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1

Prey consumption by the mealybug predator Spalgis epius on pink hibiscus mealybug ( Maconellicoccus hirsutus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major pest of economically important crops. The apefly Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a potential predator of various species of mealybugs. Studies of its preying potential\\u000a and preference for prey stages on M. hirsutus are incomplete. An investigation was undertaken to determine the daily prey consumption and preference

Anegunda S. Dinesh; Melally G. Venkatesha

2011-01-01

2

OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

3

Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug ( Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)) on mulberry trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California\\u000a (USA) in August 1999. Initial studies conducted in 2001–2003 provided encouraging results regarding the capacity of both insecticides\\u000a to severely reduce, and in some cases completely eliminate infestations from individual

S. J. CastleN; N. Prabhaker

4

No-choice host range tests for Allotropa sp. near mecrida, a parasitoid of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host range studies of the parasitoid Allotropa sp. near mecrida (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) were conducted prior to applying for a permit to release it against the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in southern California. Using M. hirsutus as a control, four mealybug species were tested as potential hosts. Allotropa sp. near mecrida did not successfully reproduce in

William J. Roltsch; Lawrence R. Ertle; Dale E. Meyerdirk

2007-01-01

5

Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus  

PubMed Central

Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified ? type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

2013-01-01

6

Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus.  

PubMed

Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified ? type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

2013-09-25

7

Effect of photoperiod and daily light integral on flowering of five Hibiscus sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of daily light integral (DLI) (400–700nm) and photoperiod on Hibiscus sp. growth and flowering was studied. Hibiscus coccineus (Medic.) Walt., Hibiscus cisplatinus St-Hil., Hibiscus moscheutos L. ‘Disco Belle Pink’, Hibiscus radiatus Cav., and Hibiscus trionum L. plants were grown under a 9h (0730–1630h) or 16h (0600–2200h) photoperiod in a greenhouse under ambient daylight plus supplemental high-pressure sodium lighting

Ryan M. Warner; John E. Erwin

2003-01-01

8

Inheritance of characters in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was carried out to study the inheritance pattern in intraspecific crosses involving two local varieties of Hibiscus cannabinus L. One variety has pink flowers and resistance to root knot nematode, while the other variety has light yellow flowers but susceptible to root knot nematode. Results show that the inheritance of pink flowers and resistance to root knot nematode

Falusi O. A

9

Pink lesions.  

PubMed

Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions. PMID:24075552

Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

2013-10-01

10

Life history of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), at constant temperatures.  

PubMed

Important life history parameters of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were characterized on hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) cuttings at six constant temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees C. The development of M. hirsutus was the fastest at 27 degrees C, where the mealybugs completed development in approximately 29 d. The lower (T(min)) and upper (T(max)) developmental thresholds and the optimal developmental temperature (T(opt)) for the development of female mealybugs were estimated as 14.5, 35, and 29 degrees C, respectively. The thermal constant (K), which is the number of temperature-day or degree-day units required for development, of the females was 347 DD. The original distribution range prediction (based on T(min) = 17.5 degrees C and K = 300 DD) indicated that M. hirsutus could complete at least one generation in all of the continental United States. However, results of this study suggested that the distribution range of M. hirsutus may expand northward because of the lower T(min), and the predicted number of generations in a year may be lower because of the higher K required to complete each generation. The average cumulative survival rate of M. hirsutus at 25 and 27 degrees C was 72%, which was significantly higher than 51 and 62% at 20 and 30 degrees C, respectively. M. hirsutus reproduced sexually, with each mated female producing 260-300 eggs between 20 and 27 degrees C but only approximately 100 eggs at 30 degrees C. Female longevity was reduced from 28 d at 20 degrees C to 19-21 d at 25-30 degrees C. At 27 degrees C, the net reproductive rate (R(o)) was estimated at 165 female symbol/female symbol, the intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) was 0.119 (female symbol/female symbol/d), the generation time (T(G)) was 43 d, and the doubling time (DT) was 5.8 d. The life table statistics suggested that the currently released biological control agents, which have higher r(m) than M. hirsutus, will be able to complete more generations than the mealybug within the tested temperature range; thus, they are effective against M. hirsutus. PMID:18419903

Chong, Juang-Horng; Roda, Amy L; Mannion, Catharine M

2008-04-01

11

Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)  

MedlinePLUS

... conjunctivitis with redness of the eye and mucoid debris on the eyelashes. Overview Pink eye (conjunctivitis) is ... Inflammatory causes such as chemicals, fumes, dust, and debris Allergies Injuries Oral genital contact with someone who ...

12

Bibliography of Pink bollworm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 3,700 references to world literature on pink bollworm. Bibliography is searchable online or downloadable for Microsoft Word, ProCite, or in plain text. The Word document is over 200 printed pages. An outstanding, comprehensive bibliography.

0002-11-30

13

VIRUS DISEASES OF ORNAMENTAL HIBISCUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The diagnosis of virus diseases of ornamental hibiscus or shoe flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and H. hybrid, was conducted using tissue blot immunoassay techniques. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the viral coat protein (CP) gene from infected hibiscus and its nu...

14

Modification of hibiscus growth by treating unrooted cuttings and potted plants with uniconazole or paclobutrazol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unrooted cuttings ofHibiscus rosasinensis L. “Seminole Pink” were soaked for 5 s in a solution containing 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg L?1 uniconazole or paclobutrazol, rooted, and then potted and allowed to grow without pinching. Uniconazole was more effective\\u000a than paclobutrazol in suppressing stem growth and number and length of lateral shoots. Uniconazole and paclobutrazol, at the\\u000a 25 mg

Yin-Tung Wang; Lori L. Gregg

1991-01-01

15

Genetic relationships among Hibiscus syriacus, Hibiscus sinosyriacus and Hibiscus paramutabilis revealed by AFLP, morphology and ploidy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships between and within Hibiscus syriacus, Hibiscus sinosyriacus and Hibiscus paramutabilis, three winter hardy Hibiscus species native to China, were analysed by the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique and by morphological evaluation of flower and leaf characteristics. Both methods clearly discriminated between the three species. H. sinosyriacus was classified as an intermediate form between H. paramutabilis and

J. M. Van Huylenbroeck; J. De Riek; M. De Loose

2000-01-01

16

Cytogenetic characteristics and the breeding system in six Hibiscus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic characteristics confirm that Hibiscus acetosella and Hibiscus cannabinus are outbreeders, while Hibiscus asper, Hibiscus physaloides, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus surattensis have evolved into inbreeders. The inbreeding species appear to have co-evolved a floral structure in which some anthers abut\\u000a on the stigma prior to anthesis.

