) is a mitochondrial protease that exhibits pro-apoptotic and cell protective properties and has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD). Impaired mitochondrial function is a common trait in PD patients, and is likely to play a significant role in pathogenesis of parkinsonism, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Genetic studies in Drosophila have provided valuable insight into the function of other PD-linked genes, in particular PINK1 and parkin, and their role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Recently, HtrA2 was shown to be phosphorylated in a PINK1-dependent manner, suggesting it might act in the PINK1 pathway. Here, we describe the characterization of mutations in Drosophila HtrA2, and genetic analysis of its function with PINK1 and parkin. Interestingly, we find HtrA2 appears to be dispensable for developmental or stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found HtrA2 mutants share some phenotypic similarities with parkin and PINK1 mutants, suggesting that it may function in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Our genetic interaction studies, including analysis of double-mutant combinations and epistasis experiments, suggest HtrA2 acts downstream of PINK1 but in a pathway parallel to Parkin.

Tain, Luke S.; Chowdhury, Ruhena B.; Tao, Ran N.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Moisoi, Nicoleta; Martins, L. Miguel; Downward, Julian; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Tapon, Nicolas

2009-01-01

265

Genetic differentiation of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at 19 enzyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples\\u000a of odd-and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern\\u000a coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation for the allozyme loci,\\u000a per broodline, were on average

E. A. Salmenkova; N. V. Gordeeva; V. T. Omel’chenko; Yu. P. Altukhov; K. I. Afanas’ev; G. A. Rubtsova; Yu. V. Vasil’eva

2006-01-01

266

Acclimatization of Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the European North: mtDNA Restriction Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5\\/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. It was found that mtDNA variation

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2004-01-01

267

Antioxidant Activity of Pink-Flesh Guava ( Psidium guajava L.): Effect of Extraction Techniques and Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of commonly used techniques and solvents in the antioxidant activities of pink-flesh guava fruit were studied.\\u000a The extraction techniques compared were homogenization, shaking, sonication, magnetic stirring, and maceration for 1, 2, and\\u000a 3 days. The solvent systems used were methanol, ethanol, and acetone at three different concentrations (50%, 70%, and 100%)\\u000a and with 100% distilled water. The antioxidant activity

Khalid Hamid Musa; Aminah Abdullah; Khairiah Jusoh; Vimala Subramaniam

2011-01-01

268

Spawning and Larval Survival of the Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, in a Small Culture Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye-enucleated pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, were successfully matured, mated, and spawned in 1.23-m diameter tanks. Broodstock of five to six female shrimp spawned, on average, 50% of days during which expanded ovaries were observed. Average daily spawn of viable eggs ranged from 2,750 (September) to 11,026 (March). In a preliminary experiment, shrimp fed the bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, as well as

Geraldine M. Cripe

1997-01-01

269

Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

Johnson, Fred A.

2013-01-01

270

Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction in Familiar Parkinsonism Associated with PINK1 Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study mitochondrial respiratory function of fibroblasts from a patient affected by early-onset Parkinsonism\\u000a carrying the homozygous W437X nonsense mutation in the PINK1 gene has been thoroughly characterized. When compared with normal fibroblasts, the patient’s fibroblast mitochondria exhibited\\u000a a lower respiratory activity and a decreased respiratory control ratio with cellular ATP supply relying mainly on enhanced\\u000a glycolytic production.

Claudia Piccoli; Annamaria Sardanelli; Rosella Scrima; Maria Ripoli; Giovanni Quarato; Annamaria D’Aprile; Francesco Bellomo; Salvatore Scacco; Giuseppe De Michele; Alessandro Filla; Arcangela Iuso; Domenico Boffoli; Nazzareno Capitanio; Sergio Papa

2008-01-01

271

Antioxidant and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from pink perch ( Nemipterus japonicus ) muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional properties and antioxidant activity of pink perch (Nemipterus japonicus) muscle hydrolysed by three different enzymes papain, pepsin and trypsin were studied. The protein hydrolysates produced\\u000a by trypsin had an excellent solubility (98%) compared to pepsin (77%) and papain hydrolysate (74%). Conversely, the emulsifying\\u000a activity index (ESI) and foaming abilities were affected by pH. DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power

Shabeena Yousuf Naqash; R. A. Nazeer

272

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

273

Minimal requirements in defined media for improved growth of some radio-resistant pink tetracocci.  

PubMed

Defined media permitting extensive growth of representative pink radio-resistant tetracocci (Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus roseus, and Micrococcus radiophilus) and two controls (an ultraviolet-sensitive mutant of M. radiodurans and Micrococcus luteus) are described. Availability of Fe (especially Fe3+) proved essential for good growth, as evidenced by (i) favorable effects of hydroxamic acids, e.g., salicylhydroxamic acid, and (ii) the growth promotion by hemin when joined with elevated concentrations of Fe. Cobalamin (B12) and methionine were interchangeable as an absolute requirement for methionine not affected by B12. M. luteus required neither. Pink radio-resistant micrococci may form a coherent group. Some divergences among them might be attributable to the method for isolating them, which for ordinary bacteria would be mutagenic to the point of total lethality. The ecology of these tetracocci vis-à-vis other pink-red radio-resistant organisms is discussed in relation to a question: can these bacteria be isolated without dependence on radiation as the cardinal selective factor? PMID:879774

Shapiro, A; DiLello, D; Loudis, M C; Keller, D E; Hutner, S H

1977-05-01

274

Pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) as a bioindicator of aquatic. Environmental health in Western Australia.  

PubMed

Pink snapper (Pagrus auratus), an endemic Western Australian fish species, was tested for its potential as a bioindicator of aquatic environmental health. Mixed function oxygenase (MFO) induction (as a biomarker of exposure), and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity (as a biomarker of liver damage) were of special interest to the study as these biochemical tools have not been validated for any Western Australian fish species. Juvenile pink snapper were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 micrograms PCB-126 per kilogram. Fish were sacrificed 10 days postinjection, and livers and blood samples were collected for MFO and SDH analysis, respectively. Doses of 10 and 100 micrograms PCB-126 per kilogram caused the highest MFO induction, while doses of 0 and 1000 micrograms PCB-126 per kilogram did not result in higher MFO activity relative to carrier-injected control fish. SDH activities were not significantly different among treatments indicating that hepatocellular damage was not responsible for the reduced MFO activity at the highest dose. The result of the study demonstrates that pink snapper may potentially be used as a bioindicator species in Western Australia when MFO is used as a biomarker. PMID:11594033

Tugiyono; Gagnon, M M

2001-10-01

275

The effects of morphine on Parkinson's-related genes PINK1 and PARK2  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) continues to be an important neurological disorder. It is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, the neurotransmitter produced from dopaminergic neurons, is a major precursor of endogenous morphine. There are approximately 18 genes associated with PD; their roles have not yet been completely established. PARK2 is a gene that encodes for the protein parkin, and PINK1 is a gene that encodes for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1. Material/Methods Our objective was to determine if morphine treatment of HTB-11 cells affects the expression of PINK1 and PARK2. HTB-11 cells were treated with 10?7 M morphine for 2 h and a microarray analysis was conducted. To verify the microarray analysis, 3 Q-PCR trials were run using 10?6 M naloxone, morphine (10?7 M), or a naloxone/morphine mix. Results In both the microarray analysis and the Q-PCR analysis, PARK2 was up-regulated and PINK1 was down-regulated. Conclusions Morphine can affect the expression of PD-associated genes.

Snyder, Christopher; Mantione, Kirk

2014-01-01

276

T313M polymorphism of the PINK1 gene in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the association between T313M polymorphism at exon 4 of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene and Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the Uygur and Han populations of Xinjiang, China. Genetic DNA was extracted from 364 patients with PD from the Uygur and Han populations, as well as 346 normal control patients. Four exons of the PINK1 gene were amplified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The exons were then digested for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Gene types and allele frequencies were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis followed by DNA sequencing to analyze the T313M polymorphisms. In the Han population, T313M polymorphism allele frequency was observed to be significantly different between the PD group and the control group (?2=6.247; P<0.05). Significant differences were observed in in the T313M allele and genotype frequencies between the Uygur and Han populations (?2=5.475 and ?2=10.950, respectively; P<0.05). Polymorphisms in the PINK1 T313M mutation may be associated with genetic susceptibility to PD.

LUO, QIN; YANG, XINLING; YAO, YANI; LI, HONGJUAN; WANG, YULING

2014-01-01

277

Neuroprotective activity of gossypin from Hibiscus vitifolius against global cerebral ischemia model in rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of gossypin (isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius) against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawlet rats of wither gender were used in the study. Evaluation of cerbroprotective activity of bioflavonoid gossypin (in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg oral doses) isolated from H. vitifolius was carried out by using the global cerebral I/R model by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. The antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic levels were estimated along with histopathological studies. Result: Gossypin showed dose-dependent neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) and increase in the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and total thiol levels in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Cerebral infarction area was markedly reduced in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: Gossypin showed potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral I/R injury-induced oxidative stress in rats.

Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Ganapaty, S.; Ramkishan, A.; Narsu, M. Laxmi

2013-01-01

278

[Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].  

PubMed

A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. PMID:23755502

Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

2013-03-01

279

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

280

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

281

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

282

In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.

Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

2012-01-01

283

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?.

Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

2012-01-01

284

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

285

Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts  

PubMed Central

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15?min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360??g/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerova, Tana

2011-01-01

286

A Game-Theoretic Model of Interactions between Hibiscus Latent Singapore Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature and their interactions affecting host plants would depend mainly on plant species, virus strains, the order of infection and initial amount of inoculum. Hence, the prediction of outcome of virus competition in plants is not easy. In this study, we applied evolutionary game theory to model the interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana benthamiana under co-infection in a plant host. The accumulation of viral RNA was quantified using qPCR at 1, 2 and 8 days post infection (dpi), and two different methods were employed to predict the dominating virus. TMV was predicted to dominate the game in the long run and this prediction was confirmed by both qRT-PCR at 8 dpi and the death of co-infected plants after 15 dpi. In addition, we validated our model by using data reported in the literature. Ten out of fourteen reported co-infection outcomes agreed with our predictions. Explanations were given for the four interactions that did not agree with our model. Hence, it serves as a valuable tool in making long term predictions using short term data obtained in virus co-infections.

Wen, Yi; Niu, Shengniao; Wong, Sek-Man

2012-01-01

287

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ? 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum ?-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24549255

Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-04-26

288

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

2014-01-01

289

Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h).

Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

2013-01-01

290

The principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events triggered in response to dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential occur in primary neurons  

PubMed Central

PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for hereditary Parkinsonism. Recent studies have shown that PINK1 and Parkin play a pivotal role in the quality control of mitochondria, and dysfunction of either protein likely results in the accumulation of low-quality mitochondria that triggers early-onset familial Parkinsonism. As neurons are destined to degenerate in PINK1/Parkin-associated Parkinsonism, it is imperative to investigate the function of PINK1 and Parkin in neurons. However, most studies investigating PINK1/Parkin have used non-neuronal cell lines. Here we show that the principal PINK1 and Parkin cellular events that have been documented in non-neuronal lines in response to mitochondrial damage also occur in primary neurons. We found that dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential triggers phosphorylation of both PINK1 and Parkin and that, in response, Parkin translocates to depolarized mitochondria. Furthermore, Parkin's E3 activity is re-established concomitant with ubiquitin–ester formation at Cys431 of Parkin. As a result, mitochondrial substrates in neurons become ubiquitylated. These results underscore the relevance of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial quality control pathway in primary neurons and shed further light on the underlying mechanisms of the PINK1 and Parkin pathogenic mutations that predispose Parkinsonism in vivo.

