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1

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas  

E-print Network

The pink hibiscus mealybug is a new pest in Texas that could potentially damage ornamental plants and agricultural crops. This publication explains how to distinguish this pest from other mealybug species and what to do if an infestation...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

2007-09-14

2

Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperative classical biological control project against the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), infestation in the low-desert region of California was initiated in the fall of 1999. Subsequently, the parasitoids Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Encyrtidae), Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal (Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. nr. mecrida (Walker) (Platygastridae) were reared and released for permanent establishment. Population densities of mealybug

William J. Roltsch; Dale E. Meyerdirk; Richard Warkentin; Earl R. Andress; Karina Carrera

2006-01-01

3

Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

4

Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

5

OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

6

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG, MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) TO METHYL BROMIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eggs, crawlers, early nymphs, late nymphs, and adults of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were tested for their susceptibility to methyl bromide in 2 hr laboratory fumigations at ambient conditions (25 C, 95% RH). Dose response tests indicated that the egg was the most s...

7

Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known

Aijun Zhang; Divina Amalin; Shyam Shirali; Miguel S. Serrano; Rosa A. Franqui; James E. Oliver; Jerome A. Klun; Jeffrey R. Aldrich; Dale E. Meyerdirk; Stephen L. Lapointe

2004-01-01

8

Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

9

Biological Control of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus Hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green, was first reported in the Caribbean in 1994 in Grenada. This was the first record of the insect as a major pest in the New World. By the beginning of 2001, the pest had spread to over 25 territories from Guyana and Venezuela in the South to Bahamas in the North. The pest has

Moses T. K. Kairo; Gene V. Pollard; Dorothy D. Peterkin; Vyjayanthi F. Lopez

2000-01-01

10

Immune response of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), to oviposition of the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anagyrus kamali Moursi has been recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological agent against the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. This host has a cellular defense reaction that involves encapsulation and melanization of the endoparasitoid egg. The impact of this immune response on the parasitoid progeny was assessed, as well as the response of the parasitoid countermeasures to overcome

L. A Sagarra; D. D Peterkin; C Vincent; R. K Stewart

2000-01-01

11

Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus  

PubMed Central

Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified ? type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

2013-01-01

12

Influence of Host Stage on Oviposition, Development, Sex Ratio, and Survival of Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host stage selection, host suitability, and sex allocation by the solitary encyrtid parasitoid,Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hym., Encyrtidae), were studied in laboratory experiments in order to improve mass production of this parasitoid. All nymphal stages and adult females of the Hibiscus Mealybug (HMB),Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Hom., Pseudococcidae), were parasitized in no-choice experiments. In two-choice experiments third larval instar and preoviposition adult females were

L. A Sagarra; C Vincent

1999-01-01

13

Hibiscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 300 tropical and sub-tropical Hibiscus species exist as small trees, shrubs, and herbs. Commercial species have a wide variety of uses, including fibres, food, medicinal,\\u000a and ornamental. The most popular ornamental species is H. rosa-sinensis, used both as an indoor and outdoor potted and landscape plant, respectively. A variety of flower forms, flower colors, vigour,\\u000a and growth forms exist.

G. A. Akpan

14

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants such as Annona squamosa, Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Ipomoea spp., Manihot esculenta and Solanum in Plumeria spp. (Apocynaceae) plants. On Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) the tender shoots covered by mealybugs

Reddy, Gadi VP

15

Effect of photoperiod and daily light integral on flowering of five Hibiscus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of daily light integral (DLI) (400–700nm) and photoperiod on Hibiscus sp. growth and flowering was studied. Hibiscus coccineus (Medic.) Walt., Hibiscus cisplatinus St-Hil., Hibiscus moscheutos L. ‘Disco Belle Pink’, Hibiscus radiatus Cav., and Hibiscus trionum L. plants were grown under a 9h (0730–1630h) or 16h (0600–2200h) photoperiod in a greenhouse under ambient daylight plus supplemental high-pressure sodium lighting

Ryan M. Warner; John E. Erwin

2003-01-01

16

Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs preshipping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (= PFR 97®) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs before shipping plant products was assessed under laboratory conditions. Hibiscus leaves were dipped into beakers filled with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 g of PFR 97® / L of water and t...

17

BEATING THE HIBISCUS SAWFLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hibiscus sawfly, Atomacera decepta Rohwer, is a pest of hardy hibiscus. It can defoliate plantings of hibiscus in just a few days. A general discussion of the biology of the hibiscus sawfly is given, along with what species of hibiscus it is known to attack. Suggestions for monitoring and con...

18

Updated9January2003 DivisionofPlantIndustry  

E-print Network

.doacs.state.fl.us/~pi/enpp/pink.html http://aphisweb.aphis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/phmpaler.pdf male female #12;ink Hibiscus Mealybug !!!!! Do línea gratuita de ayuda PHM Helpline al (888) 397-1517. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM) was first detected

Jawitz, James W.

19

7, 23892475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS  

E-print Network

ACPD 7, 2389­2475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS J.-P. Pommereau et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign J.-P. Pommereau 1 , A. Garnier 1 , G. Held 2 , A.-M. Gomes 2 Laboratoire d'A´erologie, Toulouse, France 2389 #12;ACPD 7, 2389­2475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS J.-P. Pommereau

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Pink urine.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

2014-11-01

21

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uses of 16 species of Hibiscus, section Furcaria DC, are discussed, with particular reference to kenaf (H. cannabinus L.)\\u000a and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.), the two most important species grown commercially as fiber plants. Other uses of this versatile\\u000a group include use as ornamentals and employment of various plant parts as food, medicine, wood for musical instruments, and\\u000a in superstitious

F. D. Wilson; M. Y. Menzel

1964-01-01

22

SEASONAL PHENOLOGY AND NATURAL ENEMIES OF MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSTUS IN AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foreign exploration for natural enemies of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, was conducted in Australia from 2000 TO 2002. In Queensland, the predaceous beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, the predaceous drosophilid fly, Cacoxenus perspicax and the encrytid parasitoid Gyranusoidea in...

23

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

24

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

25

Pink Book 2014 Spring Semester  

E-print Network

Pink Book 2014 Spring Semester Courses of Interest to Students in Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual's and Gender Studies University of Texas at Austin #12;Pink Book | 2 Table of Contents How to Use the Pink Book

Texas at Austin, University of

26

Endocrocin and its derivatives from the Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae.  

PubMed

The Japanese mealybug, Planococcus kraunhiae, is suitable as a model insect for biosynthetic studies on mealybug pigments. Four yellow pigments, including two novel ones, were isolated from the mealybug bodies and characterized as endocrocin, a dicarboxylic acid named fujikonaic acid (1), emodin 1-O-?-D-glucopyranoside and 7-hydroxyemodin 1-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (2). The enzymatic activity of emodin 1-O-glucosyltransferase was observed in the extracts of insect bodies. PMID:21512234

Kikuchi, Naoya; Teshiba, Mayumi; Tsutsumi, Takafumi; Fudou, Ryosuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

2011-01-01

27

BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women)  

E-print Network

BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women) $2000 STUDY AWARD Year 2012 Awarded to a female student who is a past or present Hibiscus Coast Resident, who has completed at least one full year HIBISCUS COAST ~ PO Box 321, Silverdale 0944 $2000 STUDY AWARD YEAR 2012 CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA 1

Auckland, University of

28

Mealybugs of importance at United States ports of entry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research provides a Lucid expert system for the identification of the 58 most commonly intercepted mealybug species at US ports-of-entry. The system includes an identification key with images of each character state, a well illustrated glossary of terms, images of each mealybug species as it a...

29

Occurrence of a Begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A whitefly transmitted Begomovirus (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) with a satellite (?-DNA associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been detected for the first time in mesta growing regions of India.

A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; K. V. Padmalatha; V. G. Malathi; S. K. Ghosh

2005-01-01

30

Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.  

PubMed

Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted. PMID:20214364

Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

2010-02-01

31

Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haematinic activity of an orally administered aqueous extract of Hibiscus cannabinus leaves was studied on haemolytic anaemic rats. Anaemia was induced by an oral administration of phenylhydrazine for a period of 8 days. Red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and pack cell volume were analysed as indices of anaemia. The mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell

Gabriel A. Agbor; Julius E. Oben; Jeanne Y. Ngogang

2005-01-01

32

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varietal selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing the production and processing efficiency of a selected kenaf crop is not only dependent of the production location and cultural aspects, and the differences in yield componen...

33

Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

34

Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard. PMID:20568606

Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

2010-06-01

35

Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug in Africa: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), the neotropical parasitoid Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was the most successful. It established in 26 African countries, causing a satisfactory reduction in the population density of P. manihoti in most farmers' fields. Four conclusions concerning the possible application of the research results to other biological

Peter Neuenschwander

2001-01-01

36

Development of a multiplex PCR for identification of vineyard mealybugs.  

PubMed

A simple molecular tool was developed and tested to identify seven mealybug species found in North American vineyards: Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzeti), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Planococcus citri (Risso), and Ferrisia gilli Gullan. The developed multiplex PCR is based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene. In tests, this single-step multiplex PCR correctly identified 95 of 95 mealybug samples, representing all seven species and collected from diverse geographic regions. To test the sensitivity, single specimen samples with different Pl. ficus developmental stages (egg to adult female and adult male) were processed PCR and the resulting output provided consistent positive identification. To test the utility of this protocol for adult males caught in sex baited pheromone traps, Pl. ficus adult males were placed in pheromone traps, aged at a constant temperature of 26±2°C, and processed with the multiplex each day thereafter for 8 d. Results showed consistent positive identification for up to 6 d (range, 6-8 d). Results are discussed with respect to the usefulness of this molecular tool for the identification of mealybugs in pest management programs and biosecurity of invasive mealybugs. PMID:22217778

Daane, Kent M; Middleton, Mathew C; Sforza, René; Cooper, Monica L; Walton, Vaughn M; Walsh, Douglas B; Zaviezo, Tania; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2011-12-01

37

DETECTION OF TOBACCO STREAK VIRUS FROM HIBISCUS IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several viruses have recently been isolated from hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), which is often observed in Florida landscapes and garden centers with virus-like symptoms. An unknown virus was transmitted to Nicotiana tabacum from symptomatic hibiscus in Florida in 2003. This virus was propagated...

38

Using parasitoids to infer a native range for the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni , in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The co-evolutionary relationships between mealybug hosts (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera) appear to be\\u000a particularly strong, and many successful classical biological control programmes against mealybugs have been carried out using\\u000a these parasitoids. It is a puzzle, then, that the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is considered to be an American species but is not attacked by native parasitoids

John G. Charles

2011-01-01

39

Molecular and Histological Characterization of Primary (Betaproteobacteria) and Secondary (Gammaproteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Three Mealybug Species  

PubMed Central

Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. PMID:22156418

Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A.; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T.

2012-01-01

40

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,  

E-print Network

and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki en papaya, hibiscus y otras plan- tas. Un total de 24,586 de los parasitoides,Anagyrus loecki Noyes

Reddy, Gadi VP

41

Moon's Pink Mineral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

2014-12-01

42

Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

43

Nursery and landscape industries are fast growing segments of U.S. agriculture, contributing around $147 billion each year to the U.S.  

E-print Network

to initiate successful rapid responses to outbreaks of emerald ash borer and sudden oak death. Another major by NCERA-193 members have shed light on the biology and behavior of invasive insect pests such as emerald ash borer, pink hibiscus mealybug, chili thrips, grand fir twig borer, viburnum leaf beetle

Rutledge, Steven

44

APPLICATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF INSECT DIETS FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF PARASITOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S.D.A. has provided two encyrtid parasitoids, Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Schaffe, Alam & Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) throughout the Western hemisphere for control of the pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsututs) and is currently conducting international surve...

45

Economics of biological control of cassava mealybug in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest populations of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Mat.-Ferr. (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) were reduced successfully by the biological control agent Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) throughout most of sub-Saharan Africa. The economics of the project were evaluated based on data from field trials, socio-economic surveys, published results, and financial information provided by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

J Zeddies; R. P Schaab; P Neuenschwander; H. R Herren

2001-01-01

46

TWO NEW SPECIES OF MEALYBUGS FROM PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA (HEMIPTERA: COCCOIDEA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new species of mealybugs have been discovered in the Patagonia Region of Argentina collected on Nothofagus dombeyi and Stipa sp. Adult females and available immature stages of each species are described and illustrated and are compared with other mealybugs from the area....

47

DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

48

Is the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata, a vector of huanglongbing bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This is the first report of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) present in striped mealybugs feeding on Las-infected periwinkle plants. In November 2010, specimens of a common greenhouse pest, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Pseudococcidae; Hemiptera), were collected from Las-infected periw...

49

Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante-  

E-print Network

in part by the establishment of sanctuaries which The U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus.hart@noaa.gov). ABSTRACT--U.S. Gulf of Mexico, pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, catch statistics have been collected

50

Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

51

Pink Bollworm Management in Texas  

E-print Network

Mate PBW Fibers 5-15 grams NoMate PBW MEC 1/3 - 5/6 oz Methyl Parathion Penncap M 2lb 2-4 pt Permethrin Ambush 2 lb 6.4 - 12.8 oz Do not use more than 10 applications of any pyrethroid per Pounce 3.2 lb 4-8 oz season. Do not use near lakes, streams, rivers... is complete the field should be plowed. A turning plow which buries surface residue 6 inches or deeper is best for pink boll- worm control. A light disking which covers residue only 1 to 2 inches normally improves the survival of pink bollworms. Cropping...

Allen, Charles T.

1995-01-12

52

Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

53

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf Spot/Melting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf extension BP-102-W Pink snow mold is a disease that may affect all cool-season turfgrasses, but appears landscapes, pink snow mold is most prevalent on turf main- tained at heights of 3 inches or greater

54

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

55

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

56

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

57

Mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll viruses: an analysis of virus-vector specificity.  

PubMed

To understand ecological factors mediating the spread of insect-borne plant pathogens, vector species for these pathogens need to be identified. Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by a complex of phylogenetically related closteroviruses, some of which are transmitted by insect vectors; however, the specificities of these complex virus-vector interactions are poorly understood thus far. Through biological assays and phylogenetic analyses, we studied the role of vector-pathogen specificity in the transmission of several grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs) by their mealybug vectors. Using plants with multiple virus infections, several virus species were screened for vector transmission by the mealybug species Planococcus ficus and Pseudococcus longispinus. We report that two GLRaVs (-4 and -9), for which no vector transmission evidence was available, are mealybug-borne. The analyses performed indicated no evidence of mealybug-GLRaV specificity; for example, different vector species transmitted GLRaV-3 and one vector species, Planococcus ficus, transmitted five GLRaVs. Based on available data, there is no compelling evidence of vector-virus specificity in the mealybug transmission of GLRaVs. However, more studies aimed at increasing the number of mealybug species tested as vectors of different GLRaVs are necessary. This is especially important given the increasing importance of grapevine leafroll disease spread by mealybugs in vineyards worldwide. PMID:20626287

Tsai, Chi-Wei; Rowhani, Adib; Golino, Deborah A; Daane, Kent M; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2010-08-01

58

Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

59

An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs.  

PubMed

Highly reduced genomes of 144-416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1-5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations with pairs of bacterial symbionts that live in specialized cells and provide them with essential nutrients; genomic data from these systems have revealed remarkable levels of metabolic complementarity between the symbiont pairs [3, 4, 6, 7]. The mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) contains dual bacterial symbionts existing with an unprecedented organization: an unnamed gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Candidatus Moranella endobia, lives inside the betaproteobacteria Candidatus Tremblaya princeps [8]. Here we describe the complete genomes and metabolic contributions of these unusual nested symbionts. We show that whereas there is little overlap in retained genes involved in nutrient production between symbionts, several essential amino acid pathways in the mealybug assemblage require a patchwork of interspersed gene products from Tremblaya, Moranella, and possibly P. citri. Furthermore, although Tremblaya has the smallest cellular genome yet described, it contains a genomic inversion present in both orientations in individual insects, starkly contrasting with the extreme structural stability typical of highly reduced bacterial genomes [4, 9, 10]. PMID:21835622

McCutcheon, John P; von Dohlen, Carol D

2011-08-23

60

'USS Alabama', 'USS Mississippi', 'USS Missouri', 'USS Tennessee' and 'USS Texas' Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five new Chinese hibiscus cultivars are products from a planned hibiscus breeding program conducted by the inventors at Poplarville, MS. The goal of the research is to produce new clones with a combination of desirable horticultural traits. Desirable floral traits include early bloom, uniform flower...

61

Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus).  

PubMed

Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Within this virus complex, GLRaV-3 is the predominant species in the world. Several GLRaVs have been shown to be transmitted from vine to vine by mealybugs although a detailed characterization of transmission biology is lacking. The introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) in California and other regions of the world may result in increasing disease incidence of established GLRaVs. We studied the characteristics of GLRaV-3 transmission by the vine mealybug. Our results indicate that the vine mealybug transmits GLRaV-3 in a semipersistent manner. First instars were more efficient vectors than adult mealybugs. GLRaV-3 transmission lacked a latent period in the vector. Virus transmission occurred with a 1-h acquisition access period (AAP) and peaked with a 24-h AAP. Mealybugs inoculated GLRaV-3 with a 1-h inoculation access period (IAP), and transmission efficiency increased with longer plant access period up to 24 h, after which transmission rate remained constant. After an AAP of 24 h, mealybugs lost GLRaV-3 and infectivity 4 days after virus acquisition. In addition, GLRaV-3 was not transovarially transmitted from infected females to their progeny as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In summary, we systematically analyzed transmission parameters of GLRaV-3 by the vine mealybug and showed that transmission of this virus occurs in a semipersistent manner. This research fills in important gaps in knowledge of leafroll virus transmission, which is critical for development of leafroll disease management practices. PMID:18943455

Tsai, C-W; Chau, J; Fernandez, L; Bosco, D; Daane, K M; Almeida, R P P

2008-10-01

62

Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts of the mealybug subfamily phenacoccinae (hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria ("Candidatus Tremblaya princeps") containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps." Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: "Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids ("Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola"), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups. PMID:20851962

Gruwell, Matthew E; Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J; Dittmar, Katharina

2010-11-01

63

Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-1 (PMWaV-1; family Closteroviridae, genus Ampelovirus) belongs to a complex of mealybug-transmissible viruses found in pineapple worldwide. In this study, the complete genome\\u000a of PMWaV-1 was sequenced and found to be 13.1 kb in length, making it the smallest in the family. The genome encoded seven\\u000a open reading frames (ORFs) and was unusual for an ampelovirus due to

M. J. Melzer; D. M. Sether; A. V. Karasev; W. Borth; J. S. Hu

2008-01-01

64

Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat Language: English ... reddish color. What Are the Symptoms of Pink Eye? The signs and symptoms of pink eye may ...

65

A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed. PMID:18076775

Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

2008-02-01

66

The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk.  

PubMed

Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

2015-01-01

67

The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk  

PubMed Central

Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

2015-01-01

68

Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu

69

Encapsulation, cold storage, and growth of Hibiscus moscheutos nodal segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodal segments of Hibiscus\\u000a moscheutos (hardy hibiscus) were excised from proliferating axillary shoot cultures and encapsulated in high density sodium alginate hardened by 50 mM CaCl2. Nodal segments 4 mm long grew as well as and were easier to encapsulate than 8 mm long nodal segments. Although nodal segments grew regardless of the concentration of sodium alginate, 2.75% was determined to produce the

Todd P. West; M. B. Ravindra; John E. Preece

2006-01-01

70

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present investigation was determine whether a standardized Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces aqueous extract has an effect on body weight in an obese animal model induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract, containing 33.64mg of total anthocyanins per each 120mg of extract, was orally administered (120mg\\/kg\\/day) for 60 days to healthy and obese mice,

Francisco J. Alarcon-Aguilar; Alejandro Zamilpa; Ma. Dolores Perez-Garcia; Julio C. Almanza-Perez; Eunice Romero-Nuñez; Efrain A. Campos-Sepulveda; Laura I. Vazquez-Carrillo; Ruben Roman-Ramos

2007-01-01

71

PEAR: Pyrus communis L. 'Bartlett' A. Agnello & D. Kain Comstock mealybug (CMB); Pseudococcis comstocki (Kuwana) Dept. of Entomology  

E-print Network

, EVALUATION OF FOLIAR INSECTICIDES TO CONTROL COMSTOCK MEALYBUG, 2000: Tests were set up to compare the effectiveness of different treatments using Actara, Provado, and Diazinon in the control of Comstock mealybug-tree plots that were replicated 4 times. Treatments were applied using a hand-held gun from a truck

Agnello, Arthur M.

72

78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the green scale; Sybra alternans (Wiedemann), a longhorned beetle; Dymicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley), the gray pineapple mealybug; Geococcus coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus...

2013-02-07

73

Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.  

PubMed

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

2014-01-01

74

Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

2014-01-01

75

Limonene, a citrus extract, for control of mealybugs and scale insects.  

PubMed

In a series of bioassays with mealybugs, aqueous solutions of 1% limonene were tested that used from 0.50 to 1.50% all purpose spray adjuvant (APSA)-80 as an emulsifier/surfactant. The two ingredients were added to water or to 0.1% Silwet L-77, an agricultural surfactant. Using 1% limonene, 0.75% APSA-80 and 0.1% Silwet L-77, a semitransparent mixture (primarily a microemulsion) was obtained that was safe for most plants and provided good control of mealybugs when sprayed or used in 1-min dips. Used at half strength, this mixture controlled > or =99% of whiteflies, whereas the full-strength mixture controlled from 69 to 100% of mealybugs and scales, including > or =93% control of root mealybugs. In side-by-side greenhouse tests, this mixture was superior to a 2% solution of insecticidal soap or a 2% solution of horticultural spray oil. Mortality of green scales on potted gardenia plants averaged 95, 89, and 88% on plants sprayed with limonene, insecticidal soap, or horticultural oil, respectively. In a related test, these same sprays killed 44.1, 22.7, or 12.5% of third and fourth instar clustering mealybugs, respectively. Limonene has promise as a safe, natural pesticide for insect pests on tolerant plants. Although 1% limonene solutions damaged certain species of ferns, gingers and delicate flowers, they caused no damage to ornamentals with thick, waxy leaves, such as palms, cycads, and orchids. PMID:16022305

Hollingsworth, Robert G

2005-06-01

76

Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.  