G. A. Akpan

2000-01-01

17

Socioeconomic impact of biological control of mango mealybug in Benin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango mealybug, an exotic pest of mango, was first observed in Benin in 1986. In a biological control programme, natural enemies were successfully released in the following years. The present study is the first attempt to measure the impact of the biological control of mango mealybug over a large area, through a survey of mango producers. Most producers attributed the

Aimé H Bokonon-Ganta; Hugo de Groote; Peter Neuenschwander

2002-01-01

18

PINK1-Interacting Proteins: Proteomic Analysis of Overexpressed PINK1  

PubMed Central

Recent publications suggest that the Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related PINK1/Parkin pathway promotes elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. We used tandem affinity purification (TAP), SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry as a first step towards identification of possible substrates for PINK1. The cellular abundance of selected identified interactors was investigated by Western blotting. Furthermore, one candidate gene was sequenced in 46 patients with atypical PD. In addition to two known binding partners (HSP90, CDC37), 12 proteins were identified using the TAP assay; four of which are mitochondrially localized (GRP75, HSP60, LRPPRC, and TUFM). Western blot analysis showed no differences in cellular abundance of these proteins comparing PINK1 mutant and control fibroblasts. When sequencing LRPPRC, four exonic synonymous changes and 20 polymorphisms in noncoding regions were detected. Our study provides a list of putative PINK1 binding partners, confirming previously described interactions, but also introducing novel mitochondrial proteins as potential components of the PINK1/Parkin mitophagy pathway.

Rakovic, Aleksandar; Grunewald, Anne; Voges, Lisa; Hofmann, Sarah; Orolicki, Slobodanka; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

2011-01-01

19

Role of ethylene in the senescence of isolated hibiscus petals.  

PubMed

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

Woodson, W R; Hanchey, S H; Chisholm, D N

1985-11-01

20

Pink and Chum Salmon Prediction Studies, 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue consists of the following reports: Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Chum Salmon forecast for 1972, hydraulic sampling technique; Puget Sound Pink Salmon forecast for 1971, juvenile abusdance te...

R. C. Johnson D. W. Heiser R. J. Gerke S. B. Mathews

1972-01-01

21

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Small)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

22

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

23

Baby T (Pink) (Size: Medium)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

24

Biological Control of the Cassava Mealybug in Africa: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among several natural enemies introduced to combat the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), the neotropical parasitoid Apoanagyrus (Epidinocarsis) lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) was the most successful. It established in 26 African countries, causing a satisfactory reduction in the population density of P. manihoti in most farmers' fields. Four conclusions concerning the possible application of the research results to other biological

Peter Neuenschwander

2001-01-01

25

What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

Passmore, Kaye

2007-01-01

26

Pink-noise behaviour of biosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink (1\\/f) noise is one of the most common behaviours of biosystems. Our present paper is devoted to clarify the origin of this interesting phenomenon. It is shown that the stationary random stochastic processes under self-similar conditions (as we have in living objects) generate pink noise independently of the kind and number of variables.

P. Szendro; G. Vincze; A. Szasz

2001-01-01

27

GENERIC VAPOR HEAT TREATMENTS FOR MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a polyphagous pest recently introduced to the United States that poses a serious threat to agriculture, forestry and the nursery industry. Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of M. hirsutus. Treatments tested were ...

28

Molecular and Histological Characterization of Primary (Betaproteobacteria) and Secondary (Gammaproteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Three Mealybug Species  

PubMed Central

Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A.; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T.

2012-01-01

29

Physiological Characterization of Flower Senescence in Long Life and Ephemeral Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most part of hibiscus plants produces short life flowers that last one day. Therefore they are called ephemeral and flower senescence is usually associated with petal in-rolling and abscission. Flowers are well shaped and different organs can be easily separated, these characteristics make the hibiscus a good model system for flower senescence studies. The aim of this work was

A. Trivellini; P. Vernieri; A. Ferrante; G. Serra

30

Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

Prall, Bruce R.

2008-04-01

31

Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1  

PubMed Central

Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability.

Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

1985-01-01

32

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF HIBISCUS: SPECIES VARIATION, ALTITUDINAL CHANGE, COASTAL INFLUENCE AND FLORAL COLOUR CHANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

WONG SK, LIM YY & CHAN EWC. 2009. Antioxidant properties of Hibiscus: species variation, altitudinal change, coastal influence and floral colour change. Antioxidant properties (AOP) of leaves and flowers of six Hibiscus species were screened. For leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus tiliaceus, the effects of altitudinal change and coastal influence respectively were assessed. Flowers of Hibiscus mutabilis, during colour

SK Wong; YY Lim; EWC Chan

2009-01-01

33

Chemistry and quality of Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for developing the natural-product industry in Senegal.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess and improve the quality of the hibiscus calyces from Senegal over 2 production seasons (2004 to 2005), to develop and adapt new procedures for the determination of hibiscus anthocyanins and analysis of the 2 major ones, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. The foreign matter, total ashes, and acid insoluble ashes showed that the calyces harvested in 2005 were produced following hygienic practices, while the color assessment of the calyces and analysis of hibiscus active principles also showed higher amounts of anthocyanins in 2005. A protocol to measure anthocyanins by pH-differential UV-Vis spectrophotometry was adapted to measure the hibiscus anthocyanins from a water extract. The spectrophotometric method for quantitation of total anthocyanins showed a close correlation (r(2)= 0.82) when compared with the HPLC method, suggesting the use of the colorimetric method in quality control programs as an affordable alternative method to assess anthocyanin content in hibiscus. New and raised standards for the cleanliness and active principle content in hibiscus are also proposed. This study demonstrated that the implementation of a quality control program and the application of agricultural good practices in the production and processing of hibiscus calyces can lead to higher quality natural plant products. PMID:19323768