Koyano, Fumika; Okatsu, Kei; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Fujioka, Yusuke; Kimura, Mayumi; Sobue, Gen; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

291

Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa with captopril, a controlled and randomized clinical trial was done. Patients from 30 to 80 years old with diagnosed hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before were included. The experimental procedure consisted of the administration of an infusion prepared with

A. Herrera-Arellano; S. Flores-Romero; M. A Chávez-Soto; J Tortoriello

2004-01-01

292

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C(2)C(12) muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 mug/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 mug/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 mug/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5 mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

Hasson, S S; Al-Jabri, A A; Sallam, T A; Al-Balushi, M S; Mothana, R A A

2010-01-01

293

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae), curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an obesity-associated collection of disorders, each of which contributes to cardiovascular risk. For patients with MS, it is difficult to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms. Therefore, the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. Numerous experimental studies have confirmed the important role of medicinal plants or their active components in the prevention and treatment, and in lowering risk factors of MS. As oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the association between obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant components like polyphenols might be useful as a treatment for MS. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L (HSE), rich in several polyphenols, is commonly and effectively used in native medicines against hypertension, diabetes and liver disorders. HSE has also shown therapeutic promise in the prevention of MS in patients, probably due to its polyphenol content. Curcumins, derived from the spice turmeric, and resveratrol, polyphenols found in grapes and red wine respectively, in addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit preadipocyte proliferation, de novo lipogenesis and fat accumulation in liver. Thus, due to their efficacy in the regulation of multiple targets, polyphenols have received considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of MS. This review discusses the therapeutic use of HSE, as well as curcumin and resveratrol, in the context of obesity as an initiator of insulin resistance and hypertension, the two main features of MS, together with the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:22721439

Pérez-Torres, Israel; Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Baños, Guadalupe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

2013-03-01

294

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.  

PubMed

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

1999-05-01

295

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300??g/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75??g/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300??g/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16?g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5?mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5?mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5?mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3?mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

2010-01-01

296

The Parkinson's disease-associated gene PINK1 protects neurons from ischemic damage by decreasing mitochondrial translocation of the fission promoter Drp1.  

PubMed

Our previous study has shown that PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) knocking down significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Although PINK1 is proved to be associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism and its function in this chronic pathological process is widely studied, its role in acute energy crisis such as ischemic stroke is poorly known. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. Human PINK1, two PINK1 mutants W437X and K219M, or Pink1 shRNA were transduced before OGD using lentiviral delivery. Our results showed that over-expression of wild-type PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. PINK1 over-expression also reversed OGD increased mitochondrial fragmentation, and suppressed the translocation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Transduction of the mutant PINK1 failed to provide any protective effect, while knockdown of Pink1 significantly increased the severity of OGD-induced neuronal damage. Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 reversed the effects of knocking down Pink1 on neuronal death and ATP production in response to OGD. This study demonstrates that PINK1 prevents ischemic damage in neurons by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission. These novel findings implicate a pivotal role of PINK1 regulated mitochondrial dynamics in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. We indicated that PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission. PMID:23772688

Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Fangzhe; Chen, Shufen; Liu, Xueyuan; Cui, Mei; Dong, Qiang

2013-12-01

297

Identification of pink-pigmented bacteria isolated from environmental water samples and their biofilm formation abilities.  

PubMed

Sixty-seven strains of pink-pigmented bacteria, which were isolated from environmental water samples collected nationwide, were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, the biofilm formation ability of the isolates was experimentally investigated. We could identify only 2 strains at the species level: Pedobacter roseus HS-38 and Runella slithyformis HS-77. The results showed that of the strains tested, 22 strains (32.8%) were Pedobacter spp., which was most frequently identified, followed by 19 strains (28.4%) of Arcicella spp., 16 strains (23.9%) of Deinococcus spp., 5 strains (7.5%) of Roseomonas spp., 4 strains (6.0%) of Flectobacillus spp. and 1 strain (1.5%) of Runella sp. Most isolates showed low similarity values to previously known species, and they were found to be novel species. At a result, it was difficult to identify environmental water-derived pink-pigmented bacteria at the species level. On the other hand, when we measured the absorbance by the crystal violet staining to examine the quantities of biofilm formation of these strains, fifty-five (82.0%) of the 67 isolates formed biofilm. The absorbance of Deinococcus sp. HS-75 was the highest (3.56). When comparing the absorbance values among the genera, Roseomonas spp. showed the highest absorbance (mean:1.62), followed by Deinococcus spp. (mean: 1.03), and Arcicella spp. (mean: 1.01). Strains of Flectobacillus spp. (mean: 0.48) and Pedobacter spp. (mean: 0.42) showed lower absorbance values. As above, it was shown that, at the species level, the pink-pigmented bacteria in the water in the Japanese environment had various levels of ability to form biofilm. PMID:18661678

Furuhata, Katsunori; Kato, Yuko; Goto, Keiichi; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-Ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Fukuyama, Masahumi

2008-06-01

298

Increased Frequency of Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac in China  

PubMed Central

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as “refuges” to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The “natural” refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005–2007 to 56% in 2008–2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

299

Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22238687

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

300

Fermentation behavior of osmophilic yeast Candida tropicalis isolated from the nectar of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers for xylitol production.  

PubMed

Eighteen yeast species belonging to seven genera were isolated from ten samples of nectar from Hibiscus rosa sinensis and investigated for xylitol production using D-xylose as sole carbon source. Amongst these isolates, no. 10 was selected as the best xylitol producer and identified as Candida tropicalis on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 26S rDNA sequencing. C. tropicalis produced 12.11 gl(-1) of xylitol in presence of 50 gl(-1) of xylose in 72 h at pH 5, 30°C and 200 rpm. The strain of C. tropicalis obtained through xylose enrichment technique has resulted in a yield of 0.5 gg(-1) with a xylitol volumetric productivity of 1.07 gl(-1)h(-1) in the presence of 300 gl(-1) of xylose through batch fermentation. This organism has been reported for the first time from Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers. Realizing, the importance of this high valued compound, as a sugar substitute, xylose enrichment technique was developed in order to utilize even higher concentrations of xylose as substrate for maximum xylitol production. PMID:21956659

Misra, Swati; Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Gupta, Pritesh; Dutt, Kakoli; Saxena, R K

2012-02-01

301

Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

2014-09-01

302

Wearing pink as a stand against bullying: why we need to say more.  

PubMed

This article presents a contextual discourse analysis of the media response to a campaign against bullying that was developed in the spring of 2007 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. As a feature of masculine socialization, male-on-male bullying secures the reproduction of an aggressive and heteronormative hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) for boys and young men in contemporary North American mainstream culture. I argue that the celebration of the "Pink Campaign" is illustrative of the normalizing silences, or "unremarkability," about the related discourses of sexism and homophobia that motivate everyday practices of male-on-male bullying. PMID:20390998

Naugler, Diane

2010-01-01

303

Total mercury and its distribution in blue crab and deep water pink shrimp from Alexandria coast.  

PubMed

Total mercury content and its distribution in muscles and viscera of male and female blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rothbum) and deep water pink shrimp (Parapenacus longirostris) collected from the 3 main fishing grounds near the Alexandria coast in the Mediterranean sea was estimated. The results indicate that the mercury content in the muscles of both species differ according to fishing areas, size, sex, and species. More than 75% of total mercury were accumulated in the viscera of both species which indicates that the mercury entered in these organisms via the feed chain. PMID:3696196

Moustafa, E K; Moharram, Y G; el-Sokkary, I; Telb, A I

1987-01-01

304

Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species. PMID:23872858

Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

2013-07-22

305

Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass.  

PubMed

Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg/kg), zinc (500 mg/kg), and lead (1000 mg/kg) in pot experiments. Three concentrations of Na2-EDTA solution (0, 5, and 10 mmol/kg soil) were added to the contaminated soils to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytoextraction by rainbow pink or phytostabilization by vetiver grass. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in a soil solution of rainbow pink significantly increased following the addition of EDTA (p < 0.05). The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink also significantly increased after EDTA solution was applied (p < 0.05), but the increase for Zn was insignificant. EDTA treatment significantly increased the total uptake of Pb in the shoot, over that obtained with the control treatment (p < 0.001), but it did not significantly increase the total uptake of Cd and Zn. The concentrations of Zn and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink are significantly correlated with those in the soil solution, but no relationship exists with concentrations in vetiver grass. The toxicity of highly contaminating metals did not affect the growth of vetiver grass, which was found to grow very well in this study. Results of this study indicate that rainbow pink can be considered to be a potential phytoextraction plant for removing Cd or Zn from metal-contaminated soils, and that vetiver grass can be regarded as a potential phytostabilization plant that can be grown in a site contaminated with multiple heavy metals. PMID:14987941

Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

2004-04-01

306

Relationship of size at return with environmental variation, hatchery production, and productivity of wild pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska: does size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) returning to Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, have increased to historically high levels of abundance in recent years, but average body size at return has declined. We examined how body size at return of PWS pink salmon was related to 10 biophysical factors, including the scale of hatchery production. We also examined the effect of body

Alex C. Wertheimer; William R. Heard; J. M. Maselko; William W. Smoker

2004-01-01

307

Biological effects of the PINK1 c.1366C>T mutation: implications in Parkinson disease pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PINK1 gene mutations are a cause of recessively inherited, early-onset Parkinson’s disease. In some patients, a single heterozygous\\u000a mutation has been identified, including the recurrent c.1366C>T transition. The interpretation of this finding remains controversial.\\u000a Furthermore, the c.1366C>T mutation is associated with lower levels of PINK1 transcript, raising the question of whether mRNA levels correlate with the clinical status. We sequenced

Anne Grünewald; Guido J. Breedveld; Katja Lohmann-Hedrich; Christan F. Rohé; Inke R. König; Johann Hagenah; Nicola Vanacore; Giuseppe Meco; Angelo Antonini; Stefano Goldwurm; Suzanne Lesage; Alexandra Dürr; Ferdinand Binkofski; Hartwig Siebner; Alexander Münchau; Alexis Brice; Ben A. Oostra; Christine Klein; Vincenzo Bonifati

2007-01-01

308

[Genetic monitoring of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha populations of northern coast of the Okhotsk Sea].  

