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1

Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas  

E-print Network

hirsutus) is an exotic pest. It first appeared in the U.S. in Florida in 2002, and has been recently found in Nueces County, Texas. This insect is a potentially serious pest in many or- namental and agricultural crops. It feeds by sucking plant sap.... ? The PHM has a reddish or pinkish body. When pierced, the PHM bleeds a reddish-brown fluid. Eggs are bright pink to red (Fig. 2). A New Pest in Texas Pink Hibiscus Mealybug Carlos E. Bogr?n and Scott Ludwig* Figure 2. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

2007-09-14

2

Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooperative classical biological control project against the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), infestation in the low-desert region of California was initiated in the fall of 1999. Subsequently, the parasitoids Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Encyrtidae), Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal (Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. nr. mecrida (Walker) (Platygastridae) were reared and released for permanent establishment. Population densities of mealybug

William J. Roltsch; Dale E. Meyerdirk; Richard Warkentin; Earl R. Andress; Karina Carrera

2006-01-01

3

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG, MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) TO METHYL BROMIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eggs, crawlers, early nymphs, late nymphs, and adults of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were tested for their susceptibility to methyl bromide in 2 hr laboratory fumigations at ambient conditions (25 C, 95% RH). Dose response tests indicated that the egg was the most s...

4

OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

5

SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG IN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA BASED ON PHEREOMONE TRAPPING OF MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A research project was established in East Central Florida communities of Melbourne (Brevard County) and Port Saint Lucie (St. Lucie County) to assess the seasonal activity of pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM) using sticky traps baited with a new synthetic pheromone. The residual activity of synthetic ph...

6

Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known

Aijun Zhang; Divina Amalin; Shyam Shirali; Miguel S. Serrano; Rosa A. Franqui; James E. Oliver; Jerome A. Klun; Jeffrey R. Aldrich; Dale E. Meyerdirk; Stephen L. Lapointe

2004-01-01

7

Biological Control of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus Hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green, was first reported in the Caribbean in 1994 in Grenada. This was the first record of the insect as a major pest in the New World. By the beginning of 2001, the pest had spread to over 25 territories from Guyana and Venezuela in the South to Bahamas in the North. The pest has

Moses T. K. Kairo; Gene V. Pollard; Dorothy D. Peterkin; Vyjayanthi F. Lopez

2000-01-01

8

Immune response of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), to oviposition of the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anagyrus kamali Moursi has been recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological agent against the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. This host has a cellular defense reaction that involves encapsulation and melanization of the endoparasitoid egg. The impact of this immune response on the parasitoid progeny was assessed, as well as the response of the parasitoid countermeasures to overcome

L. A Sagarra; D. D Peterkin; C Vincent; R. K Stewart

2000-01-01

9

Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus  

PubMed Central

Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified ? type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

2013-01-01

10

Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs  

PubMed Central

Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

1990-01-01

11

Influence of Host Stage on Oviposition, Development, Sex Ratio, and Survival of Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host stage selection, host suitability, and sex allocation by the solitary encyrtid parasitoid,Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hym., Encyrtidae), were studied in laboratory experiments in order to improve mass production of this parasitoid. All nymphal stages and adult females of the Hibiscus Mealybug (HMB),Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Hom., Pseudococcidae), were parasitized in no-choice experiments. In two-choice experiments third larval instar and preoviposition adult females were

L. A Sagarra; C Vincent

1999-01-01

12

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,  

E-print Network

212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

Reddy, Gadi VP

13

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-  

E-print Network

110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

Reddy, Gadi VP

14

Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs preshipping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (= PFR 97®) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs before shipping plant products was assessed under laboratory conditions. Hibiscus leaves were dipped into beakers filled with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 g of PFR 97® / L of water and t...

15

Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)  

MedlinePLUS

... publications and references used throughout site. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... Crusting of eyelids or lashes sometimes occurs Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, suggestions ...

16

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

17

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

18

SEASONAL PHENOLOGY AND NATURAL ENEMIES OF MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSTUS IN AUSTRALIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foreign exploration for natural enemies of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, was conducted in Australia from 2000 TO 2002. In Queensland, the predaceous beetle Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, the predaceous drosophilid fly, Cacoxenus perspicax and the encrytid parasitoid Gyranusoidea in...

19

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uses of 16 species of Hibiscus, section Furcaria DC, are discussed, with particular reference to kenaf (H. cannabinus L.)\\u000a and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.), the two most important species grown commercially as fiber plants. Other uses of this versatile\\u000a group include use as ornamentals and employment of various plant parts as food, medicine, wood for musical instruments, and\\u000a in superstitious

F. D. Wilson; M. Y. Menzel

1964-01-01

20

Mealybugs of importance at United States ports of entry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This research provides a Lucid expert system for the identification of the 58 most commonly intercepted mealybug species at US ports-of-entry. The system includes an identification key with images of each character state, a well illustrated glossary of terms, images of each mealybug species as it a...

21

7 CFR 319.56-58 - Bananas from the Philippines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...gray pineapple mealybug; Geococcus coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug; Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell), the coffee mealybug; Planococcus minor (Maskell), the pacific...

2014-01-01

22

Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

23

Survey of the natural enemies of Dysmicoccus mealybugs on pineapple in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys for mealybugs, associated natural enemies and ants were conducted in abandoned pineapple fields on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu and Maui from July 1992 to November 1993. Whole plant samples were taken, and mealybugs and ants found were identified. Mealybug-infested plant parts were isolated and held until natural enemies emerged from parasitized host material. At sample sites where only

Héctor González-Hernández; Neil J. Reimer; Marshall W. Johnson

1999-01-01

24

Occurrence of a Begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A whitefly transmitted Begomovirus (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) with a satellite (?-DNA associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been detected for the first time in mesta growing regions of India.

A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; K. V. Padmalatha; V. G. Malathi; S. K. Ghosh

2005-01-01

25

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varietal selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing the production and processing efficiency of a selected kenaf crop is not only dependent of the production location and cultural aspects, and the differences in yield componen...

26

Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haematinic activity of an orally administered aqueous extract of Hibiscus cannabinus leaves was studied on haemolytic anaemic rats. Anaemia was induced by an oral administration of phenylhydrazine for a period of 8 days. Red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and pack cell volume were analysed as indices of anaemia. The mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell

Gabriel A. Agbor; Julius E. Oben; Jeanne Y. Ngogang

2005-01-01

27

77 FR 22510 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Dymicoccus neobrevipes) Coffee root (Geococcus coffeae) Hibiscus (Maconellicoccus hirsutus) Coffee (Planococcus lilacinus...coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug; Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell), the...

2012-04-16

28

A partially mummified corpse with pink teeth and pink nails.  

PubMed

A female corpse in a state of advanced decomposition and putrefaction with pink teeth and an equivalent discolouration of several fingernails was found by a group of hunters in a forest. A combination of trimipramin intoxication, hypothermia and pneumonia could be established as the cause of death. Autolysis or blood congestion can only favour the occurrence of a pink discoloration. Pink phenomena depend on special anatomical features such as the existence of porus structures protected by a dense material, which explains the occurrence of a pink discoloration in teeth and fingernails. The non-specificity of congestion, its genesis and reinforcement by exogeneous factors does not allow pink phenomena to be used as specific forensic evidence. PMID:9457537

Ortmann, C; DuChesne, A

1998-01-01

29

First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest  

PubMed Central

Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

2014-01-01

30

TWO NEW SPECIES OF MEALYBUGS FROM PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA (HEMIPTERA: COCCOIDEA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two new species of mealybugs have been discovered in the Patagonia Region of Argentina collected on Nothofagus dombeyi and Stipa sp. Adult females and available immature stages of each species are described and illustrated and are compared with other mealybugs from the area....

31

DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION, AND SURVIVAL OF PAPAYA MEALYBUG (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) ON DIFFERENT HOST PLANT SPECIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus @illiams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)) is a polyghagus insect and a pest of various tropical crops and ornamentals. It was introduced into the United States in 1998 in Florida. Papaya mealybug potentially poses a threat to numerous agricul...

32

First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.  

PubMed

The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

2014-01-01

33

Moon's Pink Mineral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

2014-12-01

34

PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1.  

PubMed

Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP), SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37), 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM). Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway. PMID:21437181

Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grünewald, Anne; Voges, Lisa; Hofmann, Sarah; Orolicki, Slobodanka; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

2011-01-01

35

Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

36

APPLICATION OF RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF INSECT DIETS FOR MASS PRODUCTION OF PARASITOIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S.D.A. has provided two encyrtid parasitoids, Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Schaffe, Alam & Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) throughout the Western hemisphere for control of the pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsututs) and is currently conducting international surve...

37

Pink Bollworm Management in Texas  

E-print Network

and Dallas, occurred during the 1950s. Since that time, however, pink bollworm problems have been restricted to Far West Texas, primarily along and west of the Pecos River. In recent years, yield losses in the Trans Pecos have averaged 1,052 bales/year, worth... the back when not in use. The back edge of the wing is slightly fringed and lighter in color than the rest of the wing. The antennae are 1/2 the length of the body and normally held alongside the body. Eggs The eggs are pearly white or pink and oval shaped...

Allen, Charles T.

1995-01-12

38

Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

39

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

40

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

41

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

42

Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogen; Isaria farinosa, on citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using

Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk

43

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS: SPECIES VARIATION, ALTITUDINAL CHANGE, COASTAL INFLUENCE AND FLORAL COLOUR CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

WONG SK, LIM YY & CHAN EWC. 2009. Antioxidant properties of Hibiscus: species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change. Antioxidant properties (AOP) of leaves and flowers of six Hibiscus species were screened. For leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus tiliaceus, the effects of altitudinal change and coastal influence respectively were assessed. Flowers of Hibiscus mutabilis, during colour

SK Wong; YY Lim; EWC Chan

2009-01-01

44

Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1  

PubMed Central

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

1985-01-01

45

Interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the main natural enemies of the vine and citrus mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeydew-excreting hemipterans, such as mealybug pests, can be protected from their natural enemies by tending ants in return for honeydew, thereby compromising the aims of biological control. In this respect, antagonistic interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum, native to the Mediterranean basin, and the main natural enemies of both the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, and the citrus mealybug, P. citri,

Ramzi Mansour; Pompeo Suma; Gaetana Mazzeo; Alessandra La Pergola; Vito Pappalardo; Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi; Agatino Russo

2012-01-01

46

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle)  

E-print Network

Caryophyllaceae (Pink family) White campion (white cockle) Silene latifolia Poir. Life cycle Annual Similar weeds Bladder campion [S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke] Differs by having a strong perennial nature

47

Microbial Associates of the Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Different Rearing Conditions.  

PubMed

Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined. PMID:25135816

Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

2015-01-01

48

Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards  

PubMed Central

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

2014-01-01

49

Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat  

MedlinePLUS

... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat Language: English ... reddish color. What Are the Symptoms of Pink Eye? The signs and symptoms of pink eye may ...

50

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA,  

E-print Network

AMMONIA CONCENTRATIONS IN PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, REDDS OF SASHIN CREEK, SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA Although the toxic effects of ammonia have been observed in developing salmonids in hatcheries during and after the run of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Ammonia levels increased significantly

51

Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes  

E-print Network

Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

Suzuki, Masatsugu

52

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf Spot/Melting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf Spot Anthracnose Pythium Blight Leaf Rust Powdery Mildew Slime Mold Fairy Ring Take All Patch Summer extension BP-102-W Pink snow mold is a disease that may affect all cool-season turfgrasses, but appears

53

The genetic diversity of ampeloviruses in Australian pineapples and their association with mealybug wilt disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 1 (PMWaV-1), 2 (PMWaV-2) and 3 (PMWaV-3) have been detected in Australian commercial pineapple crops, along with a previously undescribed ampelovirus, forwhich\\u000a the name Pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus 5 (PMWaV-5) is proposed. Partial sequences extending from open reading frame\\u000a 1 b through to the heat shock protein homologue were obtained for PMWaV-1, -3 and -5. Phylogenetic

C. F. GambleyA; V. SteeleA; A. D. W. GeeringA; J. E. ThomasA

2008-01-01

54

PINK1-Parkin Pathway Activity Is Regulated by Degradation of PINK1 in the Mitochondrial Matrix  

PubMed Central

Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1, which encodes a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, result in an early-onset heritable form of Parkinson's disease. Previous work has shown that PINK1 is constitutively degraded in healthy cells, but selectively accumulates on the surface of depolarized mitochondria, thereby initiating their autophagic degradation. Although PINK1 is known to be a cleavage target of several mitochondrial proteases, whether these proteases account for the constitutive degradation of PINK1 in healthy mitochondria remains unclear. To explore the mechanism by which PINK1 is degraded, we performed a screen for mitochondrial proteases that influence PINK1 abundance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that genetic perturbations targeting the matrix-localized protease Lon caused dramatic accumulation of processed PINK1 species in several mitochondrial compartments, including the matrix. Knockdown of Lon did not decrease mitochondrial membrane potential or trigger activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (UPRmt), indicating that PINK1 accumulation in Lon-deficient animals is not a secondary consequence of mitochondrial depolarization or the UPRmt. Moreover, the influence of Lon on PINK1 abundance was highly specific, as Lon inactivation had little or no effect on the abundance of other mitochondrial proteins. Further studies indicated that the processed forms of PINK1 that accumulate upon Lon inactivation are capable of activating the PINK1-Parkin pathway in vivo. Our findings thus suggest that Lon plays an essential role in regulating the PINK1-Parkin pathway by promoting the degradation of PINK1 in the matrix of healthy mitochondria. PMID:24874806

Thomas, Ruth E.; Andrews, Laurie A.; Burman, Jonathon L.; Lin, Wen-Yang; Pallanck, Leo J.

2014-01-01

55

Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

56

A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

2013-11-01

57

Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of sorrel ( Hibiscus sabdariffa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of three varieties of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa), as well as their potential for reducing blood viscosity, were studied in vitro. The samples screened were two red [(traditional red (TRED) and early bearing red (ERED)] and one white (WHTE) mature Hibiscus varieties. Antioxidant activity was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy using

K. R. Christian; M. G. Nair; J. C. Jackson

2006-01-01

58

Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs  

PubMed Central

Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

2014-01-01

59

A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

2012-07-01

60

Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

61

Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

62

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Gr...

63

Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.  

PubMed

Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants. PMID:25026682

Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

2014-06-01

64

Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and ?-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes. PMID:21314460

Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

2011-04-01

65

Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that these insecticides are compatible with both natural enemies when used together for control of citrus mealybug in greenhouses and conservatories. PMID:17066788

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-10-01

66

Integration of cultural and mechanical practices for management of the mango mealybug Drosicha mangiferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most economically important trees which has been cultivated for several centuries. The tree is susceptible\\u000a to insect damage and is attacked by leaf eaters, termites, root grubs, sapsuckers, gall formers, stem borers, pod borers and\\u000a fruit borers. The mango mealybug Drosicha mangiferae Green (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) is one of the most destructive pests

Haider Karar; Ali H. Sayyed; M. Jalal Arif; M. Ashfaq; M. Aslam

2010-01-01

67

A review of the legged mealybugs on bamboo (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) occurring in China.  

PubMed

Twenty-two species of legged mealybugs occur on bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China. These species are reviewed and two of them are described for the first time: Dysmicoccus luoyangensis Li & Wu, sp. nov. and Trionymus indocalamus Li & Wu, sp. nov. Two new combinations are established: Pseudococcus bambusicola Takahashi and Kaicoccus bambusus Wu are transferred to genus Formicococcus Takahashi as F. bambusicola (Takahashi) comb. nov. and F. bambusus (Wu) comb. nov., respectively. Formicococcus bambusicola, Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi), Neoripersia miscanthicola Takahashi and Trionymus formosanus Takahashi are redescribed and reillustrated based on type specimens. Brief notes are provided for Balanococcus kwoni Pellizari & Danzig, B. zhejiangensis Li & Wu, Dysmicoccus dengwuensis Ferris, D. indocalamus Wu, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, Ferrisicoccus angustus Ezzat & McConnell, Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, H. takae (Kuwana), Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, Miscanthicoccus miscanthi (Takahashi), Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi), Paraporisaccus guizhouensis Lu & Wu, Paraserrolecanium fargesii Wu, Pseudantonina magnotubulata Borchsenius and Trionymus bambusae (Green). A key to the species of legged mealybugs on bamboo occurring in China is given. A list of bamboo mealybugs worldwide is also provided.  PMID:25543744

Li, Wen-Chao; Tsai, Ming-Yu; Wu, San-An

2014-01-01

68

Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.  

PubMed

Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa. PMID:22360997

Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

2012-10-01

69

7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...29.3049 Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or pinkish color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface is considered as mixed color. (See Rule 16.) [24 FR...

2010-01-01

70

A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

71

First Recorded Mating Flight of the Hypogeic Ant, Acropyga epedana, with its Obligate Mutualist Mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis  

PubMed Central

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported on the natural history and mating behavior of the species. The identity of a mealybug mutualist, Rhizoecus colombiensis (Homoptera: Rhizoecinae) is confirmed. Reproductive females participating in flights all carried mealybugs between their mandibles, indicating a vertical transfer of mealybugs with their ant hosts. No captured foundresses survived long in captivity, most likely due to the death of their mealybugs. The colony excavated had a single queen, though polygyny is common in the genus. Nearly all workers within the nest were heavily parasitized by mites, although males or gynes were not parasitized. These natural history observations are discussed with regard to this poorly understood mutualistic relationship between Acropyga ants and their mealybug partners. PMID:20233070

Smith, Chris R.; Oettler, Jan; Kay, Adam; Deans, Carrie

2007-01-01

72

First recorded mating flight of the hypogeic ant, Acropyga epedana, with its obligate mutualist mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis.  

PubMed

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported on the natural history and mating behavior of the species. The identity of a mealybug mutualist, Rhizoecus colombiensis (Homoptera: Rhizoecinae) is confirmed. Reproductive females participating in flights all carried mealybugs between their mandibles, indicating a vertical transfer of mealybugs with their ant hosts. No captured foundresses survived long in captivity, most likely due to the death of their mealybugs. The colony excavated had a single queen, though polygyny is common in the genus. Nearly all workers within the nest were heavily parasitized by mites, although males or gynes were not parasitized. These natural history observations are discussed with regard to this poorly understood mutualistic relationship between Acropyga ants and their mealybug partners. PMID:20233070

Smith, Chris R; Oettler, Jan; Kay, Adam; Deans, Carrie

2007-01-01

73

Regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore by PINK1  

PubMed Central

Background Loss-of-function mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) have been linked to familial Parkinson’s disease, but the underlying pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. We previously reported that loss of PINK1 impairs mitochondrial respiratory activity in mouse brains. Results In this study, we investigate how loss of PINK1 impairs mitochondrial respiration using cultured primary fibroblasts and neurons. We found that intact mitochondria in PINK1?/? cells recapitulate the respiratory defect in isolated mitochondria from PINK1?/? mouse brains, suggesting that these PINK1?/? cells are a valid experimental system to study the underlying mechanisms. Enzymatic activities of the electron transport system complexes are normal in PINK1?/? cells, but mitochondrial transmembrane potential is reduced. Interestingly, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is increased in PINK1?/? cells, and this genotypic difference between PINK1?/? and control cells is eliminated by agonists or inhibitors of the mPTP. Furthermore, inhibition of mPTP opening rescues the defects in transmembrane potential and respiration in PINK1?/? cells. Consistent with our earlier findings in mouse brains, mitochondrial morphology is similar between PINK1?/? and wild-type cells, indicating that the observed mitochondrial functional defects are not due to morphological changes. Following FCCP treatment, calcium increases in the cytosol are higher in PINK1?/? compared to wild-type cells, suggesting that intra-mitochondrial calcium concentration is higher in the absence of PINK1. Conclusions Our findings show that loss of PINK1 causes selective increases in mPTP opening and mitochondrial calcium, and that the excessive mPTP opening may underlie the mitochondrial functional defects observed in PINK1?/? cells. PMID:22630785

2012-01-01

74

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf Spot/Melting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf Spot Anthracnose Pythium Blight Leaf Rust Powdery Mildew Slime Mold Fairy Ring Take All Patch Summer, collect a cup-cutter sample and incubate it overnight in a plastic bag. A distinct gray mold

75

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold  

E-print Network

Gray Snow Mold Pink Snow Mold Leaf Spot/Melting Out Red Thread Dollar Spot Brown Patch Gray Leaf Spot Anthracnose Pythium Blight Leaf Rust Powdery Mildew Slime Mold Fairy Ring Take All Patch Summer extension BP-101-W Gray snow mold affects all cool season turfgrass species in areas where

76

Baby T (Pink) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

77

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

78

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

79

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2011-03-01

80

Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

1991-12-01

81

Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma  

PubMed Central

The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

2012-01-01

82

PEAR: Pyrus communis L. 'Bartlett' A. Agnello & D. Kain Comstock mealybug (CMB); Pseudococcis comstocki (Kuwana) Dept. of Entomology  

E-print Network

every 2-3 days for adult males, and double-sided carpet tape traps were placed on scaffolds limbs, EVALUATION OF FOLIAR INSECTICIDES TO CONTROL COMSTOCK MEALYBUG, 2000: Tests were set up to compare-mounted nursery sprayer (Rears Nifty-Pul-Tank) operating at 300 psi, and delivering 5 gal per tree in a mature

Agnello, Arthur M.

83

Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. PMID:24345408

Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

2014-04-01

84

Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 micro by 300 micro) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07-0.09 micro diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 micro by 750 micro and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement. PMID:5761921

Ross, J; Robison, W G

1969-02-01

85

Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense in Cotton Plant by the Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs. PMID:21818315

Zhang, Pengjun; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Fang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Jinming; Lu, Yaobin; Ruan, Yongming

2011-01-01

86

Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between antioxidant activity and anthocyanin was determined in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) petals. Petals from Roselle, cultivar F141, were collected and dried in Taitung, Taiwan. Roselle extract was prepared by extracting dried Roselle petals in boiling water. The relation between the anthocyanin color and antioxidant capacity was elucidated by comparing absorbance at 520 nm, with ferric reducing ability

Pi-Jen Tsai; John McIntosh; Philip Pearce; Blake Camden; Brian R Jordan

2002-01-01

87

New applications of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as microfiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to explore the possibility of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) as microfiltration membrane has been carried out in this work. The pulp was acetylated by anhydride acetic acid to produce cellulose acetate with an acetyl content of 40.40%. Membranes were prepared by phase inversion method using polymer concentrations varied between 14% and 18% (w\\/w). It was found that membrane

C. L. Radiman; S. Widyaningsih; S. Sugesty

2008-01-01

88

The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively.

M Haji Faraji; A. H Haji Tarkhani

1999-01-01

89

Producing composite particleboard from kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks as a raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The parameters affecting particleboard manufacturing from kenaf were determined to be press temperature, and time, pressure, density and shelling ratio. The experimental results showed that the parameters were found to be effective on the physical (thickness swelling)

Hülya Kalayc?oglu; Gökay Nemli

2006-01-01

90

Le bissap ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) : composition et principales utilisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a herbaceous plant, cultivated largely in tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. This plant is used for its fibre; mainly for its calyx, which is of three types: green, red and dark red. Composition. The red calyxes are the most used and are characterised by their concentration of anthocyanin, which can reach 1.5 g·kg

Mady Cisse; Manuel Dornier; Mama Sakho; Augustin Ndiaye; Max Reynes; Oumar Sock

2009-01-01

91

Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of medicinal plants as raw materials in the production of drugs is again gaining popularity. Hibiscus sabdariffa is widely taken in the South-western part of Nigeria for the treatment of various diseases. Aqueous-methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was investigated for its phytochemical con- stituents, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps lethality assay. The extract was found to

Mary Tolulope

92

United States kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) cultivar review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivar selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing production and processing efficiency of a specific kenaf crop is dependent on production location and cultural aspects, and differences in yield components among kenaf cultiv...