Juliani, H R; Welch, C R; Wu, Q; Diouf, B; Malainy, D; Simon, J E

2009-03-01

34

The Hibiscus Erineum Mite, Aceria hibisci (Acari: Eriophyidae) a New Introduction in the Caribbean and a Potential Threat to Florida's Hibiscus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hibiscus erineum mite (=hibiscus erinose mite, hibiscus leaf-crumpling mite) was originally described as Eriophyes hibisci (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) in the Fiji islands by Nalepa (1906) and later transferred to the genus Aceria (Keifer 1966). Feeding by this mite deforms young leaves and developing vegetative buds. Nalepa (1909) reported A. hibisci from the Samoan Islands with

Cal Welbourn; Jose Carlos Rodrigues; Jorge E. Peña

35

Spawning Habitat Segregation of Sympatric Sockeye and Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatiotemporal distributions and microhabitat use of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were studied in Lake Creek, southeast Alaska, during three spawning seasons. Sockeye salmon migrated approximately 1 week earlier than pink salmon and spawned 250–350 m upstream from pink salmon. Habitat overlap measured with proportional similarity index monotonically increased with increasing spawner densities. Multidimensional niche spaces

Michio Fukushima; William W. Smoker

1998-01-01

36

Pigments of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The flower petals ofHibiscus sabdariffa contain hibiscitrin as the main component. Gossypitrin is present to a smaller extent. Besides these two, a small amount\\u000a of a new compound named sabdaritrin has also been isolated. On boiling with dilute sulphuric acid it yields a new hydroxyflavone\\u000a called sabdaretin.

P. Suryaprakasa Rao; T. R. Seshadri

1942-01-01

37

Antidiabetic activity of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis at doses of 250 mg\\/kg and 500 mg\\/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose level in both acute (1, 3, 5 h) and sub acute (1, 3, 5, 7 days) treatments.

S. Venkatesh; J. Thilagavathi; D. Shyam sundar

2008-01-01

38

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

39

Baby T (Pink) (Size: X Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

40

Baby T (Pink) (Size: XXX Large)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

1900-01-01

41

PINK BOLLWORM PHEROMONE DISPENSER HARVEST LOSSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Initially 300 hundred pink bollworm pheromone dispenser 'ropes' (resembling twist ties) were attached to cotton plants. A harvester went through the plants at normal speed. Afterwards, 290 ties remained on the cotton plants. Seven ties were found on the ground, two were found in the harvested cot...

42

An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs  

PubMed Central

Summary Highly reduced genomes of 144–416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1–5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations with pairs of bacterial symbionts that live in specialized cells and provide them with essential nutrients; genomic data from these systems have revealed remarkable levels of metabolic complementary between the symbiont pairs [3, 4, 6, 7]. The mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), contains dual bacterial symbionts existing with an unprecedented organization: an unnamed Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Candidatus Moranella endobia, lives inside the Betaproteobacteria Candidatus Tremblaya princeps [8]. Here we describe the complete genomes and metabolic contributions of these unusual nested symbionts. We show that while there is little overlap in retained genes involved in nutrient production between symbionts, several essential amino acid pathways in the mealybug assemblage require a patchwork of interspersed gene products from Tremblaya, Moranella, and possibly P. citri. Furthermore, while Tremblaya has the smallest cellular genome yet described, it contains a genomic inversion present in both orientations in individual insects, starkly contrasting the extreme structural stability typical of highly reduced bacterial genomes [4, 9, 10].

McCutcheon, John P.; von Dohlen, Carol D.

2011-01-01

43

Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0, respectively, and REM to be 1.5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

1991-12-01

44

Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

45

Mealybug Chromosome Cycle as a Paradigm of Epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Recently, epigenetics has had an ever-growing impact on research not only for its intrinsic interest but also because it has been implied in biological phenomena, such as tumor emergence and progression. The first epigenetic phenomenon to be described in the early 1960s was chromosome imprinting in some insect species (sciaridae and coccoideae). Here, we discuss recent experimental results to dissect the phenomenon of imprinted facultative heterochromatinization in Lecanoid coccids (mealybugs). In these insect species, the entire paternally derived haploid chromosome set becomes heterochromatic during embryogenesis in males. We describe the role of known epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, in this phenomenon. We then discuss the models proposed to explain the noncanonical chromosome cycle of these species.

Prantera, Giorgio; Bongiorni, Silvia

2012-01-01

46

A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.  

PubMed

The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

2013-06-04

47

Function and Characteristics of PINK1 in Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for the PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. PARL is a mitochondrial resident rhomboid serine protease, and it has been reported to mediate the cleavage of the PINK1. Interestingly, impaired mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that clears the cells of damaged mitochondria, may also be an underlying mechanism of disease pathogenesis in patients for Parkinson's disease with the PARL mutations. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate the mitophagy. PINK1 is posttranslationally processed, whose level is definitely regulated in healthy steady state of mitochondria. As a consequence, PINK1 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial healthy homeostasis.

Kitagishi, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mayumi

2013-01-01

48

Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge ?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and ?-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes. PMID:21314460

Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

2011-04-01

49

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on obesity in MSG mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the present investigation was determine whether a standardized Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces aqueous extract has an effect on body weight in an obese animal model induced by the administration of monosodium glutamate. Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract, containing 33.64 mg of total anthocyanins per each 120 mg of extract, was orally administered (120 mg/kg/day) for 60 days to healthy and obese mice, and body weight gain, food and liquid intake, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were measured. Hibiscus sabdariffa administration significantly reduced body weight gain in obese mice and increased liquid intake in healthy and obese mice. ALT levels were significantly increased on the 15th and 45th days in obese mice, but AST levels did not show significant changes. Mortality was not observed in the Hibiscus sabdariffa treated groups. Triglycerides and cholesterol levels showed non-significant reductions in animals treated with Hibiscus sabdariffa. Our data confirm the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa reported by the Mexican population. PMID:17765418