PubMed

Results of genetic monitoring of pink salmon populations breeding in the rivers Taui Bay, Sea of Okhotsk (1993-2004) are analyzed. Statistically significant heterogeneity of samples identified according to gene frequencies are found out only for pink salmon generations of even years. Genetic differentiation of the samples of even years (G(ST) = 1,39 +/- 0,41) is higher than that of odd years (G(ST) = 0,74 +/- 0,09). At the same time for the parameter of genetic variability (heterozygosity) the regularity is opposite (0,0726 +/- 0,02564 vs. 0,08760 +/- 0,01950). Hence, at a lower heterozygosity the samplings of even years are characterized by higher genetic differences than the samplings of odd years. Besides that the interpopulation part in the general size of genetic variety is always practically less than both within-year and interannual that causes a low level of interpopulation genetic distinctions. Cluster analysis has found out that the most part of the samples of 2001-2004 are united separately from the samples collected up to 2000. In our opinion the reason is the change of the dominant generation on number and the changes of gene frequencies accompanying it. PMID:20458973

Golovanov, I S; Marchenko, S L; Pustovo?t, S P

2009-01-01

309

Inhibition of mitochondrial fusion by ?-synuclein is rescued by PINK1, Parkin and DJ-1  

PubMed Central

Aggregation of ?-synuclein (?S) is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and a variety of related neurodegenerative disorders. The physiological function of ?S is largely unknown. We demonstrate with in vitro vesicle fusion experiments that ?S has an inhibitory function on membrane fusion. Upon increased expression in cultured cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans, ?S binds to mitochondria and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation. In C. elegans age-dependent fragmentation of mitochondria is enhanced and shifted to an earlier time point upon expression of exogenous ?S. In contrast, siRNA-mediated downregulation of ?S results in elongated mitochondria in cell culture. ?S can act independently of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in shifting the dynamic morphologic equilibrium of mitochondria towards reduced fusion. Upon cellular fusion, ?S prevents fusion of differently labelled mitochondrial populations. Thus, ?S inhibits fusion due to its unique membrane interaction. Finally, mitochondrial fragmentation induced by expression of ?S is rescued by coexpression of PINK1, parkin or DJ-1 but not the PD-associated mutations PINK1 G309D and parkin ?1–79 or by DJ-1 C106A.

Kamp, Frits; Exner, Nicole; Lutz, Anne Kathrin; Wender, Nora; Hegermann, Jan; Brunner, Bettina; Nuscher, Brigitte; Bartels, Tim; Giese, Armin; Beyer, Klaus; Eimer, Stefan; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Haass, Christian

2010-01-01

310

Inhibition of mitochondrial fusion by ?-synuclein is rescued by PINK1, Parkin and DJ-1.  

PubMed

Aggregation of ?-synuclein (?S) is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and a variety of related neurodegenerative disorders. The physiological function of ?S is largely unknown. We demonstrate with in vitro vesicle fusion experiments that ?S has an inhibitory function on membrane fusion. Upon increased expression in cultured cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans, ?S binds to mitochondria and leads to mitochondrial fragmentation. In C. elegans age-dependent fragmentation of mitochondria is enhanced and shifted to an earlier time point upon expression of exogenous ?S. In contrast, siRNA-mediated downregulation of ?S results in elongated mitochondria in cell culture. ?S can act independently of mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins in shifting the dynamic morphologic equilibrium of mitochondria towards reduced fusion. Upon cellular fusion, ?S prevents fusion of differently labelled mitochondrial populations. Thus, ?S inhibits fusion due to its unique membrane interaction. Finally, mitochondrial fragmentation induced by expression of ?S is rescued by coexpression of PINK1, parkin or DJ-1 but not the PD-associated mutations PINK1 G309D and parkin ?1-79 or by DJ-1 C106A. PMID:20842103

Kamp, Frits; Exner, Nicole; Lutz, Anne Kathrin; Wender, Nora; Hegermann, Jan; Brunner, Bettina; Nuscher, Brigitte; Bartels, Tim; Giese, Armin; Beyer, Klaus; Eimer, Stefan; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Haass, Christian

2010-10-20

311

Effect of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the pink heelsplitter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to selectively kill sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) in the tributaries of the Great Lakes. Over the years, TFM was tested most often on nontarget fishes and only occasionally on invertebrates, including freshwater mussels. We exposed pink heelsplitters (Potamilus alatus ) to TFM concentrations and exposure times similar to those in lampricide treatments. Tests were conducted in water similar in quality to the Poultney River, New York, a stream that contains pink heelsplitters and is scheduled for lampricide treatment in 1991. Mussels were exposed to TFM for either 12 or 24 h and observed daily in well water for 14 days. Ninety percent of the mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L of TFM for 12 h survived, however, only 50% of the mussels exposed to that concentration for 24 h survived. TFM seems to narcotize or anesthetize mussels. Mortality of mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L TFM for 12 h seemed to be 60% immediately after treatment, but the actual mortality was only 10% after a 14-day recovery period.

Bills, T. D.; Rach, J. J.; Marking, L. L.; Howe, G. E.

1992-01-01

312

Long-term regional suppression of pink bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis cotton  

PubMed Central

Despite the potentially profound impact of genetically modified crops on agriculture and the environment, we know little about their long-term effects. Transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to control insects are grown widely, but rapid evolution of resistance by pests could nullify their benefits. Here, we present theoretical analyses showing that long-term suppression of pest populations is governed by interactions among reproductive rate, dispersal propensity, and regional abundance of a Bt crop. Supporting this theory, a 10-year study in 15 regions across Arizona shows that Bt cotton suppressed a major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), independent of demographic effects of weather and variation among regions. Pink bollworm population density declined only in regions where Bt cotton was abundant. Such long-term suppression has not been observed with insecticide sprays, showing that transgenic crops open new avenues for pest control. The debate about putative benefits of Bt crops has focused primarily on short-term decreases in insecticide use. The present findings suggest that long-term regional pest suppression after deployment of Bt crops may also contribute to reducing the need for insecticide sprays.

Carriere, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sisterson, Mark; Antilla, Larry; Whitlow, Mike; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

2003-01-01

313

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic diversity of a well-known pink filament community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was examined. Three phylogenetic types ("phylotypes"), designated EM 3, EM 17, and EM 19, were identified by cloning and sequencing the small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) obtained by PCR amplification of mixed-population DNA. All three phylotypes diverge deeply within the phylogenetic domain Bacteria sensu Woese (C. R. Woese, O. Kandler, and M. L. Wheelis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:4576-4579, 1990). No members of the Archaea or Eucarya were detected. EM 3 comprises a unique lineage within the Thermotogales group, and EM 17 and EM 19 are affiliated with the Aquificales. A total of 35 clones were examined, of which the majority (26 clones) were of a single sequence type (EM 17) closely related to Aquifex pyrophilus. In situ hybridization with clone-specific probes attributes the majority sequence, EM 17, to the pink filaments. PMID:7518219

Reysenbach, A L; Wickham, G S; Pace, N R

1994-06-01

314

PPAR? activation rescues mitochondrial function from inhibition of complex I and loss of PINK1.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease has long been associated with impaired mitochondrial complex I activity, while several gene defects associated with familial Parkinson's involve defects in mitochondrial function or 'quality control' pathways, causing an imbalance between mitochondrial biogenesis and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. Amongst these are mutations of the gene for PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) in which mitochondrial function is abnormal. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), a nuclear receptor and ligand-dependent transcription factor, regulates pathways of inflammation, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant defences and mitochondrial biogenesis. We have found that inhibition of complex I in human differentiated SHSY-5Y cells by the complex I inhibitor rotenone irreversibly decrease mitochondrial mass, membrane potential and oxygen consumption, while increasing free radical generation and autophagy. Similar changes are seen in PINK1 knockdown cells, in which potential, oxygen consumption and mitochondrial mass are all decreased. In both models, all these changes were reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with the PPAR? agonist, rosiglitazone, which increased mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxygen consumption and suppressed free radical generation and autophagy. Thus, rosiglitazone is neuroprotective in two different models of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease through a direct impact on mitochondrial function. PMID:24374061

Corona, Juan Carlos; de Souza, Senio Campos; Duchen, Michael R

2014-03-01

315

Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Moss, J. H.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Cross, A. D.; Myers, K. W.; Farley, Jr. , E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Helle, J. H.

2005-01-01

316

An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Gal?pagos  

PubMed Central

Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as “rosada,” meaning “pink” in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction.

Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L.; Snell, Heidi M.; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

2009-01-01

317

Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae  

PubMed Central

Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carriere, Yves

2011-01-01

318

Pink Book  

Cancer.gov

Although communicating effectively about health is an exacting task, those who have the earlier version of this publication know that it is possible. We hope the ideas and information in this revision will help new health communication programs start soundly and mature programs work even better. T Acknowledgments Many health communication experts contributed to the revision of this book.

319

Impairment of oxidative stress-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression by the defect of Parkinson-related gene of PINK1.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene causes an autosomal recessive form of PD. However, the etiology related to PINK1 is still not clear. Here, we examined the effect of PINK1 on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells following H(2)O(2) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) treatment. The HO-1 induction in response to H(2)O(2) and MPP(+) treatment was impaired by the expression of recombinant PINK1 G309D mutant. PINK1 G309D mutation increased the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells following H(2)O(2) treatment and cell survival was rescued by the over-expression of HO-1 using adenovirus (Ad) infection. In addition, knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein-1 (TRAP1), which is the substrate of PINK1 kinase, in SH-SY5Y cells also inhibited the expression of HO-1 in response to oxidative stress. The up-regulation of TRAP1 expression following H(2)O(2) treatment was inhibited by the expression of recombinant PINK1 G309D mutant. The H(2)O(2)-induced HO-1 induction was Akt- and ERK-dependent. The phosphorylation of ERK and Akt but not p38 was inhibited in cells expressing the PINK1 G309D mutant and knockdown of TRAP1. These results indicate a novel pathway by which the defect of PINK1 inhibits the oxidative stress-induced HO-1 production. Impairment of HO-1 production following oxidative stress may accelerate the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson patients with PINK1 defect. PMID:21366594

Chien, Wei-Lin; Lee, Tzeng-Ruei; Hung, Shih-Ya; Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Lee, Ming-Jen; Fu, Wen-Mei

2011-05-01

320

A novel PGC-1? isoform in brain localizes to mitochondria and associates with PINK1 and VDAC  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Novel 35 kDa PGC-1? localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on VDAC protein. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on membrane potential. •The 35 kDa PGC-1? associates and colocalizes with PINK in brain mitochondria. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1? (PGC-1?) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1? colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1?. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1? binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain.

Choi, Joungil, E-mail: jochoi@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Schubert, Manfred [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Castellani, Rudolph J. [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Russell, James W. [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

2013-06-14

321

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world’s oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Jennifer L. Nielsen

2004-01-01

322

VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in VCP cause multisystem degeneration impacting the nervous system, muscle, and/or bone. Patients may present with ALS, Parkinsonism, frontotemporal dementia, myopathy, Paget’s disease or a combination of these. The disease mechanism is unknown. We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect. Indeed, VCP interacts genetically with the PINK1/parkin pathway in vivo. Paradoxically, VCP complements PINK1 deficiency but not parkin deficiency. The basis of this paradox is resolved by mechanistic studies in vitro showing that VCP recruitment to damaged mitochondria requires Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial targets. VCP recruitment coincides temporally with mitochondrial fission, and VCP is required for proteasome-dependent degradation of Mitofusins in vitro and in vivo. Further, VCP and its adaptor Npl4/Ufd1 are required for clearance of damaged mitochondria via the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and this is impaired by pathogenic mutations in VCP.

Kim, Nam Chul; Tresse, Emilie; Kolaitis, Regina M.; Molliex, Amandine; Thomas, Ruth E.; Alami, Nael H.; Wang, Bo; Joshi, Aashish; Smith, Rebecca B.; Ritson, Gillian P.; Winborn, Brett J.; Moore, Jennifer; Lee, Joo-Yong; Yao, Tso-Pang; Pallanck, Leo; Kundu, Mondira; Taylor, J. Paul

2013-01-01

323

INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL OF GROWTH OF YOUNG  

EPA Science Inventory

Maturation, mating, and spawning of pink shrimp, Panaeus duorarum, are described. hree temperature cycles over 130 days produced three separate periods of maturation and spawning within 7 to 14 days after the water temperature increased from the minimum of 20.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C ...