PubMed

Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined. PMID:25135816

Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

2015-01-01

77

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (Tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient of many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties. In animal models, extracts of hibiscus calyces possess hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that...

78

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2011-03-01

79

Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage  

E-print Network

screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U- 1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW-298, (E) G^ stocksii, '(F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploia Z-61j., (H) MW-1U7 . ? 5U...-298, (E) G. stocksii, (F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploid Z-6U, (H) MW-1U7.................................... 55 3. Pink bollworm emergence data, College Station, Texas 195U-55...

Brazzel, J. R.

1956-01-01

80

The genetic diversity of ampeloviruses in Australian pineapples and their association with mealybug wilt disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 1 (PMWaV-1), 2 (PMWaV-2) and 3 (PMWaV-3) have been detected in Australian commercial pineapple crops, along with a previously undescribed ampelovirus, forwhich\\u000a the name Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 5 (PMWaV-5) is proposed. Partial sequences extending from open reading frame\\u000a 1 b through to the heat shock protein homologue were obtained for PMWaV-1, -3 and -5. Phylogenetic

C. F. GambleyA; V. SteeleA; A. D. W. GeeringA; J. E. ThomasA

2008-01-01

81

Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

Prall, Bruce R.

2008-04-01

82

Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

83

Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs.  

PubMed

Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps" and "Candidatus Moranella endobia" cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola." However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2014-01-01

84

Molecular identification of two closely related species of mealybugs of the genus Planococcus (Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Morphological identification of the mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell), two serious agricultural pests, is often complicated by the existence of intermediate forms and a lack of knowledge of the intraspecific variation that occurs in each species. In this paper, we hav...

85

Parasitoid Complex of the Mealybug Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Georgia, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitoid complex of the mealybug Oracella acuta (Lobdell) was examined in two field populations in Georgia in 1995-96. Allotropa n. sp. and Zarhopalus debarri Sun were the primary endoparasitoids emerging from 0. acuta. Adult abundance varied seasonally, with Allotropa n. sp. numbers peaking in June and Z. debarri in September. Parasitism rates of female 0. acuta exceeded 6096 at

Jiang-Hua Sun; Stephen R. ClarkeI; Gary L. Debar; C. Wayne Berisford

86

A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

2012-07-01

87

Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

88

Effect of Temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink was investigated in the laboratory. Paracoccus marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 ± 1°C. At 15, 34, and 35°C, the eggs hatched after 27, 6,...

89

Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense in Cotton Plant by the Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of

Pengjun Zhang; Xiaoyun Zhu; Fang Huang; Yong Liu; Jinming Zhang; Yaobin Lu; Yongming Ruan

2011-01-01

90

Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs  

PubMed Central

Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2014-01-01

91

Survey for cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and its natural enemies.  

PubMed

Mealybug was considered to be a minor pest of cotton but it emerged as a major pest in 2006-2007 in North and Central zones. Extensive field surveys conducted in cotton fields during 2007-09 in Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab in the North zone and Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat in the Central zone indicated that Phenacoccus solenopsis was the only major species of mealybug recorded on cotton in North as well as Central zones except one location in Gujarat where Fenrrisia virgata Cockerrel was also recorded. Infestation of mealybug at most of the places in North and Central zones ranged from mild (10-20%) to high (40-60%) during 2007 and 2008 but reduced to traces in 2009. Extensive field survey indicated that Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Chalcidodea: Encyrtidae), an indigenous parasitoid, played a key role in reducing the insect pestinfestation. The parasitoid was first recorded in Delhi in July 2008 and by 2009 it was found in most of the cotton growing districts of North and Central zones. Its natural parasitization on P solenopsis could reach more than 90% at many locations. This is the most successful example of biological control of mealybug. Along with this parasitoid, another parasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Chalcidodea: Aphelinidae), was also recorded at most of the locations in smaller proportions. PMID:22167953

Tanwar, R K; Jeyakumar, P; Singh, Amar; Jafri, A A; Bambawale, O M

2011-05-01

92

DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

93

Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization.  

PubMed

Background?Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions?Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding. PMID:25452881

Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo Del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

2014-11-01

94

Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization  

PubMed Central

Background?Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions?Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding. PMID:25452881

Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

2014-01-01

95

Infection Dynamics of Coexisting Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria in the Nested Endosymbiotic System of Mealybugs?  

PubMed Central

We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the ?-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the ?-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the ?-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the ?-endosymbiont cells were located in the ?-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the ?-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the ?-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the ?-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the ?-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the ?- and ?-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote-prokaryote endosymbiotic system. PMID:18469124

Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2008-01-01

96

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Gr...

97

PINK1 Protects against Oxidative Stress by Phosphorylating Mitochondrial Chaperone  

E-print Network

kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease (PD). So far, no substrates (PINK1) gene were originally discovered in three pedigrees with recessively inherited PD. Two homozygous been reported, making PINK1 the second most common causative gene of recessive PD [6,7]. Interestingly

Li, Lian

98

Fire Ants Protect Mealybugs against Their Natural Enemies by Utilizing the Leaf Shelters Constructed by the Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata  

PubMed Central

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-01-01

99

Producing composite particleboard from kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks as a raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The parameters affecting particleboard manufacturing from kenaf were determined to be press temperature, and time, pressure, density and shelling ratio. The experimental results showed that the parameters were found to be effective on the physical (thickness swelling)

Hülya Kalayc?oglu; Gökay Nemli

2006-01-01

100

Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between antioxidant activity and anthocyanin was determined in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) petals. Petals from Roselle, cultivar F141, were collected and dried in Taitung, Taiwan. Roselle extract was prepared by extracting dried Roselle petals in boiling water. The relation between the anthocyanin color and antioxidant capacity was elucidated by comparing absorbance at 520 nm, with ferric reducing ability

Pi-Jen Tsai; John McIntosh; Philip Pearce; Blake Camden; Brian R Jordan

2002-01-01

101

The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively.

M Haji Faraji; A. H Haji Tarkhani

1999-01-01

102

Pink Book Project: New Frontiers in Auditing  

E-print Network

Observations · Update of 1999 Red Book Project · Data collection: Survey instrument and interviews · Objectives of the 21st century · Rise of "big data" and associated implications for the future audit · IssuesPink Book Project: New Frontiers in Auditing By Paul Byrnes #12;Outline · Chapter 1 ­ Survey

Lin, Xiaodong

103

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

104

Baby T (Pink) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

105

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

106

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf Spot/Melting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf extension BP-101-W Gray snow mold affects all cool season turfgrass species in areas where there are extended periods of snow cover. The disease is caused by either of two Typhula species: Typhula incarnata

107

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February-March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420-440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A.-M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Riviére, E.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2007-02-01

108

Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

1991-12-01

109

Horizontal gene transfer from diverse bacteria to an insect genome enables a tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis.  

PubMed

The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterial endosymbiont, Moranella endobia. Genome and transcriptome sequencing, including genome sequencing from a Tremblaya lineage lacking intracellular bacteria, reveals that the extreme genomic degeneracy of Tremblaya PCIT likely resulted from acquiring Moranella as an endosymbiont. In addition, at least 22 expressed horizontally transferred genes from multiple diverse bacteria to the mealybug genome likely complement missing symbiont genes. However, none of these horizontally transferred genes are from Tremblaya, showing that genome reduction in this symbiont has not been enabled by gene transfer to the host nucleus. Our results thus indicate that the functioning of this three-way symbiosis is dependent on genes from at least six lineages of organisms and reveal a path to intimate endosymbiosis distinct from that followed by organelles. PMID:23791183

Husnik, Filip; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Ross, Laura; Duncan, Rebecca P; Fujie, Manabu; Tanaka, Makiko; Satoh, Nori; Bachtrog, Doris; Wilson, Alex C C; von Dohlen, Carol D; Fukatsu, Takema; McCutcheon, John P

2013-06-20

110

Nucleotide sequence, genome organization and phylogenetic analysis of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated closterovirus-2 (PMWaV-2) was cloned from double-stranded RNA isolated from diseased pineapple and its sequence determined. The 3«- terminal 14861 nt of the single-stranded RNA genome contains ten open reading frames (ORFs) which, from 5« to 3«, potentially encode aS 204 kDa polyprotein containing papain-like protease, methyltransferase and helicase domains (ORF1a), a 65 kDa RNA-dependent

M. J. Melzer; A. V. Karasev; D. M. Sether; J. S. Hu

2001-01-01

111

Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.  

PubMed

Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found. PMID:22361038

Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

2012-10-01

112

Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.  

PubMed

Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa. PMID:22360997

Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

2012-10-01

113

Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.  

PubMed

The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs. PMID:20464943

Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally

2010-03-01

114

Resistance of Cotton to Pink Bollworm Damage.  

E-print Network

) , on grapes, Davidson (1921). Parnell (1935) and Parnell et al. (1949) reported ex- cellent control of leafhoppers of the genus Empoasca on cotton in Africa by the use of resist- ant varieties. Only a few examples of such a high degree of host plant..., or possessing morphological modifications that make vegetative parts more desirable for oviposition than fruiting parts, would aid existing methods of control of the .pink bollworm. REVIEW OF LITERATURE General Reports of the resistance of host plants...

Martin, Dial F.; Brazzel, J. R.

1956-01-01

115

Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

2015-01-01

116

A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

117

Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

2015-01-01

118

Esterification of high ?-cellulose extracted from Hibiscus cannabinus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ?-cellulose has been extracted from a fast-growing annual plant, namely Hibiscus cannabinus L. Esterified products from this ?-cellulose and from a commercially available rayon-grade pulp were prepared by adopting homogeneous esterification procedures. The physico-chemical properties of the esterified products obtained were studied and the products were characterized using IR, UV and NMR techniques. The esterified products obtained from the

C. N. Saikia; F. Ali; T. Goswami; Anil C. Ghosh

1995-01-01

119

Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus tissues derived from seedlings of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were shown to produce two cyanidin glycosides as major anthocyanin pigments. Both callus growth and anthocyanin synthesis were remarkably stimulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The highest anthocyanin yield was observed when 1 µM 2,4-D in combination with 0.1–1 µM kinetin was supplemented to the culture medium. In contrast, gibberellic acid showed

Hajime Mizukami; Kaomi Tomita; Hiromu Ohashi; Noboru Hiraoka

1988-01-01

120

Callus induction and adventitious organogenesis of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus production along with caulogenesis and rhizogenesis were obtained from internodal stem explants of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) after 4 weeks in culture. Murashige and Skoog medium was used for two 4×4 matrix experiments designed to determine suitable growth regulator combinations (NAA\\/BAP or 2,4-D\\/kinetin) and concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg\\/L). The most abundant callus production was observed at 0.3\\/3.0

K. S. McLean; G. W. Lawrence; N. A. Reichert

1992-01-01

121

Nonlocal nonlinear refraction in Hibiscus Sabdariffa with large phase shifts.  

PubMed

In this work we present a study of nonlinear optical properties in organic materials (hibiscus sabdariffa). Our results demonstrate that the medium exhibits a highly nonlocal nonlinear response. We show preliminary numerical results of the transmittance as nonlocal response by considering, simultaneously, the nonlinear absorption and refraction in media. Numerical results are accord to measurement obtained by Z- scan technique where we observe large phase shifts. We also analyze the far field diffraction ring patterns of the sample. PMID:25401548

Ramírez-Martínez, D; Alvarado-Méndez, E; Trejo-Durán, M; Vázquez-Guevara, M A

2014-10-20

122

EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPONENTS FROM HIBISCUS SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHANOL MIXTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extr...

123

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant

Yun-Ching Chang; Hui-Pei Huang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Shun-Fa Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2005-01-01

124

Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes about 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in Italy....

125

Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

126

Secondary (?-Proteobacteria) Endosymbionts Infect the Primary (?-Proteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Mealybugs Multiple Times and Coevolve with Their Hosts  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) are plant sap-sucking insects that have within their body cavities specialized cells containing prokaryotic primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts). The P-endosymbionts have the unusual property of containing within their cytoplasm prokaryotic secondary endosymbionts (S-endosymbionts) [C. D. von Dohlen, S. Kohler, S. T. Alsop, and W. R. McManus, Nature (London) 412:433-436, 2001]. Four-kilobase fragments containing 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were obtained from the P-endosymbionts of 22 mealybug species and the S-endosymbionts of 12 representative species. Phylogenetic analyses of the P-endosymbionts indicated that they have a monophyletic origin and are members of the ?-subdivision of the Proteobacteria; these organisms were subdivided into five different clusters. The S-endosymbionts were members of the ?-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and were grouped into clusters similar to those observed with the P-endosymbionts. The S-endosymbiont clusters were distinct from each other and from other insect-associated bacteria. The similarity of the clusters formed by the P- and S-endosymbionts suggests that the P-endosymbionts of mealybugs were infected multiple times with different precursors of the S-endosymbionts and once the association was established, the P- and S-endosymbionts were transmitted together. The lineage consisting of the P-endosymbionts of mealybugs was given the designation “Candidatus Tremblaya” gen. nov., with a single species, “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” sp. nov. The results of phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA fragments encoding cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II from four representative mealybug species were in agreement with the results of 16S-23S rDNA analyses, suggesting that relationships among strains of “Candidatus T. princeps” are useful in inferring the phylogeny of their mealybug hosts. PMID:12088994

Thao, MyLo Ly; Gullan, Penny J.; Baumann, Paul

2002-01-01

127

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

- Analysis of contemporary genetic structure of even-broodyear populations of Asian and western Alaskan pink part of the North American Pacific coast has only small even-year runs; and in western Alaska, even and conservation of the pink salmon resource requires thor- ough knowledge of their biology, includ- ing population

128

PINK1 phosphorylates transglutaminase 2 and blocks its proteasomal degradation.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss and the formation of abnormal protein aggregates, referred to as Lewy bodies (LBs). PINK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that protects cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. PINK1 gene mutations cause one form of autosomal recessive early-onset PD. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an intracellular protein cross-linking enzyme that has an important role in LB formation during PD pathogenesis. This study identifies PINK1 as a novel TG2 binding partner and shows that PINK1 stabilizes the half-life of TG2 via inhibition of TG2 ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. PINK1 affects TG2 stability in a kinase-dependent manner. In addition, PINK1 directly phosphorylates TG2 in carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine-induced mitochondrial damaged states, thereby enhancing TG2 accumulation and intracellular protein cross-linking products. This study further confirms the functional link between upstream PINK1 and downstream TG2 in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest that PINK1 positively regulates TG2 activity, which may be closely associated with aggresome formation in neuronal cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25557247

Min, Boram; Kwon, Young-Chang; Choe, Kwang-Min; Chung, Kwang Chul

2015-05-01

129

SUCCESS OF PINK SALMON SPAWNING RELATIVE TO SIZE  

E-print Network

salmon are of commercial im- portance from Bristol Bay, Alaska, to Puget Sound, WashSUCCESS OF PINK SALMON SPAWNING RELATIVE TO SIZE OF SPAWNING BED MATERIALS by William J. Mc'aiitzko, Commissioner Bureau or Commercial Fisheriks, Donald T,. McKonian, Director SUCCESS OF PINK SALMON SPAWNING

130

First records of the mealybug Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in French Guiana and the Americas.  

PubMed

At the end of August 2014, a visitor to the French National Plant Protection service (NPPO) in Cayenne (French Guiana) brought in mango twigs covered with a significant amount of sooty mould. From these branches, the NPPO officers took large numbers of mealybugs from the underside of the leaves (Fig. 1). The sample was sent to the Plant Health Laboratory (LSV) in Montpellier where it was identified as Rastrococcus invadens Williams. This is the first record of this species in French Guiana and in the Americas.  PMID:25661223

Germain, Jean-François; Laplace, Damien; Devarieux, Antonin; Boavida, Conceição

2015-01-01

131

The balloon flights in the Tropics of the HIBISCUS project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIBISCUS is a project for studying the dynamics, microphysics and chemistry of the Tropical Tropopause Layer based on balloon measurements. Thirteen heavy sondes and 18 short duration balloons of different types have been used for local process studies. Eight superpressure (BP) and 3 Infra Red Montgolfier (MIR) long duration balloons have been flown for extending the investigations at global scale around the world. Overall the campaign has been very successful operationally as well as scientifically. The paper provides a description of the balloons, the instruments and the strategy used for meeting at best the goals of the project.

Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

2005-08-01

132

Biological control of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hom., Pseudococcidae) by Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hym., Encyrtidae) in Malawi  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1985 to 1989 five large scale surveys were made to document the spread of the cassava mealybug (CM) Phenacoccus manihoti Matile?Ferrero (Hom., Pseudococcidae) and the releases and successful establishment of its exotic parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) (Hym., Encyrtidae) through most cassava?growing areas of Malawi. In a multiple regression analysis involving 29 meteorological, agronomic and plant variables from 476

P. Neuenschwander; R. Borowka; G. Phiri; H. Hammans; S. Nyirenda; E. H. Kapeya; A. Gadabu

1991-01-01

133

Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti, by the Exotic Parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi in Africa: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its accidental introduction into Africa, the cassava mealybug (CM) has spread to about 25 countries. The specific parasitoid Epidinocarsis lopezi, introduced from South America, its area of origin, into Nigeria in 1981, has since been released in more than 50 sites. By the end of 1986 it was established in 16 countries and more than 750 000 km^2. In

P. Neuenschwander; D. Badulescu; A. E. Akingbohungbe

1988-01-01

134

Phytotoxicity and Efficacy of Fascination (6-Benzyl Adenine + Gibberellic Acid)  

E-print Network

Branching of Hibiscus (Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink') By Heiner Lieth, Director Linda Dodge Shannon: Hibiscus Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink' REASON: enhanced branching of potted crops SOIL TYPE plants of Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink' were received from Yoder Bros. on 4/12/04. These were

Lieth, J. Heinrich

135

Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 micro by 300 micro) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07-0.09 micro diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 micro by 750 micro and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement. PMID:5761921

Ross, J; Robison, W G

1969-02-01

136

Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri  

PubMed Central

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

137

Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.  

PubMed

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

138

Evaluation for morphological, reproductive, anthocyanin index, and flavonol traits in ornamental and nutraceutical producing Hibiscus species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A collection of twenty accessions representing 11 diverse Hibiscus species were evaluated for morphological, anthocyanin index, flavonol variability, and association correlations for these traits. While considerable variation in all morphological traits were found, H. radiatus produced the tallest ...

139

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

140

Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

141

Genetic affinities of the North American species of Hibiscus sect. Trionum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of herbarium specimens, crossing behavior, chromosome conjugation, and live populations has shown that the endemic North\\u000a American species ofHibiscus sect.Trionum comprise two distinct genetic groups.Hibiscus militaris Cav. andH. coccineus Walt, crossed readily and yielded fertile Fi’s. Also,H. incanus Wendl.,H. moscheutos L., andH. lasiocarpos Cav. crossed freelyinter se, and the hybrids were all vigorous and fertile. However, crosses of these

Dwayne A. Wise; Margaret Y. Menzel

1971-01-01

142

Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.  

PubMed

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

2013-01-01

143

Inhibitory effect of Hibiscus protocatechuic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic acid isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion in skin tumors of female CD-1 mice. Topical application of PCA (5, 10 or 20 ?mol) 5 min prior to TPA (15 nmol) treatment twice weekly for 20 weeks to mice which were initiated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Ming-Hsiang Lo; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Chao-Lu Huang; Chau-Jong Wang

1998-01-01

144

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

2000-01-01

145

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide in rat primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was studied for its protective effects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) in a primary culture of rat hepatocytes. It had been reported that exposure of isolated hepatocytes to t-BHP results in leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine transaminase (ALT), peroxidation of cellular lipids, and

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Erl-Shyh Kao; hia-Yih Chu

1996-01-01

146

PINK1 activation-turning on a promiscuous kinase.  

PubMed

PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1] is a serine/threonine kinase targeted to mitochondria and implicated in early-onset recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Through the phosphorylation of its downstream targets, PINK1 regulates multiple mitochondrial processes, including ATP production, stress-response and mitochondrial dynamics and quality control. The orchestration of such a wide array of functions by an individual kinase requires a fine-tuned and versatile regulation of its activity. PINK1 proteolytic processing, trafficking and localization, as well as different post-translational modifications, affect its activity and function. Unravelling the regulatory mechanisms of PINK1 is essential for a full comprehension of its kinase function in health and disease. PMID:25849930

Aerts, Liesbeth; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A

2015-04-01

147

"Pink urine" in morbidly obese patients following gastric partitioning.  