Alarcon-Aguilar, Francisco J; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Perez-Garcia, Ma Dolores; Almanza-Perez, Julio C; Romero-Nuñez, Eunice; Campos-Sepulveda, Efrain A; Vazquez-Carrillo, Laura I; Roman-Ramos, Ruben

2007-07-27

50

A male-specific nuclease-resistant chromatin fraction in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mealybugs, chromatin condensation is related to both genomic imprinting and sex determination. The paternal chromosomal complement is condensed and genetically inactive in sons but not in daughters. During a study of chromatin organization in Planococcus lilacinus, digestion with micrococcal nuclease showed that 3% to 5% of the male genome is resistant to the enzyme. This Nuclease Resistant Chromatin (NRC)

Sanjeev Khosla; Prameelarani Kantheti; Vani Brahmachari; H. Sharat Chandra

1996-01-01

51

LIMONENE, A CITRUS EXTRACT, FOR CONTROL OF MEALYBUGS AND SCALE INSECTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mineral oils and insecticidal soaps are commonly recommended at 1-2% active ingredient for control of scale insects and mealybugs on actively growing plants. I discovered that limonene, when properly emulsified, is even more effective for controlling these types of insects. Limonene is the major c...

52

PINK1 cleavage at position A103 by the mitochondrial protease PARL  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause early onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 is a 63 kDa protein kinase, which exerts a neuroprotective function and is known to localize to mitochondria. Upon entry into the organelle, PINK1 is cleaved to produce a ?53 kDa protein (?N-PINK1). In this paper, we show that PINK1 is cleaved between amino acids Ala-103 and Phe-104 to generate ?N-PINK1. We demonstrate that a reduced ability to cleave PINK1, and the consequent accumulation of full-length protein, results in mitochondrial abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in PINK1 knockout cells, including disruption of the mitochondrial network and a reduction in mitochondrial mass. Notably, we assessed three N-terminal PD-associated PINK1 mutations located close to the cleavage site and, while these do not prevent PINK1 cleavage, they alter the ratio of full-length to ?N-PINK1 protein in cells, resulting in an altered mitochondrial phenotype. Finally, we show that PINK1 interacts with the mitochondrial protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) and that loss of PARL results in aberrant PINK1 cleavage in mammalian cells. These combined results suggest that PINK1 cleavage is important for basal mitochondrial health and that PARL cleaves PINK1 to produce the ?N-PINK1 fragment.

Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Gandhi, Sonia; Desmond, Howard; Kjaer, Svend; Loh, Samantha H.Y.; Renton, Alan E.M.; Harvey, Robert J.; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Wood, Nicholas W.

2011-01-01

53

Development and Optimization of Methods for Using Sex Pheromone for Monitoring the Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California Vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Econ. Entomol. 95(4): 706Ð714 (2002) ABSTRACT The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identiÞed as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of

Jocelyn G. Millar; Kent M. Daane; J. Steven Mcelfresh; Jardel A. Moreira; Raksha Malakar-Kuenen; Marta Guillén; Walt J. Bentley

2002-01-01

54

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

55

Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of Natural and Irradiated Pink Tourmaline.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Brazilian natural pink tourmaline is studied through the polarized optical absorption measurements. The effect of increasing doses of gamma -rays from sup 60 Co in the spectra were determined (maximum of 20MGy). The following optical absorption bands ...

M. B. Camargo S. Isotani

1985-01-01

56

The kinase domain of mitochondrial PINK1 faces the cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are a cause of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Efforts in deducing the PINK1 signaling pathway have been hindered by controversy around its subcellular and submitochondrial localization and the authenticity of its reported substrates. We show here that this mitochondrial protein exhibits a topology in which the kinase domain faces the cytoplasm and the N-terminal tail is inside the mitochondria. Although deletion of the transmembrane domain disrupts this topology, common PD-linked PINK1 mutations do not. These results are critical in rectifying the location and orientation of PINK1 in mitochondria, and they should help decipher its normal physiological function and potential pathogenic role in PD.

Zhou, Chun; Huang, Yong; Shao, Yufang; May, Jessica; Prou, Delphine; Perier, Celine; Dauer, William; Schon, Eric A.; Przedborski, Serge

2008-01-01

57

Tickled PINK1: mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in recessive Parkinsonism.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of mitochondrial structure and function has emerged as a central factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related parkinsonian disorders (PD). Toxic and environmental injuries and risk factors perturb mitochondrial complex I function, and gene products linked to familial PD often affect mitochondrial biology. Autosomal recessive mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause an L-DOPA responsive parkinsonian syndrome, stimulating extensive interest in the normal neuroprotective and mitoprotective functions of PINK1. Recent data from mammalian and invertebrate model systems converge upon interactions between PINK1 and parkin, as well as DJ-1, alpha-synuclein and leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2). While all studies to date support a neuroprotective role for wild type, but not mutant PINK1, there is less agreement on subcellular compartmentalization of PINK1 kinase function and whether PINK1 promotes mitochondrial fission or fusion. These controversies are reviewed in the context of the dynamic mitochondrial lifecycle, in which mitochondrial structure and function are continuously modulated not only by the fission-fusion machinery, but also by regulation of biogenesis, axonal/dendritic transport and autophagy. A working model is proposed, in which PINK1 loss-of-function results in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), cristae/respiratory dysfunction and destabilization of calcium homeostasis, which trigger compensatory fission, autophagy and biosynthetic repair pathways that dramatically alter mitochondrial structure. Concurrent strategies to identify pathways that mediate normal PINK1 function and to identify factors that facilitate appropriate compensatory responses to its loss are both needed to halt the aging-related penetrance and incidence of familial and sporadic PD. PMID:19595762

Chu, Charleen T

2009-07-09

58

TRAP1 rescues PINK1 loss-of-function phenotypes.  