324

The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.  

PubMed

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

325

The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China  

PubMed Central

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

326

Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg\\/kg), zinc (500 mg\\/kg), and

Hung-Yu Lai; Zueng-Sang Chen

2004-01-01

327

Rendimiento y calidad de forraje de kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) en tres edades en comparación con maíz y sorgo x Sudán nervadura café Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) forage yield and quality at three ages compared to corn and brown midrib sorghum x Sudangrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) shows forage potential as an alternative crop in farm production systems. In the present study, yield potential and forage quality in kenaf varieties 'Tainung 2' and 'Everglades 41' at three different ages were evaluated, and compared to corn and brown midrib sorghum x sudangrass. The present study was conducted in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico in the summers

David Guadalupe; Reta Sáncheza; Sarel Cruz Cruzb; Arturo Palomo Gilb; J. Santos Serrato; José Antonio Cueto Wongd

328

[Genetic differentiation of pink salmon oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range].  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 19 allozyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples of odd- and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation over the allozyme loci, per broodline, were on average 0.43% (GST), while over the microsatellite loci it was 0.26% (the theta(ST) coefficient, F-statistics based on the allele frequency variance), and 0.90% (the rho(ST) coefficient, R-statistics based on the allele size variance). The values of interlinear component constituted 2.34, 0.31, and 1.05% of the total variation, respectively. Using the allozyme loci, statistically significant intralinear heterogeneity was demonstrated among the regions, as well as among the populations of Southern Sakhalin Island. Multivariate scaling based on the allozyme data demonstrated regional clustering of the sample groups, representing certain populations during the spawning run or in different years. Most of the microsatellite loci examined were found to be highly polymorphic (mean heterozygosity > 0.880). The estimates of interlinear, interregional, and interpopulation variation over these loci in terms of theta(ST) values were substantially lower than in terms of rho(ST) values. Regional genetic differentiation, mostly expressed at the allozyme loci among the populations from the northern and southern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk (i.e., between the Sakhalin and Kuril populations), was less expressed at the microsatellite loci. The differentiation between these regions observed can be considered as the evidence in favor of a large-scale isolation by distance characterizing Asian pink salmon. It is suggested that in pink salmon, low genetic differentiation at neutral microsatellite loci can be explained by extremely high heterozygosity,of the loci themselves, as well as by the migration gene exchange among the populations (the estimate of the genetic migration coefficient inferred from the "private" allele data constituted 2.6 to 3.4%), specifically, by the ancient migration exchange, which occurred during postglacial colonization and colonization of the range. PMID:17152707

Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Altukhov, Iu P; Afanas'ev, K I; Rubtsova, G A; Vasil'eva, Iu V

2006-10-01

329

[Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].  

PubMed

Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

2010-02-01

330

Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens implicated in foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover natural antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial plant extract-concentrate formulations on four types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. enterica serovar Newport. The leafy greens tested included organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic adult and baby spinach. Each leaf sample was washed, dip inoculated with Salmonella Newport (10(6) CFU/ml), and dried. Apple and olive extract formulations were prepared at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations, and hibiscus concentrates were prepared at 10, 20, and 30%. Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 2 min and individually incubated at 4°C. After incubation, samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity was both concentration and time dependent. Olive extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity, resulting in 2- to 3-log CFU/g reductions for each concentration and type of leafy green by day 3. Apple extract showed 1- to 2-log CFU/g reductions by day 3 on various leafy greens. Hibiscus concentrate showed an overall reduction of 1 log CFU/g for all leafy greens. The maximum reduction by hydrogen peroxide (3%) was about 1 log CFU/g. The antimicrobial activity was also tested on the background microflora of organic leafy greens, and reductions ranged from 0 to 2.8 log. This study demonstrates the potential of natural plant extract formulations to inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens. PMID:22004815

Moore, Katherine L; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2011-10-01

331

Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development.  

PubMed

The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style-stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l(-1) methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style-stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style-stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

2011-11-01

332

Vitamin K2 is a mitochondrial electron carrier that rescues pink1 deficiency.  

PubMed

Human UBIAD1 localizes to mitochondria and converts vitamin K(1) to vitamin K(2). Vitamin K(2) is best known as a cofactor in blood coagulation, but in bacteria it is a membrane-bound electron carrier. Whether vitamin K(2) exerts a similar carrier function in eukaryotic cells is unknown. We identified Drosophila UBIAD1/Heix as a modifier of pink1, a gene mutated in Parkinson's disease that affects mitochondrial function. We found that vitamin K(2) was necessary and sufficient to transfer electrons in Drosophila mitochondria. Heix mutants showed severe mitochondrial defects that were rescued by vitamin K(2), and, similar to ubiquinone, vitamin K(2) transferred electrons in Drosophila mitochondria, resulting in more efficient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction was rescued by vitamin K(2) that serves as a mitochondrial electron carrier, helping to maintain normal ATP production. PMID:22582012

Vos, Melissa; Esposito, Giovanni; Edirisinghe, Janaka N; Vilain, Sven; Haddad, Dominik M; Slabbaert, Jan R; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Schaap, Onno; De Strooper, Bart; Meganathan, R; Morais, Vanessa A; Verstreken, Patrik

2012-06-01

333

Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in familiar parkinsonism associated with PINK1 mutation.  

PubMed

In the present study mitochondrial respiratory function of fibroblasts from a patient affected by early-onset parkinsonism carrying the homozygous W437X nonsense mutation in the PINK1 gene has been thoroughly characterized. When compared with normal fibroblasts, the patient's fibroblast mitochondria exhibited a lower respiratory activity and a decreased respiratory control ratio with cellular ATP supply relying mainly on enhanced glycolytic production. The quantity, specific activity and subunit pattern of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes were normal. However, a significant decrease of the cellular cytochrome c content was observed and this correlated with a reduced cytochrome c oxidase in situ-activity. Measurement of ROS revealed in mitochondria of the patient's fibroblasts enhanced O(2)(*-) and H(2)O(2) production abrogated by inhibition of complex I. No change in the glutathione-based redox buffering was, however, observed. PMID:18473170

Piccoli, Claudia; Sardanelli, Annamaria; Scrima, Rosella; Ripoli, Maria; Quarato, Giovanni; D'Aprile, Annamaria; Bellomo, Francesco; Scacco, Salvatore; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Iuso, Arcangela; Boffoli, Domenico; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Papa, Sergio

2008-12-01

334

Pink marine sediments reveal rapid ice melt and Arctic meltwater discharge during Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings.  

PubMed

The climate of the last glaciation was interrupted by numerous abrupt temperature fluctuations, referred to as Greenland interstadials and stadials. During warm interstadials the meridional overturning circulation was active transferring heat to the north, whereas during cold stadials the Nordic Seas were ice-covered and the overturning circulation was disrupted. Meltwater discharge, from ice sheets surrounding the Nordic Seas, is implicated as a cause of this ocean instability, yet very little is known regarding this proposed discharge during warmings. Here we show that, during warmings, pink clay from Devonian Red Beds is transported in suspension by meltwater from the surrounding ice sheet and replaces the greenish silt that is normally deposited on the north-western slope of Svalbard during interstadials. The magnitude of the outpourings is comparable to the size of the outbursts during the deglaciation. Decreasing concentrations of ice-rafted debris during the interstadials signify that the ice sheet retreats as the meltwater production increases. PMID:24264767

Rasmussen, Tine L; Thomsen, Erik

2013-01-01

335

[The relationship between allozyme and morphometric variation in pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha from Southern Sakhalin].  

PubMed

The relationship between allozyme polymorphism and morphometric variation in pink salmon from Southern Sakhalin was examined in order to determine the effects of individual genes. Dramatic differences were found between individuals of some genotypes. For instance, the difference in average male body length between the two prevailing PGDH* genotypes reached 36sigma, which corresponds to 5% contribution to the total variance of the trait. It would take only several generations for selection in favor of extreme phenotypes to rapidly shift the allele frequencies at loci of such a strong effect, which should be taken into account both in fishery management and in practical hatchery. Long-term selection can result in irreversible genetic changes in the population, which may be hazardous in the context of causing irreparable harm to the biological resources of the Earth. PMID:17486753

Moskale?chik, F F

2007-03-01

336

Three-way chemometric method study and UV-Vis absorbance for the study of simultaneous degradation of anthocyanins in flowers of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensys species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet-visible spectra of flower extracts of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensys L. var. regius maximus species have been measured between 240.02 and 747.97nm at pH values ranging from 1.1 to 13.0. Deconvolution of these spectra using the Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) model permitted the study of anthocyanin systems without isolation and purification of the individual species. Seven species were identified: flavilium cation,

Maria Alice B Levi; Ieda S Scarminio; Ronei J Poppi; Marcello G Trevisan

2004-01-01

337

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)  

PubMed Central

Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

2014-01-01

338

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).  

PubMed

Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

2014-01-01

339

Inherited chilling tolerance in somatic hybrids of transgenic Hibiscus rosa-sinensis x transgenic Lavatera thuringiaca selected by double-antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Improvement of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for increased frost tolerance has been attempted through somatic hybridization with the frost tolerant Lavatera thuringiaca. Cell suspensions from Hibiscus and Lavatera were transformed with A. tumefaciens harboring plasmids containing selectable genes coding for kanamycin and hygromycin resistance, respectively. We provided evidence that H. rosa-sinensis and L. thuringiaca were transformed by strong selection of transformed calluses in medium containing antibiotics, by GUS activity determination in protein extracts and by molecular confirmation of chromosomal integration and expression of the selectable genes. Protoplasts isolated from a kanamycinresistant Hibiscus callus and from a hygromycin-resistant Lavatera callus were fused and selected in medium containing both antibiotics. We determined unambiguously that the regenerated double-antibiotic resistant clones obtained are indeed somatic hybrids through analysis of acid phosphatase zymograms and nuclear DNA content. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was accomplished from both isolated protoplasts and transgenic calluses of L. thuringiaca. However, regeneration from the double-antibiotic resistant fusant calluses was unsuccessful. Analysis of the somatic hybrids at the callus level showed that chilling and freezing tolerance are governed by independent genetic components. The somatic hybrids displayed significant improvement for chilling tolerance at conditions lethal to H. rosa-sinensis, although frost tolerance was not expressed. PMID:24178462

Vazquez-Thello, A; Li Yang, J; Hidaka, M; Uozumi, T

1996-03-01

340

Influence of egg load and oviposition time interval on the host discrimination and offspring survival of Anagyrus pseudococci (Hymenoptera: encyrtidae), a solitary endoparasitoid of citrus mealybug, ++Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Oviposition and host discrimination behaviour of unmated Anagyrus pseudococci (Girault), an endoparasitoid of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso), were investigated in the laboratory. Female parasitoids were able to discriminate between parasitized hosts and healthy ones. The mean number of ovipositions was significantly higher in unparasitized than in parasitized hosts. Conspecific-superparasitism occurred more often than self-superparasitism. Changes in consecutive ovipositions over three hours by A. pseudococci suggested that egg load influenced the discrimination behaviour of the parasitoids, with females which had low egg loads mostly avoiding oviposition in already parasitized hosts at time intervals ranging from 0 h to 96 h, and distributing their eggs in the high quality (unparasitized) hosts. The parasitized hosts were rejected more commonly through antennal perception of external markers than during ovipositor probing which could have encountered internal markers but this relationship changed with increasing time after oviposition. The parasitoid's oviposition rate in unparasitized and conspecific-parasitized hosts varied at the different oviposition time intervals when the females had fewer eggs in the ovaries. Percentage emergence of parasitized offspring was not significantly influenced by whether they developed in single or superparasitized mealybugs. The significance of host discrimination by A. pseudococci is discussed. PMID:10948366

Islam, K S; Copland, M J

2000-02-01

341

Conceptual comparison of pink water treatment technologies: granular activated carbon, anaerobic fluidized bed, and zero-valent iron-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink water, explosive-laden wastewater produced in army ammunition plants is often treated using expensive and non-destructive granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. This paper compares GAC adsorption and two alternative treatment technologies, anaerobic GAC fluidized bed reactor and zero- valent iron-Fenton process. The bench-scale demonstration of the zero-valent iron-Fenton process with real pink water is reported. The features of three technologies

S.-Y. Oh; D. K. Cha; P. C. Chiu; B. J. Kim

342

[Genetic divergence in pink salmon introduced into the European north of Russia: microsatellite and allozyme variation analysis].  