93

An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February-March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420-440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A.-M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Riviére, E.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

2007-02-01

94

Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri  

PubMed Central

Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

2014-01-01

95

ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN  

E-print Network

runs based on the abundance of young salmon at some time in their life cycle after the greater;429: ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, 1957 Marine Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director ESTIMATING ABUNDANCE OF PINK AND CHUM SALMON FRY IN PRINCE WILLIAM

96

Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined

Joan A. Browder; Michael B. Robblee

2009-01-01

97

Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

2014-01-01

98

Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinsonism caused by PINK1 mutations.  

PubMed

Hyposmia is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been variably detected in monogenic Parkinsonisms. To assess olfactory dysfunction in PINK1-related Parkinsonism, we evaluated olfactory detection threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification in five groups of subjects: sporadic PD (n = 19), PINK1 homozygous (n = 7), and heterozygous (n = 6) parkinsonian patients, asymptomatic PINK1 heterozygous carriers (n = 12), and Italian healthy subjects (n = 67). All affected subjects and all healthy heterozygotes but one resulted hyposmic, with most patients in the range of functional anosmia or severe hyposmia. Detection threshold was more preserved and discrimination more impaired in patients with PINK1 mutations than in PD cases. Alterations of detection and discrimination were observed also in PINK1 asymptomatic heterozygotes. On the contrary, odor identification appeared to be mostly related to the disease status, as it was impaired in nearly all patients (including PD and PINK1 cases) and preserved in healthy heterozygotes. Our data indicate that olfactory dysfunction is common in PINK1 Parkinsonism and consists typically in defective odor identification and discrimination. A milder olfactory deficit, mostly involving discrimination, can be found in asymptomatic heterozygotes, possibly indicating an underlying preclinical neurodegenerative process. PMID:19890973

Ferraris, Alessandro; Ialongo, Tamara; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Brusa, Livia; Laruffa, Marianna; Guidubaldi, Arianna; Paludetti, Gaetano; Albanese, Alberto; Barone, Paolo; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Valente, Enza Maria; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita

2009-12-15

99

Short mitochondrial ARF triggers Parkin/PINK1-dependent mitophagy.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Multiple genes have been associated with PD, including Parkin and PINK1. Recent studies have established that the Parkin and PINK1 proteins function in a common mitochondrial quality control pathway, whereby disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to PINK1 stabilization at the mitochondrial outer surface. PINK1 accumulation leads to Parkin recruitment from the cytosol, which in turn promotes the degradation of the damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). Most studies characterizing PINK1/Parkin mitophagy have relied on high concentrations of chemical uncouplers to trigger mitochondrial depolarization, a stimulus that has been difficult to adapt to neuronal systems and one unlikely to faithfully model the mitochondrial damage that occurs in PD. Here, we report that the short mitochondrial isoform of ARF (smARF), previously identified as an alternate translation product of the tumor suppressor p19ARF, depolarizes mitochondria and promotes mitophagy in a Parkin/PINK1-dependent manner, both in cell lines and in neurons. The work positions smARF upstream of PINK1 and Parkin and demonstrates that mitophagy can be triggered by intrinsic signaling cascades. PMID:25217637

Grenier, Karl; Kontogiannea, Maria; Fon, Edward A

2014-10-24

100

Multifaceted Therapeutic Value of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Approximately two-thirds of the world’s population rely on a great variety of plants used in ­various systems of traditional\\u000a medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases and ailments\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), also known as hibiscus or “sour tea,” is a tropical plant which is used throughout the world as a source of nutritious\\u000a sustenance to humans, but

Armando González-Stuart

101

Pink Root Disease of Onions and Its Control in Texas.  

E-print Network

, vurions varieties were secured and planted as indicgted in Table 2. Froni Table 2, it is seen that neither the Nar- cissns, Tulip), Fnnkia, Iris, Fresia, Lillium, nor the Callas are subject to pink root. Rowever, the onion, the shallot, the multipliers... as shallots, are all highly susceptible. Of the varieties of garlic, it appears that several strains of 'the Agexican an6 Italian are more susceptible to pink root than the large growing sarieties I~nown as the Chinese. Hence on a pink root-infected soil...

Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

1921-01-01

102

Esterification of high ?-cellulose extracted from Hibiscus cannabinus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

High ?-cellulose has been extracted from a fast-growing annual plant, namely Hibiscus cannabinus L. Esterified products from this ?-cellulose and from a commercially available rayon-grade pulp were prepared by adopting homogeneous esterification procedures. The physico-chemical properties of the esterified products obtained were studied and the products were characterized using IR, UV and NMR techniques. The esterified products obtained from the

C. N. Saikia; F. Ali; T. Goswami; Anil C. Ghosh

1995-01-01

103

Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus tissues derived from seedlings of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were shown to produce two cyanidin glycosides as major anthocyanin pigments. Both callus growth and anthocyanin synthesis were remarkably stimulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The highest anthocyanin yield was observed when 1 µM 2,4-D in combination with 0.1–1 µM kinetin was supplemented to the culture medium. In contrast, gibberellic acid showed

Hajime Mizukami; Kaomi Tomita; Hiromu Ohashi; Noboru Hiraoka

1988-01-01

104

Callus induction and adventitious organogenesis of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus production along with caulogenesis and rhizogenesis were obtained from internodal stem explants of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) after 4 weeks in culture. Murashige and Skoog medium was used for two 4×4 matrix experiments designed to determine suitable growth regulator combinations (NAA\\/BAP or 2,4-D\\/kinetin) and concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg\\/L). The most abundant callus production was observed at 0.3\\/3.0

K. S. McLean; G. W. Lawrence; N. A. Reichert

1992-01-01

105

Nonlocal nonlinear refraction in Hibiscus Sabdariffa with large phase shifts.  

PubMed

In this work we present a study of nonlinear optical properties in organic materials (hibiscus sabdariffa). Our results demonstrate that the medium exhibits a highly nonlocal nonlinear response. We show preliminary numerical results of the transmittance as nonlocal response by considering, simultaneously, the nonlinear absorption and refraction in media. Numerical results are accord to measurement obtained by Z- scan technique where we observe large phase shifts. We also analyze the far field diffraction ring patterns of the sample. PMID:25401548

Ramírez-Martínez, D; Alvarado-Méndez, E; Trejo-Durán, M; Vázquez-Guevara, M A

2014-10-20

106

New Mealybug Species Vectoring Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses1 and -3 (GLRaV-1 and -3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many grape viruses, such as filamentous Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses in the Closteroviridae family, are spread primarily through infected propagating material. However, there is increasing evidence that leafroll disease are spread in the field by insect vectors, namely mealybugs and other scale insects. This study was carried out in the northern wine-growing regions of France where Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-1 and -3

René Sforza; Elisabeth Boudon-Padieu; Charles Greif

2003-01-01

107

Homology difference analysis of invasive mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Southern China with COI gene sequence variability.  

PubMed

The mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis (P. solenopsis) has caused much agricultural damage since its recent invasion in China. However, the source of this invasion remains unclear. This study uses molecular methods to clarify the relationships among different population of P. solenopsis from China, USA, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam to determine the geographic origin of the introduction of this species into China. P. solenopsis samples were collected from 25 different locations in three provinces of Southern China. Samples from the USA, Pakistan, and Vietnam were also obtained. Parts of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were sequenced for each sample. Homologous DNA sequences of the samples from the USA and India were downloaded from Gen Bank. Two haplotypes were found in China. The first was from most samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan populations in the China and Pakistan groups, and the second from a few samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan populations in the China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam groups. As shown in the maximum likelihood of trees constructed using the COI sequences, these samples belonged to two clades. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are probably closely related to populations in Pakistan. The variation, relationship, expansion, and probable geographic origin of P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are also discussed. PMID:25351560

Wu, F Z; Ma, J; Hu, X N; Zeng, L

2015-02-01

108

Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

109

EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPONENTS FROM HIBISCUS SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHANOL MIXTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extr...

110

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant

Yun-Ching Chang; Hui-Pei Huang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Shun-Fa Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2005-01-01

111

Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

112

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using pink guava waste extract (PGWE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of a novel, non-toxic, eco-friendly biological material namely, pink guava waste extract (PGWE). The pink guava waste extract will act as the reducing agent in reduction process in order to reduce the aqueous salt solutions of the silver nitrate. Moreover, economically, this process will also lower the cost of producing metal nanoparticles

Norashikin Ahmad Zamanhuri; Rasyidah Alrozi; Mohamed Syazwan Osman

2012-01-01

113

Forecast and Production Dynamics of the Pink Salmon of Kamchatka  

E-print Network

The importance of pink salmon to the fishery of the Russian Far East can scarcely be exaggerated because this species determines the total catch of Pacific salmon in the region. Fishery science already has provided a wealth of biological data about density and stock abundance of pink salmon during different periods of the life cycle, but often we find ourselves running into something we cannot explain. For example, abrupt transformations in populations when seemingly there is nothing to indicate a forthcoming, and potentially striking, change. It is well known that pink salmon have the simplest lifecycle among Pacific salmon species, but forecasting the stock dynamics of this species is more complicated and results are more uncertain than with other species. For this study we used a cluster analysis to examine the basis of the dynamics of pink salmon escapement in different rivers of West and East Kamchatka. It has been demonstrated that the even- and odd-year lines of pink salmon in West Kamchatka have, at minimum, two well recognized population groups: the southern group that comprises populations from the Ozernaya River to the Kol River, and the northern group that includes populations from the Vorovskaya River to the Pyatibratka River (Fig. 1). In West Kamchatka the boundary between the two groups for both odd- and even-year brood lines is located along 55 ° N latitude. East Kamchatka pink salmon populations are poorly structured. Major pink salmon populations exist in the Karaginsky and Olutorisky Gulfs, and minor populations are located in the Karaginsky, Kronotsky and Avachinsky Gulfs.

Evgeny A. Shevlyakov; Maxim V. Koval

114

The Phloem-Sap Feeding Mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) Carries ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations That Do Not Cause Disease in Host Plants  

PubMed Central

‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24×107 to 1.07×104 Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T.; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G.; Stocks, Ian C.; Duan, Yongping

2014-01-01

115

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

116

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

117

Host plant probing analysis reveals quick settlement of the solenopsis mealybug during host shift.  

PubMed

Quantitative feeding behaviors were analyzed by electronic penetration graph technique to evaluate the resources utilization efficiency of the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), transferred to a novel host. Both nonphloem and phloem factors were contributed to the host availability during host shift; while only "prephloem" factor was involved with their offspring's fitness to the transferred host, on which they fed as effectively as their mothers did on the origin host. Different performances on different hosts were supposed to have relations with the diverse phloem components, rather than feeding behaviors. P. solenopsis could try and exploit an efficient stylet pathway to reach the phloem, which would be an importance factor to account for the expansion of the host range and adaptations to different hosts. High efficient feeding behaviors of P. solenopsis in the current study manifested its capability of resource utilization to the novel host, which was suggested to be advantageous for its host shift, and to be the explanation for rapid host shifts associated with its broad host range and quick settlement. PMID:25195430

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Bei, Yawei; He, Yueping; Lu, Yaobin

2014-08-01

118

Mealybugs nested endosymbiosis: going into the ‘matryoshka’ system in Planococcus citri in depth  

PubMed Central

Background In all branches of life there are plenty of symbiotic associations. Insects are particularly well suited to establishing intracellular symbiosis with bacteria, providing them with metabolic capabilities they lack. Essential primary endosymbionts can coexist with facultative secondary symbionts which can, eventually, establish metabolic complementation with the primary endosymbiont, becoming a co-primary. Usually, both endosymbionts maintain their cellular identity. An exception is the endosymbiosis found in mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudoccinae, such as Planococcus citri, with Moranella endobia located inside Tremblaya princeps. Results We report the genome sequencing of M. endobia str. PCVAL and the comparative genomic analyses of the genomes of strains PCVAL and PCIT of both consortium partners. A comprehensive analysis of their functional capabilities and interactions reveals their functional coupling, with many cases of metabolic and informational complementation. Using comparative genomics, we confirm that both genomes have undergone a reductive evolution, although with some unusual genomic features as a consequence of coevolving in an exceptional compartmentalized organization. Conclusions M. endobia seems to be responsible for the biosynthesis of most cellular components and energy provision, and controls most informational processes for the consortium, while T. princeps appears to be a mere factory for amino acid synthesis, and translating proteins, using the precursors provided by M. endobia. In this scenario, we propose that both entities should be considered part of a composite organism whose compartmentalized scheme (somehow) resembles a eukaryotic cell. PMID:23548081

2013-01-01

119

Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production. PMID:24766493

Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

2013-01-01

120

Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug.

Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

2014-03-01

121

The balloon flights in the Tropics of the HIBISCUS project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HIBISCUS is a project for studying the dynamics, microphysics and chemistry of the Tropical Tropopause Layer based on balloon measurements. Thirteen heavy sondes and 18 short duration balloons of different types have been used for local process studies. Eight superpressure (BP) and 3 Infra Red Montgolfier (MIR) long duration balloons have been flown for extending the investigations at global scale around the world. Overall the campaign has been very successful operationally as well as scientifically. The paper provides a description of the balloons, the instruments and the strategy used for meeting at best the goals of the project.

Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

2005-08-01

122

PINK1 heterozygous rare variants: prevalence, significance and phenotypic spectrum.  

PubMed

Heterozygous rare variants in the PINK1 gene, as well as in other genes causing autosomal recessive parkinsonism, have been reported both in patients and healthy controls. Their pathogenic significance is uncertain, but they have been suggested to represent risk factors to develop Parkinson disease (PD). The few large studies that assessed the frequency of PINK1 heterozygotes in cases and controls yielded controversial results, and the phenotypic spectrum is largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence of PINK1 heterozygous rare variants in over 1100 sporadic and familial patients of all onset ages and in 400 controls. Twenty patients and 6 controls were heterozygous, with frequencies (1.8% vs. 1.5%) not significantly different in the two groups. Clinical features of heterozygotes were indistinguishable to those of wild-type patients, with mean disease onset 10 years later than in carriers of two mutations but worse disease progression. A meta-analysis indicated that, in PINK1 heterozygotes, the PD risk is only slightly increased with a non significant odds ratio of 1.62. These findings suggest that PINK1 heterozygous rare variants play only a minor susceptibility role in the context of a multifactorial model of PD. Hence, their significance should be kept distinct from that of homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations, that cause parkinsonism inherited in a mendelian fashion. PMID:18330912

Marongiu, Roberta; Ferraris, Alessandro; Ialongo, Tàmara; Michiorri, Silvia; Soleti, Francesco; Ferrari, Francesca; Elia, Antonio E; Ghezzi, Daniele; Albanese, Alberto; Altavista, Maria Concetta; Antonini, Angelo; Barone, Paolo; Brusa, Livia; Cortelli, Pietro; Martinelli, Paolo; Pellecchia, Maria Teresa; Pezzoli, Gianni; Scaglione, Cesa; Stanzione, Paolo; Tinazzi, Michele; Zecchinelli, Anna; Zeviani, Massimo; Cassetta, Emanuele; Garavaglia, Barbara; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Valente, Enza Maria

2008-04-01

123

Functions and characteristics of PINK1 and Parkin in cancer.  

PubMed

Most of the Parkinson disease (PD) linked genes are also associated with cancers. In particular, phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin, both of which are involved in recessively inherited familial forms of PD linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, appear to be abnormally expressed in cancers. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that rids the cell of damaged mitochondria. Although PD and cancer are obviously disparate human disorders, there is an evidence for low cancer rates in patients with PD. The relationship between cancer rates and PD might be related to the involvement of common pathways in both diseases. This paper provides a concise overview on the cellular functions of the PINK1 and Parkin. PMID:25553463

Matsuda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Minami, Akari; Wada, Yoko; Kitagishi, Yasuko

2015-01-01

124

Delayed resistance to transgenic cotton in pink bollworm  

PubMed Central

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and thus can reduce reliance on insecticides. Widespread planting of such Bt crops increased concerns that their usefulness would be cut short by rapid evolution of resistance to Bt toxins by pests. Pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. We monitored pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin for 8 years with laboratory bioassays of strains derived annually from 10-17 cotton fields statewide. Bioassay results show no net increase from 1997 to 2004 in the mean frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin. A synthesis of experimental and modeling results suggests that this delay in resistance can be explained by refuges of cotton without Bt toxin, recessive inheritance of resistance, incomplete resistance, and fitness costs associated with resistance. PMID:16227430

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Carrière, Yves

2005-01-01

125

PINK1-induced mitophagy promotes neuroprotection in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by aberrant expansion of CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) alters multiple cellular processes, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. Among those alterations, impaired mitochondrial metabolism seems to have a major role in HD pathogenesis. In this study, we used the Drosophila model system to further investigate the role of mitochondrial damages in HD. We first analyzed the impact of mHtt on mitochondrial morphology, and surprisingly, we revealed the formation of abnormal ring-shaped mitochondria in photoreceptor neurons. Because such mitochondrial spheroids were previously detected in cells where mitophagy is blocked, we analyzed the effect of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which controls Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Consistently, we found that PINK1 overexpression alleviated mitochondrial spheroid formation in HD flies. More importantly, PINK1 ameliorated ATP levels, neuronal integrity and adult fly survival, demonstrating that PINK1 counteracts the neurotoxicity of mHtt. This neuroprotection was Parkin-dependent and required mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, mitofusin and the voltage-dependent anion channel. Consistent with our observations in flies, we demonstrated that the removal of defective mitochondria was impaired in HD striatal cells derived from HdhQ111 knock-in mice, and that overexpressing PINK1 in these cells partially restored mitophagy. The presence of mHtt did not affect Parkin-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination but decreased the targeting of mitochondria to autophagosomes. Altogether, our findings suggest that mitophagy is altered in the presence of mHtt and that increasing PINK1/Parkin mitochondrial quality control pathway may improve mitochondrial integrity and neuroprotection in HD. PMID:25611391

Khalil, B; El Fissi, N; Aouane, A; Cabirol-Pol, M-J; Rival, T; Liévens, J-C

2015-01-01

126

Three-dimensional reconstruction of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, which belongs to the Tombusviridae family and infects plants of the Hibiscus genus, including kenaf, a woody plant of agricultural importance. These icosahedral viruses have a capsid consisting of 180 copies of coat protein (CP) arranged with T=3 symmetry. The CP consists of an internal RNA-binding domain, a shell-forming domain and a protruding domain. The HCRSV virion was reconstructed to about 12A resolution from cryo-EM images using the program EMAN. The structure had the arrangement of 90 dimers of protruding domains characteristic of the Tombusviridae. Reconstructions were also made from negatively stained samples, and showed essentially the same features. In addition, a particle of a different, "smooth" appearance was also identified in the negatively stained samples. These particles were slightly smaller and lacked protruding domains. Biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of two protein products: a 37 kDa protein identified as HCRSV CP and a 54 kDa protein that appeared to be of non-HCRSV origin. PMID:14643194

Doan, Danny N P; Lee, Kian Chung; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Butcher, Sarah; Wong, Sek-Man; Dokland, Terje

2003-12-01

127

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record. PMID:25038696

Da-Costa-Rocha, Inês; Bonnlaender, Bernd; Sievers, Hartwig; Pischel, Ivo; Heinrich, Michael

2014-12-15

128

Paradoxical darkening and removal of pink tattoo ink.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that Q-switched lasers are the gold-standard treatment for the resolution of unwanted tattoo ink. Although much safer than other tattoo removal modalities, the treatment of tattoo ink with Q-switched devices may be associated with long-term adverse effects including undesired pigmentary alterations such as tattoo ink darkening. Darkening of tattoo ink is most often reported in cosmetic, flesh-toned, white, peach, and pink tattoos. In this paper, we briefly review a case of pink tattoo ink that initially darkened paradoxically but eventually resolved with continued Q-switched laser treatments. PMID:20618561

Kirby, William; Kaur, Ravneet Ruby; Desai, Alpesh

2010-06-01

129

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

130

Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

131

Pink (P), a new locus responsible for a pink trait in onions (Allium cepa) resulting from natural mutations of anthocyanidin synthase.  

PubMed

A new locus conditioning a pink trait in onions was identified. Unusual pink onions were found in haploid populations induced from an F(1) hybrid between yellow and dark red parents and in F(3) populations originating from the same cross. Segregation ratios of red to pink in F(2), backcross, and F(3) populations indicated that this pink trait is determined by a single recessive locus. RT-PCR was carried out to look for any differential expression of anthocyanin synthesis genes between dark red and pink F(3) lines. The transcript level of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was significantly reduced in the pink line. To determine whether this reduced transcription is caused by other regulatory factors or by mutations in the ANS gene itself, ANS gene sequences from both dark red and pink F(3) lines were compared to detect any polymorphisms. Polymorphisms were identified, and subsequently utilized as molecular markers for the selection of ANS alleles. Absolute co-segregation of the pink allele and the ANS allele from the pink line was observed in parents, F(1) and F(3) populations. These results indicate that reduced transcription of the ANS gene caused by mutations in a cis -acting element is likely to result in the pink trait in onions. PMID:15480791

Kim, S; Binzel, M L; Yoo, K S; Park, S; Pike, L M

2004-08-01

132

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

2000-01-01

133

Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.  

PubMed

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

2013-01-01

134

Inhibitory effect of Hibiscus protocatechuic acid on tumor promotion in mouse skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic acid isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was evaluated for its ability to inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced promotion in skin tumors of female CD-1 mice. Topical application of PCA (5, 10 or 20 ?mol) 5 min prior to TPA (15 nmol) treatment twice weekly for 20 weeks to mice which were initiated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Ming-Hsiang Lo; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Chao-Lu Huang; Chau-Jong Wang

1998-01-01

135

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide in rat primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was studied for its protective effects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) in a primary culture of rat hepatocytes. It had been reported that exposure of isolated hepatocytes to t-BHP results in leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine transaminase (ALT), peroxidation of cellular lipids, and

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Erl-Shyh Kao; hia-Yih Chu

1996-01-01

136

Full-Genome Sequence of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus from Israel  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded

2013-01-01

137

PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

138

Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th Saturday November 15th  

E-print Network

Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th ­ Saturday November 15th Humanities Center ­ 602 Cathedral ­ University of Pittsburgh The Pink Tide is the label used for the wave of Latin, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela. The Pink Tide seems to be receding, but it may have transformed politics

Sibille, Etienne

139

Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug clades within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. These two species, commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method...