PubMed

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that is localized to mitochondria. It protects cells from oxidative stress by suppressing mitochondrial cytochrome c release, thereby preventing cell death. Mutations in Pink1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Consistently, mitochondrial function is impaired in Pink1-linked PD patients and model systems. Previously, in vitro analysis implied that the protective effects of PINK1 depend on phosphorylation of the downstream factor, TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1). Furthermore, TRAP1 has been shown to mitigate ?-Synuclein-induced toxicity, linking ?-Synuclein directly to mitochondrial dysfunction. These data suggest that TRAP1 seems to mediate protective effects on mitochondrial function in pathways that are affected in PD. Here we investigated the potential of TRAP1 to rescue dysfunction induced by either PINK1 or Parkin deficiency in vivo and in vitro. We show that overexpression of human TRAP1 is able to mitigate Pink1 but not parkin loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. In addition, detrimental effects observed after RNAi-mediated silencing of complex I subunits were rescued by TRAP1 in Drosophila. Moreover, TRAP1 was able to rescue mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction upon siRNA-induced silencing of Pink1 but not parkin in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, our data suggest a functional role of TRAP1 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity downstream of PINK1 and complex I deficits but parallel to or upstream of Parkin. PMID:23525905

Zhang, Li; Karsten, Peter; Hamm, Sabine; Pogson, Joe H; Müller-Rischart, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Haass, Christian; Whitworth, Alexander J; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Schulz, Jörg B; Voigt, Aaron

2013-03-21

59

"Pink urine" in morbidly obese patients following gastric partitioning.  

PubMed Central

A pink coating on the inner surface of plastic urinary tubing, which gave the impression that the urine was pink, had frequently been noted 4 to 24 hours following gastric partitioning by means of a stapler in morbidly obese patients. A study was therefore done in 187 such patients as well as in 14 patients of normal weight who had undergone abdominal surgery of comparable magnitude. Postoperatively "pink urine" was observed in 32% of the obese patients but in none of the nonobese patients; however, a pink sediment remained following centrifugation of urine collected postoperatively from all the obese patients. Microscopy of this sediment showed crystals of uric acid dihydrate; these were infrequent in the preoperative specimens but present in high concentration in the postoperative specimens, particularly those of "pink urine". X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the nature of the crystals. Preoperatively the obese patients had high-normal serum levels of uric acid. Postoperatively in all the groups of patients the serum levels of uric acid decreased while the urine levels and the urinary clearance of uric acid increased; the last two values, however, were significantly greater, both preoperatively and postoperatively, in those who were morbidly obese. Compared with the patients who did not have "pink urine" the patients with "pink urine" were significantly more obese and had a significantly lower postoperative urine pH. The latter also had a marked postoperative increase in urine osmolality and were the only patients to have a significant postoperative decrease in urine output. Thus, the pink colour of this group's urine was attributed to precipitation of uric acid crystals, fostered by a decrease in pH and an increase in concentration of the urine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Deitel, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Saldanha, C. F.; Ramshaw, P. J.; Patterson, M. C.; Pritzker, K. P.

1984-01-01

60

Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.  

PubMed

The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

2012-11-21

61

Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that these insecticides are compatible with both natural enemies when used together for control of citrus mealybug in greenhouses and conservatories. PMID:17066788

Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

2006-10-01

62

Identification of the sex pheromone of the mealybug Dysmicoccus grassii Leonardi.  

PubMed

Studies about the sex pheromone of the mealybug Dysmicoccus grassii , a main pest of Canary Islands banana cultivars, showed strong evidence that (-)-(R)-lavandulyl propionate and acetate in a 6:1 ratio are principal components of it. Volatile collection and GC-MS analysis from aeration of virgin females allowed the structural elucidation of the compounds. The activity and stereochemistry of both substances were established by means of relative attraction of mealybug males to synthetic standards in competitive Petri dish bioassays. (R)-Lavandulyl propionate induced a stronger attractive effect when compared to (R)-lavandulyl acetate. The attractiveness of the mixture of the two compounds at the original source ratio showed no statistically significant difference from that of the sum of each of the single compounds alone, suggesting that both components are not synergistic but additive. PMID:23167613

de Alfonso, Ignacio; Hernandez, Estrella; Velazquez, Yisell; Navarro, Ismael; Primo, Jaime

2012-11-20

63

Genetic Characterization of a Putative Densovirus from the Mealybug Planococcus citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total genomic DNA preparations from the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, contained a DNA band corresponding to 5.5 kilobases. This DNA was a linear molecule and was cloned into pUC18. Nucleotide\\u000a sequence determination indicated that it was the replicative form of a densovirus, most closely related to the virus from\\u000a Periplaneta fuliginosa (smokybrown cockroach).

MyLo L. Thao; Susan Wineriter; Gary Buckingham; Paul Baumann

2001-01-01

64

Phytosterol composition of hybrid Hibiscus seed oils.  

PubMed

The seed oils from fifteen hybrid Hibiscus varieties were analyzed for desmethyl sterol content to identify bioactive compounds that could promote the use of these oils for edible applications. Hibiscusis being developed as a new crop with edible and nutraceutical applications for the component tissues and tissue extracts. Previously, hybrid varieties were developed for ornamental purposes on the basis of flower morphology and color. Currently, the effects of selective breeding on seed oil components are of interest as these represent potential natural products with bioactive properties. In the present study, sterol structures were identified as the corresponding trimethyl silyl ether derivatives obtained from the unsaponifiable fraction of the seed oils. This material contained an average of 32 wt % sterols and exhibited a relative composition of sitosterol, 76.3%; campesterol, 10.3%; stigmasterol, 7.3%; 5-avenasterol, 4.4%; and cholesterol, 0.6%. The content of 5-avenasterol showed statistically significant variation among the hybrid varieties with a range of 1.2-5.8%. PMID:15113154

Holser, Ronald A; Bost, Georgia; Van Boven, Maurits

2004-05-01

65

Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.  

PubMed

The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs. PMID:20464943

Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally

2010-03-01

66

Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.  