PubMed

A pink coating on the inner surface of plastic urinary tubing, which gave the impression that the urine was pink, had frequently been noted 4 to 24 hours following gastric partitioning by means of a stapler in morbidly obese patients. A study was therefore done in 187 such patients as well as in 14 patients of normal weight who had undergone abdominal surgery of comparable magnitude. Postoperatively "pink urine" was observed in 32% of the obese patients but in none of the nonobese patients; however, a pink sediment remained following centrifugation of urine collected postoperatively from all the obese patients. Microscopy of this sediment showed crystals of uric acid dihydrate; these were infrequent in the preoperative specimens but present in high concentration in the postoperative specimens, particularly those of "pink urine". X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the nature of the crystals. Preoperatively the obese patients had high-normal serum levels of uric acid. Postoperatively in all the groups of patients the serum levels of uric acid decreased while the urine levels and the urinary clearance of uric acid increased; the last two values, however, were significantly greater, both preoperatively and postoperatively, in those who were morbidly obese. Compared with the patients who did not have "pink urine" the patients with "pink urine" were significantly more obese and had a significantly lower postoperative urine pH. The latter also had a marked postoperative increase in urine osmolality and were the only patients to have a significant postoperative decrease in urine output. Thus, the pink colour of this group's urine was attributed to precipitation of uric acid crystals, fostered by a decrease in pH and an increase in concentration of the urine. PMID:6704846

Deitel, M; Thompson, D A; Saldanha, C F; Ramshaw, P J; Patterson, M C; Pritzker, K P

1984-04-15

148

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate ?-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking ?-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin. PMID:23525905

Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H.; Müller-Rischart, A. Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Schulz, Jörg B.; Voigt, Aaron

2013-01-01

149

Loss of PINK1 Increases the Heart's Vulnerability to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mutations in PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) induce mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic neurons resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson’s disease. Although PINK1 is present in the heart its exact role there is unclear. We hypothesized that PINK1 protects the heart against acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods and Results Over-expressing PINK1 in HL-1 cardiac cells reduced cell death following simulated IRI (29.2±5.2% PINK1 versus 49.0±2.4% control; N?=?320 cells/group P<0.05), and delayed the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening (by 1.3 fold; P<0.05). Hearts excised from PINK1+/+, PINK1+/? and PINK1?/? mice were subjected to 35 minutes regional ischemia followed by 30 minutes reperfusion. Interestingly, myocardial infarct size was increased in PINK1?/? hearts compared to PINK1+/+ hearts with an intermediate infarct size in PINK1+/? hearts (25.1±2.0% PINK1+/+, 38.9±3.4% PINK1+/? versus 51.5±4.3% PINK1?/? hearts; N>5 animals/group; P<0.05). Cardiomyocytes isolated from PINK1?/? hearts had a lower resting mitochondrial membrane potential, had inhibited mitochondrial respiration, generated more oxidative stress during simulated IRI, and underwent rigor contracture more rapidly in response to an uncoupler when compared to PINK1+/+ cells suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in hearts deficient in PINK1. Conclusions We show that the loss of PINK1 increases the heart's vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This may be due, in part, to increased mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings implicate PINK1 as a novel target for cardioprotection. PMID:23638067

Siddall, Hilary K.; Yellon, Derek M.; Ong, Sang-Bing; Mukherjee, Uma A.; Burke, Niall; Hall, Andrew R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H. R.; Deas, Emma; Davidson, Sean M.; Mocanu, Mihaela M.; Hausenloy, Derek J.

2013-01-01

150

Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.  

PubMed

Pinking is the terminology used for the salmon-red blush color that may appear in white wines produced exclusively from white grape varieties. The isolation of pinking compounds and their analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS(n) showed that the origin of the pinking phenomenon in white wines from Vitis vinifera L. of S??ria grape variety are the anthocyanins, mainly malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The analysis showed that the anthocyanins were located both in the pulp and in the skin. Wine pinking severity was negatively related with the increase of the average temperature of the first 10 days of October, the final period of grape maturation. The minimum amount of anthocyanins needed for the pink color visualization in wine was 0.3 mg/L. The appearance of pinking in white wines after bottling is due to the lowering of free sulfur dioxide, which leads to an increase of the relative amount of the anthocyanins red flavylium form and their polymerization, resulting in the formation of colored compounds resistant to pH changes and sulfur dioxide bleaching. PMID:24857316

Andrea-Silva, Jenny; Cosme, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Luís Filipe; Moreira, Ana S P; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M; Nunes, Fernando M

2014-06-18

151

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

152

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

153

Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

2014-12-01

154

Cirrus clouds in convective outflow during the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight microlidar measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (22 S, 49 W). Tropical cirrus observations showed high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. The cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height. It was found that the clouds were composed of different layers, characterized by a marked variability in height, thickness and optical properties. Trajectory analysis and mesoscale transport simulations clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region, while the observed optical properties and cloud structure variability could be linked to different residence times of convective-processed air in the upper troposphere. Mesoscale simulations were able to reproduce the supersaturation due to recent outflow, while it was necessary to consider the presence of other formation processes than convective hydration for cirrus forming in aged detrained anvils.

Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.

2007-05-01

155

‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

Alqasoumi, S.I.

2011-01-01

156

Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2014-01-01

157

Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2014-01-01

158

Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

159

Induction of apoptosis by Hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl2 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ta-Wei Kao; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Wei-Long Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

2000-01-01

160

Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.  

PubMed

The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage. PMID:12216810

Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J

2002-08-01

161

Inter- and intraspecific interactions in two mealybug predators Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri in the presence and absence of prey.  

PubMed

Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are the two potential predators of different species of mealybugs. However, the mode of their interactions is not known to use these predators together in the field. Hence, we investigated on the possible interactions i.e., cannibalism, intraguild predation (IGP) and competition between the predators in the presence and absence of prey Planococcus citri. In the presence of prey, no cannibalism and predation were observed in both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae. A pair of S. epius larvae consumed significantly more number of mealybugs than one S. epius/C. montrouzieri larva or a pair of C. montrouzieri larvae. The predation of S. epius larva by C. montrouzieri larva was significantly more than the predation of C. montrouzieri by S. epius. Conspecific and interspecific egg predation was absent both in S. epius and C. montrouzieri. Cannibalism in C. montrouzieri was more than that in S. epius. The study indicated that C. montrouzieri larvae can be used as an additive along with voracious S. epius larvae under abundant prey population. IGP was asymmetric between the two predators in the absence of prey. Both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae can maintain a stable coexistence when prey is abundantly available, however, in the complete absence of prey C. montrouzieri may dominate the guild. This study provides an insight into the possible complex inter- and intraspecific predatory phenomena in the field to use these two predators in the biological control of mealybugs. PMID:24044725

Dinesh, A S; Venkatesha, M G

2014-02-01

162

Unravelling the structure of Magnus' pink salt.  

PubMed

A combination of multinuclear ultra-wideline solid-state NMR, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure experiments, and first principles calculations of platinum magnetic shielding tensors has been employed to reveal the previously unknown crystal structure of Magnus' pink salt (MPS), [Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4], study the isomeric Magnus' green salt (MGS), [Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4], and examine their synthetic precursors K2PtCl4 and Pt(NH3)4Cl2·H2O. A simple synthesis of MPS is detailed which produces relatively pure product in good yield. Broad (195)Pt, (14)N, and (35)Cl SSNMR powder patterns have been acquired using the WURST-CPMG and BRAIN-CP/WURST-CPMG pulse sequences. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated platinum magnetic shielding tensors are shown to be very sensitive to the types and arrangements of coordinating ligands as well as intermolecular Pt-Pt metallophilic interactions. High-resolution (195)Pt NMR spectra of select regions of the broad (195)Pt powder patterns, in conjunction with an array of (14)N and (35)Cl spectra, reveal clear structural differences between all compounds. Rietveld refinements of synchrotron pXRD patterns, guided by first principles geometry optimization calculations, yield the space group, unit cell parameters, and atomic positions of MPS. The crystal structure has P-1 symmetry and resides in a pseudotetragonal unit cell with a distance of >5.5 Å between Pt sites in the square-planar Pt units. The long Pt-Pt distances and nonparallel orientation of Pt square planes prohibit metallophilic interactions within MPS. The combination of ultra-wideline NMR, pXRD, and computational methods offers much promise for future investigation and characterization of Pt-containing systems. PMID:24437378

Lucier, Bryan E G; Johnston, Karen E; Xu, Wenqian; Hanson, Jonathan C; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Yao, Siyu; Bourassa, Megan W; Srebro, Monika; Autschbach, Jochen; Schurko, Robert W

2014-01-29

163

The Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tisane on Blood Pressure in Prehypertensive and Mildly Hypertensive Men and Women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in diet and physical activity are recommended for individuals with pre-hypertension and mild Stage 1 hypertension. Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces are a common ingredient in tisane (herbal tea) blends sold in the U.S. Water extracts of hibiscus possess antioxidant properties in vitro, and produc...

164

Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Sahara Sunset, A New African Hibiscus Cultivar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hibiscus asetosella 'Sahara Sunset' is an African hibiscus released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service that was Developed by Dr. Cecil Pounders at the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. ‘Sahara Sunset’ is a tropical shrub (USD...

165

Parkin and PINK1: much more than mitophagy.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. Although most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models have linked Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy); however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

Scarffe, Leslie A; Stevens, Daniel A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

2014-06-01

166

Dopaminergic cell damage and vulnerability to MPTP in Pink1 knockdown zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functions of PTEN (phosphatase\\/tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase (PINK1), which is mutated in early-onset Parkinson's disease, are poorly understood. We characterized a PINK1 antibody and found colocalization of PINK1-like immunoreactivity with aminergic markers. We inactivated translation of Pink1 using morpholino-oligonucleotides (MOs) in larval zebrafish. Dopaminergic neurons consisted of two sets of neuron populations, marked by complementary expression of two tyrosine

Ville Sallinen; Juha Kolehmainen; Madhusmita Priyadarshini; Gabija Toleikyte; Yu-Chia Chen; Pertti Panula

2010-01-01

167

Pink (P), a new locus responsible for a pink trait in onions (Allium cepa) resulting from natural mutations of anthocyanidin synthase.  

PubMed

A new locus conditioning a pink trait in onions was identified. Unusual pink onions were found in haploid populations induced from an F(1) hybrid between yellow and dark red parents and in F(3) populations originating from the same cross. Segregation ratios of red to pink in F(2), backcross, and F(3) populations indicated that this pink trait is determined by a single recessive locus. RT-PCR was carried out to look for any differential expression of anthocyanin synthesis genes between dark red and pink F(3) lines. The transcript level of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was significantly reduced in the pink line. To determine whether this reduced transcription is caused by other regulatory factors or by mutations in the ANS gene itself, ANS gene sequences from both dark red and pink F(3) lines were compared to detect any polymorphisms. Polymorphisms were identified, and subsequently utilized as molecular markers for the selection of ANS alleles. Absolute co-segregation of the pink allele and the ANS allele from the pink line was observed in parents, F(1) and F(3) populations. These results indicate that reduced transcription of the ANS gene caused by mutations in a cis -acting element is likely to result in the pink trait in onions. PMID:15480791

Kim, S; Binzel, M L; Yoo, K S; Park, S; Pike, L M

2004-08-01

168

77 FR 60207 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation of Critical...Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation of Critical...Service) propose to list the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, Cicindela...

2012-10-02

169

78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation...proposed designation of critical habitat for Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle under the...Conservation Agreement and Strategy for the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, and an...

2013-05-06

170

NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-639 Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-639 Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico for 2011 By Rick A A. 2012. Stock Assessment of Pink Shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico

171

PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

172

Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th Saturday November 15th  

E-print Network

Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th ­ Saturday November 15th Humanities Center ­ 602 Cathedral ­ University of Pittsburgh The Pink Tide is the label used for the wave of Latin, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela. The Pink Tide seems to be receding, but it may have transformed politics

Sibille, Etienne

173

7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section...Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring...and otherwise governing the movement of live pink bollworms in interstate or...

2010-01-01

174

Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

2014-04-01

175

Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen  

PubMed Central

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

176

Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.  

PubMed

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

177

Wound Healing Potential of Formulated Extract from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx  

PubMed Central

Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (P<0.05) and concentration dependent wound healing activities. There was also evidence of synergism with creams containing a combination of gentamicin and H. sabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

Builders, P. F.; Kabele-Toge, B.; Builders, M.; Chindo, B. A.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Isimi, Yetunde C.

2013-01-01

178

The Phloem-Sap Feeding Mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) Carries ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations That Do Not Cause Disease in Host Plants  

PubMed Central

‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24×107 to 1.07×104 Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T.; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G.; Stocks, Ian C.; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

179

The phloem-sap feeding mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations that do not cause disease in host plants.  

PubMed

'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24 × 10(7) to 1.07 × 10(4) Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G; Stocks, Ian C; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

180

Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

Azzam, Amy M.

2014-01-01

181

Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp  

E-print Network

306 Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp (Farfantepenaeus-Farfante (1969, 1970, 1971a) described diagnostic charac- ters of the genus Farfantepenaeus that allowed (RL/CL). In addition, she classified Farfantepenaeus into two groups according to the shape

182

Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

183

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink G. B. Henning  

E-print Network

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink noise G. B. Henning The Sensory Research Unit- tectable than any of its components. However, in contrast-discrimination experiments, with a pedestal the discrimination performance of the pulse train relative to that obtained with its sinusoidal components. We

184

Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of Canada.…

Twomey, Sarah Jane

2011-01-01

185

Beyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society  

E-print Network

Interfaces]: Theory and methods INTRODUCTION Robots are poised to enter a range of personal spacesBeyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society Yan Wang University perceptions of robots and interactions with them is crucial for the ongoing advancement of the human-robot

186

CROP AND WEED HOSTS OF THE PINK ROT PATHOGEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora erythroseptica (Pe), cause of pink rot of potato, is known to infect at least 31 different host plants. Wheat and barley are two of these reported hosts that are grown almost exclusively in rotation with potato in eastern Idaho. Additionally, wheat,barley, and seed of other crops foun...

187

Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose

Kaitlyn Regehr

2012-01-01

188

Cytosolic cleaved PINK1 represses Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy  

PubMed Central

PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease through the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we show that the PINK1 main cleavage product, PINK152, after being generated inside mitochondria, can exit these organelles and localize to the cytosol, where it is not only destined for degradation by the proteasome but binds to Parkin. The interaction of cytosolic PINK1 with Parkin represses Parkin translocation to the mitochondria and subsequent mitophagy. Our work therefore highlights the existence of two cellular pools of PINK1 that have different effects on Parkin translocation and mitophagy. PMID:24357652

Fedorowicz, Maja A; de Vries-Schneider, Rosa L A; Rüb, Cornelia; Becker, Dorothea; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Chun; Alessi Wolken, Dana M; Voos, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuhui; Przedborski, Serge

2014-01-01

189

Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production. PMID:24766493

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

2013-01-01

190

Host plant probing analysis reveals quick settlement of the solenopsis mealybug during host shift.  

PubMed

Quantitative feeding behaviors were analyzed by electronic penetration graph technique to evaluate the resources utilization efficiency of the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), transferred to a novel host. Both nonphloem and phloem factors were contributed to the host availability during host shift; while only "prephloem" factor was involved with their offspring's fitness to the transferred host, on which they fed as effectively as their mothers did on the origin host. Different performances on different hosts were supposed to have relations with the diverse phloem components, rather than feeding behaviors. P. solenopsis could try and exploit an efficient stylet pathway to reach the phloem, which would be an importance factor to account for the expansion of the host range and adaptations to different hosts. High efficient feeding behaviors of P. solenopsis in the current study manifested its capability of resource utilization to the novel host, which was suggested to be advantageous for its host shift, and to be the explanation for rapid host shifts associated with its broad host range and quick settlement. PMID:25195430

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Bei, Yawei; He, Yueping; Lu, Yaobin

2014-08-01

191

Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsmealybug.

The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

2012-01-01

192

Effect of Honey Solution and Water Acquisition on Survival of Starved Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis  

PubMed Central

The current study examined the effects of honey solution and water access on feeding behavior and survival of starving solenopsis mealybugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The electrical penetration graph technique and an artificial membrane system were used to check whether P. solenopsis could imbibe free water or other liquid, such as the honey solution used here, in its natural environment. The recorded electrical penetration graph waveforms revealed that P. solenopsis could continuously imbibe water-honey solution for several hours, which indicated that honey solution and water acquisition could possibly occur when P. solenopsis had access to such liquids in its natural environment. Waveforms of water-honey solution feeding alternated between two distinct feeding phases in a regular pattern, which was assumed to reflect inherent habits of feeding attempts. The effects of honey solution and water acquisition on survival of P. solenopsis was also examined. Comparison between P. solenopsis in different treatments (starved, water feeding, honey solution feeding, and cotton plant feeding) suggested that 1) P. solenopsis could accept but did not favor feeding on water or the honey solution, and 2) this feeding could prolong its survival, but had no effect on body size. PMID:25373148

Huang, Fang; Wang, Feifei; Lu, Yaobin; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Bei, Yawei

2014-01-01

193

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

194

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

195

BAG5 Protects against Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage through Regulating PINK1 Degradation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause PARK6 familial Parkinsonism, and loss of the stability of PINK1 may also contribute to sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Degradation of PINK1 occurs predominantly through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), however, to date, few of the proteins have been found to regulate the degradation of PINK1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and pull-down methods, we identified bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5), a BAG family member, directly interacted with PINK1. We showed that BAG5 stabilized PINK1 by decreasing the ubiquitination of PINK1. Interestingly, BAG5 rescued MPP+- and rotenone-induced mitochondria dysfunction by up-regulating PINK1 in vitro. In PINK1-null mice and MPTP-treated mice, BAG5 significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) although PINK1 was decreased. Our findings indicated that BAG5, as a key protein to stabilize PINK1, is a promising therapeutic tool for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress. PMID:24475098

Fei, Erkang; Mu, Yingfeng; He, Shuang; Che, Xiangqian; Tan, Jieqiong; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Zhuohua; Wang, Guanghui; Tang, Beisha

2014-01-01

196

Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

SciTech Connect

Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide.

Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

1986-04-01

197

The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.  

PubMed

Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2)  = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth. PMID:25684096

Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

2015-03-01

198

Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Planococcus citri, the citrus mealybug, is the most important species of mealybug known to infest citrus in South Africa. Various laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control P. citri. Adult female P. citri were screened for susceptibility to six indigenous nematode species. P. citri was found to be most susceptible to Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica, causing 97% and 91% mortality, respectively. The development of nematodes after infecting adult female P. citri showed both H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense were able to complete their life cycles inside the host. Further bioassays illustrated a linear relationship between mealybug mortality and the concentration of nematodes applied, with the highest level of control using a concentration of 80 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect. As nematodes would be used as an above-ground application to control P. citri in citrus orchards, available water is a major limiting factor. Insecticidal activity proved to be dependent on the available surface moisture after nematode application. The water activity (a(w)) bioassay indicated that S. yirgalemense to be two times more tolerant to lower levels of free water, with a(w50)=0.96 and a(w90)=0.99, compared to H. zealandica with a(w50)=0.98 and a(w)90=1.0. After application, nematodes have a limited time frame in which to locate and infect hosts, as the level of available free water gradually decreases, as trees dry out. S. yirgalemense proved able to locate and infect P. citri quicker than H. zealandica. Nematode activity was not significantly affected when exposed to 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. IJs were able to infect P. citri at an exposure time as short as half an hour. Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri. PMID:22884676

van Niekerk, Sonnica; Malan, Antoinette P

2012-10-01

199

Density and frequency-dependent inbreeding depression in the Australian annual Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: Does the magnitude of inbreeding depression fluctuate in response to the density and frequency of inbred and outbred plants in a neighbourhood? Hypothesis: Inbreeding depression is greater when plant density is high and when selfed progeny compete with crossed progeny. Organism: The self-pollinating annual plant Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius. Methods: We estimated inbreeding depression by comparing selfed and crossed

Namgay Lhamo; Mike Ramsey; Glenda Vaughton

200

A taxonomic re-evaluation of Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae) in Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus trionum has generally been regarded as naturalised in Australia and New Zealand. Two varieties are sometimes accepted as occurring in Australia: H. trionum var. trionum and H. trionum var. vesicarius, with the latter occasionally treated as indigenous. Following studies of the variation within H. trionum in Australia and New Zealand we propose that there are three indigenous species in

LA Craven; PJ de Lange; TR Lally; BG Murray; SB Johnson

2011-01-01

201

Diversity of Foliar Trichomes and Their Systematic Relevance in the Genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative micromorphological characters, distribution and systematic relevance of both glandular and eglandular foliar trichomes in species of genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) including H. caesius, H. mutabilis, H. rosa-sinensis, H. sabdariffa, H. schizopetalus, H. syriacus and H. trionum were characterized. Diversity of these epidermal appendages were separated into eight main types. Glandular capitate trichomes were the most abundant on both

NIGHAT SHAHEEN; MIR AJAB; GHAZALAH YASMIN; MUHAMMAD QASIM HAYAT

202

Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core as a containerized growth medium component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stems contain two distinct fiber types, bast and core. The absorbent, low density core (xylem) is a possible potting mix component. Two greenhouse studies were conducted during 1993 and 1995 to determine the feasibility of substituting kenaf core for vermiculite and bark. In Study 1, fine-grade kenaf was substituted for vermiculite in three volume ratios (1,

Charles L. Webber; Julia Whitworth; John Dole

1999-01-01

203

Pollen Competition as a Reproductive Isolating Mechanism between Two Sympatric Hibiscus Species (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in pollen tube growth rates (certation) between heterospecific (foreign) and conspecific pollen may strongly influence whether hybrid offspring are produced after mixed pollen loads are delivered to a stigma. For both members of a sympatric species pair, Hibiscus moscheutos and H. laevis, pollination by pure loads of foreign pollen resulted in fruit set that was not significantly different from

Robert A. Klips

1999-01-01

204

A Genetic Analysis of Hydrologically Dispersed Seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersal of floating seeds in wetland habitats should influence the genetic characteristics of plant metapopulations. We examined gene flow of a hydrochorous wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), by analyzing allozyme variation in current- year floating-seed populations. The genetic composition of floating seeds was compared to the genetic composition of established populations of H. moscheutosthat had been previously analyzed

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

2001-01-01

205

Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of Hibiscus cannabinus grown in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different morphological regions of Hibiscus cannabinus plants grown in Portugal were submitted to chemical composition studies. General chemical composition was determined by established methods. The polysaccharides were fractionated by successive extractions of holocellulose with aqueous KOH solutions. The sugar composition was determined by hydrolysis of polysaccharides followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis of neutral sugars and spectrophotometric determination of uronic

C. Pascoal Neto; A. Seca; D. Fradinho; M. A. Coimbra; F. Domingues; D. Evtuguin; A. Silvestre; J. A. S. Cavaleiro

1996-01-01

206

Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

207

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. The objective of this study was to exami...

208

Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

209

Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

210

Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.  

PubMed

Two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. The compounds were identified as (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) by GC and GC-MS by comparison with synthetic standards. Chiral GC analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. Compound I was identified recently as the sex pheromone of P. ficus in California. The attraction of vine mealybug males to both components I and II was demonstrated in a Petri dish bioassay and in a flight assay in the rearing chamber. Indoors, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that feral males were attracted only to compound I. Reanalysis of the airborne pheromone indicated that laboratory first generation daughters of females that were collected in the vineyard produce only (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I). The relative amount of (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) increased gradually in each subsequent generation of P. ficus reared on potatoes. These findings indicate that feral P. ficus mealybugs produce and respond only to (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I), whereas mealybugs that were reared in the laboratory on potato sprouts produce and respond to both (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II). PMID:12775156

Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Assael, F; Harel, M; Cojocaru, M; Mendel, Z

2003-04-01

211

Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug clades within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. These two species, commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method...