140

Parasitoids of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) in California: establishment of Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hym.: Encyrtidae) and discussion of related parasitoid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve natural suppression of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), the parasitoids Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Brèthes) and Leptomastix epona (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of Chilean origin were released in California's Central Coast vineyards from 1997 to 1999. A survey for parasitoids of P. viburni was conducted in the Edna Valley appellation wine grape region from 2005 to 2007, 6–8 years after

Kent M. Daane; Monica L. Cooper; Serguei V. Triapitsyn; John W. Andrews Jr; Renato Ripa

2008-01-01

141

Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.  

PubMed

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

2013-01-01

142

Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus  

PubMed Central

The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, ?ntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

2013-01-01

143

Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

2010-12-01

144

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana. PMID:23068176

Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

2012-10-01

145

Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of Canada.…

Twomey, Sarah Jane

2011-01-01

146

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon  

E-print Network

among salmonids in having a determinate life cycle. Adults return to their natal streams to spawn at 2123 Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are the most abundant Pacific salmon species and spawn inten- sity (Takagi et al., 1981) or climate cycles (Mantua et al., 1997). Optimum management

147

ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese ( Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing- tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same

C. J. CUTTS; J. R. SPEAKMAN

1994-01-01

148

Beyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society  

E-print Network

young@cs.umanitoba.ca ABSTRACT Developing an improved understanding and awareness of how gender impacts survey of women and men's attitudes toward robot development that demonstrates how real-world genderBeyond "Pink" and "Blue": Gendered Attitudes towards Robots in Society Yan Wang University

149

PINK1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and promotes lung fibrosis.  

PubMed

Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung. PMID:25562319

Bueno, Marta; Lai, Yen-Chun; Romero, Yair; Brands, Judith; St Croix, Claudette M; Kamga, Christelle; Corey, Catherine; Herazo-Maya, Jose D; Sembrat, John; Lee, Janet S; Duncan, Steve R; Rojas, Mauricio; Shiva, Sruti; Chu, Charleen T; Mora, Ana L

2015-02-01

150

Teaching Social Justice and Encountering Society: The Pink Triangle Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied student reflections and responses when they took on a stigmatized role, wearing a pink triangle in support of gay rights. Many of the 103 college students advanced through stages of identity development and moved to more open and positive ways of thinking about others. (SLD)

Rabow, Jerome; Stein, Jill M.; Conley, Terri D.

1999-01-01

151

Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

Azzam, Amy M.

2014-01-01

152

What Causes Variability in Pink Salmon Family Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study family-specific variation in the survival of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, we partitioned family size into four life history divisions: (1) maternal fecundity, (2) deposition of fertilized eggs and egg loss from the redd, (3) freshwater survival (and male potency), and (4) marine survival. We directly measured the variability in fecundity and then measured the family-specific variability of freshwater

Harold J. Geiger; Ivan Wang; Pat Malecha; Kyle Hebert; William W. Smoker; Anthony J. Gharrett

2007-01-01

153

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink G. B. Henning  

E-print Network

Contrast discrimination with pulse trains in pink noise G. B. Henning The Sensory Research Unit- tectable than any of its components. However, in contrast-discrimination experiments, with a pedestal the discrimination performance of the pulse train relative to that obtained with its sinusoidal components. We

154

Cytosolic cleaved PINK1 represses Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy  

PubMed Central

PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase proposed to have a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease through the regulation of mitophagy. Here, we show that the PINK1 main cleavage product, PINK152, after being generated inside mitochondria, can exit these organelles and localize to the cytosol, where it is not only destined for degradation by the proteasome but binds to Parkin. The interaction of cytosolic PINK1 with Parkin represses Parkin translocation to the mitochondria and subsequent mitophagy. Our work therefore highlights the existence of two cellular pools of PINK1 that have different effects on Parkin translocation and mitophagy. PMID:24357652

Fedorowicz, Maja A; de Vries-Schneider, Rosa L A; Rüb, Cornelia; Becker, Dorothea; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Chun; Alessi Wolken, Dana M; Voos, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuhui; Przedborski, Serge

2014-01-01

155

Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

156

Induction of apoptosis by Hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl2 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ta-Wei Kao; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Wei-Long Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

2000-01-01

157

SARM1 and TRAF6 bind to and stabilize PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Recent work suggests that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 and that accumulated PINK1 recruits parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for elimination of depolarized mitochondria, which is known as mitophagy. In this study, we find that PINK1 forms a complex with sterile ? and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which is important for import of PINK1 in the outer membrane and stabilization of PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria. SARM1, which is known to be an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor, binds to PINK1 and promotes TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 chain ubiquitination of PINK1 at lysine 433. Down-regulation of SARM1 and TRAF6 abrogates accumulation of PINK1, followed by recruitment of parkin to damaged mitochondria. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 reduce the complex formation and ubiquitination. These results indicate that association of PINK1 with SARM1 and TRAF6 is an important step for mitophagy. PMID:23885119

Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

2013-01-01

158

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

159

Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

2014-12-01

160

Cirrus clouds in convective outflow during the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight microlidar measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (22 S, 49 W). Tropical cirrus observations showed high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. The cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height. It was found that the clouds were composed of different layers, characterized by a marked variability in height, thickness and optical properties. Trajectory analysis and mesoscale transport simulations clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region, while the observed optical properties and cloud structure variability could be linked to different residence times of convective-processed air in the upper troposphere. Mesoscale simulations were able to reproduce the supersaturation due to recent outflow, while it was necessary to consider the presence of other formation processes than convective hydration for cirrus forming in aged detrained anvils.

Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.

2007-05-01

161

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

162

Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg?1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

Essa, M. Mohamed

2007-01-01

163

PINK1 rendered temperature sensitive by disease-associated and engineered mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in Parkin or PINK1 are the most common cause of recessively inherited parkinsonism. Parkin and PINK1 function in a conserved mitochondrial quality control pathway, in which PINK1, a putative mitochondrial kinase, directs Parkin, a cytosolic E3 ubiquitin ligase, selectively to dysfunctional mitochondria to promote their isolation, immobilization and degradation by macroautophagy (hereafter, mitophagy). As Parkin recruitment to mitochondria is robustly induced by PINK1 expression on the outer mitochondrial membrane, Parkin recruitment to mitochondria was used as an assay for PINK1 function. Unexpectedly, mutation of serine residues within the activation segment of PINK1 uncovered a temperature-sensitive variant of PINK1 (tsPINK1). tsPINK1 allowed for the first time the disassociation of PINK1 activity from its expression and localization. Additionally, extensive mutagenesis identified three disease-associated variants in the activation segment and one in an ?-helix N-terminal to kinase domain (Q126P) that are similarly thermally labile, suggesting that their activity could be restored post-translationally (e.g. by reducing the temperature or by a chemical or pharmacologic chaperone). Together, these findings suggest that tsPINK1 may represent a valuable tool for the analysis of the PINK1/Parkin pathway in human cells; additionally, as the serine residue promoting thermal lability is conserved among Mus musculus, Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, it may serve as the basis for developing other temperature-sensitive models for the study of recessive parkinsonism and mitophagy. Finally, these results suggest that PINK1 kinase function could be restored for a subset of patients with PINK1 mutations, and perhaps alter the course of their disease. PMID:23459931

Narendra, Derek P.; Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.; Walker, John E.

2013-01-01

164

Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

2014-10-01

165

PINK1 Kinase Catalytic Activity Is Regulated by Phosphorylation on Serines 228 and 402.  

PubMed

Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause early-onset recessive Parkinson disease. PINK1 is a mitochondrially targeted kinase that regulates multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology, from oxidative phosphorylation to mitochondrial clearance. PINK1 itself is also phosphorylated, and this might be linked to the regulation of its multiple activities. Here we systematically analyze four previously identified phosphorylation sites in PINK1 for their role in autophosphorylation, substrate phosphorylation, and mitophagy. Our data indicate that two of these sites, Ser-228 and Ser-402, are autophosphorylated on truncated PINK1 but not on full-length PINK1, suggesting that the N terminus has an inhibitory effect on phosphorylation. We furthermore establish that phosphorylation of these PINK1 residues regulates the phosphorylation of the substrates Parkin and Ubiquitin. Especially Ser-402 phosphorylation appears to be important for PINK1 function because it is involved in Parkin recruitment and the induction of mitophagy. Finally, we identify Thr-313 as a residue that is critical for PINK1 catalytic activity, but, in contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence that this activity is regulated by phosphorylation. These data clarify the regulation of PINK1 through multisite phosphorylation. PMID:25527497

Aerts, Liesbeth; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A

2015-01-30

166

Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics.  

PubMed

Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

Krkosek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M; Quinn, Thomas P

2011-07-01

167

Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics  

PubMed Central

Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

Krkošek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M.; Quinn, Thomas P.

2011-01-01

168

Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

2014-04-01

169

Presence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in primary salivary glands of the mealybug vector Planococcus citri suggests a circulative transmission mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is a mealybug-transmissible ampelovirus. Though the transmission mechanism has been described as semipersistent\\u000a on the basis of temporal parameters, definitive proof of this mechanism has never been provided. In the present study, we\\u000a carried out preliminary assays to establish the location of the virus in its vector, Planococcus citri. After dissecting the insects, GLRaV-3 was

Miguel Cid; Sonia Pereira; Cristina Cabaleiro; Franco Faoro; Antonio Segura

2007-01-01

170

Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity-dependent refractive index n 2 and the nonlinear susceptibility ? (3) of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions in the nanosecond regime at 532 nm are reported. More presicely, the variation of n 2, ?, and real and imaginary parts of ? (3) versus the natural dye extract concentration has been carried out by z-scan and optical limiting techniques. The third-order nonlinearity of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions was found to be dominated by nonlinear refraction, which leads to strong optical limiting of laser.

Diallo, A.; Zongo, S.; Mthunzi, P.; Rehman, S.; Alqaradawi, S. Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Maaza, M.

2014-12-01

171

Increasing class one fruit in 'Granny Smith' and 'Cripps' Pink' apple.  

E-print Network

??Thesis (MscAgric (Horticulture)) – University of Stellenbosch, 2009. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted to increase the percentage class one ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Cripps’ Pink’ apples. ‘Granny… (more)

Fouche, Jacques Roux

2009-01-01

172

PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity  

PubMed Central

PINK1 kinase activates the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin to induce selective autophagy of damaged mitochondria. However, it has been unclear how PINK1 activates and recruits Parkin to mitochondria. Although PINK1 phosphorylates Parkin, other PINK1 substrates appear to activate Parkin, as the mutation of all serine and threonine residues conserved between Drosophila and human, including Parkin S65, did not wholly impair Parkin translocation to mitochondria. Using mass spectrometry, we discovered that endogenous PINK1 phosphorylated ubiquitin at serine 65, homologous to the site phosphorylated by PINK1 in Parkin’s ubiquitin-like domain. Recombinant TcPINK1 directly phosphorylated ubiquitin and phospho-ubiquitin activated Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in cell-free assays. In cells, the phosphomimetic ubiquitin mutant S65D bound and activated Parkin. Furthermore, expression of ubiquitin S65A, a mutant that cannot be phosphorylated by PINK1, inhibited Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. These results explain a feed-forward mechanism of PINK1-mediated initiation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. PMID:24751536

Kane, Lesley A.; Lazarou, Michael; Fogel, Adam I.; Li, Yan; Yamano, Koji; Sarraf, Shireen A.; Banerjee, Soojay

2014-01-01

173

Upregulation of human PINK1 gene expression by NF?B signalling  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria and more than 70 PINK1 mutations have been identified to cause early-onset PD. However, the regulation of PINK1 gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the transcription start site (TSS) of the human PINK1 gene using switching mechanism at 5’end of RNA transcription (SMART RACE) assay. The TSS is located at 91 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG. The region with 104 bp was identified as the minimal promoter region by deletion analysis followed by dual luciferase assay. Four functional cis-acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B)-binding sites within the PINK1 promoter were identified. NF?B overexpression led to the up-regulation of PINK1 expression in both HEK293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. Consistently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong activator of NF?B, significantly increased PINK1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results clearly suggested that PINK1 expression is tightly regulated at its transcription level and NF?B is a positive regulator for PINK1 expression. PMID:25108683

2014-01-01

174

Wound healing potential of formulated extract from hibiscus sabdariffa calyx.  

PubMed

Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (P<0.05) and concentration dependent wound healing activities. There was also evidence of synergism with creams containing a combination of gentamicin and H. sabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

Builders, P F; Kabele-Toge, B; Builders, M; Chindo, B A; Anwunobi, Patricia A; Isimi, Yetunde C

2013-01-01

175

Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.  

PubMed

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

176

Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen  

PubMed Central

The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

2014-01-01

177

First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.  

PubMed

The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented. PMID:23917571

Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

2013-05-01

178

Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

SciTech Connect

Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide.

Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

1986-04-01

179

Parkinson's Disease–Associated Kinase PINK1 Regulates Miro Protein Level and Axonal Transport of Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD). PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. PMID:22396657

Lee, Seongsoo; Yu, Wendou; Silverio, George; Alapatt, Philomena; Millan, Ivan; Shen, Alice; Saxton, William; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2012-01-01

180

Abundance Dynamics of Pink Salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, as a Structured Process Determined by Many Factors  

E-print Network

Despite the fact that pink salmon is a fish species with a short-cycle life span, its stock abundance dynamics exhibit features typical of common pelagic fish species with an average life-cycle duration. Interchanging periods of high and low pink salmon abundance levels relate to positive and negative stock abundance trends inherent for major regional groups, Asian and American parts of aggregate stocks, and for pink salmon species as a whole (Radchenko et al. 2007). This feature of pink salmon abundance dynamics is determined by structural organization of the species and its populations. Major regional groups of pink salmon are divided into temporally isolated even- and odd-year populations. The life cycle of pink salmon can be conditionally divided into two periods: freshwater (including spawning, embryonic, and downstream migration phases) and marine (including inshore, marine waters in marginal seas, and oceanic phases). The phases repeat in reverse order until fish return from the sea and reach their spawning grounds. Most stocks, in turn, are separated by paired seasonal races with distinct morphological characteristics and spawning areas within river basins. Fig. 1. Pattern of pink salmon migrations during the life-cycle phases of aggregate stocks of the Sea of Okhotsk. Selected life-cycle phases are indicated by Roman numerals. For the purposes of assessing factors affecting mortality, abundance, and biomass losses on the basis of the pink salmon life cycle, I used typical data from an aggregated stock of Sea of Okhotsk pink salmon as an example (Fig. 1). The average abundance dynamics are based on data for 22 pink salmon generations spawning in 1989 to 2010 (Table 1). Average numbers and biomass estimates were calculated based on survey data, fishery statistics, and published literature. Table 1. Abundance dynamics of an average pink salmon generation throughout the different life-cycle phases using the aggregate stocks of the Sea of Okhotsk. Data are shown for generations of fish spawning in the years 1989-2008.

Vladimir I. Radchenko

181

PARK13 regulates PINK1 and subcellular relocation patterns under oxidative stress in neurons.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder coupled to selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. The majority of PD incidents are sporadic, but monogenic cases account for 5-10% of cases. Mutations in PINK1 cause autosomal recessive forms of early-onset PD, and PINK1 stimulates Omi/HtrA2/PARK13 protease activity when both proteins act as neuroprotective components in the same stress pathway. Studies on PINK1 and PARK13 have concentrated on phosphorylation-dependent PINK1-mediated activation of PARK13 and mitochondrial functions, because both proteins are classically viewed as mitochondrial. Although PARK13-mediated protective mechanisms are at least in part regulated by PINK1, little is known concerning how these two proteins are regulated in different subcellular compartments or, indeed, the influence of PARK13 on PINK1 characteristics. We show that PARK13 localizes to a variety of subcellular locations in neuronal cells and that PINK1, although more restrictive, also localizes to locations other than those previously reported. We demonstrate that PARK13 accumulation leads to a concomitant accumulation of PINK1 and that the increase in PINK1 levels is compartmental specific, indicating a correlative relationship between the two proteins. Moreover, we show that PARK13 and PINK1 protein levels accumulate in response to H2 O2 and L-DOPA treatments in a subcellular fashion and that both proteins show relocation to the cytoskeleton in response to H2 O2 . This H2 O2 -mediated relocation is abolished by PARK13 overexpression. This study shows that PARK13 and PINK1 are subcellular-specific, but dynamic, proteins with a reciprocal molecular relationship providing new insight into the complexity of PD. PMID:24798695

Patil, Ketan S; Basak, Indranil; Lee, Sungsu; Abdullah, Rashed; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

2014-09-01

182

Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

183

Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

184

Pollen Competition as a Reproductive Isolating Mechanism between Two Sympatric Hibiscus Species (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in pollen tube growth rates (certation) between heterospecific (foreign) and conspecific pollen may strongly influence whether hybrid offspring are produced after mixed pollen loads are delivered to a stigma. For both members of a sympatric species pair, Hibiscus moscheutos and H. laevis, pollination by pure loads of foreign pollen resulted in fruit set that was not significantly different from

Robert A. Klips

1999-01-01

185

Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core as a containerized growth medium component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stems contain two distinct fiber types, bast and core. The absorbent, low density core (xylem) is a possible potting mix component. Two greenhouse studies were conducted during 1993 and 1995 to determine the feasibility of substituting kenaf core for vermiculite and bark. In Study 1, fine-grade kenaf was substituted for vermiculite in three volume ratios (1,

Charles L. Webber; Julia Whitworth; John Dole

1999-01-01

186

A Genetic Analysis of Hydrologically Dispersed Seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dispersal of floating seeds in wetland habitats should influence the genetic characteristics of plant metapopulations. We examined gene flow of a hydrochorous wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), by analyzing allozyme variation in current- year floating-seed populations. The genetic composition of floating seeds was compared to the genetic composition of established populations of H. moscheutosthat had been previously analyzed

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

2001-01-01

187

Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of Hibiscus cannabinus grown in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different morphological regions of Hibiscus cannabinus plants grown in Portugal were submitted to chemical composition studies. General chemical composition was determined by established methods. The polysaccharides were fractionated by successive extractions of holocellulose with aqueous KOH solutions. The sugar composition was determined by hydrolysis of polysaccharides followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis of neutral sugars and spectrophotometric determination of uronic

C. Pascoal Neto; A. Seca; D. Fradinho; M. A. Coimbra; F. Domingues; D. Evtuguin; A. Silvestre; J. A. S. Cavaleiro

1996-01-01

188

Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to

Yun-Ching Chang; Kai-Xun Huang; An-Chung Huang; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Chau-Jong Wang

2006-01-01

189

A taxonomic re-evaluation of Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae) in Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus trionum has generally been regarded as naturalised in Australia and New Zealand. Two varieties are sometimes accepted as occurring in Australia: H. trionum var. trionum and H. trionum var. vesicarius, with the latter occasionally treated as indigenous. Following studies of the variation within H. trionum in Australia and New Zealand we propose that there are three indigenous species in

LA Craven; PJ de Lange; TR Lally; BG Murray; SB Johnson

2011-01-01

190

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. The objective of this study was to exami...

191

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY  

E-print Network

on changes in blood characteristics at this time of the life cycle. Lysaya (1951) found several physiologicalCHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY By KENNETH E. HUTTON characteristics of the blood of adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuschtl) were studied in fish at three stages

192

Comparative study of experimentally induced and post-mortem pink teeth.  

PubMed

Forty-eight pink teeth from eight male cadavers, all dying from unnatural causes were studied for the pink tooth phenomenon. Perfusion with whole and lysed blood, at different temperatures was carried out, followed by longitudinal sectioning for histological observation. Another 30 unblemished human teeth were used to reproduce the phenomenon in vitro to help clarify its pathogenesis. PMID:9227078

de Almeida, C A; Daruge, E; Daruge, E; el-Guindy, M

1996-12-01

193

Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

Pugh, Greg L.

2014-01-01

194

Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's Mark W Dodson1,2  

E-print Network

Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease Mark W Dodson1,2 and Ming forms and some sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease. Recent work on these genes underscores the central importance of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. In particular, pink1

Guo, Ming

195

Pink1 suppresses alpha-synuclein-induced phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent human neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by a selective and progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons. Mutations in the genes parkin and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) result in autosomal recessive forms of PD. It has been suggested that parkin and Pink1 function in the same pathway in Drosophila, with Pink1 acting upstream of parkin. Previous work in our laboratory has shown the ability of parkin to rescue an alpha-synuclein-induced PD-like phenotype in Drosophila. To investigate the ability of Pink1 to protect against alpha-synuclein-induced toxicity, we have performed longevity, mobility, and histological studies to determine whether Drosophila Pink1 can rescue the alpha-synuclein phenotypes. We have found that overexpression of Pink1 results in the rescue of the alpha-synuclein-induced phenotype of premature loss of climbing ability, suppression of degeneration of the ommatidial array, and the suppression of alpha-synuclein-induced developmental defects in the Drosophila eye. These results mark the first demonstration of Pink1 counteracting PD phenotypes in a protein toxicity animal model, and they show that Pink1 is able to impart protection against potentially harmful proteins such as alpha-synuclein that would otherwise result in cellular stress. PMID:19088817

Todd, Amy M; Staveley, Brian E

2008-12-01

196

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs.,

ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH; GENE S. WICKHAM; NORMAN R. PACE

1994-01-01

197

EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

198

Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

Kim, Bo Sun

2012-01-01

199

The Pink Palace, policy and power: Home-making practices and gentrification in Northcote  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural practices constitute cultural spaces, which include, or exclude, specific identities. This article examines a set of particular ‘home-making’ cultural practices surrounding gentrification in Northcote, Melbourne. I use the notion of home making to understand the implications of gentrification on a particular site, the Pink Palace. The Pink Palace was a former warehouse, located on Eastment Street, Northcote, which operated

Rosemary Overell

2009-01-01

200

Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary

A. Butrón; R. Tarrío; P. Revilla; A. Ordás; R. A. Malvar

2005-01-01

201

Searching for New Sources of Pink Stem Borer Resistance in Maize ( Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef.) is the main corn (Zea mays L.) pest in the Mediterranean area. Although, screening for resistance to this pest has been successful, the level of resistance shown by the most resistant varieties is not high. The objectives of the present work were: (i) the evaluation for pink stem borer resistance of the nontested

A. Butrón; G. Sandoya; R. Santiago; A. Ordás; A. Rial; R. A. Malvar

2006-01-01

202

Phosphorylation of parkin by Parkinson disease-linked kinase PINK1 activates parkin E3  

E-print Network

Phosphorylation of parkin by Parkinson disease-linked kinase PINK1 activates parkin E3 ligase for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA Received August 16, 2009; Revised and Accepted October 28, 2009 Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause

Li, Lian

203

PINK1 deficiency in ?-cells increases basal insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance in mice  

PubMed Central

The Parkinson's disease (PD) gene, PARK6, encodes the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mitochondrial kinase, which provides protection against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Given the link between glucose metabolism, mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in ?-cells, and the reported association of PD with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the response of PINK1-deficient ?-cells to glucose stimuli to determine whether loss of PINK1 affected their function. We find that loss of PINK1 significantly impairs the ability of mouse pancreatic ?-cells (MIN6 cells) and primary intact islets to take up glucose. This was accompanied by higher basal levels of intracellular calcium leading to increased basal levels of insulin secretion under low glucose conditions. Finally, we investigated the effect of PINK1 deficiency in vivo and find that PINK1 knockout mice have improved glucose tolerance. For the first time, these combined results demonstrate that loss of PINK1 function appears to disrupt glucose-sensing leading to enhanced insulin release, which is uncoupled from glucose uptake, and suggest a key role for PINK1 in ?-cell function. PMID:24806840

Deas, Emma; Piipari, Kaisa; Machhada, Asif; Li, Abi; Gutierrez-del-Arroyo, Ana; Withers, Dominic J.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2014-01-01

204

Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

2011-01-01

205

Hydroxocobalamin association during cell culture results in pink therapeutic proteins  

PubMed Central

Process control of protein therapeutic manufacturing is central to ensuring the product is both safe and efficacious for patients. In this work, we investigate the cause of pink color variability in development lots of monoclonal antibody (mAb) and Fc-fusion proteins. Results show pink-colored product generated during manufacturing is due to association of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl), a form of vitamin B12. OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing. PMID:23924851

Prentice, Kenneth M; Gillespie, Ronald; Lewis, Nathan; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; McCoy, Rebecca; Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa; Eakin, Catherine M

2013-01-01

206

Biochemical and chemical characterization of pink-pigmented oxidative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The biochemical and chemical characteristics were determined for 156 clinical isolates of pink-pigmented bacteria that are similar to but distinct from Methylobacterium extorquens (synonymous with Pseudomonas mesophilica). These isolates were gram-negative, nonfermentative, usually nonvacuolated, coccoid rods; all grew at 35 degrees C and were catalase and urease positive; the majority grew on MacConkey agar and were variable for oxidase production and motility. On the basis of oxidation of xylose and mannitol and hydrolysis of esculin, these 156 strains were subdivided into four groups that were designated "pink coccoid" groups I, II, III, and IV. Groups I, II, and III are similar to an unnamed taxon described by Gilardi and Faur in 1984; only strains of group IV hydrolyze esculin. The cellular fatty acid compositions of strains of groups I, II, and III were essentially identical and differed from strains of group IV by the absence of 3-OH-C14:0 and the presence of C19:0 delta and 2-OH-C19:0 delta. The fatty acid composition of group IV strains was most similar to that of M. extorquens but differed by the presence of small amounts of two C17:1 acids, 3-OH-C16:0, and 2-OH-C18:1. PMID:2332467

Wallace, P L; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Moss, C W

1990-01-01

207

Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression?  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

2014-01-01

208

Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L. were

T.-H. Tseng; E.-S. Kao; C.-Y. Chu; F.-P. Chou; H.-W. Lin Wu; C.-J. Wang

1997-01-01

209

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dp3-Sam could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60) as characterized by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP). Molecular data showed that Dp3-Sam induced Bid truncation, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) loss, and

De-Xing Hou; Xuhui Tong; Norihiko Terahara; Dong Luo; Makoto Fujii

2005-01-01

210

Use of Recombinant Tobacco Mosaic Virus To Achieve RNA Interference in Plants against the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W.