PubMed

The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision. PMID:16813342

Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

2006-06-01

67

First Recorded Mating Flight of the Hypogeic Ant, Acropyga epedana, with its Obligate Mutualist Mealybug, Rhizoecus colombiensis  

PubMed Central

On 26-July, 2005 a mating aggregation of Acropyga epedana Snelling (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was observed in the Chiricahua Mountains in south-eastern Arizona. This is the first record of a mating flight of A. epedana, the only nearctic member of this pantropical genus. Mating behavior was observed, newly mated queens were collected, and a complete colony was excavated. New information is reported on the natural history and mating behavior of the species. The identity of a mealybug mutualist, Rhizoecus colombiensis (Homoptera: Rhizoecinae) is confirmed. Reproductive females participating in flights all carried mealybugs between their mandibles, indicating a vertical transfer of mealybugs with their ant hosts. No captured foundresses survived long in captivity, most likely due to the death of their mealybugs. The colony excavated had a single queen, though polygyny is common in the genus. Nearly all workers within the nest were heavily parasitized by mites, although males or gynes were not parasitized. These natural history observations are discussed with regard to this poorly understood mutualistic relationship between Acropyga ants and their mealybug partners.

Smith, Chris R.; Oettler, Jan; Kay, Adam; Deans, Carrie

2007-01-01

68

Foliar spirality and aestivation of flowers in Hibiscus cannabinus Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary InHibiscus cannabinus a negative association exists between the foliar spirality and the aestivation of corolla. Moreover, it is seen that the fruits developed from left-twiting flowers of left-spiralled plants and those of the right-twisting flowers of right-spiralled plants are better in quality.

S. S. Ghosh; T. A. Davis

1978-01-01

69

Colouring matter of the flowers of Hibiscus vitifolius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The colouring matter of the flower petals ofHibiscus vitifolius consists almost entirely of gossypin along with very small amounts of quercetin. These petals form a very good source of\\u000a this new and interesting glycoside and eventually of gossypetin also.

K. Visweswara Rao; T. R. Seshadri

1946-01-01

70

Anti-diabetic activity of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis.  

PubMed

The ethanol extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose level in both acute (1, 3, 5 h) and sub acute (1, 3, 5, 7 days) treatments. PMID:17850989

Venkatesh, S; Thilagavathi, J; Shyam Sundar, D

2007-08-11

71

Immunomodulatory effect of Hibiscus cannabinus extract on macrophage functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae) (known as Kenaf) has long been used as a folk medicine in India and Africa for the treatment of blood and throat disorders, bilious conditions, fever and puerperium. In this study, therefore, we aimed either to demonstrate its ethnopharmacological activity by examining its macrophage function-regulating effects or to expand its therapeutic efficacy into other macrophage-mediated diseases.

Yong Gyu Lee; Se Eun Byeon; Joo Young Kim; Ji Yeon Lee; Man Hee Rhee; Sungyoul Hong; Jin Cheng Wu; Han Shin Lee; Myong Jo Kim; Dong Ha Cho; Jae Youl Cho

2007-01-01

72

The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively.

M Haji Faraji; A. H Haji Tarkhani

1999-01-01

73

Evaluation of Growth Regulators on In Vitro Hibiscus Shoot Regeneration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration was achieved from shoot apices in two genotypes (red and green variants) of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern using the growth regulators thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N’-1,2,3-thidazol-5-ylurea, TDZ) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Shoot apices were cultured for ...

74

An AFLP-based assessment of the genetic diversity within Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and its place within the Hibiscus genus complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species within the genus Hibiscus (Malvaceae) are herbaceous or woody plants, annuals or perennials. Within the genus, most of the domesticated species are grown as ornamentals, and the most widely exploited is Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, which is particularly variable with respect to flower colour and shape. H. rosa-sinensis is thought to have originated following hybridization between two species complexes endemic to

Luca Braglia; Simona Bruna; Sergio Lanteri; Antonio Mercuri; Ezio Portis

2010-01-01

75

Analysis of the regulatory and catalytic domains of PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1).  

PubMed

Mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene can cause early-onset familial Parkinson disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a neuroprotective protein kinase localized at the mitochondria, and its involvement in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, trafficking, structure, and function is well documented. Owing to the lack of information on structure and biochemical properties for PINK1, exactly how PINK1 exerts its neuroprotective function and how the PD-causative mutations impact on PINK1 structure and function remain unclear. As an approach to address these questions, we conducted bioinformatic analyses of the mitochondrial targeting, the transmembrane, and kinase domains of PINK1 to predict the motifs governing its regulation and function. Our report sheds light on how PINK1 is targeted to the mitochondria and how PINK1 is cleaved by mitochondrial peptidases. Moreover, it includes a potential optimal phosphorylation sequence preferred by the PINK1 kinase domain. On the basis of the results of our analyses, we predict how the PD-causative mutations affect processing of PINK1 in the mitochondria, PINK1 kinase activity, and substrate specificity. In summary, our results provide a conceptual framework for future investigation of the structural and biochemical basis of regulation and the neuroprotective mechanism of PINK1. PMID:22644621

Sim, Chou Hung; Gabriel, Kipros; Mills, Ryan D; Culvenor, Janetta G; Cheng, Heung-Chin

2012-07-05

76

Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen

W. R. Woodson; A. K. Handa

1986-01-01

77

ENERGY SAVINGS IN FORMATION FLIGHT OF PINK-FOOTED GEESE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifty-four skeins of pink-footed geese ( Anser brachyrhynchus) were photographed from directly underneath to eliminate the effects of perspective distortion, and the wing- tip spacings (the distance between adjacent birds' wing tips perpendicular to the flight path at maximum wingspan) and depths (the distance between adjacent birds' body centres parallel to the flight path) were measured at the same

C. J. CUTTS; J. R. SPEAKMAN

1994-01-01

78

Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose

Kaitlyn Regehr

2012-01-01

79

Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the West Coast of…

Twomey, Sarah Jane

2011-01-01

80

SARM1 and TRAF6 bind to and stabilize PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria.  