212

Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.  

PubMed

The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM. PMID:20981534

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

2010-12-01

213

Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus  

PubMed Central

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, ?ntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

2013-01-01

214

Adjuvants to improve aerial control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) using entomopathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents. Different adjuvants can be added to suspensions of EPNs, to improve control as a foliar application. An aqueous suspension containing Heterorhabditis zealandica and 0.3% Zeba® significantly increased P. citri mortality by 22% at 80% relative humidity (RH) with a temperature cycle starting at 22°C for 14 h and 11°C for 11 h. The same polymer formulation was tested for Steinernema yirgalemense and mortality of P. citri increased by 21% at 60% RH and by 27% at 80% RH. The addition of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to H. zealandica suspensions did not significantly retard application run-off on citrus leaves. The combination of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, however, was able to significantly retard sedimentation, increasing the average number of nematodes deposited on 2-cm2 leaf discs by 10 nematodes. In an aqueous suspension, nematodes settle rapidly to the bottom, resulting in an uneven distribution of nematodes. Xanthan gum, at a concentration of 0.2%, was highly effective at retarding sedimentation, with 72% of the initial nematode number still in suspension after 1 h. Zeba®, at a concentration of 0.3%, despite not being as effective as Xanthan gum, nevertheless still retarded sedimentation significantly. This is the first report of the potential of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to improve EPN performance against P. citri when used above ground in citrus orchards. PMID:25652668

van Niekerk, S; Malan, A P

2015-03-01

215

Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.  

PubMed

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

2013-01-01

216

Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

2014-10-01

217

Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour  

PubMed Central

Visual motion cues are one of the most important factors for eliciting animal behaviour, including predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. To understand the elements of motion that cause such selective predation behaviour, we used a virtual plankton system where the predation behaviour in response to computer-generated prey was analysed. First, we performed motion analysis of zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to extract mathematical functions for biologically relevant motions of prey. Next, virtual prey models were programmed on a computer and presented to medaka (Oryzias latipes), which served as predatory fish. Medaka exhibited predation behaviour against several characteristic virtual plankton movements, particularly against a swimming pattern that could be characterised as pink noise motion. Analysing prey-predator interactions via pink noise motion will be an interesting research field in the future. PMID:22355733

Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

2012-01-01

218

Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L. were

T.-H. Tseng; E.-S. Kao; C.-Y. Chu; F.-P. Chou; H.-W. Lin Wu; C.-J. Wang

1997-01-01

219

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dp3-Sam could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60) as characterized by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP). Molecular data showed that Dp3-Sam induced Bid truncation, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) loss, and

De-Xing Hou; Xuhui Tong; Norihiko Terahara; Dong Luo; Makoto Fujii

2005-01-01

220

An analysis of histone modifications in relation to sex-specific chromatin organization in the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  

PubMed

The male-specific heterochromatization of the paternal genome, observed in coccids, is an example of both genomic imprinting and differential regulation of homologous chromosomes. We observed a highly nuclease-resistant chromatin (NRC) organization of a part of the paternal genome in males of Maconellicoccus hirsutus as reported earlier in Planococcus lilacinus. The nuclease resistance of NRC is correlated with nuclear matrix association and is lost when NRC is dissociated from the matrix. We carried out a comparative analysis of epigenetic modifications of histones in matrix associated chromatin of male and female mealybugs by ELISA. We detected H3K27me3, H4K20me3, H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 in both males and females and observed significant enrichment of H3K27me3 in the nuclear matrix of males compared to that of females. To further examine the presence of NRC in the germ line, nuclei were sorted based on chromatin compaction. The analysis of sorted nuclei indicates the presence of NRC in nuclei with different DNA content including the haploid nuclei from males. We discuss these results in the light of the presence of NRC exclusively in male nuclei and the retention of the maternal genome in sperm nuclei of mealybugs. PMID:20616523

Mathur, V; Mendiratta, G; Ganapathi, M; Kennady, P K; Dwarkanath, B S; Pande, G; Brahmachari, V

2010-01-01

221

Characterization of TTAGG telomeric repeats, their interstitial occurrence and constitutively active telomerase in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus (Homoptera; Coccoidea).  

PubMed

We confirmed the occurrence of the insect TTAGG telomeric repeats in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus, a radiation-resistant coccid, by single primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization. Analysis of Bal31 nuclease-digested DNA by Southern hybridization and chromosomes by FISH suggests that these repeats occur mainly at the ends of the chromosomes. However, sequence analysis of the PCR products of TTAGG-associated sequences from genomic DNA showed their interstitial occurrence and association with certain unrelated low-copy repeats. Because of their shorter length, the interstitial TTAGG sequences were detectable by primed in situ hybridizations but not by FISH. Analysis of chromosomes recovered after irradiation by fluorescent in situ hybridization suggested acquisition of TTAGG repeats at a majority of the healed ends. We also observed mild telomerase activity in unirradiated insects which was further enhanced after irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that the mealybug has an efficient mechanism of formation of TTAGG repeats at radiation-induced chromosome ends and constitutively active telomerase may be a feature associated with rapid recovery of chromosome ends damaged by ionizing radiation. PMID:21088846

Mohan, Kommu Naga; Rani, B Sandya; Kulashreshta, Pooja Swaroop; Kadandale, Jayarama S

2011-04-01

222

A New Lavandulol-related Monoterpene in the Sex Pheromone of the Grey Pineapple Mealybug, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes.  

PubMed

The grey pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, is a serious pest that attacks a variety of crops in tropical regions. Recently, it was recorded on an island in southwestern Japan, suggesting that its distribution is expanding. As a measure against this expansion, a monitoring tool is urgently needed. In this study we determined the structure of the sex pheromone of D. neobrevipes in order to develop an efficient lure for monitoring traps. Volatiles collected from virgin adult females were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography, and fractions were tested for attractiveness to males in a laboratory bioassay. A single compound was isolated which was as attractive to males as the crude collections, and this was proposed to be the main, if not the only, component of the female-produced sex pheromone. The structure of this was determined to be (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexa-3,5-dienyl acetate by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. This compound was synthesized through four steps, and the synthetic chemical was as attractive as the natural product in a greenhouse bioassay. The enantiomers of the synthetic acetate were obtained by enantioselective HPLC fractionation of the corresponding alcohols, and the natural pheromone was shown to be the (+)-isomer. The carbon skeleton of this novel compound is related to lavandulol, a monoterpene with an unusual non-head-to-tail connection of isoprene units that is often found in mealybug pheromones. PMID:25618324

Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

2015-02-01

223

Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

2011-07-01

224

The Parkinson's gene PINK1 regulates cell cycle progression and promotes cancer-associated phenotypes.  

PubMed

PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced kinase 1), a Parkinson's disease-associated gene, was identified originally because of its induction by the tumor-suppressor PTEN. PINK1 promotes cell survival and potentially metastatic functions and protects against cell stressors including chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms underlying PINK1 function in cancer cell biology are unclear. Here, using several model systems, we show that PINK1 deletion significantly reduced cancer-associated phenotypes including cell proliferation, colony formation and invasiveness, which were restored by human PINK1 overexpression. Results show that PINK1 deletion causes major defects in cell cycle progression in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from PINK1(-/-) mice, and in BE(2)-M17 cells stably transduced with short hairpin RNA against PINK1. Detailed cell cycle analyses of MEF cell lines from several PINK1(-/-) mice demonstrate an increased proportion of cells in G2/M and decreased number of cells in G1 following release from nocodazole block. This was concomitant with increased double and multi-nucleated cells, a reduced ability to undergo cytokinesis and to re-enter G1, and significant alterations in cell cycle markers, including failure to increase cyclin D1, all indicative of mitotic arrest. PINK1(-/-) cells also demonstrated ineffective cell cycle exit following serum deprivation. Cell cycle defects associated with PINK1 deficiency occur at points critical for cell division, growth and stress resistance in cancer cells were rescued by ectopic expression of human PINK1 and demonstrated PINK1 kinase dependence. The importance of PINK1 for cell cycle control is further supported by results showing that cell cycle deficits induced by PINK1 deletion were linked mechanistically to aberrant mitochondrial fission and its regulation by dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), known to be critical for progression of mitosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 has tumor-promoting properties and demonstrates a new function for PINK1 as a regulator of the cell cycle. PMID:24681957

O'Flanagan, C H; Morais, V A; Wurst, W; De Strooper, B; O'Neill, C

2015-03-12

225

Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps. PMID:21510204

Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

2011-04-01

226

The effect of excessively high rainfall on pink bollworm infested cotton  

E-print Network

46. 55 44. 76 49 50 48, 60 199. 94 198 4. 5 188. 25 200. 70 30 SVMHARY Y1eld and quality studies were made at College Station on cotton with varying pink bollworm infestations under conditions of high mois- ture. Also, observations ware... on cotton in evaluation studies of pink bollworm dassLge at College Stations Terna ? 1957 . . . ~ . . . . . . . . ~ 25 Meekly green boll counts of pink bollworm infestations in field cages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Results of lint analyses...

Showers, Wayne Allen

1958-01-01

227

Biochemical factors associated with a CO 2-induced flesh browning disorder of Pink Lady apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying biochemical factors associated with a CO2-induced internal flesh browning (FB) disorder of Pink Lady apples (Malus domestica Borkh ‘Cripps Pink’) are poorly understood. To investigate this disorder, Pink Lady apples were stored in air or controlled atmosphere (CA) with 1.5kPa O2 and 5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C for 2 and 4 months in 2004 and 2005. Following CA storage,

Elena de Castro; Diane M. Barrett; Jennifer Jobling; Elizabeth J. Mitcham

2008-01-01

228

Diuretic effect of compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa by modulation of the aldosterone activity.  

PubMed

Recent studies of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. have demonstrated that it presents diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects. However, the mechanism that induces these effects has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of action for the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and its fractions.The aqueous extract from this plant and the fractions obtained with solvents of different polarities were administered to adrenalectomized rats, and the diuretic effect was measured in the presence of deoxycorticosterone acetate (aldosterone analog).The effect on renal filtration was also evaluated in an in situ kidney model, and finally, the effect of diuretic active extracts on gene expression of the alpha subunit from the transporter (?ENaC) of renal epithelial cell was quantified. The subsequent results were obtained: The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa presented the following chemical composition, 32.4?mg/g delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5?mg/g cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5?mg/g quercetin, and chlorogenic acid 2.7?mg/g. The concentration of anthocyanins was diminished until disappearance due to decrease of the polarity of the solvents used in the extraction process, in contrast to the flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, which had their concentration increased. The diuretic effect caused by adrenalectomy in rats was reversed by deoxycorticosterone acetate activity. However, the effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate was antagonized by spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, and the acetonitrile?:?methanol 5?:?5 mixture extract, administered orally. A similar effect was observed on renal filtration obtained from the isolated kidney model.When the gene expression levels of ?ENaC was measured in adrenalectomized rats, it was observed that spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, the acetonitrile?:?methanol 5?:?5 mixture, as well as the acetonitrile extract significantly decreased the expression of this protein.The conclusion of this work is that the diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa are due in part to the modulation of aldosterone activity by the presence in the extract of this plant of compounds potentially responsible for this modulation, as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and chlorogenic acid. PMID:23150077

Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Alarcón-Alonso, Javier; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer C, Itzia; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

2012-12-01

229

Upregulation of human PINK1 gene expression by NF?B signalling  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria and more than 70 PINK1 mutations have been identified to cause early-onset PD. However, the regulation of PINK1 gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the transcription start site (TSS) of the human PINK1 gene using switching mechanism at 5’end of RNA transcription (SMART RACE) assay. The TSS is located at 91 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG. The region with 104 bp was identified as the minimal promoter region by deletion analysis followed by dual luciferase assay. Four functional cis-acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B)-binding sites within the PINK1 promoter were identified. NF?B overexpression led to the up-regulation of PINK1 expression in both HEK293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. Consistently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong activator of NF?B, significantly increased PINK1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results clearly suggested that PINK1 expression is tightly regulated at its transcription level and NF?B is a positive regulator for PINK1 expression. PMID:25108683

2014-01-01

230

Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.  

PubMed

Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. ?-lactoglobulin (1.8%), ?-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey. PMID:22061938

Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

2007-12-01

231

A Dimeric PINK1-containing Complex on Depolarized Mitochondria Stimulates Parkin Recruitment*  

PubMed Central

Parkinsonism typified by sporadic Parkinson disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1), a mitochondrial Ser/Thr protein kinase, or PARKIN, a ubiquitin-protein ligase, cause familial parkinsonism. The accumulation and autophosphorylation of PINK1 on damaged mitochondria results in the recruitment of Parkin, which ultimately triggers quarantine and/or degradation of the damaged mitochondria by the proteasome and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism of PINK1 in dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show by fluorescence-based techniques that the PINK1 complex formed following a decrease in ??m is composed of two PINK1 molecules and is correlated with intermolecular phosphorylation of PINK1. Disruption of complex formation by the PINK1 S402A mutation weakened Parkin recruitment onto depolarized mitochondria. The most disease-relevant mutations of PINK1 inhibit the complex formation. Taken together, these results suggest that formation of the complex containing dyadic PINK1 is an important step for Parkin recruitment onto damaged mitochondria. PMID:24189060

Okatsu, Kei; Uno, Midori; Koyano, Fumika; Go, Etsu; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2013-01-01

232

Dopaminergic cell damage and vulnerability to MPTP in Pink1 knockdown zebrafish.  

PubMed

The functions of PTEN (phosphatase/tensin homolog)-induced putative kinase (PINK1), which is mutated in early-onset Parkinson's disease, are poorly understood. We characterized a PINK1 antibody and found colocalization of PINK1-like immunoreactivity with aminergic markers. We inactivated translation of Pink1 using morpholino-oligonucleotides (MOs) in larval zebrafish. Dopaminergic neurons consisted of two sets of neuron populations, marked by complementary expression of two tyrosine hydroxylase genes th1 and th2. Translation inhibition of pink1 resulted in reduction of both th mRNA forms until day 5 or 7, respectively. The affected dopaminergic neurons were in one group expressing th1 and three groups expressing th2. Lack of Pink1 sensitized the fish to subeffective doses of MPTP, which caused a locomotor deficit and facilitated loss of th1 in one diencephalic dopaminergic cell group. Control experiments with pink1 mRNA and control MO suggested that effects with the splice site targeting MO were specific. Distinct groups of dopaminergic neurons are thus sensitive to loss of Pink1. Sensitization of the pink1 morphant fish to MPTP toxicity suggests that genetic factors play a role in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease. PMID:20600915

Sallinen, Ville; Kolehmainen, Juha; Priyadarshini, Madhusmita; Toleikyte, Gabija; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

2010-10-01

233

First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.  

PubMed

The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented. PMID:23917571

Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

2013-05-01

234

Delayed autonomous selfing and inbreeding depression in the Australian annual Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian annual, Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius, produces large, showy flowers typical of an outcrossing species, yet flowers autonomously self-pollinate. We used experimental pollinations to examine self-compatibility, inbreeding depression and the efficiency and mechanism of autonomous selfing. Seed set of self- or cross-pollinated flowers did not differ, indicating that plants were fully self-compatible. Seed set following autonomous selfing varied among

Leahwyn SeedA; Glenda Vaughton; Mike Ramsey

2006-01-01

235

The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl4 by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1–5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced

Jer-Yuh Liu; Chang-Che Chen; Wen-Hong Wang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Mon-Yuan Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2006-01-01

236

Rheology of okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut ( Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide extracts were prepared from two traditional food thickeners with extensive domestic use in central and western parts of Africa: okra (Hibiscus esculentis L.) and the seed kernel from ‘dika nut’ (Irvingia gabonensis). Both demonstrated typical polyelectrolyte behaviour in solution, and were therefore studied under fixed ionic conditions (0.1 M NaCl), yielding intrinsic viscosities of [?] = 7.6 dl g?1

R. Ndjouenkeu; F. M. Goycoolea; E. R. Morrisa; J. O. Akingbala

1996-01-01

237

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4°C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-'. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by micro- electrodes inserted in the style. lhe resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20)

Jorg Fromm; Mohammad Hajirezaei

1995-01-01

238

Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous fraction of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces was given to Wistar albino rats (150–200g) orally as drugs to study the toxicity of the extract. The rats, which were fed with commercial diet and water ad libitum, were divided into six groups of four rats each. Treatments 1 through 6 received 0, 1, 3, 5, 10

A. A Akindahunsi; M. T Olaleye

2003-01-01

239

MICROGEOGRAPHIC GENETIC STRUCTURE AND GENE FLOW IN HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS (MALVACEAE) POPULATIONS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgeographic genetic variation in populations of a wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), was investigated using allozyme polymorphism. The species is a self-compatible insect-pollinated perennial, and seeds are water dispersed (hydrochory). Six hundred plants were analyzed from eight brackish and two freshwater populations within the Rhode River watershed\\/estuarine system. The genetic structure of the populations was assessed by fixation indices

HIROSHI KUDOH; DENNIS F. W HIGHAM

1997-01-01

240

Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Fiber\\/Polymer Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile, compressive, flexural and wear resistance properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber-reinforced phenolic (Resorcinol Formaldehyde) resin matrix-based composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using these fibers as a new eco-friendly material in engineering applications. Polymer composite samples were fabricated by a compression-molding technique developed in our laboratory. The effect of fiber dimension on mechanical properties was evaluated. The interfacial

A. S. Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

2009-01-01

241

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180–220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups

F. P Moundipa; P Kamtchouing; N Koueta; Justine Tantchou; N. P. R Foyang; Félicité T Mbiapo

1999-01-01

242

Wild Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae), and related species in Kenya and Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf,Hibiscus cannabinus L., occurs as a wild and ruderal plant in Kenya and Tanzania. It is polymorphic, varying in height, growth habit, spininess,\\u000a flower color, and size of floral parts, capsules, and seeds. It occupies several distinct environmental niches, from low-lying\\u000a meadows close to swamps and streams to semi-arid grassland \\/thornbush plains. It is also found in various weedy situations,

F. D. Wilson

1978-01-01

243

The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

2005-01-01

244

The flower of Hibiscus trionum is both visibly and measurably iridescent.  

PubMed

Living organisms can use minute structures to manipulate the reflection of light and display colours based on interference. There has been debate in recent literature over whether the diffractive optical effects produced by epoxy replicas of petals with folded cuticles persist and induce iridescence in the original flowers when the effects of petal pigment and illumination are taken into account. We explored the optical properties of the petal of Hibiscus trionum by macro-imaging, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and visible and ultraviolet (UV) angle-resolved spectroscopy of the petal. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is visibly iridescent, and the iridescence can be captured photographically. The iridescence derives from a diffraction grating generated by folds of the cuticle. The iridescence of the petal can be quantitatively characterized by spectrometric measurements with several square-millimetres of sample area illuminated. The flower of Hibiscus trionum has the potential to interact with its pollinators (honeybees, other bees, butterflies and flies) through iridescent signals produced by its cuticular diffraction grating. PMID:25040014

Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Hingant, Thomas; Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

2015-01-01

245

Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.  

PubMed

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-?B pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-? and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties. © 2015 BioFactors, 41(1):58-65, 2015. PMID:25728636

Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

2015-01-01

246

Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

Foord, E.E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F.E.; Briggs, P.H.

1995-01-01

247

P-Ink displays: flexible, low power, reflective color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Opalux's P-Ink material represents a revolutionary step forward in display technology, offering the ability to reflect bright and vivid colors spanning the visible spectrum. By applying low power electric pulses, the color of this Photonic Color-based material can be selected at will, with the resulting electrically bi-stable color states requiring no power to maintain. It can be coated onto rigid and flexible substrates in scale, highlighting its potential to drive the development of bendable form factors for displays.

Arsenault, Andre C.; Wang, Hai; Henderson, Eric; Kerins, Fergal; Kamp, Ulrich; Da Silva Bonifacio, Leonardo; Law, Pak Hin; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

2013-03-01

248

Chemical, Cultural and Mechanical Control of the Pink Bollworm.  

E-print Network

attacks by this pest. Spring emergence records for several areas of the i are given. Data presented for the College Station area indicated that peak emergeace of pink bollu moths occurred from late May through early June. Emergence continued into August.... There may be as many as six generations in a year. The adult is a small grayish brown moth. The adults are most active at night and seek shel- ter during the day, and thus, are seldom seen in an infested field. A female may lay 50 to 300 eggs over a...

Adkisson, Perry L.; Wilkes, L. H.; Johnson, S. P.

1958-01-01

249

Pink Root Disease of Onions and Its Control in Texas.  

E-print Network

the organisms tested, only one species of Pusarium, which is here referred to as Fusarium No. 1, was capable of reproducing pink root. The general results of the inocula- tions with this Fusari-urn is shown in Table 4. From this table it is seen...~sibly other fungi, especially Fusarium Eo. 2, may be associated with it to increase its virulency. Table 4.-Artificial Inoculation. Source of Fusarium Used for Inoculation. Date I Date and Per Cent of ~ndculation. of Infection. Kind of Soil Used. Host...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

1921-01-01

250

Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Pathway in Pantoea citrea Leading to Pink Disease of Pineapple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink disease of pineapple, caused by Pantoea citrea, is characterized by a dark coloration on fruit slices after autoclaving. This coloration is initiated by the oxidation of glucose to gluconate, which is followed by further oxidation of gluconate to as yet unknown chromogenic compounds. To elucidate the biochemical pathway leading to pink disease, we generated six coloration-defective mutants of P.