2013-01-01

211

Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

212

PINK1 positively regulates HDAC3 to suppress dopaminergic neuronal cell death.  

PubMed

Deciphering the molecular basis of neuronal cell death is a central issue in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Dysregulation of p53 levels has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. The role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis has been recently emphasized; however, the molecular basis of modulation of p53 function by HDAC3 remains unclear. Here we show that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial Parkinson's disease, phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424 to enhance its HDAC activity in a neural cell-specific manner. PINK1 prevents H2O2-induced C-terminal cleavage of HDAC3 via phosphorylation of HDAC3 at Ser-424, which is reversed by protein phosphatase 4c. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC3 enhances its direct association with p53 and causes subsequent hypoacetylation of p53. Genetic deletion of PINK1 partly impaired the suppressive role of HDAC3 in regulating p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. However, depletion of HDAC3 fully abolished the PINK1-mediated p53 inhibitory loop. Finally, ectopic expression of phosphomometic-HDAC3(S424E) substantially overcomes the defective action of PINK1 against oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Together, our results uncovered a mechanism by which PINK1-HDAC3 network mediates p53 inhibitory loop in response to oxidative stress-induced damage. PMID:25305081

Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Choi, Youngsok; Kang, HeeBum; Lim, Eun-Jin; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Seob; Park, Ji-Min; Moon, Jisook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Choi, Insup; Joe, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Yoon, Ho-Geun

2015-02-15

213

You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".  

PubMed

In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases. PMID:25654945

Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

2014-01-01

214

Loss of iron triggers PINK1/Parkin-independent mitophagy  

PubMed Central

In this study, we develop a simple assay to identify mitophagy inducers on the basis of the use of fluorescently tagged mitochondria that undergo a colour change on lysosomal delivery. Using this assay, we identify iron chelators as a family of compounds that generate a strong mitophagy response. Iron chelation-induced mitophagy requires that cells undergo glycolysis, but does not require PINK1 stabilization or Parkin activation, and occurs in primary human fibroblasts as well as those isolated from a Parkinson's patient with Parkin mutations. Thus, we have identified and characterized a mitophagy pathway, the induction of which could prove beneficial as a potential therapy for several neurodegenerative diseases in which mitochondrial clearance is advantageous. PMID:24176932

Allen, George F G; Toth, Rachel; James, John; Ganley, Ian G

2013-01-01

215

Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Fiber\\/Polymer Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile, compressive, flexural and wear resistance properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber-reinforced phenolic (Resorcinol Formaldehyde) resin matrix-based composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using these fibers as a new eco-friendly material in engineering applications. Polymer composite samples were fabricated by a compression-molding technique developed in our laboratory. The effect of fiber dimension on mechanical properties was evaluated. The interfacial

A. S. Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

2009-01-01

216

Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature male albino Wistar rats (180–220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups

F. P Moundipa; P Kamtchouing; N Koueta; Justine Tantchou; N. P. R Foyang; Félicité T Mbiapo

1999-01-01

217

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4°C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-'. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by micro- electrodes inserted in the style. lhe resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20)

Jorg Fromm; Mohammad Hajirezaei

1995-01-01

218

Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous fraction of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces was given to Wistar albino rats (150–200g) orally as drugs to study the toxicity of the extract. The rats, which were fed with commercial diet and water ad libitum, were divided into six groups of four rats each. Treatments 1 through 6 received 0, 1, 3, 5, 10

A. A Akindahunsi; M. T Olaleye

2003-01-01

219

The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl4 by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1–5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced

Jer-Yuh Liu; Chang-Che Chen; Wen-Hong Wang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Mon-Yuan Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

2006-01-01

220

MICROGEOGRAPHIC GENETIC STRUCTURE AND GENE FLOW IN HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS (MALVACEAE) POPULATIONS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microgeographic genetic variation in populations of a wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), was investigated using allozyme polymorphism. The species is a self-compatible insect-pollinated perennial, and seeds are water dispersed (hydrochory). Six hundred plants were analyzed from eight brackish and two freshwater populations within the Rhode River watershed\\/estuarine system. The genetic structure of the populations was assessed by fixation indices

HIROSHI KUDOH; DENNIS F. W HIGHAM

1997-01-01

221

Rheology of okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut ( Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysaccharide extracts were prepared from two traditional food thickeners with extensive domestic use in central and western parts of Africa: okra (Hibiscus esculentis L.) and the seed kernel from ‘dika nut’ (Irvingia gabonensis). Both demonstrated typical polyelectrolyte behaviour in solution, and were therefore studied under fixed ionic conditions (0.1 M NaCl), yielding intrinsic viscosities of [?] = 7.6 dl g?1

R. Ndjouenkeu; F. M. Goycoolea; E. R. Morrisa; J. O. Akingbala

1996-01-01

222

Characteristics of Coloured Wine Produced from Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Calyx Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 115(2), 91-94, 2009 Wine was produced from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) calyx ex- tract using strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and subjected to physico-chemical analyses using standard analytical methods. Imported commercial red wine was used as the reference for sensory evaluation. The results showed that ameliorated roselle calyx extract (must) had 4.21% protein, 0.69% titratable acidity, and 21°Brix total

Arubi P. Alobo; S. U. Offonry

223

Influence of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal on cadmium toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on some selected biochemical parameters, as well as the possible protective\\u000a role of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L petal were studied in 12-wk-old male Wistar albino rats. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in plasma l-alanine aminotransferases (ALT) only but with a corresponding decrease in liver l-alanine and l-aspartate aminotransferases

S. O. Asagba; M. A. Adaikpoh; H. Kadiri; F. O. Obi

2007-01-01

224

The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

2005-01-01

225

Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa) on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and

Wantana Reanmongkol; Arunporn Itharat

226

Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

227

Tricornered/NDR kinase signaling mediates PINK1-directed mitochondrial quality control and tissue maintenance  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotes employ elaborate mitochondrial quality control (MQC) to maintain the function of the power-generating organelle. Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 and Parkin actively participate in MQC. However, the signaling events involved are largely unknown. Here we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (mTORC2) and Tricornered (Trc) kinases act downstream from PINK1 to regulate MQC. Trc is phosphorylated in mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent manners and is specifically localized to mitochondria in response to PINK1, which regulates mTORC2 through mitochondrial complex-I activity. Genetically, mTORC2 and Trc act upstream of Parkin. Thus, multiplex kinase signaling is acting between PINK1 and Parkin to regulate MQC, a process highly conserved in mammals. PMID:23348839

Wu, Zhihao; Sawada, Tomoyo; Shiba, Kahori; Liu, Song; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2013-01-01

228

Factors affecting persistent pinkness and premature browning of ground beef patties  

E-print Network

The study objectives were to investigate factors contributing to persistent pinkness and premature browning in cooked beef patties. Various combinations of beef trimmings from cow and fed steer carcasses were obtained so that formulations were made...

Cureington, Erin Ann

2012-06-07

229

The flower of Hibiscus trionum is both visibly and measurably iridescent.  

PubMed

Living organisms can use minute structures to manipulate the reflection of light and display colours based on interference. There has been debate in recent literature over whether the diffractive optical effects produced by epoxy replicas of petals with folded cuticles persist and induce iridescence in the original flowers when the effects of petal pigment and illumination are taken into account. We explored the optical properties of the petal of Hibiscus trionum by macro-imaging, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and visible and ultraviolet (UV) angle-resolved spectroscopy of the petal. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is visibly iridescent, and the iridescence can be captured photographically. The iridescence derives from a diffraction grating generated by folds of the cuticle. The iridescence of the petal can be quantitatively characterized by spectrometric measurements with several square-millimetres of sample area illuminated. The flower of Hibiscus trionum has the potential to interact with its pollinators (honeybees, other bees, butterflies and flies) through iridescent signals produced by its cuticular diffraction grating. PMID:25040014

Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Hingant, Thomas; Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

2015-01-01

230

The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

2011-01-01

231

Hereditary Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease Caused by Mutations in PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations affecting the PINK1 kinase domain in three

Enza Maria Valente; Patrick M. Abou-Sleiman; Viviana Caputo; Miratul M. K. Muqit; Kirsten Harvey; Suzana Gispert; Zeeshan Ali; Domenico Del Turco; Anna Rita Bentivoglio; Daniel G. Healy; Alberto Albanese; Robert Nussbaum; Rafael González-Maldonado; Thomas Deller; Sergio Salvi; Pietro Cortelli; William P. Gilks; David S. Latchman; Robert J. Harvey; Bruno Dallapiccola; Georg Auburger; Nicholas W. Wood

2004-01-01

232

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1994-06-01

233

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65  

PubMed Central

Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2012-01-01

234

A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.  

PubMed

Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

2013-08-15

235

Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest  

PubMed Central

Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

2015-01-01

236

Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Pink Tomatoes: Deregulated Expression of the Gene Encoding Transcription Factor SlMYB12 Leads to Pink Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the

Ana-Rosa Ballester; Jos Molthoff; Ric de Vos; Diego Orzaez; Pasquale Tripodi; Silvana Grandillo; Cathie Martin

2010-01-01

237

Pink teeth in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck.  

PubMed

Pink teeth have most often been observed in victims of drowning but have also been reported in subjects who died suddenly and unnaturally. There is general agreement that there is no obvious connection between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death, but the condition of the surroundings (especially humidity) must certainly play an important role in the development of the pink-tooth phenomenon. The frequency and distribution of postmortem pink coloration of the teeth have been studied among a representative sample of 52 cadavers. All the bodies were victims of a single shipwreck that occurred on March 13, 1997, in the middle of the Otranto Canal (Mediterranean Sea). The bodies were recovered from the seawater after approximately 7 months. A distinct pink coloration of the teeth was found in only 18 cadavers (13 females and 5 males) of ages ranging between 13 and 60 years. The phenomenon was more pronounced in younger individuals due to age-related changes of the root canal, less penetrable by the pigment responsible for the postmortem pink staining. By histochemical methods and autofluorescence, hemoglobin and its derivatives have been identified as the most likely pigments responsible for this postmortem process that can be considered analogous to postmortem lividity. These data are consistent with previous reports on pink teeth, indicating that the diffusion of the blood in the pulp into the dentinal tubules causes the red discoloration of the teeth. Based on the results, the pigmentation is more prominent on the teeth with single roots rather than in the posterior teeth with multiple roots. PMID:17133027

Campobasso, Carlo P; Di Vella, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Favia, Gianfranco; Introna, Francesco

2006-12-01

238

Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1(-)/(-) motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation.  

PubMed

In Parkinson's disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1(-)/(-) mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14-P21) wild-type or PINK1(-)/(-) mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1(-)/(-) M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1(-)/(-) M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1(-)/(-) cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization. PMID:24904316

Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J; Humphries, Mark D; Hammond, Constance

2014-01-01

239

Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon  

SciTech Connect

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

1989-01-01

240

The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process  

SciTech Connect

The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jongkyeong [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jchung@kaist.ac.kr

2009-01-16

241

Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1?/? motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation  

PubMed Central

In Parkinson’s disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1?/? mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14–P21) wild-type or PINK1?/? mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1?/? M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1?/? M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1?/? cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization. PMID:24904316

Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J.; Humphries, Mark D.; Hammond, Constance

2014-01-01

242

Early Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PINK1 Knockout Rats.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are responsible for an autosomal recessive, familial form of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 protein is a Ser/Thr kinase localized to the mitochondrial membrane and is involved in many processes including mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and proteasomal function. Using a new PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) rat model, we found altered brain metabolomic markers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified changes in mitochondrial pathways with quantitative proteomics using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry, and demonstrated mitochondrial functional alterations through measurement of oxygen consumption and acidification rates. The observed alterations included reduced creatine, decreased levels of complex I of the electron transport chain, and increased proton leak in the electron transport chain in PINK1 KO rat brains. In conjunction, these results demonstrate metabolomic and mitochondrial alterations occur during the asymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease in this model. These results indicate both potential early diagnostic markers and therapeutic pathways that can be used in PD. PMID:25421206

Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Boska, Michael D; Fox, Howard S

2014-11-25

243

Ancestry of Pink Disease (Infantile Acrodynia) Identified as a Risk Factor for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Pink disease (infantile acrodynia) was especially prevalent in the first half of the 20th century. Primarily attributed to exposure to mercury (Hg) commonly found in teething powders, the condition was developed by approximately 1 in 500 exposed children. The differential risk factor was identified as an idiosyncratic sensitivity to Hg. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have also been postulated to be produced by Hg. Analogous to the pink disease experience, Hg exposure is widespread yet only a fraction of exposed children develop an ASD, suggesting sensitivity to Hg may also be present in children with an ASD. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with a known hypersensitivity to Hg (pink disease survivors) may be more likely to have descendants with an ASD. Five hundred and twenty-two participants who had previously been diagnosed with pink disease completed a survey on the health outcomes of their descendants. The prevalence rates of ASD and a variety of other clinical conditions diagnosed in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome) were compared to well-established general population prevalence rates. The results showed the prevalence rate of ASD among the grandchildren of pink disease survivors (1 in 25) to be significantly higher than the comparable general population prevalence rate (1 in 160). The results support the hypothesis that Hg sensitivity may be a heritable/genetic risk factor for ASD. PMID:21797771

Kerrie, Shandley; Austin, David W.

2011-01-01

244

Function of ?-synuclein and PINK1 in Lewy body dementia (Review).  

PubMed

?-synuclein (?-syn) is the major protein component of Lewy bodies, a key pathological characteristic of the degenerating brain. The misfolding and aggregation of ?-syn is associated with both the idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the function of ?-syn is poorly understood, as it shows both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) also cause recessively inherited PD. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. PINK1 plays an essential role in mitochondrial quality control and its homeostasis is maintained through mitochondrial stabilization. The ?-syn aggregation is linked to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1-related mitophagy. Determination of the molecular pathways that lead to ?-syn oligomerization and further aggregation may be the basis for the successful design and development of treatments for these neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the function of PINK1 underlying ?-syn aggregation and the mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this process. PMID:25355138

Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Ogura, Yasunori

2015-01-01

245

Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil  

PubMed Central

Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

2013-01-01

246

Determination of factors involved in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. bud abscission  

E-print Network

is that individual flowers may lasi, only one day (104). This is compensated for by the abundance and rhis thesis o lowe the style of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. frequency of flowers on the plant during the flowering season... OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject, : Horticulture DETERMINATION OF FACTORS INVOLVED IN HIBISCUS ROSA-SIA'ENSIS L. BUD ABSCISSION A Thesis bv DONNA REESE THAXTON Approved as to style and content by: John W. Kelly ') (C-Ch p ) H, Bren t Pember ton...

Thaxton, Donna Reese

2012-06-07

247

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

248

Multiple shoot regeneration of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) from a shoot apex culture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a medium was developed that would stimulate multiple shoot initiation from shoot apex explants of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf). Adventitious shoot formation on a shoot induction media supplemented with combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) (0, 0.5, 2.3??mol·l–1) and thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) (0, 1, 5, 20??mol·l–1) was evaluated. Multiple shoot induction medium with 1??mol·TDZ l–1 resulted in the

M. Srivatanakul; S. H. Park; J. R. Sanders; M. G. Salas; R. H. Smith

2000-01-01

249

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots  

PubMed Central

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru

2008-01-01

250

A comparison of two parasitoids (hymenoptera: encyrtidae) of the vine mealybug: rapid, non-discriminatory oviposition is favored when ants tend the host.  

PubMed

The encyrtid parasitoids Coccidoxenoides perminutus Girault and Anagyrus nr. sp. pseudococci (Girault) were compared in the laboratory as parasitoids of the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Female C. perminutus preferred second-instar P. ficus for oviposition, and produced more adult offspring (149.3 per female) than A. nr. sp. pseudococci (54.1 per female). The development time, from egg to adult emergence, of C. perminutus decreased with increasing constant temperatures between 18.5 and 30.1°C; at lower (12.0 and 15.0°C) and higher (31.1, 32.7, and 34.2°C) temperatures, the parasitoid did not develop. The lower threshold was calculated by linear methods to be 10.97°C, and the thermal constant was calculated to be 507.98 degree-days. The development times of C. perminutus were longer than those of A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and C. perminutus had narrower temperature tolerances than P. ficus or A. pseudococci. Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Mayr)) reduced the amount of time C. perminutus foraged on mealybug-infested squash, but did not affect the number of oviposition attempts or offspring produced, whereas Argentine ants reduced A. nr. sp. pseudococci foraging time, oviposition attempts, and number of offspring obtained. Overall, the results suggest that under certain conditions, including optimal conditions of temperature and host-stage availability, C. perminutus outperforms A. nr. sp. pseudococci, and may be an effective augmentative control agent even when ants are tending the hosts. However, temperature limitations and host-stage selection behaviors would reduce C. perminutus performance in the field, and in the absence of ants, other parasitoids may be favored. PMID:25182618

Sime, Karen R; Daane, Kent M

2014-08-01

251

Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.  

PubMed

Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

1990-11-01

252

Diminishing Returns from Increased Percent Bt Cotton: The Case of Pink Bollworm  

PubMed Central

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-01-01

253

Nitrogen pink afterglow: the mystery continues Vasco Guerra1, Paulo A. Sa2 and Jorge Loureiro1  

E-print Network

Nitrogen pink afterglow: the mystery continues Vasco Guerra1, Paulo A. S´a2 and Jorge Loureiro1 1@ist.utl.pt Abstract. This work extends our previous analysis of the nitrogen pink afterglow, by comparing our model. As singlet N2(a 1 - u ) metastables play a crucial role in nitrogen ionization, the new results imply

Guerra, Vasco

254

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in off- shore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth

G. T. Ruggerone; M. Zimmermann; K. W. Myers; J. L. Nielsen; D. E. Rogers

2003-01-01

255

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

256

Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

257

Investigation of the microbial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under differing conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

258

In Vitro multiple shoot induction and plant regeneraton from shoot apex of Hibiscus actosella Welw. ex. Hiern  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration was achieved from shoot apices in two Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern variants by using the growth regulators thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N’-1,2,3-thidazol-5-ylurea, TDZ) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) and growing shoot apices for 30 days in 21 different media...

259

Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on Wound Healing Activity: A Preclinical Study in a Sprague Dawley Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa sinensis (H rosa sinensis), a plant product, has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases as well as to promote wound healing. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis flower was determined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models and is presented in this report. The animals were

B. Shivananda Nayak; S. Sivachandra Raju; F. A. Orette; A. V. Chalapathi Rao

2007-01-01

260

Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) with regard to protection of LDL oxidation in vivo and ex vivo in rats made hypercholesterolemic by continuous cholesterol feeding. Administering the dried calyx extracts of roselle at doses of 500 and 1000mg\\/kg together with continuous cholesterol feeding to hypercholesterolemic rats for

Vilasinee Hirunpanich; Anocha Utaipat; Noppawan Phumala Morales; Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara; Hitoshi Sato; Angkana Herunsale; Chuthamanee Suthisisang

2006-01-01

261

Physical and histochemical properties of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown under water deficit on a sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water deficit on the physical and histochemical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) relevant to pulp and paper production were investigated. The plants were grown on a loose-textured sandy soil in the greenhouse at CERAAS, Bambey, Sénégal. Three watering regimes representing well watered control, moderate stress and severe stress were imposed on the plants. Each watering treatment

C. I Ogbonnaya; H Roy-Macauley; M. C Nwalozie; D. J. M Annerose

1997-01-01

262

The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet supplementation and\\/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral

R. Beltrán-Debón; C. Alonso-Villaverde; G. Aragonès; I. Rodríguez-Medina; A. Rull; V. Micol; A. Segura-Carretero; A. Fernández-Gutiérrez; J. Camps; J. Joven

2010-01-01

263

Changes in total phenolic and monomeric anthocyanin composition and antioxidant activity of three varieties of sorrel ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) during maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three varieties of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) were analyzed for total phenolic, monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity at five stages of maturity. The varieties designated traditional red (TRED), early bearing red (ERED) and white (WHTE) were sampled at the pre-flowering stage, as well as 3 days, 7 days, 21 days and 35 days after flowering. The total phenolic composition ranged from

Keisha R. Christian; José C. Jackson

2009-01-01

264

Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8?mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0?mg/L BAP + 3.0?mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

265

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

266

Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

267

In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

2009-01-01

268

Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time, and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato, primarily incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato growing regions of the world including North America. The principal mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protec...

269

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

270

The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

2005-01-01

271

The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

2012-08-01

272

Sustained susceptibility of Pink Bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producin...