PubMed

Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Recent work suggests that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 and that accumulated PINK1 recruits parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for elimination of depolarized mitochondria, which is known as mitophagy. In this study, we find that PINK1 forms a complex with sterile ? and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which is important for import of PINK1 in the outer membrane and stabilization of PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria. SARM1, which is known to be an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor, binds to PINK1 and promotes TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 chain ubiquitination of PINK1 at lysine 433. Down-regulation of SARM1 and TRAF6 abrogates accumulation of PINK1, followed by recruitment of parkin to damaged mitochondria. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 reduce the complex formation and ubiquitination. These results indicate that association of PINK1 with SARM1 and TRAF6 is an important step for mitophagy. PMID:23885119

Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-Ho

2013-07-24

81

Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. METHODS: The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally

Karunakaran K Gauthaman; Mohamed TS Saleem; Peter T Thanislas; Vinoth V Prabhu; Karthikeyan K Krishnamoorthy; Niranjali S Devaraj; Jayaprakash S Somasundaram

2006-01-01

82

Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. methanolic extract.  

PubMed

The genus Hibiscus thrives in a variety of climates and produces a diversity of natural compounds with bioactive properties. We have studied the chemical composition and the in vivo antioxidant properties of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. methanolic flower extract, as well as its mutagenic/antimutagenic effects. Vitamin E and some stigmasterol derivatives that might confer an antioxidant effect to the extract were present. Treatment with this extract protected several Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains defective in antioxidant defenses against H2O2 and t-BOOH cytotoxicities, showing a clear antioxidant activity. The effect is the same for all strains used, independent of the antioxidant defense disrupted, suggesting that protection may be due to molecules that act as versatile and wide spectrum nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as vitamins or phytosterols. The extract was not mutagenic in either Salmonella typhimurium or S. cerevisiae and showed a significant antimutagenic action against oxidative mutagens in S. cerevisiae. PMID:16968101

Rosa, Renato Moreira; Melecchi, Maria Inés S; da Costa Halmenschlager, Rafael; Abad, Fernanda C; Simoni, Cristina Rosat; Caramão, Elina B; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Saffi, Jenifer; de Paula Ramos, Ana Lígia Lia

2006-09-20

83

[Hibiscus sabdariffa L: source of antioxidant dietary fiber].  

PubMed

Dietary fiber and antioxidants are food constituents and functional ingredients that are generally addressed separately. Nowadays there is scientific evidence that primary characteristics of DF assigned to non starch polysaccharides and lignin (resistance to digestion and absorption in the small intestine and fermentation in the large intestine) can be extended to other indigestible food constituents that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine. The antioxidant dietary fiber concept was defined as a dietary fiber concentrate containing significant amounts of natural antioxidants associated with non digestible compounds. Hibiscus sabdariffa L flower shows in its composition an important percentage of dietary fiber and high antioxidant capacity. The infusion obtained by decoction of flowers, had been extensibility studied due to the healthy properties. In this work the principal nutritional aspects from Hibiscus sabdariffa L and its use as a possible antioxidant dietary fiber source had been considered. PMID:21090279

Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

2010-03-01

84

Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes about 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in Italy....

85

PINK1 Protects against Oxidative Stress by Phosphorylating Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone also known as heat shock protein 75 (Hsp75), as a cellular substrate for PINK1 kinase. PINK1 binds and colocalizes with TRAP1 in the mitochondria and phosphorylates TRAP1 both in vitro and in vivo. We show that PINK1 protects against oxidative-stress-induced cell death by suppressing cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and this protective action of PINK1 depends on its kinase activity to phosphorylate TRAP1. Moreover, we find that the ability of PINK1 to promote TRAP1 phosphorylation and cell survival is impaired by PD-linked PINK1 G309D, L347P, and W437X mutations. Our findings suggest a novel pathway by which PINK1 phosphorylates downstream effector TRAP1 to prevent oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis and implicate the dysregulation of this mitochondrial pathway in PD pathogenesis.

Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

2007-01-01

86

Tickled PINK1: Mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in recessive Parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of mitochondrial structure and function has emerged as a central factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related parkinsonian disorders (PD). Toxic and environmental injuries and risk factors perturb mitochondrial complex I function, and gene products linked to familial PD often affect mitochondrial biology. Autosomal recessive mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause an L-DOPA responsive parkinsonian syndrome,

Charleen T. Chu

2010-01-01

87

Inheritance of nuclear DNA markers in gynogenetic haploid pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the inheritance of 460 PCR-based loci in the polyploid-derived pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) genome using gynogenetic haploid embryos. We detected a length polymorphism in a growth hormone gene (GH-2) intron that is caused by an 81 bp insertion homologous to the 39 end of the salmonid short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) SmaI. Such insertion polymorphisms within species bring

P. Spruell; K. L. Pilgrim; B. A. Greene; C. Habicht; K. L. Knudsen; K. R. Lindner; J. B. Olsen; G. K. Sage; J. E. Seeb; F. W. Allendorf

1999-01-01

88

Changes in lipid class and fatty acid compositions during maturation of Hibiscus esculentus and Hibiscus cannabinus seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major lipid classes and their constituent fatty acids were analyzed in maturing seeds ofHibiscus esculentus andH. cannabinus. The seeds matured in 40 and 45 days, respectively. The active accumulation period was from the 13th to 25th and 15th to\\u000a 30th day after flowering, respectively. While a continuous increase in the content of triacylglycerols (TAG) was noticed inH. esculentus, TAG

G. Lakshminarayana; T. N. B. Kaimal; N. Gopalakrishnan

1984-01-01

89

UNUSUAL MICROTUBULAR PATTERNS AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOVEMENT OF MEALYBUG SPERM AND SPERM BUNDLES  

PubMed Central

The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 µ by 300 µ) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07–0.09 µ diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 µ by 750 µ and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement.

Ross, Jean; Robison, W. Gerald

1969-01-01

90

Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles.  

PubMed

The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 micro by 300 micro) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07-0.09 micro diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 micro by 750 micro and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement. PMID:5761921

Ross, J; Robison, W G

1969-02-01

91

Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Defense in Cotton Plant by the Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis  

PubMed Central

The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

Zhang, Pengjun; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Fang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Jinming; Lu, Yaobin; Ruan, Yongming

2011-01-01

92

Shared and Cell Type-Specific Mitochondrial Defects and Metabolic Adaptations in Primary Cells from PINK1-Deficient Mice.  