CATHERINE J. PUJOL; CLARENCE I. KADO

2000-01-01

251

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs.,

ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH; GENE S. WICKHAM; NORMAN R. PACE

1994-01-01

252

PINK1-mediated Phosphorylation of Miro Inhibits Synaptic Growth and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 cause Parkinson's disease. One of the substrates of PINK1 is the outer mitochondrial membrane protein Miro, which regulates mitochondrial transport. In this study, we uncovered novel physiological functions of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro, using Drosophila as a model. We replaced endogenous Drosophila Miro (DMiro) with transgenically expressed wildtype, or mutant DMiro predicted to resist PINK1-mediated phosphorylation. We found that the expression of phospho-resistant DMiro in a DMiro null mutant background phenocopied a subset of phenotypes of PINK1 null. Specifically, phospho-resistant DMiro increased mitochondrial movement and synaptic growth at larval neuromuscular junctions, and decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons in adult brains. Therefore, PINK1 may inhibit synaptic growth and protect dopaminergic neurons by phosphorylating DMiro. Furthermore, muscle degeneration, swollen mitochondria and locomotor defects found in PINK1 null flies were not observed in phospho-resistant DMiro flies. Thus, our study established an in vivo platform to define functional consequences of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of its substrates. PMID:25376463

Tsai, Pei-I; Course, Meredith M.; Lovas, Jonathan R.; Hsieh, Chung-Han; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Wang, Xinnan

2014-01-01

253

EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

254

Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's Mark W Dodson1,2  

E-print Network

Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease Mark W Dodson1,2 and Ming forms and some sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease. Recent work on these genes underscores the central importance of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. In particular, pink1

Guo, Ming

255

Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

Pugh, Greg L.

2014-01-01

256

Pink Salmon Spawning Habitat is Recovering a Decade after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intertidal sediment surrounding many spawning streams for pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in western Prince William Sound, Alaska, was contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Biochemical and egg-dig evidence suggested that oil reduced the survival of pink salmon embryos for several years. Previous research also demonstrated that dissolved oil can be transferred to developing embryos from surrounding oiled

Mark G. Carls; Stanley D. Rice; Gary D. Marty; Diane K. Naydan

2004-01-01

257

Whey protein concentrates effects on pink color development in a cooked ground turkey breast model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of whey protein concentrates (WPCs) to reduce pink color in cooked ground turkey was investigated. Ground turkey was formulated with no ligand and nitrite and nicotinamide to induce pinking. Five WPCs with 34 or 80% protein were tested and turkey samples were cooked to 80 and 85 °C and stored for 1 and 7 days. Three WPCs reduced a*

L. M Sammel; J. R Claus

2003-01-01

258

Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment.  

PubMed

Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2015-03-01

259

Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2015-01-01

260

Dopamine Induced Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundParkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species production and calcium dysregulation, which increases susceptibility to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. The basis

Sonia Gandhi; Annika Vaarmann; Zhi Yao; Michael R. Duchen; Nicholas W. Wood; Andrey Y. Abramov

2012-01-01

261

Onboard processing of deepwater pink shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris ) with liquid ice: Effect on quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) of onboard chilling with liquid ice versus the traditional chilling with flaked ice. Quality was estimated by physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters after 24 h and 4 days of chilled storage. Application of liquid ice immediately after catch for the fast chilling of pink shrimp

Almudena Huidobro; María Elvira López-Caballero; Rogério Mendes

2002-01-01

262

Analysis of pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1 and -2 for potential RNA silencing suppressors and pathogenicity factors.  

PubMed

Higher plants use RNA silencing to defend against viral infections. As a counter defense, plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing. Mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP), an important disease of pineapple, has been associated with at least three distinct viruses, Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1, -2, and -3 (PMWaV-1, -2, and -3). Selected open reading frames (ORFs) of PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2 were screened for their local and systemic suppressor activities in Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays using green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results indicate that PMWaV-2 utilizes a multiple-component RNA silencing suppression mechanism. Two proteins, p20 and CP, target both local and systemic silencing in N. benthamiana, while the p22 and CPd proteins target only systemic silencing. In the related virus PMWaV-1, we found that only one of the encoded proteins, p61, had only systemic suppressor activity. Of all the proteins tested from both viruses, only the PMWaV-2 p20 protein suppressed local silencing induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but only when low levels of inducing dsRNA were used. None of the proteins analyzed could interfere with the short distance spread of silencing. We examined the mechanism of systemic suppression activity by investigating the effect of PMWaV-2-encoded p20 and CP proteins on secondary siRNAs. Our results suggest that the PMWaV-2 p20 and CP proteins block the systemic silencing signal by repressing production of secondary siRNAs. We also demonstrate that the PMWaV-2 p20 and p22 proteins enhanced the pathogenicity of Potato virus X in N. benthamiana. PMID:25751306

Dey, Kishore K; Borth, Wayne B; Melzer, Michael J; Wang, Ming-Li; Hu, John S

2015-01-01

263

Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit color.  

PubMed

The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit and suggest strongly that SlMYB12 is a likely candidate for the y mutation. PMID:19906891

Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud

2010-01-01

264

Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands, revealed by chloroplast DNA polymorphism.  

PubMed

Abstract Two woody Hibiscus species co-occur in the Bonin Islands of the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Hibiscus glaber Matsum. is endemic to the islands, and its putative ancestral species, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. To infer isolating mechanisms that led to speciation of H. glaber and the processes that resulted in co-occurrence of the two closely related species on the Bonin Islands, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. Materials collected from a wide area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans were used, and two closely related species, Hibiscus hamabo Siebold Zucc. and Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb., were also included in the analyses. The constructed tree suggested that H. glaber has been derived from H. tiliaceus, and that most of the modern Bonin populations of H. tiliaceus did not share most recent ancestry with H. glaber. Geographic isolation appears to be the most important mechanism in the speciation of H. glaber. The co-occurrence of the two species can be attributed to multiple migrations of different lineages into the islands. While a wide and overlapping geographical distribution of haplotypes was found in H. tiliaceus, localized geographical distribution of haplotypes was detected in H. glaber. It is hypothesized that a shift to inland habitats may have affected the mode of seed dispersal from ocean currents to gravity and hence resulted in geographical structuring of H. glaber haplotypes. PMID:15773936

Takayama, Koji; Ohi-Toma, Tetsuo; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidetoshi

2005-04-01

265

MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001 PMID:24898855

Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

2014-01-01

266

Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

2011-01-01

267

More than meets the eye: the 'pink salmon patch'.  

PubMed

Ocular adnexal lymphomas account for 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Conjunctiva is the primary site of involvement in one-third of cases. We present a case of a 47-year-old Hispanic woman who presented with left eye itching and irritation associated with a painless pink mass. Physical examination revealed the presence of a 'pink salmon-patch' involving her left medial conjunctiva. Orbital CT showed a subcentimeter left preseptal soft tissue density. Biopsy revealed a dense subepithelial lymphoid infiltrate comprised predominantly of B cells that did not coexpress CD5 or CD43. These findings were consistent with B-cell marginal zone lymphoma. Further staging assessment did not reveal disseminated disease. She had stage 1E extranodal marginal zone lymphoma as per Ann Arbor staging system. She received external beam radiotherapy to her left eye with complete resolution of the lymphoma in 2?months and continues to remain tumour free at 8-month follow-up. She will be followed up closely for development of any local (unilateral or contralateral eye) or systemic recurrence in the long run. PMID:25168823

Pallavi, Ranjita; Popescu-Martinez, Andrea

2014-01-01

268

Hydroxocobalamin association during cell culture results in pink therapeutic proteins  

PubMed Central

Process control of protein therapeutic manufacturing is central to ensuring the product is both safe and efficacious for patients. In this work, we investigate the cause of pink color variability in development lots of monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Fc-fusion proteins. Results show pink-colored product generated during manufacturing is due to association of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), a form of vitamin B12. OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing. PMID:23924851

Prentice, Kenneth M; Gillespie, Ronald; Lewis, Nathan; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; McCoy, Rebecca; Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Eakin, Catherine M

2013-01-01

269

Oxidative stress and regulation of Pink1 in zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. A lack of dopamine in the striatum is the most characteristic feature of PD, and the cause of the most dominant symptoms. Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) gene cause autosomal recessive PD. This study explored the basic mechanisms underlying the involvement of pink1 in oxidative stress-mediated PD pathology using zebrafish as a tool. We generated a transgenic line, Tg(pink1:EGFP), and used it to study the effect of oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2) on pink1 expression. GFP expression was enhanced throughout the brain of zebrafish larvae subjected to oxidative stress. In addition to a widespread increase in pink1 mRNA expression, mild oxidative stress induced a clear decline in tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2), but not tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (th1) expression, in the brain of wild-type larvae. The drug L-Glutathione Reduced (LGR) has been associated with anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. Administration of LGR normalized the increased fluorescence intensity indicating pink1 transgene expression and endogenous pink1 mRNA expression in larvae subjected to oxidative stress by H2O2. In the pink1 morpholino oliogonucleotide-injected larvae, the reduction in the expression of th1 and th2 was partially rescued by LGR. The pink1 gene is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in zebrafish, and LGR effectively normalizes the consequences of mild oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of pink1 and LGR may be significant and useful in drug development. PMID:24324558

Priyadarshini, Madhusmita; Orosco, Lori A; Panula, Pertti J

2013-01-01

270

Oxidative Stress and Regulation of Pink1 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. A lack of dopamine in the striatum is the most characteristic feature of PD, and the cause of the most dominant symptoms. Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) gene cause autosomal recessive PD. This study explored the basic mechanisms underlying the involvement of pink1 in oxidative stress-mediated PD pathology using zebrafish as a tool. We generated a transgenic line, Tg(pink1:EGFP), and used it to study the effect of oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2) on pink1 expression. GFP expression was enhanced throughout the brain of zebrafish larvae subjected to oxidative stress. In addition to a widespread increase in pink1 mRNA expression, mild oxidative stress induced a clear decline in tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2), but not tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (th1) expression, in the brain of wild-type larvae. The drug L-Glutathione Reduced (LGR) has been associated with anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. Administration of LGR normalized the increased fluorescence intensity indicating pink1 transgene expression and endogenous pink1 mRNA expression in larvae subjected to oxidative stress by H2O2. In the pink1 morpholino oliogonucleotide-injected larvae, the reduction in the expression of th1 and th2 was partially rescued by LGR. The pink1 gene is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in zebrafish, and LGR effectively normalizes the consequences of mild oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of pink1 and LGR may be significant and useful in drug development. PMID:24324558

Priyadarshini, Madhusmita; Orosco, Lori A.; Panula, Pertti J.

2013-01-01

271

Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression?  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

2014-01-01

272

Pink-color sign in esophageal squamous neoplasia, and speculation regarding the underlying mechanism  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the reasons for the occurrence of the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions. METHODS: In chromoendoscopy, the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions is recognized as useful for the diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms treated by endoscopic resection were included in the study. Areas of mucosa with and without the pink-color sign were evaluated histologically. The following histologic features that were possibly associated with the pink-color sign were evaluated. The keratinous layer and basal cell layer were classified as present or absent. Cellular atypia was classified as high grade, moderate grade or low grade, based on nuclear irregularity, mitotic figures, loss of polarity, chromatin pattern and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Vascular change was assessed based on dilatation, tortuosity, caliber change and variability in shape. Vessels with these four findings were classified as positive for vascular change. Endoscopic images of the lesions were captured immediately after iodine staining, 2-3 min after iodine staining and after complete fading of iodine staining. Quantitative analysis of color changes after iodine staining was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 61 superficial esophageal neoplasms in 54 patients were included in the study. The lesions were located in the cervical esophagus in one case, the upper thoracic esophagus in 10 cases, the mid-thoracic esophagus in 33 cases, and the lower thoracic esophagus in 17 cases. The median diameter of the lesions was 20 mm (range: 2-74 mm). Of the 61 lesions, 28 were classified as pink-color sign positive and 33 as pink-color sign negative. The histologic diagnosis was high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) or cancer invading into the lamina propria in 26 of the 28 pink-color sign positive lesions. There was a significant association between pink-color sign positive epithelium and HGIN or invasive cancer (P = 0.0001). Univariate analyses found that absence of the keratinous layer and cellular atypia were significantly associated with the pink-color sign. After Bonferroni correction, there were no significant associations between the pink-color sign and presence of the basal membrane or vascular change. Multivariate analyses found that only absence of the keratinous layer was independently associated with the pink-color sign (OR = 58.8, 95%CI: 5.5-632). Quantitative analysis was performed on 10 superficial esophageal neoplasms with both pink-color sign positive and negative areas in 10 patients. Pink-color sign positive mucosa had a lower mean color value in the late phase (pinkish color) than in the early phase (yellowish color), and had similar mean color values in the late and final phases. These findings suggest that pink-color positive mucosa underwent color fading from the color of the iodine (yellow) to the color of the mucosa (pink) within 2-3 min after iodine staining. Pink-color sign negative mucosa had similar mean color values in the late and early phases (yellowish color), and had a lower mean color value in the final phase (pinkish color) than in the late phase. These findings suggest that pink-color sign negative mucosa did not undergo color fading during the 2-3 min after iodine staining, and underwent color fading only after spraying of sodium thiosulfate. CONCLUSION: The pink-color sign was associated with absence of the keratinous layer. This sign may be caused by early fading of iodine staining. PMID:23885140

Ishihara, Ryu; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Nagai, Kengo; Matsui, Fumi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tatsuta, Masaharu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Shingo

2013-01-01

273

Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

274

Pink1 Kinase and Its Membrane Potential (??)-dependent Cleavage Product Both Localize to Outer Mitochondrial Membrane by Unique Targeting Mode*  

PubMed Central

The Parkinson disease-associated kinase Pink1 is targeted to mitochondria where it is thought to regulate mitochondrial quality control by promoting the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. Nevertheless, the targeting mode of Pink1 and its submitochondrial localization are still not conclusively resolved. The aim of this study was to dissect the mitochondrial import pathway of Pink1 by use of a highly sensitive in vitro assay. Mutational analysis of the Pink1 sequence revealed that its N terminus acts as a genuine matrix localization sequence that mediates the initial membrane potential (??)-dependent targeting of the Pink1 precursor to the inner mitochondrial membrane, but it is dispensable for Pink1 import or processing. A hydrophobic segment downstream of the signal sequence impeded complete translocation of Pink1 across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Additionally, the C-terminal end of the protein promoted the retention of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Thus, multiple targeting signals featured by the Pink1 sequence result in the final localization of both the full-length protein and its major ??-dependent cleavage product to the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Full-length Pink1 and deletion constructs resembling the natural Pink1 processing product were found to assemble into membrane potential-sensitive high molecular weight protein complexes at the mitochondrial surface and displayed similar cytoprotective effects when expressed in vivo, indicating that both species are functionally relevant. PMID:22547060

Becker, Dorothea; Richter, Judith; Tocilescu, Maja A.; Przedborski, Serge; Voos, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

275

You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".  

PubMed

In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

2014-01-01

276

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

1972-01-01

277

Pink esthetics in periodontics – Gingival depigmentation: A case series  

PubMed Central

Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of “black gums” are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. PMID:23066249

Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

2012-01-01

278

Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).  

PubMed

Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines. PMID:24323872

Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

2014-05-01

279

Multiple shoot regeneration of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) from a shoot apex culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a medium was developed that would stimulate multiple shoot initiation from shoot apex explants of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf). Adventitious shoot formation on a shoot induction media supplemented with combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) (0, 0.5, 2.3??mol·l–1) and thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) (0, 1, 5, 20??mol·l–1) was evaluated. Multiple shoot induction medium with 1??mol·TDZ l–1 resulted in the

M. Srivatanakul; S. H. Park; J. R. Sanders; M. G. Salas; R. H. Smith

2000-01-01

280

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

281

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

282

Determination of factors involved in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. bud abscission  

E-print Network

-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. John W. Kelly Dr. John Frett An explant versus whole plant system was used for studying ethylene (CsH4) -induced abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Brilliant Red buds. Whole plants were used in subsequent studies, however... the abscission response. Buds on explant shoots abscised in significantly less time than those on intact plants with older buds abscising first, in both systems. The explant system required more force for bud removal than whole plants but exhibited similar...

Thaxton, Donna Reese

1986-01-01

283

Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante-  

E-print Network

. Simulation Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) of Dry Tortugas is one of the most economi- cally and ecologically important spe- cies

284

Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Here, we describe the involvement of parkin and PINK1 in a vesicular pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. This pathway is distinct from canonical mitophagy and is triggered by the generation of oxidative stress from within mitochondria. Wild-type but not PD-linked mutant parkin supports the biogenesis of a population of mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), which bud off mitochondria and contain a specific repertoire of cargo proteins. These MDVs require PINK1 expression and ultimately target to lysosomes for degradation. We hypothesize that loss of this parkin- and PINK1-dependent trafficking mechanism impairs the ability of mitochondria to selectively degrade oxidized and damaged proteins leading, over time, to the mitochondrial dysfunction noted in PD. PMID:24446486

McLelland, Gian-Luca; Soubannier, Vincent; Chen, Carol X; McBride, Heidi M; Fon, Edward A

2014-01-01

285

New observations on chromosome number variation in Hibiscus trionum s.l. (Malvaceae) and their implications for systematics and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers have been determined for plants of Hibiscus trionum L. s.l. from nine locations: two inNew Zealand, five in Australia, and two in Africa. Two different numbers were obtained, one diploid with 2n = 28 and the other tetraploid with 2n = 56. The diploids were found in New Zealand and coastal New South Wales, all the other populations

B. G. Murray; L. A. Craven; P. J. De Lange

2008-01-01

286

Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

287

Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) with regard to protection of LDL oxidation in vivo and ex vivo in rats made hypercholesterolemic by continuous cholesterol feeding. Administering the dried calyx extracts of roselle at doses of 500 and 1000mg\\/kg together with continuous cholesterol feeding to hypercholesterolemic rats for

Vilasinee Hirunpanich; Anocha Utaipat; Noppawan Phumala Morales; Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara; Hitoshi Sato; Angkana Herunsale; Chuthamanee Suthisisang

2006-01-01

288

Physical and histochemical properties of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown under water deficit on a sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water deficit on the physical and histochemical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) relevant to pulp and paper production were investigated. The plants were grown on a loose-textured sandy soil in the greenhouse at CERAAS, Bambey, Sénégal. Three watering regimes representing well watered control, moderate stress and severe stress were imposed on the plants. Each watering treatment

C. I Ogbonnaya; H Roy-Macauley; M. C Nwalozie; D. J. M Annerose

1997-01-01

289

Investigation of the microbial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under differing conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

290

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

291

Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations affecting the PINK1 kinase domain in three

Enza Maria Valente; Patrick M. Abou-Sleiman; Viviana Caputo; Miratul M. K. Muqit; Kirsten Harvey; Suzana Gispert; Zeeshan Ali; Domenico Del Turco; Anna Rita Bentivoglio; Daniel G. Healy; Alberto Albanese; Robert Nussbaum; Rafael González-Maldonado; Thomas Deller; Sergio Salvi; Pietro Cortelli; William P. Gilks; David S. Latchman; Robert J. Harvey; Bruno Dallapiccola; Georg Auburger; Nicholas W. Wood

2004-01-01

292

Chemical control of pink rot of potato ( Phytophthora erythroseptica PethyB.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials have been carried out for seven years to control pink rot (Phytophthora erythroseptica) at the International Potato Center (CIP). This disease has been a serious problem in the maintenance of a germplasm collection\\u000a at the CIP’s Experimental Station at Huancayo, Peru (3300 m.a. s.l.). Pink rot annually causes serious loss of germplasm accessions,\\u000a particularly diploid cultivars. Protective and

H. Torres; C. Martin; J. Henfling

1985-01-01

293

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65  

PubMed Central

Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2012-01-01

294

Antibiosis as a factor in host plant resistance to the pink bollworm and the effect of certain organic insecticides on mortality and oviposition of the pink bollworm adult  

E-print Network

. assistance in planning ths experimentst to Dr, B, L, Hanna of the Depax Mont of Entomology& Dr, V, k. Little of' the Ds yartment of Entomology& and Dx' c N Kathy. ns of ths Depart- ment of Plant Ptgeiology and, Pathology~ for theix ox i, tical x eading... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 65 Table l. Number of boils from each apscise of cotton in- fested with pink bollworm eggs at each infesta- 'tion date? ~ ~ ? ~ e ? ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 66 2? Pink bollworm adult toxicity test installed June 20? 1955? and removed June 25...

Williams, Robert Kenneth

1956-01-01

295

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.  

PubMed

Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

2013-08-15

296

DJ-1 is critical for mitochondrial function and rescues PINK1 loss of function  

PubMed Central

Mutations or deletions in PARKIN/PARK2, PINK1/PARK6, and DJ-1/PARK7 lead to autosomal recessive parkinsonism. In Drosophila, deletions in parkin and pink1 result in swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria in energy-demanding tissues. The relationship between DJ-1 and mitochondria, however, remains unclear. We now report that Drosophila and mouse mutants in DJ-1 show compromised mitochondrial function with age. Flies deleted for DJ-1 manifest similar defects as pink1 and parkin mutants: male sterility, shortened lifespan, and reduced climbing ability. We further found poorly coupled mitochondria in vitro and reduced ATP levels in fly and mouse DJ-1 mutants. Surprisingly, up-regulation of DJ-1 can ameliorate pink1, but not parkin, mutants in Drosophila; cysteine C104 (analogous to C106 in human) is critical for this rescue, implicating the oxidative functions of DJ-1 in this property. These results suggest that DJ-1 is important for proper mitochondrial function and acts downstream of, or in parallel to, pink1. These findings link DJ-1, pink1, and parkin to mitochondrial integrity and provide the foundation for therapeutics that link bioenergetics and parkinsonism. PMID:20457924

Hao, Ling-Yang; Giasson, Benoit I.; Bonini, Nancy M.