273

Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Cotton: Still Rare After All These Years.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins reduce reliance on insecticides, but evolution of resistance by pests could cut short their usefulness. Pink bollworm is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. Unexpectedly...

274

Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants  

PubMed Central

Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups. PMID:24031182

Balachandar, D.; Raja, P.; Sundaram, SP.

2008-01-01

275

Financial Aid White-Residential Life Yellow-Financial Aid Pink-Bursar Gold-Student  

E-print Network

Financial Aid White- Residential Life Yellow- Financial Aid Pink- Bursar Gold- Student 1/14/2014 ANTICIPATED FINANCIAL AID VERIFICATION FORM FOR THE NEW YORKER RESIDENCY Student Information (Please print: _______________________________ Date: _________________ Anticipated Financial Aid Information (To be completed by Financial Aid) Type

Rosen, Jay

276

TRANSGENIC COMPARISONS OF PINK BOLLWORM EFFICACY AND RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifteen lines from 3 different cotton families were compared. Each family had a conventional, non-transgenic standard, as well as 4 other transgenic lines. Each Bt line was evaluated for this trait's efficacy in controlling pink bollworm under high pressure, artificial infestations. Various agronomi...

277

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp,  

E-print Network

DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, IN PAVLOF BAY, ALASKA W. D. ALBERS AND P. J. ANDERSON! ABSTRACf Analysis of 455 Pacific cod more frequently with increasing cod size (30-69 cm fork length). Euphausids decreased in frequency

278

76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XA803 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2011-11-10

279

78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XC965 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

2013-11-18

280

Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.  

PubMed

Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

2014-10-01

281

Dealing with Prejudice and Conflict in the Classroom: The Pink Triangle Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a class exercise designed to confront homophobic attitudes. Students wear pink triangles to identify with gay/lesbian prejudice and peer pressures. Explores social conflict, prejudice, and oppression using conflict management techniques. Includes excerpts from students writing assignments and finds fear of being stigmatized pervades…

Chesler, Mark A.; Zuniga, Ximena

1991-01-01

282

ORIGINAL PAPER Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Age bias in the bag of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus: influence of flocking in the hunting bag is consistently higher than that observed in the autumn population. Such juvenile bias in the bag is usually ascribed to young geese lacking experience with hunting or disruption of juveniles from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

284

Grizzly bear use of pink hedysarum roots following shrubland fire in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hedysarum (Hedysarum spp.) roots are a major food for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) over much of their Canadian and Alaskan range. In Banff National Park, grizzly bears typically dig roots of pink hedysarum (H. alpinum) in willow (Salix glauca, S. farriae) - dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa) shrubland. This shrubland type often burned in the past, but the effects of shrubland

Ian Pengelly; David Hamer

2006-01-01

285

The Mouse PinkEyed Dilution Gene: Association with Human Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA clones from the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of mouse chromosome 7 were isolated from murine melanoma and melanocyte libraries. The transcript from this gene is missing or altered in six independent mutant alleles of the p locus, suggesting that disruption of this gene results in the hypopigmentation phenotype that defines mutant p alleles. Characterization of the human homolog

John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Yoichi Gondo; Susan Lee; Mary F. Lyon; Richard A. King; Murray H. Brilliant

1992-01-01

286

TRANSGENIC COTTON: THE QUANDRY OF PINK BOLLWORM RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES GROWING AREAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The introduction of genetically modified cottons into agroecosystems in the SW US has revolutionized pink bollworm (PBW). PBW was first noted in the US from Mexico in TX cotton in 1917. Eradication of early infestations was followed by reinfestation in the lower Rio Grande Valley in 1936 and spread ...

287

Relationship Between Pink Eye Symptoms and Cell Damage in the Tuber Periderm and Cortex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink eye (PE) is a tuber disorder that leads to processing complications and bud-end rot in storage. Despite the significance of PE for the potato processing industry, limited progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis of this disorder. Although the internal autofluorescence tha...

288

THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON  

EPA Science Inventory

The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

289

White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.  

PubMed

In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking). PMID:24468979

Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

2014-05-01

290

PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity  

PubMed Central

Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/?) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/?, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

2014-01-01

291

Parkinson Phenotype in Aged PINK1-Deficient Mice Is Accompanied by Progressive Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Absence of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. Methodology/Principal Findings Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of ?-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. Conclusion Thus, aging Pink1?/? mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death. PMID:19492057

Gispert, Suzana; Ricciardi, Filomena; Kurz, Alexander; Azizov, Mekhman; Hoepken, Hans-Hermann; Becker, Dorothea; Voos, Wolfgang; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E.; Kudin, Alexei P.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Zimmermann, Annabelle; Roeper, Jochen; Wenzel, Dirk; Jendrach, Marina; García-Arencíbia, Moisés; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Huber, Leslie; Rohrer, Hermann; Barrera, Miguel; Reichert, Andreas S.; Rüb, Udo; Chen, Amy; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Auburger, Georg

2009-01-01

292

Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson’s disease  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction on loss of Pink1 as a central mechanism of PD pathogenesis. Here we show that global analysis of transcriptional changes in Drosophila pink1 mutants reveals an upregulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, critical for neuronal mitochondrial DNA synthesis. These key transcriptional changes were also detected in brains of PD patients harbouring PINK1 mutations. We demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the nucleotide salvage pathway in neurons of pink1 mutant flies rescues mitochondrial impairment. In addition, pharmacological approaches enhancing nucleotide pools reduce mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Pink1 deficiency. We conclude that loss of Pink1 evokes the activation of a previously unidentified metabolic reprogramming pathway to increase nucleotide pools and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. PMID:24441527

Tufi, Roberta; Gandhi, Sonia; de Castro, Inês P.; Lehmann, Susann; Angelova, Plamena R.; Dinsdale, David; Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Hélène; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Willis, Anne E.; Mallucci, Giovanna R.; Loh, Samantha H. Y.; Martins, L. Miguel

2014-01-01

293

Rescue of PINK1 protein null-specific mitochondrial complex IV deficits by ginsenoside Re activation of nitric oxide signaling.  

PubMed

PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H

2012-12-28

294

Role of Glucose Metabolism and ATP in Maintaining PINK1 Levels during Parkin-mediated Mitochondrial Damage Responses.  

PubMed

Mutations in several genes, including PINK1 and Parkin, are known to cause autosomal recessive cases of Parkinson disease in humans. These genes operate in the same pathway and play a crucial role in mitochondrial dynamics and maintenance. PINK1 is required to recruit Parkin to mitochondria and initiate mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarization. In this study, we show that PINK1-dependent Parkin mitochondrial recruitment in response to global mitochondrial damage by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine (CCCP) requires active glucose metabolism. Parkin accumulation on mitochondria and subsequent Parkin-dependent mitophagy is abrogated in glucose-free medium or in the presence of 2-deoxy-d-glucose upon CCCP treatment. The defects in Parkin recruitment correlate with intracellular ATP levels and can be attributed to suppression of PINK1 up-regulation in response to mitochondria depolarization. Low levels of ATP appear to prevent PINK1 translation instead of affecting PINK1 mRNA expression or reducing its stability. Consistent with a requirement of ATP for elevated PINK1 levels and Parkin mitochondrial recruitment, local or individual mitochondrial damage via photoirradiation does not affect Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria as long as a pool of functional mitochondria is present in the photoirradiated cells even in glucose-free or 2-deoxy-d-glucose-treated conditions. Thus, our data identify ATP as a key regulator for Parkin mitochondrial translocation and sustaining elevated PINK1 levels during mitophagy. PINK1 functions as an AND gate and a metabolic sensor coupling biogenetics of cells and stress signals to mitochondria dynamics. PMID:25404737

Lee, Schuyler; Zhang, Conggang; Liu, Xuedong

2015-01-01

295

Rescue of PINK1 Protein Null-specific Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficits by Ginsenoside Re Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling*  

PubMed Central

PINK1, linked to familial Parkinson's disease, is known to affect mitochondrial function. Here we identified a novel regulatory role of PINK1 in the maintenance of complex IV activity and characterized a novel mechanism by which NO signaling restored complex IV deficiency in PINK1 null dopaminergic neuronal cells. In PINK1 null cells, levels of specific chaperones, including Hsp60, leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing (LRPPRC), and Hsp90, were severely decreased. LRPPRC and Hsp90 were found to act upstream of Hsp60 to regulate complex IV activity. Specifically, knockdown of Hsp60 resulted in a decrease in complex IV activity, whereas antagonistic inhibition of Hsp90 by 17-(allylamino) geldanamycin decreased both Hsp60 and complex IV activity. In contrast, overexpression of the PINK1-interacting factor LRPPRC augmented complex IV activity by up-regulating Hsp60. A similar recovery of complex IV activity was also induced by coexpression of Hsp90 and Hsp60. Drug screening identified ginsenoside Re as a compound capable of reversing the deficit in complex IV activity in PINK1 null cells through specific increases of LRPPRC, Hsp90, and Hsp60 levels. The pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Re could be reversed by treatment of the pan-NOS inhibitor l-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) and could also be reproduced by low-level NO treatment. These results suggest that PINK1 regulates complex IV activity via interactions with upstream regulators of Hsp60, such as LRPPRC and Hsp90. Furthermore, they demonstrate that treatment with ginsenoside Re enhances functioning of the defective PINK1-Hsp90/LRPPRC-Hsp60-complex IV signaling axis in PINK1 null neurons by restoring NO levels, providing potential for new therapeutics targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23144451

Kim, Kyung-Hee; Song, Karen; Yoon, Seung-Hee; Shehzad, Omer; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Son, Jin H.

2012-01-01

296

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri. PMID:23103459

Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

2013-01-15

297

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2013-01-01

298

Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

2008-08-01

299

Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.  

PubMed

In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3?- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13?-olide (1), 3?- acetoxy-11?,12?-epoxy-olean-28,13?-olide (2), 19?-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17?,19?-lupan-3?-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 ?M). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. PMID:24862067

Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

2014-09-01

300

Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

2006-12-01

301

PINK BOLLWORM AND TOBACCO BUDWORM, CABBAGE LOOPER AND BEET ARMYWORM LARVAL MORTALITIES FED ON BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS COTTON POLLENS AND PINK BOLLWORM ADULT MORTALITY FED ON SUCROSE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING CRY1AC TOXIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We fed pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), tobacco budworm (TBW) Heliothis virescens (L), cabbage looper (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), and beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), pollens from cottons containing the Bollgard (BG) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurst...

302

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

Chang, Y.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-D. [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

2005-06-15

303

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:15922006

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Chau-Jong

2005-06-15

304

Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis.  

PubMed

The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to possess anti-oxidative of activity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) by measuring their effects on LDL oxidation (in cell-free system) and anti-apoptotic abilities (in RAW264.7 cells). HAs have been tested in vitro examining their relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), Apo B fragmentation, thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. The anti-oxidative activity of HAs was defined by relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 2 mg/ml), fragmentation of Apo B (inhibition of 61% at 1mg/ml), and TBARS assay (IC(50): 0.46 mg/ml) in the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidize LDL. Furthermore, the addition of >0.1 mg/ml of HAs could scavenge over 95% of free DPPH radicals, HAs showed strong potential in inhibiting LDL oxidation induced by copper. In addition, to determine whether oxLDL-induced apoptosis in macrophages is inhibited by HAs, we studied the viability, morphology and caspase-3 expression of RAW 264.7 cells. MTT assay, Leukostate staining analysis and Western blotting reveals that HAs could inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis. According to these findings, we suggest that HAs may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophage apoptosis, serving as a chemopreventive agent. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:16473450

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Kai-Xun; Huang, An-Chung; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2006-07-01

305

Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review.  

PubMed

This article reviews the reported phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (English: roselle, red sorrel; Arabic: karkade), the calyces of which are used in many parts of the world to make cold and hot drinks. Nutritionally, these contain ascorbic acid (vitamin C). In folk medicine, the calyx extracts are used for the treatment of several complaints, including high blood pressure, liver diseases and fever. The pharmacological actions of the calyx extracts include strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. In rats and rabbits, the extract showed antihypercholesterolaemic, antinociceptive and antipyretic, but not antiinflammatory activities. In rat and man a strong antihypertensive action has been demonstrated. The effects of the calyx extracts on smooth muscles in vitro are variable, but they mostly inhibit the tone of the isolated muscles. In healthy men, consumption of H. sabdariffa has resulted in significant decreases in the urinary concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, citrate, tartrate, calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphate, but not oxalate. Oil extracted from the plant's seeds has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on some bacteria and fungi in vitro. The plant extracts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. The LD50 of H. sabdariffa calyx extract in rats was found to be above 5000 mg/kg. A single report has suggested that excessive doses for relatively long periods could have a deleterious effect on the testes of rats. In view of its reported nutritional and pharmacological properties and relative safety, H. sabdariffa and compounds isolated from it (for example, anthocyanins and Hibiscus protocatechuic acid) could be a source of therapeutically useful products. PMID:16106391

Ali, Badreldin H; Al Wabel, Naser; Blunden, Gerald

2005-05-01

306

Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ?20 to ?50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given that previously observed inter-decadal cycles of oceanic zooplankton abundance were climatically driven, exchange between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska may be an important process for effecting synoptic changes in marine populations of higher trophic levels, and thus an important consideration for climate-change models and scenarios.

Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

2008-05-01

307

A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.  

PubMed

A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

2014-01-01

308

Growth kinetics and efficacy as parameters for ranking and selecting biocontrol agents that reduce pink rot in stored potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased production of organic agricultural products and the relative ineffectiveness of traditional control measures support development of new biocontrol technologies for use against pink rot infections in storage. The microbiota of 84 different agricultural soils was individually transferred to...

309

The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 ?mol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, ?mol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to light quality appears to be controlled partly by the presence of leaves. The delay of bud

Meeteren van U; Gelder van A

2000-01-01

310

The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

1998-01-01

311

Characterization of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus) lignin by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers in order to clarify the chemical composition of in situ lignin. The core and bast samples obtained from the middle position of variety Chinpi-3 were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 4 s with TMAH. The core pyrogram revealed peaks retaining the structural attributes

Ken-ichi Kuroda; Akiko Izumi; Bibhuti B Mazumder; Yoshito Ohtani; Kazuhiko Sameshima

2002-01-01

312

Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies on thermal stability of anthocyanins isolated from the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) were carried out in aqueous solutions (55–98 °C), either as free or copigmented anthocyanins with chlorogenic acid, and in the dry state as free anthocyanins or co-lyophilized with an amorphous polysaccharide (pullulan) and stored in different relative humidity environments (water activities 0.33, 0.53, 0.75

G. Gradinaru; C. G. Biliaderis; S. Kallithraka; P. Kefalas; C. Garcia-Viguera

2003-01-01

313

In vitro culture of callus tissues and cell suspensions from okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton ( gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Methods are described for starting and maintaining callus-tissue cultures of twoMalvaceae, okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Okra callus was slow to initiate, but once started it was easy to maintain, in contrast to cotton, which was difficult\\u000a to initiate and grow. Different media were required to establish the two species. The inclusion of 5 mg per

David G. Davis; Kendall E. Dusbabek; Roland A. Hoerauf

1974-01-01

314

Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus attenuate oxidized LDL-mediated foam cell formation involving regulation of CD36 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent investigation highlighted that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a garden plant containing a lot of pigments, was demonstrated to inhibit LDL oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in high cholesterol-fed rabbits. In this study, we further evaluated the effect

Erl-Shyh Kao; Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Huei-Jane Lee; Kuei-Chuan Chan; Chau-Jong Wang

2009-01-01

315

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus) PULP AND NANOFIBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone) and three-stage bleaching (DEpD) processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high- pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and

Manjusri Misra

316

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

317

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We tested for competition,between,pink salmon,(Oncorhynchus,gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus,tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984–1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years experienced 59% lower survival

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

318

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

2013-01-01

319

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dp3-Sam could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60) as characterized by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP). Molecular data showed that Dp3-Sam induced Bid truncation, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) loss, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. Moreover, Dp3-Sam caused a time- and dose-dependent elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in HL-60 cells, and antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and catalase could effectively block Dp3-Sam-induced ROS generation, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation. These data indicate that Dp3-Sam might induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings enhance our understanding for anticancer function of Hibiscus anthocyanins in herbal medicine. PMID:16018963

Hou, De-Xing; Tong, Xuhui; Terahara, Norihiko; Luo, Dong; Fujii, Makoto

2005-08-01

320

Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

2000-01-01

321

The Pinking Shears: A Novel Tool for Improving Skin Graft Cosmesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: A significant aesthetic disadvantage to split skin grafts is the obvious transition between the graft and the normal skin. We report on a novel method to interrupt this transition point by using pinking shears, which are dressmaking scissors with saw-toothed blades that create a chevron pattern instead of a straight edge. We describe a case where the pinking shears were utilized on a split skin graft and Integra for reconstruction of the skin on a volar forearm. This technique allows for breaking-up of the transition point between the skin graft and normal skin and gives rise to an improved aesthetic outcome as the boundary is significantly less well-defined. This novel method shows promise and further study is certainly warranted. PMID:25587503

Joyce, Kenneth M.; Jones, Deirdre M.

2014-01-01

322

Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins. PMID:23626584

Trempe, Jean-François; Fon, Edward A.

2013-01-01

323

Effects of pink grapefruit juice on QT variability in patients with dilated or hypertensive cardiomyopathy and in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that pink grapefruit juice, which is a recommended dietary addition that contains high amounts of the antioxidant flavonoid naringenin, prolongs the corrected QT (QT(c)), a noninvasive electrophysiological marker of spatial myocardial repolarization, and does so by inhibiting the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K+ current (I(Kr)). Prompted by the observation that all class III antiarrhythmic drugs inhibit this current, thereby sometimes provoking torsades de pointes, we compared the effects of a liter of freshly squeezed pink grapefruit juice with those of 2 commonly used class III antiarrhythmics amiodarone and sotalol on the major noninvasive markers of temporal variability in myocardial repolarization used to stratify the risk of sudden death from malignant ventricular arrhythmias. In 32 subjects, 10 with postischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, 12 with hypertensive cardiomyopathy, and 10 healthy, we assessed QT(c) and QT variability index (QTVI) after administration of fresh pink grapefruit juice, placebo, amiodarone, or sotalol. After pink grapefruit juice and sotalol, all these indexes increased significantly from values observed after placebo (P<0.05) and from values after amiodarone (P<0.05). Conversely, after amiodarone, QT(c), but not QTVI, increased significantly from values after placebo (P<0.05). Presumably because of its high naringenin glycoside content, pink grapefruit juice prolongs cardiac repolarization and concurrently increases temporal cardiac repolarization dispersion. The potential proarrhythmic actions of pink grapefruit juice might be of concern in patients with major myocardial structural disorders. PMID:18433709

Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Magrì, Damiano; Matera, Sabrina; Magnanti, Marzia; Pasquazzi, Eleonora; Schifano, Erika; Velitti, Stefania; Mitra, Marilena; Marigliano, Vincenzo; Paroli, Marino; Ghiselli, Andrea

2008-05-01

324

UCP4A protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Genetic mutations in parkin or pink1 are the most common causes of familial Parkinson's disease. PINK1 and Parkin are components of a mitochondrial quality control pathway that degrades dysfunctional mitochondria via autophagy. Using a candidate gene approach, we discovered that overexpression of uncoupling protein 4A (ucp4A) suppresses a range of pink1 mutant phenotypes, including male sterility, locomotor defects, and muscle degeneration that result from abnormal mitochondrial morphology and function. Furthermore, UCP4A overexpression in pink1 mutants rescued mitochondria-specific phenotypes associated with mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, resistance to oxidative stress, efficiency of the electron transport chain, and mitochondrial morphology. Consistent with its role in protecting mitochondria, UCP4A rescued mitochondrial phenotypes of parkin mutant flies, as well. Finally, the genetic deletion of ucp4A resulted in increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, a phenotype that was enhanced by the loss of PINK1. Taken together, these results indicate that UCP4A prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and that modulation of UCP activity protects cells in a situation relevant for human Parkinson's disease.-Wu, K., Liu, J., Zhuang, N., Wang, T. UCP4A protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and degeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25145627

Wu, Kai; Liu, Jia; Zhuang, Na; Wang, Tao

2014-12-01

325

Bacterial Antagonists, Zoospore Inoculum Retention Time and Potato Cultivar Influence Pink Rot Disease Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoospores or germinating encysted zoospores of the pathogen Phytophthora erythroseptica can cause new infections via tuber eyes, lenticels and cracks and cuts that result from tuber harvesting operations; infection\\u000a courts that theoretically could be protected using microbial antagonists. Ten microbial antagonists that reduce Fusarium dry\\u000a rot, late blight and\\/or sprouting in storage were assayed for efficacy against pink rot on

David A. Schisler; Patricia J. Slininger; Jeff S. Miller; Lynn K. Woodell; Shane Clayson; Nora Olsen

2009-01-01

326

Upstream migration of adult chum and pink salmon in the Shibetsu River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migratory behavior and swimming patterns of anadromous upstream migratory fish have been poorly described in the Shibetsu\\u000a River in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. In this 2004 study, we used electromyogram (EMG) transmitters and depth\\/ temperature (DT)\\u000a loggers to compare the upstream migratory behavior of adult male chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) in the canalized and reconstructed

Y. Makiguchi; H. Nii; K. Nakao; H. Ueda

2007-01-01

327

Upstream migration of adult chum and pink salmon in the Shibetsu River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The migratory behavior and swimming patterns of anadromous upstream migratory fish have been poorly described in the Shibetsu\\u000a River in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. In this 2004 study, we used electromyogram (EMG) transmitters and depth\\/ temperature (DT)\\u000a loggers to compare the upstream migratory behavior of adult male chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) in the canalized and reconstructed

Y. Makiguchi; H. Nii; K. Nakao; H. Ueda

328

Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

Johnson, Fred A.

2013-01-01

329

Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival. PMID:22233513

Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

2012-02-01

330

Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. PMID:24743735

Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R

2014-01-01

331

Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh  

PubMed Central

Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500??m. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while ?34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to ?31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

2014-01-01

332

Hibiscus flower  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

333

Loss of PINK1 attenuates HIF-1? induction by preventing 4E-BP1-dependent switch in protein translation under hypoxia.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1(-/-) mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1? protein, HIF-1? transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1? pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress. PMID:24553947

Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R; Kang, Un Jung

2014-02-19

334

PINK1 and Parkin Control Localized Translation of Respiratory Chain Component mRNAs on Mitochondria Outer Membrane.  

PubMed

Mitochondria play essential roles in many aspects of biology, and their dysfunction has been linked to diverse diseases. Central to mitochondrial function is oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), accomplished by respiratory chain complexes (RCCs) encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. How RCC biogenesis is regulated in metazoans is poorly understood. Here we show that Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated genes PINK1 and Parkin direct localized translation of certain nuclear-encoded RCC (nRCC) mRNAs. Translationally repressed nRCC mRNAs are localized in a PINK1/Tom20-dependent manner to mitochondrial outer membrane, where they are derepressed and activated by PINK1/Parkin through displacement of translation repressors, including Pumilio and Glorund/hnRNP-F, a Parkin substrate, and enhanced binding of activators such as eIF4G. Inhibiting the translation repressors rescued nRCC mRNA translation and neuromuscular-degeneration phenotypes of PINK1 mutant, whereas inhibiting eIF4G had opposite effects. Our results reveal previously unknown functions of PINK1/Parkin in RNA metabolism and suggest new approaches to mitochondrial restoration and disease intervention. PMID:25565208

Gehrke, Stephan; Wu, Zhihao; Klinkenberg, Michael; Sun, Yaping; Auburger, Georg; Guo, Su; Lu, Bingwei

2015-01-01

335

Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.  