PubMed

The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year breeding line. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers of the new area, and in samples from the donor population of the Ola River (Magadan oblast). In the generations 8 and 9 of the introduced pink salmon of the odd-year line, the genetic diversity (the number of alleles and the mean heterozygosity) both at allozyme and at microsatellite loci was significantly lower, than that in the donor population. The explanations of the decline in diversity are discussed. The first evidence for spatial genetic divergence in transplanted fish within the new area has been obtained; the divergence level may be comparable with that characteristic of native populations. PMID:16649661

Gordeeva, N V; Salmenkova, E A; Altukhov, Iu P

2006-03-01

343

Genetic divergence in pink salmon introduced into the European North of Russia: Microsatellite and allozyme variation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year\\u000a broodline. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of\\u000a four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers\\u000a of

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2006-01-01

344

Characterization of phenolic compounds biosynthesized in pink-colored skin of Japanese indigenous Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu grape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is a traditional grape cultivar that has been grown for centuries in Japan. The Koshu grape has pink-colored skin\\u000a and Koshu wines have slight astringency. We demonstrated for the first time the characterization of hydroxycinnamic acids,\\u000a flavan-3-ols, and flavonoids in Koshu grape using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.\\u000a The gross weight of phenolic compounds

Hironori Kobayashi; Yumiko Suzuki; Kosei Ajimura; Tomonori Konno; Shunji Suzuki; Hiroshi Saito

2011-01-01

345

Marination of deep-water pink shrimp with rosemary extract and the determination of its shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract on marinated deep-water pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris Lucas, 1846) stored at 1°C was investigated. Chemical, physical, instrumental, microbiological and sensory analyses were performed to investigate the quality changes and to determine the shelf-life of marinated shrimps. Chemical composition of the shrimp was determined and no significant difference (P>0.05) was found between

Asli Cadun; Duygu K??la; ?ükran Çakl?

2008-01-01

346

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK waters. Much of the catch is transported live to continental Europe in specially designed live-well (`vivier') vehicles. During the winter of 2000\\/2001, many trap-caught crabs from Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK, were reportedly moribund and pink in colour. These crabs generally died before and during vivier transportation. We

G. D. Stentiford; M. Green; K. Bateman; H. J Small; D. M Neil; S. W Feist

2002-01-01

347

Feeding strategy and daily ration of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in a South Florida seagrass bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of juvenile pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Burkenroad, previously Penaeus duorarum) from Long Key Bight, Florida Keys, was studied using stomach content examination, pigment measurements, and stable isotope\\u000a (?13C and ?15N) analysis. Samples were taken over approximately 24?h on four occasions from December 1997 to June 1998. Juvenile F.?duorarum fed nocturnally, the main prey being the seagrass shrimp Thor

R. Schwamborn; M. M. Criales

2000-01-01

348

Wild and hatchery reproduction of pink and chum salmon and their catches in the Sakhalin-Kuril region, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sakhalin-Kuril region hatchery culture of pink and chum salmon is of great importance compared to other regions of\\u000a the Russian Far East. During the last 30 years the number of hatcheries increased two-fold, and significant advances were\\u000a made in hatchery technologies. As a result, chum salmon capture in regions where hatcheries operate (southwestern and eastern\\u000a Sakhalin coasts, and Iturup

Alexander M. Kaev

349

The mitochondrial protease HtrA2 is regulated by Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice, targeted deletion of the serine protease HtrA2 (also known as Omi) causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to a neurodegenerative disorder with parkinsonian features. In humans, point mutations in HtrA2 are a susceptibility factor for Parkinson's disease (PARK13 locus). Mutations in PINK1, a putative mitochondrial protein kinase, are associated with the PARK6 autosomal recessive locus for susceptibility to early-onset Parkinson's

Hélène Plun-Favreau; Kristina Klupsch; Nicoleta Moisoi; Sonia Gandhi; Svend Kjaer; David Frith; Kirsten Harvey; Emma Deas; Robert J. Harvey; Neil McDonald; Nicholas W. Wood; L. Miguel Martins; Julian Downward

2007-01-01

350

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

Hopkins, Allison L; Lamm, Marnie G; Funk, Janet L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2013-03-01

351

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000 mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hypolipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit.

Hopkins, Allison L.; Lamm, Marnie G.; Funk, Janet; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2013-01-01

352

Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry  

SciTech Connect

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon.

Schwartz, J.P.

1984-01-01

353

Isolation and characterisation of carotenoproteins from deep-water pink shrimp processing waste.  

PubMed

The effect of barbel (Barbus callensis) trypsin on the recovery and characteristics of carotenoprotein from pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) waste was studied. The recovery of carotenoproteins was maximized by the hydrolysis of shrimp waste using 1.0 trypsin U/g of shrimp waste for 1h at 25°C. Freeze dried partially purified carotenoproteins recovered contained 71.09±0.19% protein, 16.47±0.68% lipid, 7.78±0.12% ash, 1.79±0.04% chitin, 87.42±2.54?g total astaxanthin/g of sample. Protein-pigment splitting, for astaxanthin recuperation, was carried out using barbel and bovine trypsins and the mixture of the two enzymes; then the protein was separated from the pigment by ultrafiltration. The hydrolysate obtained by treatment with the mixture of the two enzymes presented the best levels (p<0.05) of xanthophylls (80.15 ?g/g) and total protein (7.42 mg/g), respectively. Splitting the protein-pigment complex allows studies on pigment absorption, stability and application. PMID:22813933

Sila, Assaad; Nasri, Moncef; Bougatef, Ali

2012-12-01

354

DNA-based detection of Bt resistance alleles in pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by pests is the main threat to long-term insect control by transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. We previously identified three mutant alleles (r1, r2, r3) of a cadherin gene in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) linked with recessive resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac and survival on transgenic Bt cotton. Here we describe a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method that detects the mutation in genomic DNA of each of the three resistant alleles. Using primers that distinguish between resistant and susceptible (s) alleles, this method enables identification of 10 genotypes (r1r1, r1r2, r1r3, r2r2, r2r3, r3r3, r1s, r2s, r3s, and ss) at the cadherin locus. For each of the three resistant alleles, the method detected the resistance allele in a single heterozygote (r1s, r2s, or r3s) pooled with DNA from the equivalent of 19 susceptible (ss) individuals. The results suggest that the DNA-based detection method described here could greatly increase the efficiency of monitoring for resistance to Cry1Ac compared to bioassays that detect rare individuals with homozygous resistance. PMID:15522618

Morin, Shai; Henderson, Scottie; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Carrière, Yves; Dennehy, Timothy J; Brown, Judith K; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2004-11-01

355

Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse  

SciTech Connect

The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare {open_quotes}escapers{close_quotes} from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1= Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p{sup m} and p{sup x}, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. 43 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Johnson, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-01

356

The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength.

Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

357

The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

358

Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing.  

PubMed

The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating this process for industrial scale-up. Microbial communities were identified by semiconductor sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA harvested from plant-surface associated samples and analyzed using an Ion Torrent PGM. The communities were sampled after 96 h from each of three different conditions, including amendments with pond water, sterilized pond water, or with a mixture of pectinolytic bacterial isolates. Additionally, plants from two different sources and having different pretreatment conditions were compared. We report that the best retting communities are dominated by members of the order Clostridiales. These bacteria appear to be naturally associated with the plant material, although slight variations between source materials were found. Additionally, heavy inoculations of pectinolytic bacteria established themselves and in addition their presence facilitated the rapid dominance of the original plant-associated Clostridiales. These data suggest that members of the order Clostridiales dominate the community and are most closely associated with efficient and effective retting. The results further suggest that establishment of the community structure is first driven by the switch to anaerobic conditions, and subsequently by possible competition for nitrogen. These findings reveal important bacterial groups involved in fiber retting, and suggest mechanisms for the manipulation of the community and retting efficiency by modifying nutrient availability. PMID:23475284

Visi, David K; D'Souza, Nandika; Ayre, Brian G; Webber Iii, Charles L; Allen, Michael S

2013-05-01

359

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 ?g/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment of the hepatocytes with H. sabdariffa extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT, and MDA and increased the reduced activities of SOD and GSH-Px in a dose-dependent manner; post-treatment did not show any protective effect. The results suggest that H. sabdariffa extract can be potentially used for preventing rather than curing liver diseases in fish. PMID:21082285

Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki

2011-01-01

360

Structure of hibiscus latent singapore virus by fiber diffraction: a nonconserved his122 contributes to coat protein stability.  

PubMed

Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) is a rigid rod-shaped plant virus and a new member of the Tobamovirus family. Unlike all other Tobamoviruses, the HLSV genome contains a unique poly(A) tract in its 3' untranslated region. The virion is composed of a monomeric coat protein (CP) unit of 18 kDa, arranged as a right-handed helix around the virus axis. We have determined the structure of HLSV at 3.5 Å by X-ray fiber diffraction and refined it to an R-factor of 0.096. While the overall structure of the HLSV CP resembles that of other Tobamoviruses, there are a few unique differences. There is a kink in the LR helix due to the presence of His122. Also, the adjacent Lys123 may further destabilize the helix by positive charge repulsion, making the kink more pronounced. The His122-Asp88 salt bridge provides significant stability to the loop adjacent to the RR helix. Carboxyl-carboxylate interactions that drive viral disassembly are also different in HLSV. The nucleotide recognition mechanisms for virus assembly between HLSV and ribgrass mosaic virus are similar, but different between tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus. PMID:21195089

Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Oda, Toshiro; Kendall, Amy; Bian, Wen; Stubbs, Gerald; Wong, Sek-Man; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

2011-02-25

361

Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.  

PubMed

The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

2014-07-23

362

Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Participates in Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis  

PubMed Central

Anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis (AHT) were used in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and carrageenan (Carr-)induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AHT together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that AHT blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), significantly. In the animal test, AHT decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th?h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated AHT decreased the NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels on the serum level at the 5th h after the Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHT decreased Carr-induced iNOS, and COX-2, and increased HO-1 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that AHT has excellent anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and thus it has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products.