2010-01-01

297

PINK1 is degraded through the N-end rule pathway  

PubMed Central

PINK1, a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, is the product of a gene mutated in an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease. PINK1 is constitutively degraded by an unknown mechanism and stabilized selectively on damaged mitochondria where it can recruit the E3 ligase PARK2/PARKIN to induce mitophagy. Here, we show that, under steady-state conditions, endogenous PINK1 is constitutively and rapidly degraded by E3 ubiquitin ligases UBR1, UBR2 and UBR4 through the N-end rule pathway. Following precursor import into mitochondria, PINK1 is cleaved in the transmembrane segment by a mitochondrial intramembrane protease PARL generating an N-terminal destabilizing amino acid and then retrotranslocates from mitochondria to the cytosol for N-end recognition and proteasomal degradation. Thus, sequential actions of mitochondrial import, PARL-processing, retrotranslocation and recognition by N-end rule E3 enzymes for the ubiquitin proteosomal degradation defines the rapid PINK1 turnover. PINK1 steady-state elimination by the N-end rule identifies a novel organelle to cytoplasm turnover pathway that yields a mechanism to flag damaged mitochondria for autophagic elimination. PMID:24121706

Yamano, Koji; Youle, Richard J

2013-01-01

298

Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Polyphenolic Extract Induces Human Melanoma Cell Death, Apoptosis, and Autophagy.  

PubMed

Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. PMID:25694272

Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

2015-03-01

299

Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

300

In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

2009-01-01

301

Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8?mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0?mg/L BAP + 3.0?mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

302

How does Tremblaya princeps get essential proteins from its nested partner Moranella endobia in the Mealybug Planoccocus citri?  

PubMed

Many insects maintain intracellular mutualistic symbiosis with a wide range of bacteria which are considered essential for their survival (primary or P-endosymbiont) and typically suffer drastic genome degradation. Progressive loss of P-endosymbiont metabolic capabilities could lead to the recruitment of co-existent facultative endosymbiont (secondary or S-endosymbiont), thus adding more complexity to the symbiotic system. Planococcus citri, among other mealybug species, harbors an unconventional nested endosymbiotic system where every Tremblaya princeps cell (?-proteobacterium) harbors many Moranella endobia cells (?-proteobacterium). In this system, T. princeps possess one of the smallest prokaryote genome known so far. This extreme genome reduction suggests the supply of many metabolites and essential gene products by M. endobia. Although sporadic cell lysis is plausible, the bacterial participation on the regulation of the predicted molecular exchange (at least to some extent) cannot be excluded. Although the comprehensive analysis of the protein translocation ability of M. endobia PCVAL rules out the existence of specific mechanisms for the exportation of proteins from M. endobia to T. princeps, immunolocation of two M. endobia proteins points towards a non-massive but controlled protein provision. We propose a sporadic pattern for the predicted protein exportation events, which could be putatively controlled by the host and/or mediated by local osmotic stress. PMID:24204799

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Balmand, Séverine; Latorre, Amparo; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2013-01-01

303

How Does Tremblaya princeps Get Essential Proteins from Its Nested Partner Moranella endobia in the Mealybug Planoccocus citri?  

PubMed Central

Many insects maintain intracellular mutualistic symbiosis with a wide range of bacteria which are considered essential for their survival (primary or P-endosymbiont) and typically suffer drastic genome degradation. Progressive loss of P-endosymbiont metabolic capabilities could lead to the recruitment of co-existent facultative endosymbiont (secondary or S-endosymbiont), thus adding more complexity to the symbiotic system. Planococcus citri, among other mealybug species, harbors an unconventional nested endosymbiotic system where every Tremblaya princeps cell (?-proteobacterium) harbors many Moranella endobia cells (?-proteobacterium). In this system, T. princeps possess one of the smallest prokaryote genome known so far. This extreme genome reduction suggests the supply of many metabolites and essential gene products by M. endobia. Although sporadic cell lysis is plausible, the bacterial participation on the regulation of the predicted molecular exchange (at least to some extent) cannot be excluded. Although the comprehensive analysis of the protein translocation ability of M. endobia PCVAL rules out the existence of specific mechanisms for the exportation of proteins from M. endobia to T. princeps, immunolocation of two M. endobia proteins points towards a non-massive but controlled protein provision. We propose a sporadic pattern for the predicted protein exportation events, which could be putatively controlled by the host and/or mediated by local osmotic stress. PMID:24204799

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Balmand, Séverine; Latorre, Amparo; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2013-01-01

304

Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

2013-01-01

305

High spatial resolution FTIR and Raman mapping of highly strained pink diamonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink diamonds are among the rarest and most valuable of gems, yet, the origin of the pink color is still not fully understood. The pink color is restricted to micrometer-thick lamellae or bands oriented along <111>, which are created by plastic deformation, during a post growth event. Studies showed that plastic deformation is accommodated by twinning (e.g. Mineeva et al., 2009; Gaillou et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to better understand the physics and rheology of diamonds in Earth's mantle conditions. For that purpose, we used high spatial resolution Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy which gave us information about the repartition of the defects and of the remaining strain in the diamond structure, respectively. All diamonds are type Ia diamonds, with different amount of nitrogen and hydrogen. FTIR mapping mainly showed zoning of nitrogen defects following growth sectors, when compared to cathodoluminescence (CL) images. When present, the amber center is localized in the thin (about 1?m) pink lamellae. Raman spectroscopy shows that the pink lamellae are defective zones, with presence of unknown photoluminescent (PL) defects. Raman mapping revealed that the strain is mostly localized at the pink lamellae (Fig. 1). The highest amount of strain recorded was 3 GPa over 1?m (Fig.1). At the intersection of two pink lamellae, the strain is so intense that the diamond Raman band displays 4 lines, indicating at least two highly stressed regions in the probed volume, which is the first time such a phenomenon is reported in a natural sample. Natural diamond shows that it can accommodate a large amount of stress during plastic deformation in mantle conditions by mechanical twinning. Still, large amount of strain remains in the diamond structure, which does not seem to affect the diamond integrity. Plastic deformation creates new PL (and CL) centers and most likely also the center responsible for the pink color, which is still unidentified. High resolution mapping of the Raman line position across 5 pink lamellae (3 sub-vertical, 2 sub-horizontal) in a pink diamond from South Africa. The scale on the right represents the remaining strain corresponding to the shift of the Raman line, following Grimsditch et al. (1978)'s equation.

Gaillou, E.; Post, J. E.; Steele, A.; Butler, J. E.

2013-12-01

306

Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.  

PubMed

Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

2015-01-01

307

iPS models of Parkin and PINK1.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system resulting from depletion of dopaminergic neurons and currently remains incurable despite enormous international research efforts. The development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology opened up the unique possibility of studying disease mechanisms in human tissue that was otherwise not accessible, such as the brain. Of particular interest are the monogenetic forms of PD as they closely resemble the more common 'idiopathic' PD and, through the mutated protein, provide a clear research target in iPSC-derived neurons. Recessively inherited Parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations have been investigated in this context and the present review describes the first insights gained from studies in iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons, which comprise abnormalities in mitochondrial and dopamine homoeostasis, microtubular stability and axonal outgrowth. These new models of PD have a high translational potential that includes the identification of druggable targets, testing of known and novel therapeutic agents in the disease-relevant tissue using well-defined read-outs and potential regenerative approaches. PMID:25849934

Rakovic, Aleksandar; Seibler, Philip; Klein, Christine

2015-04-01

308

Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest  

PubMed Central

Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

2015-01-01

309

Some Pink Yeasts Associated with Softening of Olives1  

PubMed Central

Pink yeasts identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis, R. minuta var. minuta, and R. rubra produce polygalacturonases which cause a slow softening of olive tissue. Both pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase are produced when cultures are grown in appropriate media. Crude, cell-free dialyzed enzyme preparations measured viscosimetrically exhibited optimal activity on sodium polygalacturonate at pH 6.0 and 40 C, and were active in the range of pH 4.0 to 9.0 and 10 to 50 C. Cultures grown in sterilized olives and brine at pH 4.0 with sterile glucose added aseptically caused a slow softening of tissue as measured with a Christel texturometer. Similar results were obtained when crude, cell-free enzyme preparations were added to olives in buffer solution at pH 6.0 with Merthiolate. Commercial control of these yeasts is easy if anaerobic conditions can be provided. Otherwise, the industry has to resort to manual removal of the film from the brine surface, either by skimming or by flagellation. PMID:16349864

Vaughn, Reese H.; Jakubczyk, Tadeusz; MacMillan, James D.; Higgins, Thomas E.; Dav?e, Bhalchandra A.; Crampton, Veronica M.

1969-01-01

310

Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.  

PubMed

Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

Regehr, Kaitlyn

2012-01-01

311

Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1Deficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in

Ravi S. Akundi; Zhenyu Huang; Joshua Eason; Jignesh D. Pandya; Lianteng Zhi; Wayne A. Cass; Patrick G. Sullivan; Hansruedi Büeler; Mark R. Cookson

2011-01-01

312

Pink teeth in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck.  

PubMed

Pink teeth have most often been observed in victims of drowning but have also been reported in subjects who died suddenly and unnaturally. There is general agreement that there is no obvious connection between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death, but the condition of the surroundings (especially humidity) must certainly play an important role in the development of the pink-tooth phenomenon. The frequency and distribution of postmortem pink coloration of the teeth have been studied among a representative sample of 52 cadavers. All the bodies were victims of a single shipwreck that occurred on March 13, 1997, in the middle of the Otranto Canal (Mediterranean Sea). The bodies were recovered from the seawater after approximately 7 months. A distinct pink coloration of the teeth was found in only 18 cadavers (13 females and 5 males) of ages ranging between 13 and 60 years. The phenomenon was more pronounced in younger individuals due to age-related changes of the root canal, less penetrable by the pigment responsible for the postmortem pink staining. By histochemical methods and autofluorescence, hemoglobin and its derivatives have been identified as the most likely pigments responsible for this postmortem process that can be considered analogous to postmortem lividity. These data are consistent with previous reports on pink teeth, indicating that the diffusion of the blood in the pulp into the dentinal tubules causes the red discoloration of the teeth. Based on the results, the pigmentation is more prominent on the teeth with single roots rather than in the posterior teeth with multiple roots. PMID:17133027

Campobasso, Carlo P; Di Vella, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Favia, Gianfranco; Introna, Francesco

2006-12-01

313

Temperature, age of mating and starvation determine the role of maternal effects on sex allocation in the mealybug Planococcus citri.  

PubMed

Environmental effects on sex allocation are common, yet the evolutionary significance of these effects remains poorly understood. Environmental effects might influence parents, such that their condition directly influences sex allocation by altering the relative benefits of producing sons versus daughters. Alternatively, the environment might influence the offspring themselves, such that the conditions they find themselves in influence their contribution to parental fitness. In both cases, parents might be selected to bias their sex ratio according to the prevailing environmental conditions. Here, we consider sex allocation in the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, a species with an unusual genetic system in which paternal genes are lost from the germline in males. We test environmental factors that may influence either female condition directly (rearing temperature and food restriction) or that may be used as cues of the future environment (age at mating). Using cytological techniques to obtain primary sex ratios, we show that high temperature, older age at mating and starvation all affect sex allocation, resulting in female-biased sex ratios. However, the effect of temperature is rather weak, and food restriction appears to be strongly associated with reduced longevity and a truncation of the usual schedule of male and offspring production across a female's reproductive lifetime. Instead, facultative sex allocation seems most convincingly affected by age at mating, supporting previous work that suggests that social interactions experienced by adult P. citri females are used when allocating sex. Our results highlight that, even within one species, different aspects of the environment may have conflicting effects on sex allocation. PMID:21625649

Ross, Laura; Dealey, Elizabeth J; Beukeboom, Leo W; Shuker, David M

2011-05-01

314

High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.  

PubMed

Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

1998-12-01

315

Pink1 protects cortical neurons from thapsigargin-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis mediates the precise and programmed natural death of neurons and is a physiologically important process in neurogenesis during maturation of the central nervous system. However, premature apoptosis and/or an aberration in apoptosis regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Thus, it is important to identify neuronal pathways/factors controlling apoptosis. Pink1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced kinase 1] is a ubiquitously expressed gene and has been reported to have a physiological role in mitochondrial maintenance, suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress, fission and autophagy. However, how Pink1 is involved in neuronal survival against oxidative stress remains not well understood. In the present paper, we demonstrate that thapsigargin, a specific irreversible inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium-ATPase, could lead to dramatic oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis by ectopic calcium entry. Importantly, the neuronal toxicity of thapsigargin inhibits antioxidant gene Pink1 expression. Although Pink1 knockdown enhances the neuronal apoptosis by thapsigargin, its overexpression restores it. Our findings have established the neuronal protective role of Pink1 against oxidative stress and afford rationale for developing new strategy to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608948

Li, Lin; Hu, Guo-ku

2015-01-01

316

Early Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PINK1 Knockout Rats.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are responsible for an autosomal recessive, familial form of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 protein is a Ser/Thr kinase localized to the mitochondrial membrane and is involved in many processes including mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and proteasomal function. Using a new PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) rat model, we found altered brain metabolomic markers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified changes in mitochondrial pathways with quantitative proteomics using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry, and demonstrated mitochondrial functional alterations through measurement of oxygen consumption and acidification rates. The observed alterations included reduced creatine, decreased levels of complex I of the electron transport chain, and increased proton leak in the electron transport chain in PINK1 KO rat brains. In conjunction, these results demonstrate metabolomic and mitochondrial alterations occur during the asymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease in this model. These results indicate both potential early diagnostic markers and therapeutic pathways that can be used in PD. PMID:25421206

Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Boska, Michael D; Fox, Howard S

2014-11-25

317

Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1(-)/(-) motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation.  

PubMed

In Parkinson's disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1(-)/(-) mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14-P21) wild-type or PINK1(-)/(-) mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1(-)/(-) M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1(-)/(-) M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1(-)/(-) cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization. PMID:24904316

Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J; Humphries, Mark D; Hammond, Constance

2014-01-01

318

Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1?/? motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation  

PubMed Central

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1?/? mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14–P21) wild-type or PINK1?/? mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1?/? M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1?/? M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1?/? cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization. PMID:24904316

Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J.; Humphries, Mark D.; Hammond, Constance

2014-01-01

319

The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process  

SciTech Connect

The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jongkyeong [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jchung@kaist.ac.kr

2009-01-16

320

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon is less studied of all the fishery regions on the island. So far, their migratory ways from feeding and wintering areas to the spawning rivers have not been ascertained. The results of monitoring for pink salmon have shown that by some biological indices, commercial-statistic data, and also by the data of satellites NOAA-10, NOAA-12, NOAA-14, their commercial catches near the northwestern Sakhalin are formed by fish groups migrating both through the Amur Estuary from the south, and through the Sakhalin Bay from the north. The base of spawning fish in rivers of northwestern Sakhalin is formed by the summer pink salmon migrating from the north. A preliminary computation of distinguished pink salmon groups (summer southern and northern autumn) shows a ratio 0.1:5.7:1 in odd years and 1:2:1 in even years.

Ivanov, Alexander N.; Shershnev, Alexej; Kaplanova, Nina P.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

2002-03-01

321

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon  

SciTech Connect

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

1989-01-01

322

Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

2006-12-01

323

Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

2008-08-01

324

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2013-01-01

325

Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.  

PubMed

In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3?- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13?-olide (1), 3?- acetoxy-11?,12?-epoxy-olean-28,13?-olide (2), 19?-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17?,19?-lupan-3?-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 ?M). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. PMID:24862067

Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

2014-09-01

326

Antidyslipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Root Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

The antidyslipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Malvaceae) root extract has been studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this model, oral administration of root extract (500 mg/kg bw. p.o.) for 15 days resulted in significant decreased in the levels of blood glucose, plasma lipids and reactivated post heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50-500 ?g) when tested for its antioxidant activity, inhibited the generation of super oxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non enzymic systems in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities in root extract of H. rosa sinensis which could be used in prevention of diabetic-dyslipidemia and related complications. PMID:24381420

Kumar, Vishnu; Mahdi, Farzana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ranjana; Chander, Ramesh; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar

2013-01-01

327

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil  

PubMed Central

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

328

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.  

PubMed

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

329

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

Chang, Y.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-D. [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

2005-06-15

330

Plant Growth Retardation and Conserved miRNAs Are Correlated to Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

2013-01-01

331

Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis.  

PubMed

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to possess anti-oxidative of activity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) by measuring their effects on LDL oxidation (in cell-free system) and anti-apoptotic abilities (in RAW264.7 cells). HAs have been tested in vitro examining their relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), Apo B fragmentation, thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. The anti-oxidative activity of HAs was defined by relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 2 mg/ml), fragmentation of Apo B (inhibition of 61% at 1mg/ml), and TBARS assay (IC(50): 0.46 mg/ml) in the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidize LDL. Furthermore, the addition of >0.1 mg/ml of HAs could scavenge over 95% of free DPPH radicals, HAs showed strong potential in inhibiting LDL oxidation induced by copper. In addition, to determine whether oxLDL-induced apoptosis in macrophages is inhibited by HAs, we studied the viability, morphology and caspase-3 expression of RAW 264.7 cells. MTT assay, Leukostate staining analysis and Western blotting reveals that HAs could inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis. According to these findings, we suggest that HAs may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophage apoptosis, serving as a chemopreventive agent. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:16473450

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Kai-Xun; Huang, An-Chung; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2006-07-01

332

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:15922006

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Chau-Jong

2005-06-15

333

Efficacy of five volatile oils and their mixtures against the mealybug, Icerya seychellarum seychellarum (Westw.) infesting Sago palm, Cycas revoluta in Alexandria, Egypt.  

PubMed

Five tested plant volatile oils and their mixtures were evaluated for controlling the Margarodid, Icerya seychellarum seychellarum (Westw.) on growing Sago palms in Antoniades public gardens, Alexandria, Egypt. The tested volatile oils at concentration rates of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (v/v) were as follows: Camphor 20%; Dill 20%; Rose 30%; Peppermint 20% and Clove 30% (v/v). Their mixtures were Camphor/Peppermint; Camphor/Rose; at a rate of 1:1 Camphor/Rose/ Peppermint at 1:1:2 and Camphor/Rose/Dill at 2:1:1. The calculated results as general mean of residual reduction percent for the whole inspection periods of the test indicated that the superior volatile oils in reducing mealybugs were both Camphor and Rose, followed by Dill, Peppermint and the least efficient was Clove volatile oil. The evaluated volatile oils mixtures showed that each of Camphor/Rose/Peppermint, Camphor/Rose, and Camphor/Peppermint mixtures occupied a higher rank of efficiency against the treated mealybugs. PMID:20222604

Mesbah, H A; Magda, A El-Kady; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak, Soad I; Weheda, M L Bothina; Zaghloul, O A; Samar, E Abd El-Rahman

2009-01-01

334

Predatory Potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Larvae on Different Stages of the Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: A Threat to Cotton in South Asia  

PubMed Central

The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators. PMID:23464378

Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H.; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

2012-01-01

335

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

336

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha each year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

337

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuschaeach year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more than

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

338

Characterization of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus) lignin by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers in order to clarify the chemical composition of in situ lignin. The core and bast samples obtained from the middle position of variety Chinpi-3 were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 4 s with TMAH. The core pyrogram revealed peaks retaining the structural attributes

Ken-ichi Kuroda; Akiko Izumi; Bibhuti B Mazumder; Yoshito Ohtani; Kazuhiko Sameshima

2002-01-01

339

In vitro culture of callus tissues and cell suspensions from okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton ( gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods are described for starting and maintaining callus-tissue cultures of twoMalvaceae, okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Okra callus was slow to initiate, but once started it was easy to maintain, in contrast to cotton, which was difficult\\u000a to initiate and grow. Different media were required to establish the two species. The inclusion of 5 mg per

David G. Davis; Kendall E. Dusbabek; Roland A. Hoerauf

1974-01-01

340

Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies on thermal stability of anthocyanins isolated from the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) were carried out in aqueous solutions (55–98 °C), either as free or copigmented anthocyanins with chlorogenic acid, and in the dry state as free anthocyanins or co-lyophilized with an amorphous polysaccharide (pullulan) and stored in different relative humidity environments (water activities 0.33, 0.53, 0.75

G. Gradinaru; C. G. Biliaderis; S. Kallithraka; P. Kefalas; C. Garcia-Viguera

2003-01-01

341

The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

1998-01-01

342

DJ1 represses glycolysis and cell proliferation by transcriptionally up-regulating pink1.  

PubMed

DnaJ-1 or hsp40/hdj-1 (DJ1) is a multi-functional protein whose mutations cause autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). DJ1 loss of function disrupts mitochondrial function, but the signalling pathway, whereby it interferes with energy metabolism, is unknown. In the present study, we found that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) obtained from DJ1-null (dj1-/-) mice showed higher glycolytic rate than those from wild-type (WT) DJ1 (dj1+/+). This effect could be counteracted by the expression of the full-length cDNA encoding the WT DJ1, but not its DJ1-L166P mutant form associated with PD. Loss of DJ1 increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (Hif1?) protein abundance and cell proliferation. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for these effects, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced protein kinase-1 (Pink1), a PD-associated protein whose loss was recently reported to up-regulate glucose metabolism and to sustain cell proliferation [Requejo-Aguilar et al. (2014) Nat. Commun. 5, 4514]. Noticeably, we found that the alterations in glycolysis, Hif1? and proliferation of DJ1-deficient cells were abrogated by the expression of Pink1. Moreover, we found that loss of DJ1 decreased pink1 mRNA and Pink1 protein levels and that DJ1, by binding with Foxo3a (forkhead box O3a) transcription factor, directly interacted with the pink1 promoter stimulating its transcriptional activity. These results indicate that DJ1 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation through Pink1. PMID:25670069

Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Lopez-Fabuel, Irene; Jimenez-Blasco, Daniel; Fernandez, Emilio; Almeida, Angeles; Bolaños, Juan P

2015-04-15

343

Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-01-01

344

Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.  