PubMed

The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

2015-01-01

336

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

2012-01-01

337

Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-03-01

338

Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.  

PubMed

Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25477650

Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

2014-12-01

339

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ? 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum ?-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24549255

Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-04-01

340

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

2012-12-01

341

Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

2014-01-01

342

Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in-vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Hibiscus leaf.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and the water-to-raw material ratio on extraction yield of crude polysaccharide from the leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRLP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize HRLP extraction yield by implementing the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of HRLP were: ultrasonic power, 93.59W; extraction time, 25.71min; extraction temperature, 93.18°C; and the water to raw material ratio, 24.3mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 9.66±0.18%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 9.526%. The results demonstrated that HRLP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:25150112

Afshari, Kasra; Samavati, Vahid; Shahidi, Seyed-Ahmad

2014-08-19

343

Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal salt and extract in the reaction medium. Variation of pH of the reaction medium gives silver nanoparticles of different shapes. The nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the fcc structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes, bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. From FTIR spectra it is found that the Au nanoparticles are bound to amine groups and the Ag nanoparticles to carboxylate ion groups.

Philip, Daizy

2010-03-01

344

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

2014-05-01

345

Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).  

PubMed

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf. PMID:25342553

Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

2014-01-01

346

Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

2009-01-01

347

[Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].  

PubMed

A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. PMID:23755502

Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

2013-03-01

348

Mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in both humans and experimental animals. To explore the mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of the HS, we examined the effects of a crude methanolic extract of the calyces of HS (HSE) on vascular reactivity in isolated aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats. HSE relaxed, concentration-dependently, KCl (high K(+), 80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-pre-contracted aortic rings, with a greater potency against the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist. The relaxant effect of HSE was partly dependent on the presence of a functional endothelium as the action was significantly reduced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pretreatment with atropine (1 microM), L-NAME (10 microM) or methylene blue (10 microM), but not indomethacin (10 microM), significantly blocked the relaxant effects of HSE. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were significantly enhanced in aortic rings pretreated with HSE when compared to those observed in control aortic rings. The present results demonstrated that HSE has a vasodilator effect in the isolated aortic rings of hypertensive rats. These effects are probably mediated through the endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway and inhibition of calcium (Ca(2+))-influx into vascular smooth muscle cells. The present data further supports previous in vivo findings and the traditional use of HS as an anti-hypertensive agent. PMID:16973321

Ajay, M; Chai, H J; Mustafa, A M; Gilani, A H; Mustafa, M R

2007-02-12

349

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, is usually used effectively in native medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, and liver disorders. Here, we report an extract, HSE (H. sabdariffa extract), which is designed to exhibit hypolipidemia and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. New Zealand White rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3%), lard oil (3%) diet (HCD) with or without 0.5 or 1% HSE for 10 weeks. The levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in the serum of rabbits fed HCD plus HSE than in the serum of rabbits fed HCD. Feeding HSE (0.5 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Histopathological examination showed that HSE reduced foam cell formation and inhibited smooth muscle cell migration and calcification in the blood vessel of rabbits. These results suggest that HSE inhibits serum lipids and shows an antiatherosclerotic activity. PMID:12926900

Chen, Chang-Che; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Wang, San-Fa; Chiang, Huei-Ching; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Ho, Yung-Chyan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2003-08-27

350

Polyphenols of Hibiscus sabdariffa improved diabetic nephropathy via attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

We previously reported that Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenol extracts (HPE) are beneficial for diabetic nephropathy. Since an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in renal fibrosis, the present study aimed to investigate whether HPE could prevent EMT of tubular cells. Treatment of HPE reduced angiotensin II receptors (AT)-1 and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) evoked by high glucose and recovered the increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin. HPE decreased fibronectin, thus avoiding EMT and accompanying fibrosis. AT-1 was upstream to TGF-?1, while there were recruitment signals between AT-1 and TGF-?1. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the interacting filaments of tubular cells disappeared when treated with high glucose, and type IV collagen of tubulointerstitial decreased in diabetic kidneys. Treatment of HPE recovered morphological changes of cell junction and basement membrane. We suggest that HPE has the potential to be an adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy by regulating AT-1/TGF-?1 and EMT. PMID:23848500

Yang, Yi-Sun; Wang, Chau-Jong; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chen, Mu-Lin; Chen, Ming-Jinn; Peng, Chiung-Huei

2013-08-01

351

Notable pink excreta and severe myocardial suppression in superwarfarin (difethialone) intoxication.  

PubMed

Patients rarely consult physicians before developing coagulopathy or bleeding in most reported cases of superwarfarin intoxication. A 57-year-old woman ingested red-dyed pellets of anticoagulant rodenticide containing difethialone and warfarin as well as tablets of nitrazepam. Although she presented to the hospital in a comatose state, notable pink-colored excreta hinted at the consumption of anticoagulant rodenticide, which led to the early diagnosis of superwarfarin intoxication. Supplementation of large doses of intravenous and oral vitamin K successfully prevented coagulopathy and bleeding. On the other hand, temporary and reversible myocardial suppression was extremely severe, and required the introduction of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. PMID:22082896

Kamijo, Yoshito; Sato, Chie; Yoshimura, Kuniko; Soma, Kazui

2011-01-01

352

Effect of respiratory exercises on asthma. The Pink City lung exerciser.  

PubMed

Twelve subjects with mild asthmatic episodes in the form of nocturnal precipitation were studied. A two-week schedule of placebo administration, pranayamic breathing exercises using a Pink City lung exerciser alone, and exercises using the lung exerciser with hot, humid air were performed. Five of the 12 asthmatics showed highly significant increases in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) with the lung exerciser alone, while eight of the 12 cases showed highly significant increases in PEFR with exercise using hot, humid air. The frequency of nocturnal wheezing also declined. It can be inferred that slow breathing alone and in combination with hot, humid air has a nonspecific bronchoprotective or bronchorelaxing effect. PMID:3443597

Singh, V

1987-01-01

353

Radiation effect on thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of pink beryl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morganite, a pink beryl with the chemical formula Be 3Al 2Si 6O 18, was investigated in terms of its thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties due to point defects. Atomic hydrogen H°-centers were induced by ?-radiation and shown to be responsible for a 165°C TL peak. The Fe 3+-center concentration was found to increase with ?-dose, observed by both TL and EPR measurements, decreasing with thermal treatments beyond 250°C. A mechanism for emission around 315°C is proposed.

Ayala-Arenas, Jorge S.; Andrioli, Reneu L.; Watanabe, S.; Matsuoka, M.; Bhatt, B. C.

2001-06-01

354

Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

2003-01-01

355

PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

2013-01-01

356

Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.  

PubMed

Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and ?-carotene contents increased (P?pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration. PMID:25114339

Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

2014-08-01

357

Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Myers, K.W.; Farley, E.V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.

2005-01-01

358

Assessment of the phototoxicity of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to juvenile pink salmon.  

PubMed

Petroleum products are known to have greater toxicity to the translucent embryos and larvae of aquatic organisms in the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UV) compared to toxicity determined in tests performed under standard laboratory lighting with minimal UV. This study assessed the acute phototoxicity of the water accommodated fractions of weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANS) to juvenile pink salmon, which are a heavily pigmented life stage. Fish in the highest ANS treatments exhibited melanosis, less mobility, reduced startle response, erratic swimming, and loss of equilibrium. Gills from fish exposed to ANS had elevated levels of hydroperoxides in oil-only, UV-only, and oil+UV treatments compared to control fish, which was indicative of increased lipid peroxidation in gill tissue. Under the test conditions of moderate salinity, low UV and high short-term oil exposure there were no indications of photoenhanced toxicity as assessed by elevation of mortality, behavioral impairment, or gill lipid peroxidation in oil+UV treatments. The results of this study suggest that pink salmon may be at less risk from photoenhanced toxicity compared to the translucent early-life stages of several other Alaska species. PMID:15910909

Barron, Mace G; Carls, Mark G; Short, Jeffrey W; Rice, Stanley D; Heintz, Ron A; Rau, Michelle; Di Giulio, Richard

2005-06-01

359

Transgenic potatoes expressing a novel cationic peptide are resistant to late blight and pink rot.  

PubMed

Potato is the world's largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy for disease control has become an international imperative. Here we describe a strategy for engineering potato plants exhibiting strong protection against these exceptionally virulent pathogens without deleterious effects on plant yield or vigor. The small, naturally occurring antimicrobial cationic peptide, temporin A, was N-terminally modified (MsrA3) and expressed in potato plants. MsrA3 conveyed strong resistance to late blight and pink rot phytopathogens in addition to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. Transgenic tubers remained disease-free during storage for more than 2 years. These results provide a timely, sustainable, effective, and environmentally friendly means of control of potato diseases while simultaneously preventing storage losses. PMID:15198205

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

2004-04-01

360

APTITUD COMBINATORIA Y HETEROSIS EN UN CRUZAMIENTO DIALÉLICO EN JAMAICA (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) P. G. Ruelas-Hernández; F. de J. Caro-Velarde ¶  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diallel cross among three jamaica genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was carried out to estimate combining ability and heterosis. The evaluation was conducted during the fall growing season 2004 in Xalisco, Nayarit; 13 traits were evaluated. The analyses for general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) showed that both additive and non-additive effects were important. The most important

R. Pérez; R. Valdivia-Bernal

2008-01-01

361

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

2003-01-01

362

Effect of potassium on drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun: Plant growth, leaf macro- and micronutrient content and root longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition for the limited water supply available for irrigation of horticultural crops increases, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance, plant water-use efficiency and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv.

Jonathan N. Egilla; Fred T. Davies; Malcolm C. Drew

2001-01-01

363

Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa with captopril, a controlled and randomized clinical trial was done. Patients from 30 to 80 years old with diagnosed hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before were included. The experimental procedure consisted of the administration of an infusion prepared with

A. Herrera-Arellano; S. Flores-Romero; M. A Chávez-Soto; J Tortoriello

2004-01-01

364

Effects of an aqueous extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus, Dicliptera verticillata on some physiological and biochemical parameters of reproduction in immature female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different doses of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus and Dicliptera verticillata, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or infertility in women, were given daily to 22 day old rats for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days by gastric intubation. At the end of each experimental period, the

P. B Telefo; P. F Moundipa; A. N Tchana; C Tchouanguep Dzickotze; F. T Mbiapo

1998-01-01

365

An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. METHODS: The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg\\/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract

Rebecca Kuriyan; Divya R Kumar; Rajendran R; Anura V Kurpad

2010-01-01

366

Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

367

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

368

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism. PMID:12228601

Fromm, J.; Hajirezaei, M.; Wilke, I.

1995-01-01

369

Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product  

PubMed Central

The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

2014-01-01

370

Native Lygus spp. (Heteroptera: Miridae) damaging introduced Hibiscus cannabinus in Italy.  

PubMed

Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L, an introduced tropical fiber crop, is attacked in central Italy by the native mirid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and L. pratensis (L.), thus establishing novel insect-plant associations. Feeding by Lygus bugs damages the apical meristem, with consequent development of secondary stems and leaf tattering. In a laboratory experiment, both species caused apical meristem damage on potted kenaf. In a field experiment with caged plots, the percentage of damaged plants was significantly higher in plots artificially infested with multiple releases of Lygus spp. compared with a single release and with the protected control without Lygus spp. In naturally infested control plots, the percentage of damaged plants was intermediate. Plant height decreased as a function of the number of damaged meristems. Mean plant height was significantly lower in the multiple-release treatment compared with the single-release treatment and the protected control. Dry biomass was significantly lower in the multiple-release plots compared with the protected control, and intermediate in the single-release plots. In a field experiment with three kenaf cultivars naturally infested by Lygus spp., plant height and stem diameter were significantly lower in damaged plants compared with healthy plants. Dry weights of plants, stems, and basts were also lower, depending on the cultivar, whereas the bast/core ratio was not affected. Stem lesions developed due to feeding or incisions made by ovipositing females. Lesions and eggs were significantly more abundant on plants with damaged apical meristems compared with healthy plants. Damage mechanisms by Lygus spp. and consequences of new crop introductions are discussed. PMID:11425019

Conti, E; Bin, F

2001-06-01

371

Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to ECMWF analysis. The mesoscale model performs significantly better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The improvement provided by the mesoscale model for water vapour comes mainly from (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS (250 m for BRAMS and ~1 km for ECMWF model) and (ii) the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour in the UTLS. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, ECMWF analysis gives good results partly thanks to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that in undersaturated layers, the water vapour profile depends mainly on the dynamics. In saturated/supersaturated layers, microphysical processes play an important role and have to be taken into account on top of the dynamical processes to understand the water vapour profiles. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly dryer than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

2006-08-01

372

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

373

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300??g/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75??g/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300??g/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16?g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5?mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5?mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5?mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3?mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

2010-01-01

374

Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

2014-01-01

375

The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans.  

PubMed

Diet supplementation and/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cellular death induced by H(2)O(2) and a significant role in the production of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, the extract promotes the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreases the concentration of MCP-1 in supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. In humans, the ingestion of an acute dose of the extract (10g) was well tolerated and decreased plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly without further effects on other cytokines. This effect was not due to a concomitant increase in the antioxidant capacity of plasma. Instead, its mechanisms probably involve a direct inhibition of inflammatory and/or metabolic pathways responsible for MCP-1 production, and may be relevant in inflammatory and chronic conditions in which the role of MCP-1 is well established. If beneficial effects are confirmed in patients, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be considered a valuable traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with the advantage of being devoid of caloric value or potential alcohol toxicity. PMID:19765963

Beltrán-Debón, R; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Aragonès, G; Rodríguez-Medina, I; Rull, A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Camps, J; Joven, J

2010-03-01

376

Fermentation behavior of osmophilic yeast Candida tropicalis isolated from the nectar of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers for xylitol production.  

PubMed

Eighteen yeast species belonging to seven genera were isolated from ten samples of nectar from Hibiscus rosa sinensis and investigated for xylitol production using D-xylose as sole carbon source. Amongst these isolates, no. 10 was selected as the best xylitol producer and identified as Candida tropicalis on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 26S rDNA sequencing. C. tropicalis produced 12.11 gl(-1) of xylitol in presence of 50 gl(-1) of xylose in 72 h at pH 5, 30°C and 200 rpm. The strain of C. tropicalis obtained through xylose enrichment technique has resulted in a yield of 0.5 gg(-1) with a xylitol volumetric productivity of 1.07 gl(-1)h(-1) in the presence of 300 gl(-1) of xylose through batch fermentation. This organism has been reported for the first time from Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers. Realizing, the importance of this high valued compound, as a sugar substitute, xylose enrichment technique was developed in order to utilize even higher concentrations of xylose as substrate for maximum xylitol production. PMID:21956659

Misra, Swati; Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Gupta, Pritesh; Dutt, Kakoli; Saxena, R K

2012-02-01

377

Effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract induces apoptosis of proliferating smooth muscle cell via activation of P38 MAPK and p53 pathway.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in Sudan and in eastern Taiwan. It has been reported to contain a number of protocatechuic acid and anthocyanins. In vitro experimental studies have shown that anthocyanins administration of the extract produces anti-inflammation and chemoprevention effects. In spite of the wide use of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in folk medicine for treating various diseases, our previous study indicated a potency of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in anti-atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of anthocyanins administration of the extract produce from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to attenuate atherosclerosis were not clarified. In this study, we found that Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) could inhibit the serum-stimulated proliferation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and result in cell apoptosis. The HAs inducing cell apoptosis was dose dependent. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) to block cellular apoptosis and evaluate its effect on the HAs-inducing SMC death via some apoptosis criteria including DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. We suggested that the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of HAs on atherosclerosis could be via inhibiting the proliferation of SMC. HAs induces apoptosis via (i) activating p38 MAP kinase that subsequently phosphorylates target protein c-Jun and transduces the signal to further activate the apoptotic protein cascades that contain Fas-mediated signaling (Fas/caspase-8 signaling module) and (ii) activating p53 and inducing bax expression. As an outcome of the events, cytochrome c releases from the mitochondria, leading to cell apoptosis. In these experiments, HAs showed strong potential to induce SMC cell apoptosis via p38 and p53 pathway. In consequence, the rate of atherosclerotic formation is slowed down, and the progress is suppressed. PMID:18030661

Lo, Chia-Wen; Huang, Hui-Pei; Lin, Hui-Mei; Chien, Cheng-Ting; Wang, Chau-Jong

2007-12-01

378

From Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity  

E-print Network

From Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity social cognition and social develop- ment. We argue that this identity shift involves the emergence to social identity theory, individuals seeking to maximize their self-esteem may move from identifying

379

Differential rejection of salmon lice by pink and chum salmon: disease consequences and expression of proinflammatory genes.  

PubMed

The consequences of high (735 copepodids fish-1) and low (243 copepodids fish-1) level exposures of size-matched juvenile pink and chum salmon to Lepeophtheirus salmonis copepodids were examined. At both levels of exposure the prevalence and abundance of L. salmonis was significantly higher on chum salmon. In addition, the weight of exposed chum salmon following the high exposure was significantly less than that of unexposed chum salmon. At both exposures, the haematocrit of exposed chum salmon was significantly less than that of unexposed chum. Neither weight nor haematocrit of pink salmon was affected by exposures at these levels. Despite the presence of microscopic inflammatory lesions associated with attachment of L. salmonis on the epithelium of gill and fin of both salmon species, there were no mortalities following either exposure. A transient cortisol response was observed in chum salmon 21 d after low exposure. An earlier and quantitatively higher expression of the proinflammatory genes interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor alpha-1 (TNFalpha-1) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in fin and head kidney of pink salmon suggested a mechanism of more rapid louse rejection in this species. Together, these observations indicate a relatively enhanced innate resistance to L. salmonis in the juvenile pink salmon compared with the juvenile chum salmon. PMID:17629118

Jones, Simon R M; Fast, Mark D; Johnson, Stewart C; Groman, David B

2007-05-01

380

Selection and Evaluation of Microbial Strains with Potential for Biologically Controlling Pink Rot of Potatoes Incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selection and evaluation of microbial strains with potential for biologically controlling pink rot of potatoes in storage. T.A.Koltuksuz1, D.A. Schisler2, J.M. Sloan2 and P.J. Slininger2 1Visiting Scientist, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL 61604 ...

381

Certain factors involved in the larval diapause and its termination in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders  

E-print Network

(~~ggitkg (Say) by de Wilde (1953), gggggg ~ by Feria and Jenner (1959), and the pink bollworm by Bull and Adkisson (1960) and Lukefabr (1961). Way gL IW(. (19/9) observ- ed that the inoidence of diapause could be altered by varying the dsy length through...

Wellso, Stanley Gordon

2012-06-07

382

GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA FOR REDUCING PINK ROT, DRY ROT, LATE BLIGHT, AND SPROUTING ON POTATO TUBERS IN STORAGE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink rot of potato, incited primarily by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is a disease of importance in many potato-growing regions of the world including North America. The primary mode of entry by the pathogen into tubers in storage is via wounds or eyes; surfaces that theoretically could be protecte...

383

Identification of a Melanosomal Membrane Protein Encoded by the PinkEyed Dilution (Type II Oculocutaneous Albinism) Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in the mouse is critical to melanogenesis; mutations in the homologous locus in humans, P, are a cause of type II oculocutaneous albinism. Although a cDNA encoded by the p gene has recently been identified, nothing is known about the protein product of this gene. To characterize the protein encoded by the p gene, we

Susana Rosemblat; Donna Durham-Pierre; John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Murray H. Brilliant; Seth J. Orlow

1994-01-01

384

First report of major histocompatibility complex class II loci from the Amazon pink river dolphin (genus Inia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB1 sequences for the two species of pink river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis) inhabiting the Amazon and Orinoco River basins. These sequences were found to be polymorphic within the Inia genus and showed shared homology with cetacean DQB- 1 sequences, especially, those of the Monodontidae and Phocoenidae. On the other

M. Martínez-Agüero; S. Flores-Ramírez; M. Ruiz-García

2006-01-01

385

Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations.  

PubMed

High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids. PMID:25523173

Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, Ma; Ravi, Kc; Suresh, Pj; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

2014-10-01

386

‘We want to see something different (but not too different)’: spatial politics and the Pink Loerie Mardi Gras in Knysna  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the role of sexual orientation in the social transmutation of space, thereby illustrating how certain landscapes, generally characterised by heteronormativity, are queered by cultural phenomena such as the Pink Loerie Mardi Gras (PLMG) in Knysna. It is, however, not the intent of this article to describe the processes of producing queer space in a ‘celebratory’ tone only,

Theo Sonnekus

2010-01-01

387

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since a number of studies have recently examined pink salmon interactions with other salmon, we reviewed them in an effort to describe patterns of interaction over broad regions of the ocean. Research consistently indicated that pink salmon significantly altered prey abundance of other salmon species (e.g., zooplankton, squid), leading to altered diet, reduced total prey consumption and growth, delayed maturation, and reduced survival, depending on species and locale. Reduced survival was observed in chum salmon (O. keta) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) originating from Puget Sound and in Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Growth of pink salmon was not measurably affected by other salmon species, but their growth was sometimes inversely related to their own abundance. In all marine studies, pink salmon affected other species through exploitation of prey resources rather than interference. Interspecific competition was observed in nearshore and offshore waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, and one study documented competition between species originating from different continents. Climate change had variable effects on competition. In the North Pacific Ocean, competition was observed before and after the ocean regime shift in 1977 that significantly altered abundances of many marine species, whereas a study in the Pacific Northwest reported a shift from predation- to competition-based mortality in response to the 1982/1983 El Nino. Key traits of pink salmon that influenced competition with other salmonids included great abundance, high consumption rates and rapid growth, degree of diet overlap or consumption of lower trophic level prey, and early migration timing into the ocean. The consistent pattern of findings from multiple regions of the ocean provides evidence that interspecific competition can significantly influence salmon population dynamics and that pink salmon may be the dominant competitor among salmon in marine waters. ?? Springer 2005.

Ruggerone, G.T.; Nielsen, J.L.

2004-01-01

388

76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...relatively large and easily seen during inspection. In addition to causing obvious damage, Maconellicoccus hirsutus is a pink hibiscus mealy bug whose grayish-pink bodies are covered with mealy white wax and with white wax filaments projecting from the...

2011-03-25

389

Iodine-xenon studies of Allende inclusions - Eggs and the Pink Angel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The I-Xe systems of six Allende inclusions (five Eggs and the Pink Angel) appear to have been altered by nonnebular secondary processes. Evidence for this includes temperature-ordered variations in the initial I isotopic composition within several objects (with older apparent I-Xe ages associated with higher extraction temperatures) and the absence of primitive I-Xe ages. The span of apparent ages seen in Allende objects (10 Myr or more) is probably too long to reflect any nebular process, so at least some alteration probably occurred ont the parent body. The range in initial (Pu-244)/(U-238) ratios for the Eggs (0.003-0.014) includes the current best estimates of the bulk solar system value (0.004-0.007). For Egg 3, the Pu/U ratio varies by a factor of two between extractions, probably the result of fractionation of Pu from U among different phases.

Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

1988-01-01

390

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton. [Southern California deserts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The main objective is to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used for crop identification. The status of each field (i.e., crop, bare, harvested, wet, plowed) is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground survey information taken at the time of ERTS-1 overflights. A computer analysis has been performed to compare field and satellite data to a crop calendar. Correlation to data has been 97% for field condition. Actual crop identification varies; cotton identification is only 63% due to lack of full season coverage.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

1973-01-01

391

Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii) to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly drier than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

2007-03-01

392

The length of an internal poly(A) tract of hibiscus latent Singapore virus is crucial for its replication.  

PubMed

Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) mutants were constructed to study roles of its internal poly(A) tract (IPAT) in viral replication and coat protein (CP) expression. Shortening of the IPAT resulted in reduced HLSV RNA accumulation and its minimal length required for HLSV CP expression in plants was 24nt. Disruption of a putative long range RNA-RNA interacting structure between 5' and 3' untranslated regions of HLSV-22A and -24A resulted in reduced viral RNA and undetectable CP accumulation in inoculated leaves. Replacement of the IPAT in HLSV with an upstream pseudoknot domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or insertion of the UPD to the immediate downstream of a 24nt IPAT in HLSV resulted in drastically reduced viral RNA replication. Plants infected with a TMV mutant by replacement of the UPD with 43nt IPAT exhibited milder mosaic symptoms without necrosis. We have proposed a model for HLSV replication. PMID:25463604

Niu, Shengniao; Cao, Shishu; Huang, Li-Jing; Tan, Kelvin Chee-Leong; Wong, Sek-Man

2015-01-01

393

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

2009-01-01

394

Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens implicated in foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover natural antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial plant extract-concentrate formulations on four types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. enterica serovar Newport. The leafy greens tested included organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic adult and baby spinach. Each leaf sample was washed, dip inoculated with Salmonella Newport (10(6) CFU/ml), and dried. Apple and olive extract formulations were prepared at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations, and hibiscus concentrates were prepared at 10, 20, and 30%. Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 2 min and individually incubated at 4°C. After incubation, samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity was both concentration and time dependent. Olive extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity, resulting in 2- to 3-log CFU/g reductions for each concentration and type of leafy green by day 3. Apple extract showed 1- to 2-log CFU/g reductions by day 3 on various leafy greens. Hibiscus concentrate showed an overall reduction of 1 log CFU/g for all leafy greens. The maximum reduction by hydrogen peroxide (3%) was about 1 log CFU/g. The antimicrobial activity was also tested on the background microflora of organic leafy greens, and reductions ranged from 0 to 2.8 log. This study demonstrates the potential of natural plant extract formulations to inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens. PMID:22004815

Moore, Katherine L; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

2011-10-01

395

An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.  

PubMed

A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo. PMID:24471438

Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

2014-02-19

396

Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus attenuate oxidized LDL-mediated foam cell formation involving regulation of CD36 gene.  

PubMed

A recent investigation highlighted that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a garden plant containing a lot of pigments, was demonstrated to inhibit LDL oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in high cholesterol-fed rabbits. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of Hibiscus anthocyanin-rich extracts (HAs) on foam cell formation and the gene expression of scavenger receptor, CD36 and its upstream transcription factor, PPARgamma on oxLDL-treated mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. Quantitative lipid analysis indicates a dramatic increase in lipid accumulation in oxLDL-treated cells, while treatment of the cells with the HAs (0.05-0.2 mg/ml) largely prevents lipid accumulation. Our results show that HAs is able to decrease oxLDL mediated foam cell formation. The oxLDL-treated J774A.1 cells up-regulates the expression of CD36. After treatment with HAs, the expression of CD36 is found to be decreased both at the mRNA as well as protein level. Treatment of J774A.1 cells with oxLDL is found to significantly increase PPARgamma protein levels in nuclear extracts while treatment with HAs results in significant decreases in nuclear PPARgamma protein levels. Therefore, it suggests that HAs inhibits the macrophage uptake of oxLDL and this may involve CD36 downregulation. PMID:19330881

Kao, Erl-Shyh; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Lee, Huei-Jane; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2009-05-15

397

Long-term ingestion of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract enhances myocardial capillarization in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  

PubMed

The effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in lowering blood pressure in human and animal hypertension have been documented. This study investigated the effect of the water extract of the dried calyx of HS and Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) on left ventricular myocardial capillary length and surface area in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Twelve-week-old male SHRs were divided into eight groups (six rats in each group). Three groups were given three doses; 10%, 15% and 20% of the water extract of HS in lieu of drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks (HS10, HS15 and HS20) with one group kept as control (C). Another three groups were given three doses of the HAs orally at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for five consecutive days with one group kept as a control (C). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, as well as heart rate (HR), were measured weekly. After the experimental protocols, the left ventricles (LV) of all rats were obtained. Capillary surface area density and length density were determined by unbiased sterological methods on 3 ?m LV tissue samples from perfusion-fixed hearts. HS ingestion significantly reduced SBP, DBP and LV mass in a dose-dependent fashion but did not affect the HR. HS significantly increased surface area and length density of myocardial capillaries by 59%, 65% and 86%, and length density by 57%, 77% and 57%, respectively. Myocyte nuclear volume was significantly decreased in HS-treated rats. There was a decrease (although insignificant) in SBP and DBP with HA ingestion compared with controls. These changes suggest that the observed beneficial effect of HS on high BP in SHRs could be mediated through a reduction in the diffusion distance between capillaries and myocytes, as well as new vessel formation. It is proposed that these effects might be beneficial in restoring myocyte normal nutritional status compromised by the hypertrophic state of hypertension. PMID:22678012

Inuwa, Ibrahim; Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumaya; Ziada, Amal; Blunden, Gerald

2012-05-01

398

Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

2014-01-01

399

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2009-01-01

400

Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aqueous extract of petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the established stages of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip renovascular hypertension was investigated in Sprague–Dawley rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced by subjecting the animals to left renal artery clamping using a 0.2mm silver clip under ether anesthesia. Sham-operated (Sh-Op) rats served as controls.Six weeks after renal artery clamping, one group of

I. P. Odigie; R. R. Ettarh; S. A. Adigun

2003-01-01

401

Quantification of the polyphenolic fraction and in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-hyperlipemic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the quantification of the polyphenolic fraction, anthocyanins and other polar compounds, the antioxidant capacity and the anti-hyperlipemic action of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa has been achieved. Seventeen compounds were successfully quantified either by HPLC-DAD or HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. Six of them were directly quantified by their corresponding standards, whereas the rest were indirectly quantified as equivalents

Salvador Fernández-Arroyo; Inmaculada C. Rodríguez-Medina; Raúl Beltrán-Debón; Federica Pasini; Jorge Joven; Vicente Micol; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez

2011-01-01

402

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

403

Minimal intra-seasonal dietary overlap of barnacle and pink-footed geese on their breeding grounds in Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed barnacle Branta leucopsis and pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus summer diets (May–July 2003) based on the proportions of different plant constituents in the faecal material of adult breeding\\u000a birds in Sassendalen, Svalbard to assess potential inter-specific competition. Diets were highly restricted and overlapped\\u000a little during pre-nesting and post hatch. During incubation both species showed greatest variety in their diet,

A. D. Fox; E. Bergersen; I. M. Tombre; J. Madsen

2007-01-01

404

Targeted deletion of PTEN in cardiomyocytes renders cardiac contractile dysfunction through interruption of Pink1-AMPK signaling and autophagy.  

PubMed

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted from chromosome 10 has been implicated in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis although the underlying mechanism(s) remains elusive. We generated a murine model of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of PTEN to evaluate cardiac geometry and contractile function, as well as the effect of metformin on PTEN deficiency-induced cardiac anomalies, if any. Cardiac histology, autophagy and related signaling molecules were evaluated. Cardiomyocyte-specific PTEN deletion elicited cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies (echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction) associated with compromised intracellular Ca(2+) handling. PTEN deletion-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile anomalies were associated with dampened phosphorylation of PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (Pink1) and AMPK. Interestingly, administration of AMPK activator metformin (200mg/kg/d, in drinking H2O for 4weeks) rescued against PTEN deletion-induced geometric and functional defects as well as interrupted autophagy and autophagic flux in the heart. Moreover, metformin administration partially although significantly attenuated PTEN deletion-induced accumulation of superoxide. RNA interference against Pink1 in H9C2 myoblasts overtly increased intracellular ATP levels and suppressed AMPK phosphorylation, confirming the role of AMPK as a downstream target for PTEN-Pink1. Further scrutiny revealed that activation of AMPK and autophagy using metformin and rapamycin, respectively, rescued against PTEN deletion-induced mechanical anomalies with little additive effect. These data demonstrated that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PTEN leads to the loss of Pink1-AMPK signaling, development of cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect. Activation of AMPK rescued against PTEN deletion-induced cardiac anomalies associated with restoration of autophagy and autophagic flux. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Autophagy and protein quality control in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:25229693

Roe, Nathan D; Xu, Xihui; Kandadi, Machender R; Hu, Nan; Pang, Jiaojiao; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M; Ren, Jun

2015-02-01

405

Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate.  

PubMed

Little is known of the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of climate change on animals, yet it is clear that some species appear more resilient than others. As pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in British Columbia, Canada, have flourished in the current era of climate warming in contrast to other Pacific salmonids in the same watershed, this study investigated whether the continuing success of pink salmon may be linked with exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance of adult fish during their spawning migration. Sex-specific differences existed in minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates (M(O2,min) and M(O2,max), respectively) across the temperature range of 8 to 28°C, reflected in a higher aerobic scope (M(O2,max)-M(O2,min)) for males. Nevertheless, the aerobic scope of both sexes was optimal at 21°C (T(opt)) and was elevated across the entire temperature range in comparison with other Pacific salmonids. As T(opt) for aerobic scope of this pink salmon population is higher than in other Pacific salmonids, and historic river temperature data reveal that this population rarely encounters temperatures exceeding T(opt), these findings offer a physiological explanation for the continuing success of this species throughout the current climate-warming period. Despite this, declining cardiac output was evident above 17°C, and maximum attainable swimming speed was impaired above ?23°C, suggesting negative implications under prolonged thermal exposure. While forecasted summer river temperatures over the next century are likely to negatively impact all Pacific salmonids, we suggest that the cardiorespiratory capacity of pink salmon may confer a selective advantage over other species. PMID:21865520

Clark, Timothy D; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

2011-09-15

406

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the phyllosphere of tropical crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus, Methylobacterium, was assessed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and differential\\u000a carbon-substrate utilization profile in the phyllosphere of cotton, maize, sunflower, soybean, and mentha plants. Methylobacterium populi, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, Methylobacterium suomiense, M. aminovorans, and Methylobacterium fujisawaense were identified to colonize the phyllosphere

P. Raja; D. Balachandar; S. P. Sundaram

2008-01-01

407

Rose Gold: A yellow fleshed, pink-red skinned, tablestock cultivar with short dormancy and full season maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rose Gold is a pink-red skinned, bright yellow fleshed, tablestock potato cultivar. In Ontario trials, Rose Gold is later\\u000a maturing than its half sibling Red Gold and is characterized by producing larger and fewer tubers per plant than Red Gold.\\u000a Rose Gold rarely develops symptoms of virus diseases when grown for repeated generations under high virus disease pressure\\u000a (PVY, PLRV,

R. Coffin; G. R. Johnston; A. McKeown; J. Wilson; M. K. Keenan; B. Langenberg; E. Knibbe; L. Reynolds

1988-01-01

408

Analyses of genetic diversity among maize inbred lines differing for resistance to pink borer and post-flowering stalk rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the diverse sources of resistance is an important issue among the breeders for developing pest and disease\\u000a free hybrids, to reduce the inoculum load, to prolong the life of inbred lines\\/hybrids and to reduce the cost of cultivation.\\u000a Molecular diversity analysis was carried out among 23 maize inbred lines with respect to post flowering stalk rot and pink

Sujay Rakshit; H. B. Santosh; J. C. Sekhar; Rabindra Nath; Meena Shekhar; G. K. Chikkappa; R. N. Gadag; Sain Dass

2011-01-01

409

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)  

PubMed Central

Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

2014-01-01

410

Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).  

PubMed

Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

2014-01-01

411

Thermocrinis ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a Pink-Filament-Forming Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from Yellowstone National Park  

PubMed Central

A novel hyperthermophilic bacterium was isolated from pink filamentous streamers (pink filaments) occurring in the upper outflow channel (temperature, 82 to 88°C) of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. The gram-negative cells grew at low salinity at temperatures up to 89°C in the neutral to alkaline pH range. Depending on the culture conditions, the organisms occurred as single motile rods, as aggregates, or as long filaments that formed streamer-like cell masses. The novel isolate grew chemolithoautotrophically with hydrogen, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur as electron donors and oxygen as the electron acceptor. Alternatively, under aerobic conditions, formate and formamide served as sole energy and carbon sources. The novel isolate had a 16S rRNA sequence closely related to the 16S rRNA sequence obtained from uncultivated pink filaments. It represents a new genus in the order Aquificales, the type species of which we name Thermocrinis ruber (type strain, OC 1/4 [= DSM 12173]). PMID:9758770

Huber, Robert; Eder, Wolfgang; Heldwein, Stefan; Wanner, Gerhard; Huber, Harald; Rachel, Reinhard; Stetter, Karl O.

1998-01-01

412

Lycopene fortification on the quality characteristics of beverage formulations developed from pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.).  

PubMed

Pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L) is an important tropical fruit widely cultivated in different parts of India. The fruit apart from its characteristic pink flesh color is a good source of ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and pectin. Pink color of guava pulp is attributed to the presence of carotenoid pigment lycopene. Incorporation of lycopene in the form of tomato puree to the guava pulp resulted in changes in the quality characteristics of the guava beverage formulations. Lycopene in guava beverage improved the color and appearance and also the nutritional quality of the beverage. Guava beverage having 6 % tomato puree had acceptable color, flavor and overall quality. Increasing levels of tomato puree in the beverage affected the flavor and decreased the sensory acceptability. Beverage formulations showed increase in lycopene concentration from 760 ?g/100 g to 2010 ?g/100 g with increase in concentration of tomato puree. Ascorbic acid and lycopene decreased by 25.7 % and 12.23 % respectively in beverage stored at room temperature. Guava beverage fortified with lycopene was stable with acceptable sensory quality during the storage of 6 months at room temperature. PMID:25477692

Pasupuleti, Vijayanand; Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao

2014-12-01

413

Evaluation of Intraspecies Interactions in Biofilm Formation by Methylobacterium Species Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms.

Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

2014-01-01

414

Evaluation of Intraspecies Interactions in Biofilm Formation by Methylobacterium Species Isolated from Pink-Pigmented Household Biofilms.  

PubMed

Concern regarding household biofilms has grown due to their widespread existence and potential to threaten human health by serving as pathogen reservoirs. Previous studies identified Methylobacterium as one of the dominant genera found in household biofilms. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation by using the bacterial consortium found in household pink slime. A clone library analysis revealed that Methylobacterium was the predominant genus in household pink slime. In addition, 16 out of 21 pink-pigmented bacterial isolates were assigned to the genus Methylobacterium. Although all of the Methylobacterium isolates formed low-level biofilms, the amount of the biofilms formed by Methylobacterium sp. P-1M and P-18S was significantly increased by co-culturing with other Methylobacterium strains that belonged to a specific phylogenetic group. The single-species biofilm was easily washed from the glass surface, whereas the dual-species biofilm strongly adhered after washing. A confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that the dual-species biofilms were significantly thicker and tighter than the single-species biofilms. PMID:25381715

Xu, Fang-Fang; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Wang, Wen-Zhao; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Liang, Yan; Ikeda, Tsukasa

2014-11-01

415

Early life stage salinity tolerance of wild and hatchery-reared juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.  

PubMed

Salinity tolerance in wild (Glendale) and hatchery (Quinsam) pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (average mass 0·2 g) was assessed by measuring whole body [Na(+)] and [Cl?] after 24 or 72 h exposures to fresh water (FW) and 33, 66 or 100% sea water (SW). Gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was measured following exposure to FW and 100% SW and increased significantly in both populations after a 24 h exposure to 100% SW. Whole body [Na(+)] and whole body [Cl?] increased significantly in both populations after 24 h in 33, 66 and 100% SW, where whole body [Cl?] differed significantly between Quinsam and Glendale populations. Extending the seawater exposure to 72 h resulted in no further increases in whole body [Na(+)] and whole body [Cl?] at any salinity, but there was more variability among the responses of the two populations. Per cent whole body water (c. 81%) was maintained in all groups of fish regardless of salinity exposure or population, indicating that the increase in whole body ion levels may have been related to maintaining water balance as no mortality was observed in this study. Thus, both wild and hatchery juvenile O. gorbuscha tolerated abrupt salinity changes, which triggered an increase in gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase within 24 h. These results are discussed in terms of the preparedness of emerging O. gorbuscha for the marine phase of their life cycle. PMID:21039505

Grant, A M; Gardner, M; Hanson, L M; Farrell, A P; Brauner, C J

2010-10-01

416

Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese  

PubMed Central

The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

2015-01-01

417

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-09-15

418

Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. This project is to identify and map cotton fields in the southern deserts of California. Cotton in the Imperial, Coachella, and Palo Verde Valleys is heavily infested by the pink bollworm which affects both the quantity and quality of cotton produced. In California the growing season of cotton is regulated by establishing planting and plowdown dates. These procedures ensure that the larvae, whose diapause or resting period occurs during the winter months, will have no plant material on which to feed, thus inhibiting spring moth emergence. the underflight data from the U-2 aircraft has shound that it is possible to detect the differences between a growing, a defoliated, and plowed down field providing the locations of the fields are known. The ERTS-1 MSS data are being analyzed using an I2S optical color combiner to determine which combinations of dates and colors will identify cotton fields and thus provide the data needed to produce maps of the fields for the forthcoming season.

Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.

1973-01-01

419

Significance of the parkin and PINK1 gene in Jordanian families with incidences of young-onset and juvenile parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, where most cases are sporadic with a late onset. In rare incidences familial forms of early-onset parkinsonism occur, and when recessively inherited, cases are often explained by mutations in either the parkin (PARK2) or PINK1 (PARK6) gene or on exceptional occasions the DJ-1 (PARK7) or ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene. Recessively inherited deletions/duplications and point mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of early-onset parkinsonism known so far, but in an increasing number of studies, genetic variations in the serine/threonine kinase domain of the PINK1 gene are found to explain early-onset parkinsonism. Methods In this study all families were from a population with a high incidence of consanguinity. We investigated 11 consanguineous families comprising 17 affected with recessively inherited young-onset parkinsonism for mutations both in the parkin and PINK1 gene. Exons and flanking regions were sequenced, and segregation patterns of genetic variation were assessed in members of the respective families. An exon dosage analysis was performed for all exons in both genes. Results In the parkin gene, a three generation family was identified with an exon 4 deletion segregating with disease. Both affected were homozygous for the deletion that segregated on a haplotype that spanned the gene in a haplotype segregation analysis that was performed using additional markers. Exon dosage analysis confirmed the recessive pattern of inheritance with heterozygous deletions segregating in healthy family members. In the PINK1 gene we identified two novel putative pathogenic substitutions, P416R and S419P, located in a conserved motif of the serine/threonine kinase domain. Both substitutions segregated with disease in agreement with a recessive pattern of inheritance within respective families and both were present as homozygous in two affected each. We also discuss common polymorphisms in the two genes found to be co-segregating within families. Conclusion Our results further extend on the involvement of PINK1 mutations in recessive early-onset parkinsonism with clinical features similar to carriers of parkin mutations. PMID:19087301

Myhre, Ronny; Steinkjer, Stina; Stormyr, Alice; Nilsen, Gina L; Zayyad, Hiba Abu; Horany, Khalid; Nusier, Mohamad K; Klungland, Helge

2008-01-01

420

Comparative transcriptomics of Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha during infections with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis  

PubMed Central

Background Salmon species vary in susceptibility to infections with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Comparing mechanisms underlying responses in susceptible and resistant species is important for estimating impacts of infections on wild salmon, selective breeding of farmed salmon, and expanding our knowledge of fish immune responses to ectoparasites. Herein we report three L. salmonis experimental infection trials of co-habited Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha, profiling hematocrit, blood cortisol concentrations, and transcriptomic responses of the anterior kidney and skin to the infection. Results In all trials, infection densities (lice per host weight (g)) were consistently highest on chum salmon, followed by Atlantic salmon, and lowest in pink salmon. At 43 days post-exposure, all lice had developed to motile stages, and infection density was uniformly low among species. Hematocrit was reduced in infected Atlantic and chum salmon, and cortisol was elevated in infected chum salmon. Systemic transcriptomic responses were profiled in all species and large differences in response functions were identified between Atlantic and Pacific (chum and pink) salmon. Pink and chum salmon up-regulated acute phase response genes, including complement and coagulation components, and down-regulated antiviral immune genes. The pink salmon response involved the largest and most diverse iron sequestration and homeostasis mechanisms. Pattern recognition receptors were up-regulated in all species but the active components were often species-specific. C-type lectin domain family 4 member M and acidic mammalian chitinase were specifically up-regulated in the resistant pink salmon. Conclusions Experimental exposures consistently indicated increased susceptibility in chum and Atlantic salmon, and resistance in pink salmon, with differences in infection density occurring within the first three days of infection. Transcriptomic analysis suggested candidate resistance functions including local inflammation with cytokines, specific innate pattern recognition receptors, and iron homeostasis. Suppressed antiviral immunity in both susceptible and resistant species indicates the importance of future work investigating co-infections of viral pathogens and lice. PMID:24628956

2014-01-01

421

Consumption demand of juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska in relation to prey biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prince William Sound hatcheries release over 600 million pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry each year. The effect of the additional consumption demand by hatchery fish on prey biomass in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska is unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (1) use bioenergetics models to compare spatial and temporal variation in the consumption demand and growth efficiency of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska between May and October 2001; and (2) compare localized population-level consumption in each region to the standing stock biomass of coexisting prey. In order to achieve observed growth, juvenile pink salmon consumed at 64-107% of their theoretical maximum consumption rate. Individual juvenile pink salmon consumed an average of 366.5 g of prey from marine entry through October of their first growing season. Growth efficiency ranged from 18.9% to 33.8% over the model simulation period. Juvenile salmon that migrated to the Gulf of Alaska grew more efficiently than those that remained in Prince William Sound until August, but after August juvenile salmon in Prince William Sound grew more efficiently than those in the Gulf of Alaska due to differences in prey quality between regions. Temperatures did not vary much between regions; thus differences in the thermal experience of juvenile pink salmon did not affect growth, consumption, and growth efficiency as much as the effects of different prey quality. Consumption demand by juvenile pink salmon exceeded the average standing stock biomass of key prey (large copepods, pteropods, hyperiid amphipods, and larvaceans) during some months. Our results are consistent with advection and production of these prey replenishing the forage base, or the reliance of individual pink salmon on high-density prey patches that occur at finer temporal scales than we were capable of sampling.