Liu, Shu-Ling; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Wang-Ching; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

2012-01-01

363

Interactions of light intensity, insecticide concentration, and time on the efficacy of systemic insecticides in suppressing populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The impact of light intensity on the uptake and persistence of the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, were evaluated in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) and yellow sage (Lantana camara L.). Insecticide residues were measured in leaves sampled from the treated plants at four time intervals after treatment to determine the relationship between insecticide concentration and efficacy against two insect pests: sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso. The insecticides were evaluated at their respective label rate and at the comparable label rate of the other insecticide under two different light environments: ambient and shade. The uptake of dinotefuran into yellow sage was more rapid at both treatment rates than both rates of imidacloprid, resulting in higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.8-100) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. Additionally, plants that received both rates of dinotefuran had fewer whitefly pupae (< 1.0) at week 4 compared with imidacloprid-treated plants (23.7-25.3). The uptake of dinotefuran into poinsettia plants was also more rapid and resulted in quicker and higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.5-99.6) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. However, despite efficient uptake, the efficacy of both systemic insecticides was less for citrus mealybug where percent mortality values were <50% among all the treatments across the 4 wk. The use of the two systemic insecticides evaluated in regards to pest management in horticultural cropping systems is discussed. PMID:22606821

Cloyd, Raymond A; Williams, Kimberly A; Byrne, Frank J; Kemp, Kenneth E

2012-04-01

364

Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov., a pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium isolated from the bamboo phyllosphere.  

PubMed

A pink-pigmented, Gram negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain BL44(T), was isolated from bamboo leaves and identified as a member of the genus Methylobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity values of 98.7-97.0 % with closely related type strains and showed highest similarity to Methylobacterium zatmanii DSM 5688(T) (98.7 %) and Methylobacterium thiocyanatum DSM 11490(T) (98.7 %). Methylotrophic metabolism in this strain was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the mxaF gene coding for the ?-subunit of methanol dehydrogenase. Strain BL44(T) produced three known quorum sensing signal molecules with similar retention time to C8, C10 and C12-HSLs when characterized by GC-MS. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C18:1 ?7c, iso-3OH C17:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH), which supported the grouping of the isolate in the genus Methylobacterium. The DNA G+C content was 66.9 mol%. DNA relatedness of the strain BL44(T) to its most closely related strains ranged from 12-43.3 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain BL44(T) is assigned to a novel species of the genus Methylobacterium for which the name Methylobacterium pseudosasae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain BL44(T) = NBRC 105205(T) = ICMP 17622(T)). PMID:24297603

Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj

2014-02-01

365

Environmental influences on potential recruitment of pink shrimp, Fatlantopenaeus duorarum, from Florida Bay nursery grounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two modeling approaches were used to explore the basis for variation in recruitment of pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, to the Tortugas fishing grounds. Emphasis was on development and juvenile densities on the nursery grounds. An exploratory simulation modeling exercise demonstrated large year-to-year variations in recruitment contributions to the Tortugas rink shrimp fishery may occur on some nursery grounds, and production may differ considerably among nursery grounds within the same year, simply on the basis of differences in temperature and salinity. We used a growth and survival model to simulate cumulative harvests from a July-centered cohort of early-settlement-stage postlarvae from two parts of Florida Bay (western Florida Bay and northcentral Florida Bay), using historic temperature and salinity data from these areas. Very large year-to-year differences in simulated cumulative harvests were found for recruits from Whipray Basin. Year-to-year differences in simulated harvests of recruits from Johnson Key Basin were much smaller. In a complementary activity, generalized linear and additive models and intermittent, historic density records were used to develop an uninterrupted multi-year time series of monthly density estimates for juvenile rink shrimp in the Johnson Key Basin. The developed data series was based on relationships of density with environmental variables. The strongest relationship was with sea-surface temperature. Three other environmental variables (rainfall, water level at Everglades National Park Well P35, and mean wind speed) also contributed significantly to explaining variation in juvenile densities. Results of the simulation model and two of the three statistical models yielded similar interannual patterns for Johnson Key Basin. While it is not possible to say that one result validates the other, the concordance of the annual patterns from the two models is supportive of both approaches.

Browder, J. A.; Restrepo, V. R.; Rice, J. K.; Robblee, M. B.; Zein-Eldin, Z.

1999-01-01

366

The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon  

PubMed Central

The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci where SmaI SINEs have been species-specifically inserted in chum salmon, insertions of SINEs were polymorphic among populations of chum salmon. By contrast, at four loci where SmaI SINEs had been species-specifically inserted in pink salmon, the SINEs were fixed among all populations of pink salmon. The interspecific and intraspecific variation of the SmaI SINEs cannot be explained by the assumption that the SmaI family was amplified in a common ancestor of these two species. To interpret these observations, we propose several possible models, including introgression and the horizontal transfer of SINEs from pink salmon to chum salmon during evolution.

Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

1997-01-01

367

Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) and Forkhead Box O (FOXO) Complement Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Drosophila PTEN-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) Null Mutant*  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is associated with early onset Parkinson disease, encodes a serine-threonine kinase that is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function. Moreover, another Parkinson disease-linked gene, parkin, functions downstream of PINK1 in protecting mitochondria and dopaminergic (DA) neuron. In our fly genetic screening, knockdown of Sir2 blocked PINK1 overexpression-induced phenotypes. Consistently, ectopic expression of Sir2 successfully rescued mitochondrial defects in PINK1 null mutants, but unexpectedly, failed in parkin mutants. In further genetic analyses, deletion of FOXO nullified the Sir2-induced mitochondrial restoration in PINK1 null mutants. Moreover, overexpression of FOXO or its downstream target gene such as SOD2 or Thor markedly ameliorated PINK1 loss-of-function defects, suggesting that FOXO mediates the mitochondrial protecting signal induced by Sir2. Consistent with its mitochondria-protecting role, Sir2 expression prevented the DA neuron loss of PINK1 null mutants in a FOXO-dependent manner. Loss of Sir2 or FOXO induced DA neuron degeneration, which is very similar to that of PINK1 null mutants. Furthermore, PINK1 deletion had no deleterious effect on the DA neuron loss in Sir2 or FOXO mutants, supporting the idea that Sir2, FOXO, and PINK1 protect DA neuron in a common pathway. Overall, these results strongly support the role of Sir2 and FOXO in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and DA neuron loss, further suggesting that Sir2 and FOXO function downstream of PINK1 and independently of Parkin.

Koh, Hyongjong; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Jeehye; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Jongkyeong

2012-01-01

368

Silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) and Forkhead box O (FOXO) complement mitochondrial dysfunction and dopaminergic neuron loss in Drosophila PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) null mutant.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is associated with early onset Parkinson disease, encodes a serine-threonine kinase that is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function. Moreover, another Parkinson disease-linked gene, parkin, functions downstream of PINK1 in protecting mitochondria and dopaminergic (DA) neuron. In our fly genetic screening, knockdown of Sir2 blocked PINK1 overexpression-induced phenotypes. Consistently, ectopic expression of Sir2 successfully rescued mitochondrial defects in PINK1 null mutants, but unexpectedly, failed in parkin mutants. In further genetic analyses, deletion of FOXO nullified the Sir2-induced mitochondrial restoration in PINK1 null mutants. Moreover, overexpression of FOXO or its downstream target gene such as SOD2 or Thor markedly ameliorated PINK1 loss-of-function defects, suggesting that FOXO mediates the mitochondrial protecting signal induced by Sir2. Consistent with its mitochondria-protecting role, Sir2 expression prevented the DA neuron loss of PINK1 null mutants in a FOXO-dependent manner. Loss of Sir2 or FOXO induced DA neuron degeneration, which is very similar to that of PINK1 null mutants. Furthermore, PINK1 deletion had no deleterious effect on the DA neuron loss in Sir2 or FOXO mutants, supporting the idea that Sir2, FOXO, and PINK1 protect DA neuron in a common pathway. Overall, these results strongly support the role of Sir2 and FOXO in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and DA neuron loss, further suggesting that Sir2 and FOXO function downstream of PINK1 and independently of Parkin. PMID:22378780

Koh, Hyongjong; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Jeehye; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Jongkyeong

2012-04-13

369

Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm  

PubMed Central

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Sustainable use of such crops requires methods for delaying evolution of resistance by pests. To thwart pest resistance, some transgenic crops produce 2 different Bt toxins targeting the same pest. This “pyramid” strategy is expected to work best when selection for resistance to 1 toxin does not cause cross-resistance to the other toxin. The most widely used pyramid is transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Cross-resistance between these toxins was presumed unlikely because they bind to different larval midgut target sites. Previous results showed that laboratory selection with Cry1Ac caused little or no cross-resistance to Cry2A toxins in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. We show here, however, that laboratory selection of pink bollworm with Cry2Ab caused up to 420-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac as well as 240-fold resistance to Cry2Ab. Inheritance of resistance to high concentrations of Cry2Ab was recessive. Larvae from a laboratory strain resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in diet bioassays survived on cotton bolls producing only Cry1Ac, but not on cotton bolls producing both toxins. Thus, the asymmetrical cross-resistance seen here does not threaten the efficacy of pyramided Bt cotton against pink bollworm. Nonetheless, the results here and previous evidence indicate that cross-resistance occurs between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in some key cotton pests. Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops.

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Masson, Luke; Crowder, David W.; Li, Xianchun; Carriere, Yves

2009-01-01

370

Effects of four nematode species on fitness costs of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy oftransgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). In conjunction with refuges of non-Bt host plants, fitness costs can delay the evolution of resistance. Furthermore, fitness costs often vary with ecological conditions, suggesting that agricultural landscapes can be manipulated to magnify fitness costs and thereby prolong the efficacy of Bt crops. In the current study, we tested the effects of four species of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on the magnitude and dominance of fitness costs of resistance to Bt toxin CrylAc in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). For more than a decade, field populations of pink bollworm in the United States have remained susceptible to Bt cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. producing CrylAc; however, we used laboratory strains that had a mixture of susceptible and resistant individuals. In laboratory experiments, dominant fitness costs were imposed by the nematode Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar, and Raulston but no fitness costs were imposed by Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, Steinernema sp. (ML18 strain), or Heterorhabditis sonorensis Stock, Rivera-Orduño, and Flores-Lara. In computer simulations, evolution of resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm was substantially delayed by treating some non-Bt cotton refuge fields with nematodes that imposed a dominant fitness cost, similar to the cost observed in laboratory experiments with S. riobrave. Based on the results here and in related studies, we conclude that entomopathogenic nematodes could bolster insect resistance management, but the success of this approach will depend on selecting the appropriate species of nematode and environment, as fitness costs were magnified by only two of five species evaluated and also depended on environmental factors. PMID:21061986

Hannon, Eugene R; Sisterson, Mark S; Stock, S Patricia; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gassmann, Aaron J

2010-10-01

371

Effects of Urtica dioica and Hibiscus sabdariffa on the quality and safety of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage).  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of Urtica dioica, Hibiscus sabdariffa butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) and nitrite/nitrate on the quality (pH, Hunter L-, a- and b-value and sensory attributes) and safety [2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value and biogenic amine] were investigated during the ripening periods of sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage). During the first 2 days of ripening, pH values decreased (P<0.05) rapidly from 5.78 to about 4.49. pH values of batters were not significantly (P<0.05) affected by the addition of nitrite/nitrate, BHT, U. dioica, H. sabdariffa. TBARS values increased from 0.52 to about 0.95mg/kg significantly (P<0.05) during the first 4 days in control, and H. sabdariffa added batters. The highest (P<0.05) histamine concentration was determined in the control batter prepared without antioxidant. U. dioica was more effective (P<0.05) on decreasing histamine and putrescine concentration than the other antioxidants. Putrescine concentration in batters increased (P<0.05) from 1.13 to about 15.34mg/kg during the first 4 days. Tyramine concentration increased significantly (P<0.05) during the ripening period from 5.55 to 103.93mg/kg. The control batter had the highest (P<0.05) tyramine concentration about 50.21mg/kg. Hunter L-values were not affected (P>0.05) from ripening time and addition of antioxidants into batter. The Hunter a-value increased (P<0.05) during the ripening periods, however, b-values decreased (P<0.05) from 12.58 to about 10.53. Overall sensory quality evaluated from color, flavor and ease of cutting scores increased (P<0.05) from 3.25 to about 9.00. PMID:22062281

Karabacak, Seçil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

2008-03-01

372

Presence of cholinergic and calcium channel blocking activities explains the traditional use of Hibiscus rosasinensis in constipation and diarrhoea.  