PubMed

Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

1990-11-01

345

The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. RESULTS: Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1) that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of

Camilla Scheele; Natasa Petrovic; Mohammad A Faghihi; Timo Lassmann; Katarina Fredriksson; Olav Rooyackers; Claes Wahlestedt; Liam Good; James A Timmons

2007-01-01

346

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

2013-01-01

347

PINK1 and Parkin – mitochondrial interplay between phosphorylation and ubiquitylation in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

The discovery of mutations in genes encoding protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin in familial Parkinson's disease and their association with mitochondria provides compelling evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of how PINK1 and Parkin enzymes are regulated and how they influence downstream mitochondrial signalling processes. We provide a critical overview of the key advances in the field and also discuss the outstanding questions, including novel ways in which this knowledge could be exploited to develop therapies against Parkinson's disease. PMID:25345844

Kazlauskaite, Agne; Muqit, Miratul M K

2015-01-01

348

Hibiscus flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

349

THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION  

E-print Network

(now the Alaska Power Administration) started feasibil- ity studies on a hydroelectric installationTHE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION JACK E. BAILEY' AND DALE R. EVANS' ABSTRACT A proposed hydroelectric installation in southeastern

350

Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

351

78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XC965 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2013-11-18

352

76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XA803 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2011-11-10

353

GOSSYPIUM THURBERI AS A PINK BOLLWORM (PBW), PECTINOPHORA GOSSYPIELLA (SAUNDERS), REPRODUCTIVE HOST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eradication of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (PBW) (Saunders), from southwestern United States and Northern Mexico cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., growing areas has been a goal of research, action, and regulatory agencies since PBW first occurred in Arizona in 1927. With the availabilit...

354

The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

355

Title Codes for SHP Audience -Master List Legend: Librarian (Pink); Staff SMG (blue); Staff  

E-print Network

8/11/2009 Title Codes for SHP Audience - Master List Staff Version Legend: Librarian (Pink); Staff UNIVERSITY LIBRARIAN 1100 PROFESSOR - ACADEMIC YEAR 3610 ASSISTANT UNIVERSITY LIBRARIAN 1101 ACT PROFESSOR-ACAD YR-1/9TH 3612 LIBRARIAN - CAREER STATUS 1102 VST PROFESSOR-ACAD YR-1/9 PMT 3613 LIBRARIAN

Burke, Peter

356

Grizzly bear use of pink hedysarum roots following shrubland fire in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedysarum (Hedysarum spp.) roots are a major food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) over much of their Canadian and Alaskan range. In Banff National Park, grizzly bears typically dig roots of pink hedysarum (H. alpinum) in willow (Salix glauca, S. farriae) - dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) shrubland. This shrubland type often burned in the past, but the effects of shrubland

Ian Pengelly; David Hamer

2006-01-01

357

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp,  

E-print Network

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, IN PAVLOF BAY, ALASKA W. D. ALBERS AND P. J. ANDERSON! ABSTRACf Analysis of 455 Pacific cod more frequently with increasing cod size (30-69 cm fork length). Euphausids decreased in frequency

358

Pink bollworm trapping in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study identified several cotton fields in southern Midland County, TX on which large numbers of pink bollworm (PBW) moths were caught. No other large concentrations of PBW were found in the region. Winds with the capability of moving moths long distances occurred during the 2010 study. Wind ...

359

Pink herring & the fourth persona: J. Edgar Hoover's sex crime panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1930s, sexuality significantly shaped J. Edgar Hoover's public discourse. In response to a homosexual panic that plagued the nation's men and endangered his public persona, Hoover engaged in a passing performance. His masking rhetoric employed the pink herring, a tactic that manipulated a moral panic about sex crime to stabilize gender and sexual norms, divert attention from his

Charles E. Morris III

2002-01-01

360

PINK BOLLWORM LARVAL MORTALITIES AND CRY1AC TOXIC PROTEIN IN FIELD GROWN BT COTTONS, 2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated Cry1Ac levels in Bollgard® (Bt) and non-Bt cottons and their effects on pink bollworm (PBW) larval mortality. Cultivars were Delta and Pineland (DPL) 5415 RR®, NuCOTN 33B®, DPL 449 BG®/RR®. Cotton seeds were planted in six rows wide by 18 m long plots at the Western Cotton Research...

361

Cadherin Gene Expression and Effects of Bt Resistance on Sperm Transfer in Pink Bollworm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cadherin proteins bind Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in lepidopteran midguts but their inherent function remains unclear. In pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, three recessive mutations in a cadherin gene (BtR) are tightly linked with resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac. Here we examined patt...

362

Effects of soil treatment practices on pink root disease of onion in the Senegalese cultivation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink root disease of onion, a known worldwide constraint upon onion production, significantly reduces crop levels in the main Senegalese cultivation area. So far there have been no satisfactory solutions to this problem owing to the specific socloeconomic and environmental conditions. Compared with local farmers’ practices, the soil chemotherapeutant dazomet was effective in lowering disease development and improving yields and

J. Pagès; L. Notteghem

1996-01-01

363

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

364

Pink/White (ladies' only) Light Blue/White (ladies' only)  

E-print Network

Pink/White (ladies' only) Light Blue/White (ladies' only) White/Stone Dill/Dark Green Slate Blue/Navy (men's only) Stone/Fawn Red/Black (men's only) Navy/White Black/Heather (men's only) Black/White with a delicate 4-button placket. Feminine fit that looks great tucked in or out. Ladies' Colors: Black/White

Wechsler, Risa H.

365

Review of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Effects on Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Exxon Valdez oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March of 1989 was the largest crude oil spill in the United States at that time, and it was anticipated to have disastrous effects on the ecology and fisheries of that coastal region. The large pink salmon returns to the sound, a major commercial species in Alaska,

E. L. Brannon; K. Collins; M. A. Cronin; L. L. Moulton; A. L. Maki; K. R. Parker

2012-01-01

366

Recovery of Pink Salmon Spawning Areas after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 70% of wild pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spawn in intertidal stream areas, many of which were contaminated by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. To assess recovery of salmon habitat after the spill, we analyzed sediment samples from stream deltas throughout Prince William Sound from 1989 to 1991 and 1995. In 1989, petroleum

Michael L. Murphy; Ronald A. Heintz; Jeffrey W. Short; Marie L. Larsen; Stanley D. Rice

1999-01-01

367

Impacts to Pink Salmon Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Persistence, Toxicity, Sensitivity, and Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury to a species resulting from long-term exposure to low concentrations of pollutants is seldom noted or even tested. One of the products of the Exxon Valdez oil spill was the first report of damage to eggs and larvae of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) following long-term exposure to low concentrations of weathered crude oil. These life stages were previously thought

Stanley D. Rice; Robert E. Thomas; Mark G. Carls; Ronald A. Heintz; Alex C. Wertheimer; Michael L. Murphy; Jeffrey W. Short; Adam Moles

2001-01-01

368

The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Analysis of impacts on the Prince William Sound pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 6 years following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989, a number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted to assess spill?related effects on all critical life stages of the Prince William Sound pink salmon population. In many cases, the results of these studies are in close agreement, but in others they are not. The conclusions

E. L. Brannon; A. W. Maki

1996-01-01

369

Bacterial preservation of pink salmon using potatoes as a carbohydrate source  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink salmon byproducts, such as heads and viscera, create disposal issues for fish processors in Alaska. Fish meal is the common preservation method for processing wastes, but its production is costly. Other methods, including fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), are less energy intensive a...

370

G-435 AND ARS 96-138, PINK-FRUITED BLUEBERRY SELECTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

G-435 and ARS 96-138 are two pink-fruited blueberry selections selected from seedlings in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) blueberry breeding program. Because of interest by nurserymen in ornamental and decorative cultivars, this material is being released as germplasm for further evaluatio...

371

The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin promote mitochondrial fission and/or inhibit  

E-print Network

, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095; and Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, rescues the phenotypes of muscle degeneration, cell death, and mitochondrial abnormalities in pink1 function are viable and show muscle degeneration and TUNEL staining, indic- ative of cell death (10

Guo, Ming

372

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified

373

TRANSGENIC COTTON: THE QUANDRY OF PINK BOLLWORM RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES GROWING AREAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The introduction of genetically modified cottons into agroecosystems in the SW US has revolutionized pink bollworm (PBW). PBW was first noted in the US from Mexico in TX cotton in 1917. Eradication of early infestations was followed by reinfestation in the lower Rio Grande Valley in 1936 and spread ...

374

EFFECTS OF PINK BOLLWORM RESISTANCE TO TRANSGENIC COTTON ON MOTH MATING, OVIPOSITION AND LARVAL PROGENY DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At least four strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), have been selected in the laboratory for resistance to insecticidal Cry1Ac toxin incorporated in artificial diets. The insecticidal toxin is produced in cotton plants as a result of the genetically-engineered transfer of t...

375

Germination of three selections of Lantana species.: L. camara, L. camara 'Pink Caprice', and L. depressa.  

E-print Network

invasive species, was thought to have been introduced as an ornamental species that escaped cultivation. LGermination of three selections of Lantana species.: L. camara, L. camara 'Pink Caprice', and L and is currently listed as a Category 1 invasive species by the Florida Exotic Plant Pest Council, meaning

Ma, Lena

376

Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Cotton: Still Rare After All These Years.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins reduce reliance on insecticides, but evolution of resistance by pests could cut short their usefulness. Pink bollworm is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. Unexpectedly...

377

Parkinson Phenotype in Aged PINK1-Deficient Mice Is Accompanied by Progressive Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Absence of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. Methodology/Principal Findings Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of ?-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. Conclusion Thus, aging Pink1?/? mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death. PMID:19492057

Gispert, Suzana; Ricciardi, Filomena; Kurz, Alexander; Azizov, Mekhman; Hoepken, Hans-Hermann; Becker, Dorothea; Voos, Wolfgang; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E.; Kudin, Alexei P.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Zimmermann, Annabelle; Roeper, Jochen; Wenzel, Dirk; Jendrach, Marina; García-Arencíbia, Moisés; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Huber, Leslie; Rohrer, Hermann; Barrera, Miguel; Reichert, Andreas S.; Rüb, Udo; Chen, Amy; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Auburger, Georg

2009-01-01

378

Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial Polyubiquitin by PINK1 Promotes Parkin Mitochondrial Tethering  

PubMed Central

The kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of Ser65 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like (UBl) domain by PINK1 stimulates Parkin activation and translocation to damaged mitochondria, which induces mitophagy generating polyUb chain. However, Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation is insufficient for Parkin mitochondrial translocation. Here we report that Ser65 in polyUb chain is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and that phosphorylated polyUb chain on mitochondria tethers Parkin at mitochondria. The expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, which mimics phospho-Ser65 polyUb chains on the mitochondria, activated Parkin E3 activity and its mitochondrial translocation. An E3-dead form of Parkin translocated to mitochondria with reduced membrane potential in the presence of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, whereas non-phospho-polyUb mutant Tom70MTS-4xUb SA abrogated Parkin translocation. Parkin binds to the phospho-polyUb chain through its RING1-In-Between-RING (IBR) domains, but its RING0-linker is also required for mitochondrial translocation. Moreover, the expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE improved mitochondrial degeneration in PINK1-deficient, but not Parkin-deficient, Drosophila. Our study suggests that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1 is implicated in both Parkin activation and mitochondrial translocation, predicting a chain reaction mechanism of mitochondrial phospho-polyUb production by which rapid translocation of Parkin is achieved. PMID:25474007

Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Arano, Taku; Matsumoto, Gen; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigeharu; Ishihama, Yasushi; Ryu, Kwon-Yul; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

2014-01-01

379

PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/?) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/?, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

2014-01-01

380

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture  

PubMed Central

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how ‘no effect’ thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C. J.; Sackville, M.; Gallagher, Z.; Tang, S.; Nendick, L.; Farrell, A. P.

2012-01-01

381

Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.  

PubMed

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations. PMID:22566682

Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

2012-06-19

382

The Complex I Subunit NDUFA10 Selectively Rescues Drosophila pink1 Mutants through a Mechanism Independent of Mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

Pogson, Joe H.; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J.

2014-01-01

383

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

384

Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal salt and extract in the reaction medium. Variation of pH of the reaction medium gives silver nanoparticles of different shapes. The nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the fcc structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes, bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. From FTIR spectra it is found that the Au nanoparticles are bound to amine groups and the Ag nanoparticles to carboxylate ion groups.

Philip, Daizy

2010-03-01

385

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

2014-01-01

386

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

2012-12-01

387

Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf. PMID:25342553

Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

388

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ? 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum ?-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24549255

Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-04-01

389

A Game-Theoretic Model of Interactions between Hibiscus Latent Singapore Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature and their interactions affecting host plants would depend mainly on plant species, virus strains, the order of infection and initial amount of inoculum. Hence, the prediction of outcome of virus competition in plants is not easy. In this study, we applied evolutionary game theory to model the interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana benthamiana under co-infection in a plant host. The accumulation of viral RNA was quantified using qPCR at 1, 2 and 8 days post infection (dpi), and two different methods were employed to predict the dominating virus. TMV was predicted to dominate the game in the long run and this prediction was confirmed by both qRT-PCR at 8 dpi and the death of co-infected plants after 15 dpi. In addition, we validated our model by using data reported in the literature. Ten out of fourteen reported co-infection outcomes agreed with our predictions. Explanations were given for the four interactions that did not agree with our model. Hence, it serves as a valuable tool in making long term predictions using short term data obtained in virus co-infections. PMID:22623970

Wen, Yi; Niu, Shengniao; Wong, Sek-Man

2012-01-01

390

Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

2009-01-01

391

Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48?h), wounding (24?h), cold (24?h), abscisic acid (24?h), and methyl jasmonate (24?h). PMID:24204204

Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

2013-01-01

392

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in-vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Hibiscus leaf.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and the water-to-raw material ratio on extraction yield of crude polysaccharide from the leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRLP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize HRLP extraction yield by implementing the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of HRLP were: ultrasonic power, 93.59W; extraction time, 25.71min; extraction temperature, 93.18°C; and the water to raw material ratio, 24.3mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 9.66±0.18%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 9.526%. The results demonstrated that HRLP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:25150112

Afshari, Kasra; Samavati, Vahid; Shahidi, Seyed-Ahmad

2015-03-01

393

Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25477650

Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

2014-12-01

394

In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

2012-01-01

395

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

2014-01-01

396

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

397

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

398

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.  

PubMed

The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

2015-01-01

399

PINK BOLLWORM AND TOBACCO BUDWORM, CABBAGE LOOPER AND BEET ARMYWORM LARVAL MORTALITIES FED ON BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS COTTON POLLENS AND PINK BOLLWORM ADULT MORTALITY FED ON SUCROSE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING CRY1AC TOXIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We fed pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), tobacco budworm (TBW) Heliothis virescens (L), cabbage looper (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), and beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), pollens from cottons containing the Bollgard (BG) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurst...

400

Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ?20 to ?50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given that previously observed inter-decadal cycles of oceanic zooplankton abundance were climatically driven, exchange between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska may be an important process for effecting synoptic changes in marine populations of higher trophic levels, and thus an important consideration for climate-change models and scenarios.

Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

2008-05-01

401

For Immediate Release --Tuesday, February 26, 2013 Pink Shirt Day: U of L Cyber-bullying experts available  

E-print Network

of L Cyber-bullying experts available As thousands of people across Canada gear up to wear pink shirts to support anti- bullying initiatives tomorrow, two University of Lethbridge researchers are working to reduce the effects of bullying

Morris, Joy

402

Sunnie Myung, Maren Pink,* Mu-Hyun Baik and David E. Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood, Bloomington,  

E-print Network

DL-Proline Sunnie Myung, Maren Pink,* Mu-Hyun Baik and David E. Clemmer Department of Chemistry; Counterman & Clemmer, 2001; Myung et al., 2004). Although the majority of amino acids have been crystallized

Clemmer, David E.

403

Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July-September. These prey were not necessarily the planktonic species with the greatest biomass or highest abundance on the shelf. Pink salmon fed on prey that were highly visible during daylight hours in the neuston and upper 10 m of the water column. Further work will integrate food habits with fish condition and growth data, zooplankton abundance, and water temperature to develop foraging and bioenergetics models. These models will enable us to assess the habitat quality and growth conditions for juvenile pink salmon and contribute to the goal of understanding how pink salmon and, therefore, tertiary production are affected by changes in ocean conditions.

Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

2005-01-01

404

Certain factors involved in the larval diapause and its termination in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders  

E-print Network

length at 80 P. The termination of diapause in pink bollworm larvae held in the lnsectary or ln the laboratory under wet, , dry, and naturally occurring (control) humidities. The effect of preohilllng dlapause pink bollworm larvae at 55oP. prior... controlled by the maternal brain and subesophagsal ganglion differs from the pupal diapause where the brain and prothoracic glands are important. Both of these differ from adult diapause where it is assumed that the corpora allata and the brain control...

Wellso, Stanley Gordon

1962-01-01

405

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

406

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

407

Mutation analysis of the parkin and PINK1 genes in American Caucasian early-onset Parkinson disease families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the parkin gene and the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 gene (PINK1) have been identified as the most common causes of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD). To investigate the presence of the parkin and PINK1 gene mutation(s) and to explore genotype–phenotype correlations in American Caucasian families with EOPD from North American, we screened these two genes in probands

Hao Deng; Weidong Le; Joohi Shahed; Wenjie Xie; Joseph Jankovic

2008-01-01

408

Effects of soil water on seed production and photosynthesis of pink smartweed ( Polygonum pensylvanicum L.) in playa wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture is frequently manipulated by wetland managers to achieve a desired composition and production of plant species.\\u000a Pink smartweed (Polygonum pensylvanicum) is a species valued by wetland managers because of its potential seed production and food base for migrating and wintering\\u000a waterbirds. To improve ability to manage pink smartweed, we measured the influence of four growing-season soil moisture regimes

David A. Haukos; Loren M. Smith

2006-01-01

409

Nitric Oxide Induction of Parkin Translocation in PTEN-induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1) Deficiency: FUNCTIONAL ROLE OF NEURONAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE DURING MITOPHAGY.  

PubMed

The failure to trigger mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson disease that is caused by PINK1 or Parkin mutations. According to the prevailing PINK1-Parkin signaling model, mitophagy is promoted by the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an essential PINK1-dependent step that occurs via a previously unknown mechanism. Here we determined that critical concentrations of NO was sufficient to induce the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin even in PINK1 deficiency, with apparent increased interaction of full-length PINK1 accumulated during mitophagy, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Specifically, optimum levels of NO enabled PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells to regain the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, which appeared to be significantly suppressed by nNOS-null mutation. Moreover, nNOS-null mutation resulted in the same mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme deficits as PINK1-null mutation. The involvement of mitochondrial nNOS activation in mitophagy was further confirmed by the greatly increased interactions of full-length PINK1 with nNOS, accompanied by mitochondrial accumulation of phospho-nNOS (Ser(1412)) during mitophagy. Of great interest is that the L347P PINK1 mutant failed to bind to nNOS. The loss of nNOS phosphorylation and Parkin accumulation on PINK1-deficient mitochondria could be reversed in a PINK1-dependent manner. Finally, non-toxic levels of NO treatment aided in the recovery of PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells from mitochondrial ETC enzyme deficits. In summary, we demonstrated the full-length PINK1-dependent recruitment of nNOS, its activation in the induction of Parkin translocation, and the feasibility of NO-based pharmacotherapy for defective mitophagy and ETC enzyme deficits in Parkinson disease. PMID:25716315

Han, Ji-Young; Kang, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Ha, Ji-Young; Son, Jin H

2015-04-17

410

Exclusion of PINK1 as candidate gene for the late-onset form of Parkinson's disease in two European populations  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recently, mutations in the PINK1 (PARK6) gene were shown to rarely cause autosomal-recessively transmitted, early-onset parkinsonism. In order to evaluate whether PINK1 contributes to the risk of common late-onset PD we analysed PINK1 sequence variations. A German (85 patients) and a Norwegian cohort (90 patients) suffering from late-onset PD were screened for mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PINK1 gene. Both cohorts consist of well-characterized patients presenting a positive family history of PD in ~17%. Investigations were performed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturating high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and sequencing analyses. SNP frequencies were compared by the ?2 test Results Several common SNPs were identified in our cohorts, including a recently identified coding variant (Q115L) in exon 1. Genotyping of the Q115L variation did not reveal significant frequency differences between patients and controls. Pathogenic mutations in the PINK1 gene were not identified, neither in the German nor in the Norwegian cohort. Conclusion Sequence variation in the PINK1 gene appears to play a marginal quantitative role in the pathogenesis of the late-onset form of PD, in German and Norwegian cohorts, if at all. PMID:16354302

Schlitter, Anna Melissa; Kurz, Martin; Larsen, Jan P; Woitalla, Dirk; Mueller, Thomas; Epplen, Joerg T; Dekomien, Gabriele

2005-01-01

411

Epithelial Cell Mitochondrial Dysfunction and PINK1 Are Induced by Transforming Growth Factor- Beta1 in Pulmonary Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Epithelial cell death is a major contributor to fibrogenesis in the lung. In this study, we sought to determine the function of mitochondria and their clearance (mitophagy) in alveolar epithelial cell death and fibrosis. Methods We studied markers of mitochondrial injury and the mitophagy marker, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), in IPF lung tissues by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunofluorescence. In vitro experiments were carried out in lung epithelial cells stimulated with transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Changes in cell function were measured by Western blotting, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. In vivo experiments were performed using the murine bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. Results Evaluation of IPF lung tissue demonstrated increased PINK1 expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria by TEM. In lung epithelial cells, TGF-?1 induced mitochondrial depolarization, mitochondrial ROS, and PINK1 expression; all were abrogated by mitochondrial ROS scavenging. Finally, Pink1-/- mice were more susceptible than control mice to bleomycin induced lung fibrosis. Conclusion TGF-?1 induces lung epithelial cell mitochondrial ROS and depolarization and stabilizes the key mitophagy initiating protein, PINK1. PINK1 ameliorates epithelial cell death and may be necessary to limit fibrogenesis. PMID:25785991

Patel, Avignat S.; Song, Jin Woo; Chu, Sarah G.; Mizumura, Kenji; Osorio, Juan C.; Shi, Ying; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Lee, Chun Geun; Rosas, Ivan O.; Elias, Jack A.; Choi, Augustine M. K.; Morse, Danielle

2015-01-01

412

Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia. PMID:25354644

Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Gong, Wei; Tang, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Weihong; Chen, Xiaogang; Fang, Yiru; Yao, Yong-Gang

2015-04-01

413

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

414

piggyBac-like elements in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella.  