Cross, Alison D.; Beauchamp, David A.; Armstrong, Janet L.; Blikshteyn, Mikhail; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Davis, Nancy D.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Moss, Jamal H.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.

2005-01-01

422

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000 mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hypolipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

Hopkins, Allison L.; Lamm, Marnie G.; Funk, Janet; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2013-01-01

423

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

Hopkins, Allison L; Lamm, Marnie G; Funk, Janet L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2013-03-01

424

Long-term ammonia toxicity to the pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis.  

PubMed

Juvenile pink-shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis were exposed (75 days) to NH(3) (0.016-0.287 mg L(-1)) under static condition with water renewal every 24h. Experiments were performed at 20 degrees C, at a water salinity of 15 ppt, and at pH 7.8. Endpoints analyzed were survival, growth and predation rates. After 75 days of exposure, survival was >or=90% in all concentrations tested. However, growth (carapace length and wet body mass) was reduced after exposure to NH(3) concentrations as low as 0.033 mg L(-1), while the relative growth (dry body mass and ash content) was reduced after exposure to the highest NH(3) concentration (0.287 mg L(-1)). Predatory activity was inhibited after exposure to 0.144 or 0.287 mg L(-1) NH(3). Post-larvae exposed (75 days) to 0.301 mg L(-1) NH(3) under the same experimental conditions also showed a reduced growth (wet body mass) and relative growth (dry body mass). In addition, they showed decreased body lipids content and increased body glycogen and glucose contents. However, no changes in body protein, chitin and uric acid contents were observed. Also, NH(3) did not affect post-larvae feeding response. Altogether, findings suggest that F. paulensis reduces its food intake to limit the internal accumulation of nitrogenous waste products when exposed for long time to high levels of ambient ammonia. As a consequence, shrimp show a marked change in energy metabolism, characterized by a decreased content of body lipids paralleled by an increased content of body carbohydrates, resulting in a significant reduction in growth. PMID:19524063

Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Wasielesky, Wilson; Bianchini, Adalto

2009-09-01

425

Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Cross, A.D.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Myers, K.W.; Moss, J.H.

2008-01-01

426

Potentiation of neurotoxicity in double-mutant mice with Pink1 ablation and A53T-SNCA overexpression.  

PubMed

The common age-related neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease can result from dominant causes like increased dosage of vesicle-associated alpha-synuclein (SNCA) or recessive causes like deficiency of mitophagy factor PINK1. Interactions between these triggers and their convergence onto shared pathways are crucial, but currently conflicting evidence exists. Here, we crossed previously characterized mice with A53T-SNCA overexpression and with Pink1 deletion to generate double mutants (DMs). We studied their lifespan and behavior, histological and molecular anomalies at late and early ages. DM animals showed potentiated phenotypes in comparison with both single mutants (SMs), with reduced survival and strongly reduced spontaneous movements from the age of 3 months onwards. In contrast to SMs, a quarter of DM animals manifested progressive paralysis at ages >1 year and exhibited protein aggregates immunopositive for pSer129-SNCA, p62 and ubiquitin in spinal cord and basal brain. Brain proteome quantifications of ubiquitination sites documented altered degradation of SNCA and the DNA-damage marker H2AX at the age of 18 months. Global brain transcriptome profiles and qPCR validation experiments identified many consistent transcriptional dysregulations already at the age of 6 weeks, which were absent from SMs. The observed downregulations for Dapk1, Dcaf17, Rab42 and the novel SNCA-marker Lect1 as well as the upregulations for Dctn5, Mrpl9, Tmem181a, Xaf1 and H2afx reflect changes in ubiquitination, mitochondrial/synaptic/microtubular/cell adhesion dynamics and DNA damage. Thus, our study confirmed that SNCA-triggered neurotoxicity is exacerbated by the absence of PINK1 and identified a novel molecular signature that is detectable early in the course of this double pathology. PMID:25296918

Gispert, Suzana; Brehm, Nadine; Weil, Jonas; Seidel, Kay; Rüb, Udo; Kern, Beatrice; Walter, Michael; Roeper, Jochen; Auburger, Georg

2015-02-15

427

Silent Information Regulator 2 (Sir2) and Forkhead Box O (FOXO) Complement Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Dopaminergic Neuron Loss in Drosophila PTEN-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) Null Mutant*  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is associated with early onset Parkinson disease, encodes a serine-threonine kinase that is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function. Moreover, another Parkinson disease-linked gene, parkin, functions downstream of PINK1 in protecting mitochondria and dopaminergic (DA) neuron. In our fly genetic screening, knockdown of Sir2 blocked PINK1 overexpression-induced phenotypes. Consistently, ectopic expression of Sir2 successfully rescued mitochondrial defects in PINK1 null mutants, but unexpectedly, failed in parkin mutants. In further genetic analyses, deletion of FOXO nullified the Sir2-induced mitochondrial restoration in PINK1 null mutants. Moreover, overexpression of FOXO or its downstream target gene such as SOD2 or Thor markedly ameliorated PINK1 loss-of-function defects, suggesting that FOXO mediates the mitochondrial protecting signal induced by Sir2. Consistent with its mitochondria-protecting role, Sir2 expression prevented the DA neuron loss of PINK1 null mutants in a FOXO-dependent manner. Loss of Sir2 or FOXO induced DA neuron degeneration, which is very similar to that of PINK1 null mutants. Furthermore, PINK1 deletion had no deleterious effect on the DA neuron loss in Sir2 or FOXO mutants, supporting the idea that Sir2, FOXO, and PINK1 protect DA neuron in a common pathway. Overall, these results strongly support the role of Sir2 and FOXO in preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and DA neuron loss, further suggesting that Sir2 and FOXO function downstream of PINK1 and independently of Parkin. PMID:22378780

Koh, Hyongjong; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Jeehye; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Chung, Jongkyeong

2012-01-01

428

The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000?ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000?ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500?ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. PMID:25405216

Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Budin, Siti Balkis

2014-01-01

429

Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.  

PubMed

The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation. PMID:23436151

Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

2013-07-01

430

Adsorption and desorption properties of macroporous resins for anthocyanins from the calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).  

PubMed

Adsorption of roselle anthocynins, a natural pigment, onto various macroporous resins was optimized to develop a simple and efficient process for industrial separation and purification of roselle anthocyanins. Nine different macroporous resins (AB-8, X-5, HPD-100, SP-207, XAD-4, LS-305A, DM-21, LS-610B, and LS-305) were evaluated for the adsorption properties of the anthocyanins extracted from the calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial anthocyanin concentration, and ethanol concentration with different citric acid amounts were studied by the static adsorption/desorption method. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, LS-610B and LS-305 exhibited the highest monolayer sorption capacities of 31.95 and 38.16 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data were modeled using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of LS-305 during operation. The overall yield of pigment product was 49.6 mg/g dried calyces. The content of roselle anthocynins in the pigment product was 4.85%. PMID:22329796

Chang, Xiu-Lian; Wang, Dong; Chen, Bi-Yun; Feng, Yong-Mei; Wen, Shao-Hong; Zhan, Peng-Yuan

2012-03-01

431

The Use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) Gum in Sustaining the Release of Propranolol Hydrochloride in a Solid Oral Dosage Form  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

432

The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0-1000?ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival (P < 0.05) of BMCs at 500 and 1000?ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1(+) cells (HSCs) at 500?ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased (P < 0.05) the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. PMID:25405216

Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Lin Lin, Winnie Hii; Abdalla, Basma Jibril; Bee Yuen, Ong; Latif, Elda Surhaida; Mohamed, Jamaludin; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Paik Wah, Chow; Wak Harto, Muhd Khairul Akmal; Budin, Siti Balkis

2014-01-01

433

Anthocyanin - Rich Red Dye of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx Modulates Cisplatin-induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats.  

PubMed

This study sought to investigate the protective effect of dietary inclusion of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx red dye on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and antioxidant status in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups I and II were fed basal diet while groups III and IV were fed diets containing 0.5% and 1% of the dye respectively for 20 days prior to cisplatin administration. Nephrotoxicity was induced by a single dose intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin (7 mg/kg b.w) and the experiment was terminated 3 days after. The kidney and plasma were studied for nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress indices. Cisplatin administration caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in creatinine, uric acid, urea, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels as well as kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) content, with concomitant decrease in kidney vitamin C and GSH contents. Furthermore, activities of kidney antioxidant enzymes such as, SOD, Catalase, and GST were significantly (P<0.05) altered in cisplatin administered rats. However, consumption of diets supplemented with the dye for 20 days prior to cisplatin administration protected the kidney and attenuates oxidative stress through modulation of in vivo antioxidant status. The determined anthocyanin content of the dye is 121.5 mg Cyanidin-3-rutinoside equivalent/100 g, thus, the observed nephroprotective effect of H. sabdariffa dye could be attributed to its anthocyanin content. PMID:24711761

Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J; Akinyemi, Ayodele J

2013-12-01

434

The use of Hibiscus esculentus (Okra) gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a solid oral dosage form.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of Okra gum in sustaining the release of propranolol hydrochloride in a tablet was studied. Okra gum was extracted from the pods of Hibiscus esculentus using acetone as a drying agent. Dried Okra gum was made into powder form and its physical and chemical characteristics such as solubility, pH, moisture content, viscosity, morphology study using SEM, infrared study using FTIR, crystallinity study using XRD, and thermal study using DSC and TGA were carried out. The powder was used in the preparation of tablet using granulation and compression methods. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug and the activity of Okra gum as a binder was compared by preparing tablets using a synthetic and a semisynthetic binder which are hydroxylmethylpropyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate, respectively. Evaluation of drug release kinetics that was attained from dissolution studies showed that Okra gum retarded the release up to 24 hours and exhibited the longest release as compared to HPMC and sodium alginate. The tensile and crushing strength of tablets was also evaluated by conducting hardness and friability tests. Okra gum was observed to produce tablets with the highest hardness value and lowest friability. Hence, Okra gum was testified as an effective adjuvant to produce favourable sustained release tablets with strong tensile and crushing strength. PMID:24678512

Zaharuddin, Nurul Dhania; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Kadivar, Ali

2014-01-01

435

Characterization of developmental- and stress-mediated expression of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

PubMed

Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 339 amino acids of 37.37?kDa, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.27 (JX524276, HcCCR2). BLAST result found that it has high homology with other plant CCR orthologs. Multiple alignment with other plant CCR sequences showed that it contains two highly conserved motifs: NAD(P) binding domain (VTGAGGFIASWMVKLLLEKGY) at N-terminal and probable catalytic domain (NWYCYGK). According to phylogenetic analysis, it was closely related to CCR sequences of Gossypium hirsutum (ACQ59094) and Populus trichocarpa (CAC07424). HcCCR2 showed ubiquitous expression in various kenaf tissues and the highest expression was detected in mature flower. HcCCR2 was expressed differentially in response to various stresses, and the highest expression was observed by drought and NaCl treatments. PMID:24723816

Ghosh, Ritesh; Choi, Bosung; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Natarajan, Savithiry; Bae, Hanhong

2014-01-01

436

Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.  

PubMed

The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

2014-07-23

437

Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 Participates in Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis  

PubMed Central

Anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis (AHT) were used in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-)stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells and carrageenan (Carr-)induced mouse paw edema model. When RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with AHT together with LPS, a concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels productions were detected. Western blotting revealed that AHT blocked protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), significantly. In the animal test, AHT decreased the paw edema at the 4th and the 5th?h after Carr administration, and it increased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the paw tissue. We also demonstrated AHT decreased the NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 levels on the serum level at the 5th h after the Carr injection. Western blotting revealed that AHT decreased Carr-induced iNOS, and COX-2, and increased HO-1 expressions at the 5th h in the edema paw. These findings demonstrated that AHT has excellent anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo and thus it has great potential to be used as a source for natural health products. PMID:22778769

Liu, Shu-Ling; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Wang-Ching; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

2012-01-01

438

Characterization of Developmental- and Stress-Mediated Expression of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)  

PubMed Central

Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 339 amino acids of 37.37?kDa, with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.27 (JX524276, HcCCR2). BLAST result found that it has high homology with other plant CCR orthologs. Multiple alignment with other plant CCR sequences showed that it contains two highly conserved motifs: NAD(P) binding domain (VTGAGGFIASWMVKLLLEKGY) at N-terminal and probable catalytic domain (NWYCYGK). According to phylogenetic analysis, it was closely related to CCR sequences of Gossypium hirsutum (ACQ59094) and Populus trichocarpa (CAC07424). HcCCR2 showed ubiquitous expression in various kenaf tissues and the highest expression was detected in mature flower. HcCCR2 was expressed differentially in response to various stresses, and the highest expression was observed by drought and NaCl treatments. PMID:24723816

Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Natarajan, Savithiry

2014-01-01

439

Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing.  

PubMed

The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating this process for industrial scale-up. Microbial communities were identified by semiconductor sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from DNA harvested from plant-surface associated samples and analyzed using an Ion Torrent PGM. The communities were sampled after 96 h from each of three different conditions, including amendments with pond water, sterilized pond water, or with a mixture of pectinolytic bacterial isolates. Additionally, plants from two different sources and having different pretreatment conditions were compared. We report that the best retting communities are dominated by members of the order Clostridiales. These bacteria appear to be naturally associated with the plant material, although slight variations between source materials were found. Additionally, heavy inoculations of pectinolytic bacteria established themselves and in addition their presence facilitated the rapid dominance of the original plant-associated Clostridiales. These data suggest that members of the order Clostridiales dominate the community and are most closely associated with efficient and effective retting. The results further suggest that establishment of the community structure is first driven by the switch to anaerobic conditions, and subsequently by possible competition for nitrogen. These findings reveal important bacterial groups involved in fiber retting, and suggest mechanisms for the manipulation of the community and retting efficiency by modifying nutrient availability. PMID:23475284

Visi, David K; D'Souza, Nandika; Ayre, Brian G; Webber Iii, Charles L; Allen, Michael S

2013-05-01

440

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract. Methods In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent. PMID:25182280

Alshami, Issam; Alharbi, Ahmed E

2014-01-01

441

Modification of the liver fatty acids by Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae) infusion, its possible effect on vascular reactivity in a metabolic syndrome model.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (HSL)-fed infusion on the fatty acid (FA) profile in liver of metabolic syndrome (MS) rats and its possible effect on vascular reactivity. Body mass, intra-abdominal fat, triglycerides, insulin, blood pressure, saturated, monounsaturated FA, NEFAs, ?(9)-, ?(6)-desaturases and vasoconstriction were increased, while vasorelaxation, polyunsaturated FA, endothelial nitric oxide and [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] ratio decreased in MS versus Control, but HSL infusion modified it and increased ?(5)-desaturase. The results suggest that the alteration in FA liver metabolism in the MS contributes to impaired vascular reactivity, but treatment with of HSL infusion can improve this condition. PMID:23734849

Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zúñiga Muñoz, Alejandra; Beltrán-Rodríguez, Ulises; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Martínez-Memije, Raúl; Guarner Lans, Verónica

2014-01-01

442

The impact of weather on women's tendency to wear red or pink when at high risk for conception.  

PubMed

Women are particularly motivated to enhance their sexual attractiveness during their most fertile period, and men perceive shades of red, when associated with women, as sexually attractive. Building on this research, we recently found that women are more likely to wear reddish clothing when at peak fertility (Beall & Tracy, 2013), presumably as a way of increasing their attractiveness. Here, we first report results from a methodological replication, conducted during warmer weather, which produced a null effect. Investigating this discrepancy, we considered the impact of a potentially relevant contextual difference between previous research and the replication: current weather. If the red-dress effect is driven by a desire to increase one's sexual appeal, then it should emerge most reliably when peak-fertility women have few alternative options for accomplishing this goal (e.g., wearing minimal clothing). Results from re-analyses of our previously collected data and a new experiment support this account, by demonstrating that the link between fertility and red/pink dress emerges robustly in cold, but not warm, weather. Together, these findings suggest that the previously documented red-dress effect is moderated by current climate concerns, and provide further evidence that under certain circumstances red/pink dress is reliably associated with female fertility. PMID:24586414

Tracy, Jessica L; Beall, Alec T

2014-01-01

443

Temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon reveal unique signatures of selection on distinct pools of standing genetic variation.  

PubMed

A species' genetic diversity bears the marks of evolutionary processes that have occurred throughout its history. However, robust detection of selection in wild populations is difficult and often impeded by lack of replicate tests. Here, we investigate selection in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) using genome scans coupled with inference from a haploid-assisted linkage map. Pink salmon have a strict 2-year semelparous life history which has resulted in temporally isolated (allochronic) lineages that remain sympatric through sharing of spawning habitats in alternate years. The lineages differ in a range of adaptive traits, suggesting different genetic backgrounds. We used genotyping by sequencing of haploids to generate a high-density linkage map with 7035 loci and screened an existing panel of 8036 loci for signatures of selection. The linkage map enabled identification of novel genomic regions displaying signatures of parallel selection shared between lineages. Furthermore, 24 loci demonstrated divergent selection and differences in genetic diversity between lineages, suggesting that adaptation in the 2 lineages has arisen from different pools of standing genetic variation. Findings have implications for understanding asynchronous population abundances as well as predicting future ecosystem impacts from lineage-specific responses to climate change. PMID:25292170

Limborg, Morten T; Waples, Ryan K; Seeb, James E; Seeb, Lisa W

2014-01-01

444

The pink gene encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5) gene.  

PubMed

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) consists of a set of human autosomal recessive disorders, with symptoms resulting from defects in genes required for protein trafficking in lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. A number of human HPS genes and rodent orthologues have been identified whose protein products are key components of 1 of 4 different protein complexes (AP-3 or BLOC-1, -2, and -3) that are key participants in the process. Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model organism in demonstrating the in vivo significance of many genes involved in protein trafficking pathways; for example, mutations in the "granule group" genes lead to changes in eye colour arising from improper protein trafficking to pigment granules in the developing eye. An examination of the chromosomal positioning of Drosophila HPS gene orthologues suggested that CG9770, the Drosophila HPS5 orthologue, might correspond to the pink locus. Here we confirm this gene assignment, making pink the first eye colour gene in flies to be identified as a BLOC complex gene. PMID:17632576

Syrzycka, Monika; McEachern, Lori A; Kinneard, Jennifer; Prabhu, Kristel; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen; Schulze, Sandra; Rawls, John M; Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, Donald A R; Honda, Barry M

2007-06-01

445

Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed. PMID:11777042

Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

2001-12-01

446

Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts  

PubMed Central

The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2?-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ?Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

2014-01-01

447

Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.  

PubMed

The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ?Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

2014-09-01

448

Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

2012-01-01

449

Antidepressant-like activity of anthocyanidins from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers in tail suspension test and forced swim test  

PubMed Central

Aim: Flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn (Malvaceae) popularly known as “China-rose flowers” contain flavonoids. Flavonoids have been found to have antidepressant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of flavonoids in H. rosa-sinensis flowers with possible involvement of monoamines. Materials and Methods: Anti-depressant activity of methanol extract containing anthocyanins (MHR) (30 and 100 mg/kg) and anthocyanidins (AHR) (30 and 100 mg/ kg) of H. rosa-sinensis flowers were evaluated in mice using behavioral tests such as tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The mechanism of action involved in antidepressant activity was investigated by observing the effect of extract after pre-treatment with low dose haloperidol, prazosin and para-chlorophenylalanine (p-CPA). Results: Present study exhibited significant decrease in immobility time in TST and FST, similar to that of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) which served as a positive control. The extract significantly attenuated the duration of immobility induced by Haloperidol (50 ?g/ kg, i.p., a classical D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist), Prazosin (62.5 ?g/kg, i.p., an ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg, i.p., × 3 days; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) in both TST and FST. Conclusion: It can be concluded that MHR and AHR possess potential antidepressant activity (through dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms) and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of CNS disorders and provides evidence at least at preclinical levels. PMID:23087504

Shewale, Pallavi B.; Patil, Rupali A.; Hiray, Yogesh A.

2012-01-01

450

An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472 PMID:20553629

2010-01-01

451

Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3? in an Experimental Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change) in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3? and NF-?B-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3? signaling. PMID:19965962

Wang, Shou-Chieh; Lee, Shiow-Fen; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Chao-Hsin; Lee, Wen-Chin; Lee, Huei-Jane

2011-01-01

452

Effects of seasonal variations on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of seasonal variations during rainy and hot season on antioxidant activity of pink guava fruits in approximately one year duration specifically on November 2012, December 2012, January 2013, March 2013, April 2013, May 2013, July 2013, August 2013 and November 2013. Fruit samples (Sungkai and Semenyih variants) were collected from Sime Darby Beverages plantation located in Sitiawan. The fruits were samples for 9 times from Nov 2012 to Nov 2013 except Feb 2013, Jun 2013, Sept 2013 and Oct 2013. Fruits were peeled, seeded and blended into uniform puree. Samples were then extracted for its antioxidant activity determination using 50% acetone. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using total phenolic compounds (TPC) assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl1-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging capacity (DPPH). Analysis was conducted using 96-well microplate spectrophotometer UV. The highest TPC result was Semenyih var recorded 2192.80 mg GAE/100g FW whilst Sungkai var 1595.98 mg GAE/100g FW both on July 2013 with rainfall was at the least (45mm) and the lowest for Sungkai var was 792.75 mg GAE/100g FW and 1032.41 mg GAE/100g FW for Semenyih var, both on Nov 2012 with 185mm rainfall. There were significant negative correlation between TPC and rainfall (mm) for both Semenyih var (r = - 0.699, p<0.005, r2 = 0.489) and Sungkai var (r = -0.72, p<0.05, r2 = 0.531). The highest FRAP result (mg TE/100g FW) was 1677.74 for Semenyih var (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.5mm) and the highest FRAP for Sungkai var was 1104.60 (Jul 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm) whereas the lowest for Semenyih and Sungkai var was 1090.22 (Mar 2013, rainfall = 97.5mm) and 767.88 (Nov 2012, rainfall = 185.50) respectively. There was weak negative correlation between FRAP and rainfall(mm) for both Sungkai var (r = - 0.324, p<0.05, r2 = 0.105) and Semenyih var (r = - 0.362, p<0.05, r2 = 0.132). The highest DPPH for Semenyih var was 88.40% (Aug 2013, rainfall = 160.50mm) whilst Sungkai var was 79.71% (July 2013, rainfall = 45.0mm). There was no significant difference in correlation coefficient of DPPH and rainfall (mm). Meanwhile, there was significant correlation between TPC and FRAP (r = 0.794, p<0.05, r2 = 0.629), TPC and DPPH (r = 0.901,p<0.05, r2= 0.812) and FRAP and DPPH (r = 0.889, p<0.05, r2 = 0.792).

Ahmad, Haniza; Abdullah, Aminah

2014-09-01

453

Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

Moss, J.H.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Cross, A.D.; Farley, E.V.; Murphy, J.M.; Helle, J.H.; Walker, R.V.; Myers, K.W.

2009-01-01