PubMed

The aqueous-ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. (Malvaceae) was studied for the possible presence of spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents to rationalize its traditional use in gastrointestinal disorders. The crude extract (Hr.Cr) caused a concentration-dependent (1-10mg/mL) spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum, which was blocked in the presence of atropine (0.1 microM). In spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum, the plant extract exhibited a weak stimulatory effect at lower doses (0.03-0.30 mg/mL) followed by an inhibitory effect at higher doses (1.0-3.0mg/mL). Pretreatment of the tissues with atropine blocked the stimulatory effect resulting in the potentiation of the spasmolytic effect. Hr.Cr (0.03-1.0mg/mL) also showed an inhibitory effect on K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions. The calcium channel blocking activity was confirmed when Hr.Cr shifted the Ca(2+) concentration-response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic component(s) was separated in the ethyl acetate, while the spasmogenic in the petroleum ether fraction. The aqueous fraction exhibited a combination of weak spasmogenic and spasmolytic effects. These data indicate that the crude extract contains spasmogenic and spasmolytic constituents mediating their effect through cholinergic receptors activation and blockade of Ca(2+) influx, respectively, which may explain its traditional use in constipation and diarrhoea. PMID:16182481

Gilani, Anwar H; Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

2005-11-14

373

Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment.

Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

2012-01-01

374

Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling.

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

2011-01-01

375

Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22537835

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

2012-07-01

376

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus.  

PubMed

The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK waters. Much of the catch is transported live to continental Europe in specially designed live-well ('vivier') vehicles. During the winter of 2000/2001, many trap-caught crabs from Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK, were reportedly moribund and pink in colour. These crabs generally died before and during vivier transportation. We provide histological, immunological, and molecular evidence that this condition is associated with infection by a Hematodinium-like dinoflagellate parasite similar to that previously reported in C. pagurus and to an infection causing seasonal mass mortalities of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Pathologically, every altered host bore the infection, which was characterised by very large numbers of plasmodial and vegetative stages in the haemolymph and depletion of reserve cells in the hepatopancreas. Due to the hyperpigmentation of the carapace and appendages, we have called this infection 'Pink Crab Disease' (PCD). Similar Hematodinium infections cause 'Bitter Crab Disease' in tanner and snow crabs, which has had a negative effect on their marketability. At present, little is known about the seasonality, transmission, and market impact of this infection in C. pagurus. PMID:12133707

Stentiford, G D; Green, M; Bateman, K; Small, H J; Neil, D M; Feist, S W

2002-03-01

377

Hyperexcitable substantia nigra dopamine neurons in PINK1- and HtrA2/Omi-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The electrophysiological properties of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons can influence their susceptibility to degeneration in toxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that excitotoxic and/or hypoactive mechanisms may be engaged during the early stages of the disease. It is unclear, however, whether the electrophysiological properties of SNC dopamine neurons are affected by genetic susceptibility to PD. Here we show that deletion of PD-associated genes, PINK1 or HtrA2/Omi, leads to a functional reduction in the activity of small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels. This reduction causes SNC dopamine neurons to fire action potentials in an irregular pattern and enhances burst firing in brain slices and in vivo. In contrast, PINK1 deletion does not affect firing regularity in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons or substantia nigra pars reticulata GABAergic neurons. These findings suggest that changes in SNC dopamine neuron excitability may play a role in their selective vulnerability in PD. PMID:20926611

Bishop, Matthew W; Chakraborty, Subhojit; Matthews, Gillian A C; Dougalis, Antonios; Wood, Nicholas W; Festenstein, Richard; Ungless, Mark A

2010-12-01

378

AF-6 is a positive modulator of the PINK1/parkin pathway and is deficient in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkin E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity and its role in mitochondria homeostasis are thought to play a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We now report that AF-6 is a novel parkin interacting protein that modulates parkin ubiquitin-ligase activity and mitochondrial roles. Parkin interacts with the AF-6 PDZ region through its C-terminus. This leads to ubiquitination of cytosolic AF-6 and its degradation by the proteasome. On the other hand, endogenous AF-6 robustly increases parkin translocation and ubiquitin-ligase activity at the mitochondria. Mitochondrial AF-6 is not a parkin substrate, but rather co-localizes with parkin and enhances mitochondria degradation through PINK1/parkin-mediated mitophagy. On the other hand, several parkin and PINK1 juvenile disease-mutants are insensitive to AF-6 effects. AF-6 is present in Lewy bodies and its soluble levels are strikingly decreased in the caudate/putamen and substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients, suggesting that decreased AF-6 levels may contribute to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in the disease. The identification of AF-6 as a positive modulator of parkin translocation to the mitochondria sheds light on the mechanisms involved in PD and underscores AF-6 as a novel target for future therapeutics.

Haskin, Joseph; Szargel, Raymonde; Shani, Vered; Mekies, Lucy N.; Rott, Ruth; Lim, Grace G. Y.; Lim, Kah-Leong; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Wolosker, Herman; Engelender, Simone

2013-01-01

379

First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sexually mature sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and one sexually mature pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) were captured in the subsistence fishery in the Sachs River estuary at Sachs Harbour, Banks Island, Northwest Territories (NT) in August 1993. We also report a first record for coho salmon (O. kisutch) in Great Bear Lake, NT. These capture locations are well outside the known

JOHN A. BABALUK; JAMES D. REIST; JAMES D. JOHNSON; LIONEL JOHNSON

380

Implications of Larval Mortality at Low Temperatures and High Soil Moistures for Establishment of Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Southeastern United States Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), remains a significant pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the southwestern United States, but is not known to be established in the primary cotton production areas of the southeastern United States. Absence of P. gossypiella may be the result of federal regulatory action (e.g., monitoring, quarantine, and eradication), climate, or other ecological factors. The

Robert C. Venette; Steven E. Naranjo; W. D. Hutchison

2000-01-01

381

Trimusculotrema heronensis sp. nov. (Monogenea, Capsalidae) from the skin of the pink whipray Himantura fai (Elasmobranchii, Dasyatidae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimusculotrema heronensis sp. nov. is described from the skin of the pink whipray, Himantura fai, caught at Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. The parasite differs from its closest relative,\\u000a T. uarnaki, by its greater size and by features of the cirrus. There is evidence that the haptor of T. heronensis secretes cement. The living parasite is

Ian D. Whittington; Graham C. Kearn

2008-01-01

382

Climate change, pink salmon, and the nexus between bottom-up and top-down forcing in the subarctic Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea.  

PubMed

Climate change in the last century was associated with spectacular growth of many wild Pacific salmon stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, apparently through bottom-up forcing linking meteorology to ocean physics, water temperature, and plankton production. One species in particular, pink salmon, became so numerous by the 1990s that they began to dominate other species of salmon for prey resources and to exert top-down control in the open ocean ecosystem. Information from long-term monitoring of seabirds in the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea reveals that the sphere of influence of pink salmon is much larger than previously known. Seabirds, pink salmon, other species of salmon, and by extension other higher-order predators, are tightly linked ecologically and must be included in international management and conservation policies for sustaining all species that compete for common, finite resource pools. These data further emphasize that the unique 2-y cycle in abundance of pink salmon drives interannual shifts between two alternate states of a complex marine ecosystem. PMID:24706809

Springer, Alan M; van Vliet, Gus B

2014-05-01

383

A Time to Speak Pink Graham A Time to Speak 350pp £14.99 RCN Publishing Company 9780957430860 [Formula: see text].  

PubMed

GRAHAM PINK'S book details his campaign to improve staffing levels at Stepping Hill Hospital in the 1980s. It is a powerful account that combines elements of nursing history and politics, and is largely a testament to the courage and determination of one individual to advocate for older patients and nursing. PMID:24874629

2014-05-01

384

EFFECTS OF GROUND ULV (ULTRA-LOW VOLUME) APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON ESTUARINE BIOTA. 3. RESPONSE OF CAGED PINK SHRIMP AND GRASS SHRIMP  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuarine grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) were deployed in floating cages to determine if fenthion, in an actual-use application in the field, affected shrimp survival. After four ultra-low-volume ground applications (equivalent to llg/ha or 0...

385

Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

Moss, J. H.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Cross, A. D.; Farley, E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Helle, J. H.; Walker, R. V.; Myers, K. W.

2009-01-01

386

The comparative ultrastructure of the egg membrane and associated pore structures in the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas), and pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs of the starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy to determine differences in egg membrane structure with reference to contrasting ecological conditions in which the eggs normally develop. The egg membrane of the starry flounder constitutes 0.22–0.50 % of the egg's diameter. The zona radiata is composed of 6

Carla M. Stehr; Joyce W. Hawkes

1979-01-01

387

Alternative splicing and highly variable cadherin transcripts associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to bt cotton in India.  

PubMed

Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2014-01-01

388

Ecological controls on the shell geochemistry of pink and white Globigerinoides ruber in the northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for paleoceanographic reconstruction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluate the relationship between foraminiferal test size and shell geochemistry (?13C, ?18O, and Mg/Ca) for two of the most commonly used planktonic foraminifers for paleoceanographic reconstruction in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean: the pink and white varieties of Globigerinoides ruber. Geochemical analyses were performed on foraminifera from modern core-top samples of high-accumulation rate basins in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Mg/Ca analysis indicates a positive relationship with test size, increasing by 1.1 mmol/mol (~ 2.5 °C) from the smallest (150–212 ?m) to largest (> 500 ?m) size fractions of G. ruber (pink), but with no significant relationship in G. ruber (white). In comparison, oxygen isotope data indicate a negative relationship with test size, decreasing by 0.6‰ across the size range of both pink and white G. ruber. The observed increase in Mg/Ca and decrease in ?18O are consistent with an increase in calcification temperature of 0.7 °C per 100 ?m increase in test size, suggesting differences in the seasonal and/or depth distribution among size fractions. Overall, these results stress the necessity for using a consistent size fraction in downcore paleoceanographic studies. In addition, we compare downcore records of ?18O and Mg/Ca from pink and white G. ruber in a decadal-resolution 1000-year sedimentary record from the Pigmy Basin. Based on this comparison we conclude that pink G. ruber is calcifying in warmer waters than co-occurring white G. ruber, suggesting differences in the relative seasonal distribution and depth habitat of the two varieties.