PubMed

A transgenic line of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, a key lepidopteran cotton pest, was generated previously using the piggyBac transposon IFP2 from Trichoplusia ni. Here we identified an endogenous piggyBac-like element (PLE), designated as PgPLE1, in the pink bollworm. A putatively intact copy of PgPLE1 (PgPLE1.1) presents the canonical features of PLE: inverted terminal repeats with three C/G residues at the extreme ends, inverted subterminal repeats, TTAA target site and an open reading frame encoding transposase with 68% similarity to IFP2. Vectorette PCR revealed large variation in the insertion sites of PgPLE1 amongst worldwide populations, indicating the potential mobility of PgPLE1. The PgPLE1 was undetectable in the genome of Pectinophora endema, implying the recent invasion of PgPLE1 after the divergence of these two closely related species. PMID:20017756

Wang, J; Miller, E D; Simmons, G S; Miller, T A; Tabashnik, B E; Park, Y

2010-04-01

415

Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae)on four host plant species under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Development, survival and reproduction of the papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on three ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha sp. and Plumeria sp.) and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) were investigated. Papaya mealybug was able t...

416

Effect of mercury on the respiration rate of larval pink salmon, Onchorhynchus gorbuscha  

SciTech Connect

The eggs of pink salmon were obtained at the beginning of organogenesis. After 2 day acclimatization, 500 eggs were placed in incubation frames in one liter water at 8/sup 0/C. Eggs were incubated in mercury solution for 300 days and larvae were used experimentally for 150 days. The experiments on the eggs and larvae were carried out with two replications using 300 eggs or larvae for each treatment. The toxicant concentration in the experimental aquaria were 1.0 and 25.0 g Hg/liter. Oxygen consumption by pink salmon larvae in mercury concentrations of 25 micro g/liter was sharply decreased even on the 4th day after hatching, and the oxygen consumption by the experimental fishes was half at the time of changeover to active feeding in comparison to the control. Mercury content in the body of the experimental fishes reached 4.0 micro g/g of fresh weight. Overall findings showed an inhibition of the metabolic processes in young pink salmon when kept in a medium with high mercury content. This can be a result of replacement of copper, iron, and zinc by mercury in the metal containing enzymes. The minimum mercury concentration in pink salmon larvae causing a harmful metabolic effect is 1 micro g/g of live weight which is achieved by maintaining the larvae for 60 days in the medium with the toxicant concentration of 1 micro g/liter. This concentration should be considered harmful for the species. 9 references, 2 figures.

Storozhuk, N.G.; Smirnov, B.P.

1982-01-01

417

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

1973-01-01

418

Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

Johnson, Fred A.

2013-01-01

419

Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

1985-01-01

420

Water balance trumps ion balance for early marine survival of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).  

PubMed

Smolting salmonids typically require weeks to months of physiological preparation in freshwater (FW) before entering seawater (SW). Remarkably, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) enter SW directly following yolk absorption and gravel emergence at a size of 0.2 g. To survive this exceptional SW migration, pink salmon were hypothesized to develop hypo-osmoregulatory abilities prior to yolk absorption and emergence. To test this, alevins (pre-yolk absorption) and fry (post-yolk absorption) were transferred from FW in darkness to SW under simulated natural photoperiod (SNP). Ionoregulatory status was assessed at 0, 1 and 5 days post-transfer. SW alevins showed no evidence of hypo-osmoregulation, marked by significant water loss and no increase in gill Na?/K?-ATPase (NKA) activity or Na?:K?:2Cl? cotransporter (NKCC) immunoreactive (IR) cell frequency. Conversely, fry maintained water balance, upregulated gill NKA activity by 50 %, increased the NKA ?1b/?1a mRNA expression ratio by sixfold and increased NKCC IR cell frequency. We also provide the first evidence of photoperiod-triggered smoltification in pink salmon, as fry exposed to SNP in FW exhibited preparatory changes in gill NKA activity and ?1 subunit expression similar to fry exposed to SNP in SW. Interestingly, fry incurred larger increases in whole body Na? than alevins following both SW and FW + SNP exposure (40 and 20 % in fry vs. 0 % in alevins). The ability to incur and tolerate large ion loads may underlie a novel mechanism for maintaining water balance in SW prior to completing hypo-osmoregulatory development. We propose that pink salmon represent a new form of anadromy termed "precocious anadromy". PMID:22466615

Sackville, M; Wilson, J M; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

2012-08-01

421

Association between resistance to Bt cotton and cadherin genotype in pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Two strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), each derived in 1997 from a different field population, were selected for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ac in the laboratory. One strain (MOV97-R) originated from Mohave Valley in western Arizona; the other strain (SAF97-R) was from Safford in eastern Arizona. Relative to a susceptible laboratory strain, Cry1Ac resistance ratios were 1700 for MOV97-R and 520 for SAF97-R. For the two resistant strains, larval survival did not differ between non-Bt cotton and transgenic cotton producing CrylAc. In contrast, larval survival on Bt cotton was 0% for the two unselected parent strains from which the resistant strains were derived. Previously identified resistance (r) alleles of a cadherin gene (BtR) occurred in both resistant strains: r1 and r3 in MOV97-R, and r1 and r2 in SAF97-R. The frequency of individuals carrying two r alleles (rr) was 1.0 in the two resistant strains and 0.02 in each of the two unselected parent strains. Furthermore, in two hybrid strains with a mixture of susceptible (s) and r alleles at the BtR locus, all survivors on Bt cotton had two r alleles. The results show that resistance to Cry1Ac-producing Bt cotton is associated with recessive r alleles at the BtR locus in the strains of pink bollworm tested here. In conjunction with previous results from two other Bt-resistant strains of pink bollworm (APHIS-98R and AZP-R), results reported here identify the cadherin locus as the leading candidate for molecular monitoring of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton. PMID:16022286

Tabashnik, Bruce E; Biggs, Robert W; Higginson, Dawn M; Henderson, Scottie; Unnithan, Devika C; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sisterson, Mark S; Dennehy, Timothy J; Carrière, Yves; Morin, Shai

2005-06-01

422

T313M polymorphism of the PINK1 gene in Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the association between T313M polymorphism at exon 4 of the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene and Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the Uygur and Han populations of Xinjiang, China. Genetic DNA was extracted from 364 patients with PD from the Uygur and Han populations, as well as 346 normal control patients. Four exons of the PINK1 gene were amplified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The exons were then digested for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Gene types and allele frequencies were identified using agarose gel electrophoresis followed by DNA sequencing to analyze the T313M polymorphisms. In the Han population, T313M polymorphism allele frequency was observed to be significantly different between the PD group and the control group (?2=6.247; P<0.05). Significant differences were observed in in the T313M allele and genotype frequencies between the Uygur and Han populations (?2=5.475 and ?2=10.950, respectively; P<0.05). Polymorphisms in the PINK1 T313M mutation may be associated with genetic susceptibility to PD. PMID:24944636

LUO, QIN; YANG, XINLING; YAO, YANI; LI, HONGJUAN; WANG, YULING

2014-01-01

423

Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500??m. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while ?34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to ?31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

2014-01-01

424

The effects of morphine on Parkinson’s-related genes PINK1 and PARK2  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) continues to be an important neurological disorder. It is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dopamine, the neurotransmitter produced from dopaminergic neurons, is a major precursor of endogenous morphine. There are approximately 18 genes associated with PD; their roles have not yet been completely established. PARK2 is a gene that encodes for the protein parkin, and PINK1 is a gene that encodes for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1. Material/Methods Our objective was to determine if morphine treatment of HTB-11 cells affects the expression of PINK1 and PARK2. HTB-11 cells were treated with 10?7 M morphine for 2 h and a microarray analysis was conducted. To verify the microarray analysis, 3 Q-PCR trials were run using 10?6 M naloxone, morphine (10?7 M), or a naloxone/morphine mix. Results In both the microarray analysis and the Q-PCR analysis, PARK2 was up-regulated and PINK1 was down-regulated. Conclusions Morphine can affect the expression of PD-associated genes. PMID:24800761

Snyder, Christopher; Mantione, Kirk

2014-01-01

425

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

426

Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.  

PubMed

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

Morrison, Neil I; Simmons, Gregory S; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J; Harris, Claire L; Staten, Robert T; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

427

Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic. PMID:17447564

Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

2007-04-01

428

Parallel signatures of selection in temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon.  

PubMed

Studying the effect of similar environments on diverse genetic backgrounds has long been a goal of evolutionary biologists with studies typically relying on experimental approaches. Pink salmon, a highly abundant and widely ranging salmonid, provide a naturally occurring opportunity to study the effects of similar environments on divergent genetic backgrounds due to a strict two-year semelparous life history. The species is composed of two reproductively isolated lineages with overlapping ranges that share the same spawning and rearing environments in alternate years. We used restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover and genotype approximately 8000 SNP loci in three population pairs of even- and odd-year pink salmon along a latitudinal gradient in North America. We found greater differentiation within the odd-year than within the even-year lineage and greater differentiation in the southern pair from Puget Sound than in the northern Alaskan population pairs. We identified 15 SNPs reflecting signatures of parallel selection using both a differentiation-based method (BAYESCAN) and an environmental correlation method (BAYENV). These SNPs represent genomic regions that may be particularly informative in understanding adaptive evolution in pink salmon and exploring how differing genetic backgrounds within a species respond to selection from the same natural environment. PMID:24762204

Seeb, L W; Waples, R K; Limborg, M T; Warheit, K I; Pascal, C E; Seeb, J E

2014-05-01

429

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

430

INDUCTION OF PEROXIDASE AS A DISEASE RESISTANCE RESPONSE IN VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE RESISTANT (HIBISCUS TRIONUM) AND SUSCEPTIBLE (ALTHEA ARMENIACA), MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY MALVACEAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogen induced biosynthesis of peroxidase in two wild species of Malvaceae, Hibiscus trionum and Althea armeniaca was studied. After inoculation with the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, peroxidase activity increased more rapidly in the resistant plant (H. trionum) than in the susceptible pl...

431

Effects of an aqueous extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus, Dicliptera verticillata on some physiological and biochemical parameters of reproduction in immature female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different doses of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus and Dicliptera verticillata, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or infertility in women, were given daily to 22 day old rats for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days by gastric intubation. At the end of each experimental period, the

P. B Telefo; P. F Moundipa; A. N Tchana; C Tchouanguep Dzickotze; F. T Mbiapo

1998-01-01

432

Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

433

Effect of potassium on drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun: Plant growth, leaf macro- and micronutrient content and root longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition for the limited water supply available for irrigation of horticultural crops increases, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance, plant water-use efficiency and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv.

Jonathan N. Egilla; Fred T. Davies; Malcolm C. Drew

2001-01-01

434

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

2003-01-01

435

Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa with captopril, a controlled and randomized clinical trial was done. Patients from 30 to 80 years old with diagnosed hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before were included. The experimental procedure consisted of the administration of an infusion prepared with

A. Herrera-Arellano; S. Flores-Romero; M. A Chávez-Soto; J Tortoriello

2004-01-01

436

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

437

Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to ECMWF analysis. The mesoscale model performs significantly better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The improvement provided by the mesoscale model for water vapour comes mainly from (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS (250 m for BRAMS and ~1 km for ECMWF model) and (ii) the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour in the UTLS. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, ECMWF analysis gives good results partly thanks to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that in undersaturated layers, the water vapour profile depends mainly on the dynamics. In saturated/supersaturated layers, microphysical processes play an important role and have to be taken into account on top of the dynamical processes to understand the water vapour profiles. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly dryer than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

2006-08-01

438

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism. PMID:12228601

Fromm, J.; Hajirezaei, M.; Wilke, I.

1995-01-01

439

Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

2012-01-01

440

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein inhibits trans-acting small interfering RNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Many plant and animal viruses have evolved suppressor proteins to block host RNA silencing at various stages of the RNA silencing pathways. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) coat protein (CP) is capable of suppressing the transiently expressed sense-RNA-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, constitutively expressed HCRSV CP from transgenic Arabidopsis was found to be able to rescue expression of the silenced GUS transgene. The HCRSV CP-transgenic Arabidopsis (line CP6) displayed several developmental abnormalities: elongated, downward curled leaves and a lack of coordination between stamen and carpel, resulting in reduced seed set. These abnormalities are similar to those observed in mutations of the genes of Arabidopsis RNA-dependent polymerase 6 (rdr6), suppressor of gene silencing 3 (sgs3), ZIPPY (zip) and dicer-like 4 (dcl4). The accumulation of microRNA (miRNA) miR173 remained stable; however, the downstream trans-acting small interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) siR255 was greatly reduced. Real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of the ta-siRNA-targeted At4g29770, At5g18040, PPR and ARF3 genes increased significantly, especially in the inflorescences. Genetic crossing of CP6 with an amplicon-silenced line (containing a potato virus X-green fluorescent protein transgene under the control of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter) suggested that HCRSV CP probably interfered with gene silencing at a step after RDR6. The reduced accumulation of ta-siRNA might result from the interference of HCRSV CP with Dicer-like protein(s), responsible for the generation of dsRNA in ta-siRNA biogenesis. PMID:18753245

Meng, Chunying; Chen, Jun; Ding, Shou-wei; Peng, Jinrong; Wong, Sek-Man

2008-09-01

441

Native Lygus spp. (Heteroptera: Miridae) damaging introduced Hibiscus cannabinus in Italy.  

PubMed

Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L, an introduced tropical fiber crop, is attacked in central Italy by the native mirid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and L. pratensis (L.), thus establishing novel insect-plant associations. Feeding by Lygus bugs damages the apical meristem, with consequent development of secondary stems and leaf tattering. In a laboratory experiment, both species caused apical meristem damage on potted kenaf. In a field experiment with caged plots, the percentage of damaged plants was significantly higher in plots artificially infested with multiple releases of Lygus spp. compared with a single release and with the protected control without Lygus spp. In naturally infested control plots, the percentage of damaged plants was intermediate. Plant height decreased as a function of the number of damaged meristems. Mean plant height was significantly lower in the multiple-release treatment compared with the single-release treatment and the protected control. Dry biomass was significantly lower in the multiple-release plots compared with the protected control, and intermediate in the single-release plots. In a field experiment with three kenaf cultivars naturally infested by Lygus spp., plant height and stem diameter were significantly lower in damaged plants compared with healthy plants. Dry weights of plants, stems, and basts were also lower, depending on the cultivar, whereas the bast/core ratio was not affected. Stem lesions developed due to feeding or incisions made by ovipositing females. Lesions and eggs were significantly more abundant on plants with damaged apical meristems compared with healthy plants. Damage mechanisms by Lygus spp. and consequences of new crop introductions are discussed. PMID:11425019

Conti, E; Bin, F

2001-06-01

442

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

443

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300??g/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75??g/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300??g/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16?g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5?mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5?mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5?mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3?mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

2010-01-01

444

Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product.  

PubMed

The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes' residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker's formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

Ahmed, Zahra S; Abozed, Safaa S

2015-01-01

445

Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product  

PubMed Central

The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

2014-01-01

446

Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

2014-01-01

447

The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans.  

PubMed

Diet supplementation and/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cellular death induced by H(2)O(2) and a significant role in the production of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, the extract promotes the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreases the concentration of MCP-1 in supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. In humans, the ingestion of an acute dose of the extract (10g) was well tolerated and decreased plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly without further effects on other cytokines. This effect was not due to a concomitant increase in the antioxidant capacity of plasma. Instead, its mechanisms probably involve a direct inhibition of inflammatory and/or metabolic pathways responsible for MCP-1 production, and may be relevant in inflammatory and chronic conditions in which the role of MCP-1 is well established. If beneficial effects are confirmed in patients, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be considered a valuable traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with the advantage of being devoid of caloric value or potential alcohol toxicity. PMID:19765963

Beltrán-Debón, R; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Aragonès, G; Rodríguez-Medina, I; Rull, A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Camps, J; Joven, J

2010-03-01

448

Effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract induces apoptosis of proliferating smooth muscle cell via activation of P38 MAPK and p53 pathway.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in Sudan and in eastern Taiwan. It has been reported to contain a number of protocatechuic acid and anthocyanins. In vitro experimental studies have shown that anthocyanins administration of the extract produces anti-inflammation and chemoprevention effects. In spite of the wide use of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in folk medicine for treating various diseases, our previous study indicated a potency of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in anti-atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of anthocyanins administration of the extract produce from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to attenuate atherosclerosis were not clarified. In this study, we found that Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) could inhibit the serum-stimulated proliferation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and result in cell apoptosis. The HAs inducing cell apoptosis was dose dependent. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) to block cellular apoptosis and evaluate its effect on the HAs-inducing SMC death via some apoptosis criteria including DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. We suggested that the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of HAs on atherosclerosis could be via inhibiting the proliferation of SMC. HAs induces apoptosis via (i) activating p38 MAP kinase that subsequently phosphorylates target protein c-Jun and transduces the signal to further activate the apoptotic protein cascades that contain Fas-mediated signaling (Fas/caspase-8 signaling module) and (ii) activating p53 and inducing bax expression. As an outcome of the events, cytochrome c releases from the mitochondria, leading to cell apoptosis. In these experiments, HAs showed strong potential to induce SMC cell apoptosis via p38 and p53 pathway. In consequence, the rate of atherosclerotic formation is slowed down, and the progress is suppressed. PMID:18030661

Lo, Chia-Wen; Huang, Hui-Pei; Lin, Hui-Mei; Chien, Cheng-Ting; Wang, Chau-Jong

2007-12-01

449

SpringPlantSale SpringPlantSale  

E-print Network

Bleeding Heart, Pink Echinacea purpurea 'Double Decker' Coneflower, Purple Foeniculum vulgare var. azoricum Hibiscus 'Fireball' Rose Mallow Juncus effusus 'Frenzy' Corkscrew Rush, Variegated Lavandula angustifolia

Shyy, Wei

450

Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii) to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly drier than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

2007-03-01

451

Distribution and Abundance of Parasites of the Rhodesgrass Mealybug, Antonina graminis: Reassessment of a Classic Example of Biological Control in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Control of the rhodesgrass mealybug, Antonina graminis Maskell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), by the encyrtid wasp Neodusmetia sangwani is considered a textbook example of classical biological control. However, recent evidence suggests that A. graminis is abundant in the southeastern United States and no recent surveys have been conducted to determine the status of N. sangwani or other A. graminis parasites. A survey was conducted and it was found that N. sangwani was uncommon overall, occurring at only 20 percent of survey sites. In addition, N. sangwani exhibited a patchy geographic distribution. Possible causes for these results are that N. sangwani has not dispersed widely since its introduction, or that the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is interfering with biological control. These results suggest that a reevaluation of the efficacy of biological control may be necessary. The survey also found two other encyrtid wasps utilizing A. graminis as a host. One, Acerophagus sp., is apparently native and was nearly as frequent as N. sangwani, while the other, Pseudectroma sp., is apparently introduced and relatively rare. PMID:20050768

Chantos, Jillian M.; Bradleigh Vinson, S.; Helms, Ken R.

2009-01-01

452

Increased Frequency of Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac in China  

PubMed Central

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as “refuges” to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The “natural” refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005–2007 to 56% in 2008–2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22238687

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

453

Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton. PMID:22238687

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Wu, Huaiheng; Huang, Minsong; Cong, Shengbo; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

454

Wearing pink as a stand against bullying: why we need to say more.  

PubMed

This article presents a contextual discourse analysis of the media response to a campaign against bullying that was developed in the spring of 2007 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. As a feature of masculine socialization, male-on-male bullying secures the reproduction of an aggressive and heteronormative hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) for boys and young men in contemporary North American mainstream culture. I argue that the celebration of the "Pink Campaign" is illustrative of the normalizing silences, or "unremarkability," about the related discourses of sexism and homophobia that motivate everyday practices of male-on-male bullying. PMID:20390998

Naugler, Diane

2010-01-01

455

Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.  

PubMed

For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

2006-08-01

456

The length of an internal poly(A) tract of hibiscus latent Singapore virus is crucial for its replication.  

PubMed

Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) mutants were constructed to study roles of its internal poly(A) tract (IPAT) in viral replication and coat protein (CP) expression. Shortening of the IPAT resulted in reduced HLSV RNA accumulation and its minimal length required for HLSV CP expression in plants was 24 nt. Disruption of a putative long range RNA-RNA interacting structure between 5' and 3' untranslated regions of HLSV-22A and -24A resulted in reduced viral RNA and undetectable CP accumulation in inoculated leaves. Replacement of the IPAT in HLSV with an upstream pseudoknot domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or insertion of the UPD to the immediate downstream of a 24 nt IPAT in HLSV resulted in drastically reduced viral RNA replication. Plants infected with a TMV mutant by replacement of the UPD with 43 nt IPAT exhibited milder mosaic symptoms without necrosis. We have proposed a model for HLSV replication. PMID:25463604

Niu, Shengniao; Cao, Shishu; Huang, Li-Jing; Tan, Kelvin Chee-Leong; Wong, Sek-Man

2015-01-01

457

PCR-mediated recombination of the amplification products of the Hibiscus tiliaceus cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene.  

PubMed

PCR-mediated recombination describes the process of in vitro chimera formation from related template sequences present in a single PCR amplification. The high levels of genetic redundancy in eukaryotic genomes should make recombination artifacts occur readily. However, few evolutionary biologists adequately consider this phenomenon when studying gene lineages. The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GapC), which encodes a NADP-dependent nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the cytosol, is a classical low-copy nuclear gene marker and is commonly used in molecular evolutionary studies. Here, we report on the occurrence of PCR-mediated recombination in the GapC gene family of Hibiscus tiliaceus. The study suggests that recombinant areas appear to be correlated with DNA template secondary structures. Our observations highlight that recombination artifacts should be considered when studying specific and allelic phylogenies. The authors suggest that nested PCR be used to suppress PCR-mediated recombination. PMID:17394766

Wu, Linghui; Tang, Tian; Zhou, Renchao; Shi, Suhua

2007-03-31

458

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

2009-01-01

459

PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

2013-01-01

460

K- ras oncogene DNA Sequences in Pink Salmon in Streams Impacted by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: No Evidence of Oil-induced Heritable Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no

Matthew A. Cronin; Jeffrey K. Wickliffe; Yelena Dunina; Robert J. Baker