Richey, Julie N.; Poore, Richard Z.; Flower, Benjamin P.; Hollander, David J.

2012-01-01

389

Alternative Splicing and Highly Variable Cadherin Transcripts Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance of Pink Bollworm to Bt Cotton in India  

PubMed Central

Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop.

Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Li, Xianchun; Carriere, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

2014-01-01

390

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Imperial Valley, Coachella Valley, and Palo Verde Valley, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to date has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

1974-01-01

391

Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).  

PubMed

The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (p<0.05) in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on LDL oxidation was dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 5 mg/ml. Moreover, 5 mg/ml of roselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro. PMID:15744073

Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

2005-03-01

392

Nearshore concentration of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae in northern Florida bay in relation to nocturnal flood tide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We address the question of whether the low abundance of juvenile pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad, 1939) in northern-central Florida Bay results from (i) limiting environmental conditions, (ii) a reduced postlarval transport, or (iii) both. To explore this question, postlarvae were collected during the new moon in both summer and fall of 2004 and 2005 at six stations located on a transect from the bay's western margin to its interior. The highest concentrations of postlarvae occurred at two mid-transect stations located in shallow channels with moderate tidal amplitudes (15-20 cm) and dense seagrass beds. At the two interiormost stations postlarval concentrations decreased together with a reduction of the tidal amplitude (= 1 cm). Estimates of the cumulative flood-tide displacement with the semidiurnal M2 constituent indicated that the tide moves a maximum of 15 km in four nights, a distance that corresponds to the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. The size of postlarvae also reached a maximum at the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. Results suggest that postlarvae move into the bay's interior by a cumulative flood tidal process, advancing onshore during successive nights as far as they can go with the tide. Analyses indicate that, in addition to the tidal amplitude, cross-shelf wind stress and salinity also affect the concentrations of postlarvae. Peaks of postlarvae occurred at times of low salinity and strong southeasterly winds. While tidal transport appears to be insufficient for postlarvae to reach Florida Bay's interior, salinity and winds may also contribute to the observed distribution patterns of early pink shrimp recruits. ?? 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Criales, M. M.; Robblee, M. B.; Browder, J. A.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T. L.

2010-01-01

393

Variation of oceanographic processes affecting the size of pink shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae and their supply to Florida Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink shrimp ( Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae were collected monthly with moored channel nets from October 1997 to June 1999 at Whale Harbor (WH) and Long Key (LK) Channels, two channels at the east and west ends of the Middle Florida Keys that connect the Atlantic Ocean with Florida Bay, the main nursery ground of this species in south Florida. The density influx of pink shrimp postlarvae through these two channels differed in magnitude and seasonal patterns. The monthly influx of postlarvae at LK was lower in magnitude but steadier than at WH. LK showed the highest postlarval influx in late spring-summer. Postlarval influx through WH further downstream showed both spring-summer and winter peaks. The spring-summer peaks correspond with favorable wind and current conditions. In contrast, the winter peaks occurred when cyclonic eddies were detected passing through the Middle Florida Keys. These cyclonic eddies induced coastal countercurrent flow that favors onshore larval transport. The position of the leading edge of the eddy relative to the channels may cause the temporal variability observed in the temporal postlarval influx patterns between channels. A seasonal size variation in postlarvae was also observed at both sampling sites. Postlarvae captured during the winter months were significantly larger than those captured during the summer months. The number of rostral spines, a morphological feature generally correlating with the number of moults and age, also varied seasonally but with a trend opposite to that of the body size, which may indicate a lengthening of the intermoult period during wintertime. The reasons for the seasonal differences in growth rates and, possibly, different lengths of time in the currents, are yet to be resolved.

Criales, Maria M.; Yeung, Cynthia; Jones, David L.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Richards, William J.

2003-06-01

394

Effects of entomopathogenic nematodes on evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac.  

PubMed

The evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the efficacy of transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). However, fitness costs may act to delay pest resistance to Bt toxins. Meta-analysis of results from four previous studies revealed that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) imposed a 20% fitness cost for larvae of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), that were homozygous for resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac, but no significant fitness cost was detected for heterozygotes. We conducted greenhouse and laboratory selection experiments to determine whether S. riobrave would delay the evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac. We mimicked the high dose/refuge scenario in the greenhouse with Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants and refuges of non-Bt cotton plants, and in the laboratory with diet containing Cry1Ac and refuges of untreated diet. In both experiments, half of the replicates were exposed to S. riobrave and half were not. In the greenhouse, S. riobrave did not delay resistance. In the laboratory, S. riobrave delayed resistance after two generations but not after four generations. Simulation modeling showed that an initial resistance allele frequency > 0.015 and population bottlenecks can diminish or eliminate the resistance-delaying effects of fitness costs. We hypothesize that these factors may have reduced the resistance-delaying effects of S. riobrave in the selection experiments. The experimental and modeling results suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes could slow the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops, but only under some conditions. PMID:22812141

Gassmann, Aaron J; Hannon, Eugene R; Sisterson, Mark S; Stock, S Patricia; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2012-06-01

395

Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism. ?? Inter-Research 2007 .

Criales, M. M.; Browder, J. A.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Robblee, M. B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T. L.

2007-01-01

396

Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: assessment for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes progress on the development of an adaptive harvestmanagement strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. Specifically, this report provides an optimal harvest quota for the 2013-2015 hunting seasons and describes a process for evaluating whether emergency hunting closures would be needed during that period. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which spring temperatures are important. The most current set of monitoring information was used to update model weights for the 1991 – 2012 period. Current model weights suggest no evidence for density-dependent survival. These results suggest that the pink-footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density-dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. There was equivocal evidence for the effect of May temperature days (number of days with temperatures above freezing) on survival and on reproduction. The optimal harvest strategy suggests that the appropriate annual harvest quota for the 20132015 period is 15,000; hence there is no need to take emergency measures to close the upcoming hunting season. For comparison, the estimated harvest in 2012 was 11,000. If the harvest quota of 15,000 were met, the autumn 2013 population count is expected to be 76,000. If only the most recent 3-year mean harvest were realized (11,500), an autumn population size of 80,000 thousand is expected. Thus, it may be that harvest is approaching the magnitude needed to stabilize the population.

Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

2013-01-01

397

Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased during the last decades and is giving rise to agricultural conflicts along their migration route, as well as causing grazing impacts on tundra vegetation. An adaptive flyway management plan has been implemented, which will be based on predictive population models including environmental variables expected to affect goose population development, such as weather conditions on the breeding grounds. A local study in Svalbard showed that snow cover prior to egg laying is a crucial factor for the reproductive output of pink-footed geese, and MODIS satellite images provided a useful estimator of snow cover. In this study, we up-scaled the analysis to the population level by examining various measures of snow conditions and compared them with the overall breeding success of the population as indexed by the proportion of juveniles in the autumn population. As explanatory variables, we explored MODIS images, satellite-based radar measures of onset of snow melt, winter NAO index, and the May temperature sum and May thaw days. To test for the presence of density dependence, we included the number of adults in the population. For 2000–2011, MODIS-derived snow cover (available since 2000) was the strongest indicator of breeding conditions. For 1981–2011, winter NAO and May thaw days had equal weight. Interestingly, there appears to have been a phase shift from density-dependent to density-independent reproduction, which is consistent with a hypothesis of released breeding potential due to the recent advancement of spring in Svalbard.

Jensen, Gitte Høj; Madsen, Jesper; Johnson, Fred A.; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

2014-01-01

398

Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae into western Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae and the transport mechanisms of planktonic stages were investigated with field data and simulations of transport. Postlarvae entering the nursery grounds of Florida Bay were collected for three consecutive years at channels that connect the Bay with the Gulf of Mexico, and in channels of the Middle Florida Keys that connect the southeastern margin of the Bay with the Atlantic Ocean. The influx of postlarvae in the Middle Florida Keys was low in magnitude and varied seasonally and among years. In contrast, the greater postlarval influx occurred at the northwestern border of the Bay, where there was a strong seasonal pattern with peaks in influx from July through September each year. Planktonic stages need to travel up to 150 km eastward between spawning grounds (northeast of Dry Tortugas) and nursery grounds (western Florida Bay) in about 30 days, the estimated time of planktonic development for this species. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed to estimate the drift of planktonic stages across the SW Florida shelf. The model simulated the maximal distance traveled by planktonic stages under various assumptions of behavior. Simulation results indicated that larvae traveling with the instantaneous current and exhibiting a diel behavior travel up to 65 km and 75% of the larvae travel only 30 km. However, the eastward distance traveled increased substantially when a larval response to tides was added to the behavioral variable (distance increased to 200 km and 85% of larvae traveled 150 km). The question is, when during larval development, and where on the shallow SW Florida shelf, does the tidal response become incorporated into the behavior of pink shrimp.

Criales, M. M.; Wang, J. D.; Browder, J. A.; Robblee, M. B.; Jackson, T. L.; Hittle, C.

2006-01-01

399

Dynamics of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) recruitment potential in relation to salinity and temperature in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Progress is reported in relating upstream water management and freshwater flow to Florida Bay to a valuable commercial fishery for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum), which has major nursery grounds in Florida Bay. Changes in freshwater inflow are expected to affect salinity patterns in the bay, so the effect of salinity and temperature on the growth, survival, and subsequent recruitment and harvest of this ecologically and economically important species was examined with laboratory experiments and a simulation model. Experiments were conducted to determine the response of juvenile growth and survival to temperature (15??C to 33??C) and salinity (2??? to 55???), and results were used to refine an existing model. Results of these experiments indicated that juvenile pink shrimp have a broad salinity tolerance range at their optimal temperature, but the salinity tolerance range narrows with distance from the optimal temperature range, 20-30??C. Acclimation improved survival at extreme high salinity (55???), but not at extremely low salinity (i.e., 5???, 10???). Growth rate increases with temperature until tolerance is exceeded beyond about 35??C. Growth is optimal in the mid-range of salinity (30???) and decreases as salinity increases or decreases. Potential recruitment and harvests from regions of Florida Bay were simulated based on local observed daily temperature and salinity. The simulations predict that potential harvests might differ among years, seasons, and regions of the bay solely on the basis of observed temperature and salinity. Regional differences in other characteristics, such as seagrass cover and tidal transport, may magnify regional differences in potential harvests. The model predicts higher catch rates in the September-December fishery, originating from the April and July settlement cohorts, than in the January-June fishery, originating from the October and January settlement cohorts. The observed density of juveniles in western Florida Bay during the same years simulated by the model was greater in the fall than the spring, supporting modeling results. The observed catch rate in the fishery, a rough index of abundance, was higher in the January-June fishery than the July-December fishery in most of the biological years from 1989-1990 through 1997-1998, contrary to modeling results and observed juvenile density in western Florida Bay.

Browder, J. A.; Zein-Eldin, Z.; Criales, M. M.; Robblee, M. B.; Wong, S.; Jackson, T. L.; Johnson, D.

2002-01-01

400

Effects of wind turbines and other physical elements on field utilization by pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus): A landscape perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wind turbines and other physical landscape elements on field utilization by wintering pink-footed geese (A