PubMed

Background: Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause early-onset recessive parkinsonism. PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial quality control. However, PINK1 ablation in Drosophila and cultured mammalian cell lines affected mitochondrial function/dynamics in opposite ways, confounding the elucidation of the role of PINK1 in these processes. Objective: We recently generated PINK1-deficient (PINK1(-/-)) mice and reasoned that primary cells from these mice provide a more physiological substrate to study the role of PINK1 in mammals and to investigate metabolic adaptations and neuron-specific vulnerability in PINK1 deficiency. Methods and Results: Using real-time measurement of oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification, we show that basal mitochondrial respiration is increased, while maximum respiration and spare respiratory capacity are decreased in PINK1(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), as is the membrane potential. In addition, a Warburg-like effect in PINK1(-/-) MEF promotes survival that is abrogated by inhibition of glycolysis. Expression of uncoupling protein-2 is decreased in PINK1(-/-) MEF and the striatum of PINK1(-/-) mice, possibly increasing the sensitivity to oxidative stress. Mitochondria accumulate in large foci in PINK1(-/-) MEF, indicative of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and/or transport. Like in PINK1(-/-)Drosophila, enlarged/swollen mitochondria accumulate in three different cell types from PINK1(-/-) mice (MEF, primary cortical neurons and embryonic stem cells). However, mitochondrial enlargement is greatest and most prominent in primary cortical neurons that also develop cristae fragmentation and disintegration. Conclusion: Our results reveal mechanisms of PINK1-related parkinsonism, show that the function of PINK1 is conserved between Drosophila and mammals when studied in primary cells, and demonstrate that the same PINK1 mutation can affect mitochondrial morphology/degeneration in a cell type-specific manner, suggesting that tissue-/cell-specific metabolic capacity and adaptations determine phenotypes and cellular vulnerability in PINK1(-/-) mice and cells. PMID:23295771

Akundi, Ravi S; Zhi, Lianteng; Sullivan, Patrick G; Büeler, Hansruedi

2012-12-29

93

(2,3,4,4-Tetramethylcyclopentyl)Methyl Acetate, a Sex Pheromone from the Obscure Mealybug: First Example of a New Structural Class of Monoterpenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sex pheromone of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, consists of (1R*,2R*,3S*)-(2,3,4,4-tetramethylcyclopentyl)methyl acetate, the first example of a new monoterpenoid structural motif in which the two isoprene units forming the carbon skeleton are joined by 2?–2 and 3?–4 connections rather than the usual 1?–4, head-to-tail connections. This highly irregular terpenoid structure, and the irregular terpenoid structures of related mealybug species,

Jocelyn G. Millar; Sharon L. Midland; J. Steven McElfresh; Kent M. Daane

2005-01-01

94

Biochemical factors associated with a CO 2-induced flesh browning disorder of Pink Lady apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The underlying biochemical factors associated with a CO2-induced internal flesh browning (FB) disorder of Pink Lady apples (Malus domestica Borkh ‘Cripps Pink’) are poorly understood. To investigate this disorder, Pink Lady apples were stored in air or controlled atmosphere (CA) with 1.5kPa O2 and 5kPa CO2 at 0.5°C for 2 and 4 months in 2004 and 2005. Following CA storage,

Elena de Castro; Diane M. Barrett; Jennifer Jobling; Elizabeth J. Mitcham

2008-01-01

95

Pink spots” in formalin-fixed brains —Poor fixation or bacterial byproduct?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumscribed pink areas 0.3–1.0 cm in diameter seen in the deeper parts of otherwise well-fixed brains are usually ascribed to inadequate fixation. Twenty-three patients with pink areas in their fixed brains had evidence of inflammation in at least one organ. Blood vessels in the pink areas contained bacteria. Postmortem cultures identified the organisms in 16 cases. Gram-negative bacteria were the

E. T. Hedley-Whyte; C. S. Kubik

1985-01-01

96

PINK1 Protects against Oxidative Stress by Phosphorylating Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone also known as heat shock

Julia W Pridgeon; James A Olzmann; Lih-Shen Chin; Lian Li

2007-01-01

97

Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in autosomal recessive forms of the disease caused by mutations encoding PINK1. Although mitochondrial pathology can be demonstrated in many cell types, it is neurons that bear the brunt of cell death in PD. We studied the mitochondrial physiology of neurons and muscle cells with loss of function of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein PINK1. PINK1 is widely expressed in many types of tissues, but deficiency selectively induces death in neurons. We report here that the same genetic defect results in opposing phenotypes in different cell types, depending on the metabolic properties of the cell. Thus, PINK1-deficient myocytes exhibit high basal mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), whereas PINK1-deficient neurons have been shown to exhibit a low ??m. PINK1 deficiency induces impaired respiration in both cell types, with a concomitant increase in glycolytic activity. We demonstrate that the high glycolytic capacity in myocytes compared with neurons enables them to produce more ATP and, therefore, compensates for the metabolic defects induced by PINK1 deficiency. Furthermore, the high ??m generated in PINK1 knockout (KO) muscle mitochondria enables them to buffer cytosolic Ca(2+) fluxes, rendering them resistant to Ca(2+) stress effectively. Conversely, PINK1 KO neurons were previously shown to develop mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarisation. Prevention of Ca(2+) dysregulation in myocytes might therefore account for the sparing of these cells in PD. PMID:22223879

Yao, Zhi; Gandhi, Sonia; Burchell, Victoria S; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W; Abramov, Andrey Y

2012-01-05

98

Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.  

PubMed

Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. PMID:21848751

Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

2011-02-23

99

Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.  

PubMed

Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. ?-lactoglobulin (1.8%), ?-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey. PMID:22061938

Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

2007-05-17

100

A pivotal role for PINK1 and autophagy in mitochondrial quality control: implications for Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

The PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) is a mitochondrially targeted serine-threonine kinase, which is linked to autosomal recessive familial parkinsonism. Current literature implicates PINK1 as a pivotal regulator of mitochondrial quality control, promoting maintenance of respiring mitochondrial networks through cristae stabilization, phosphorylation of chaperones and possibly regulation of mitochondrial transport or autophagy. Pulse-chase studies indicate that PINK1 is rapidly processed into at least two shorter forms, which are distributed in both mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. Through indirect regulation of mitochondrial proteases and Drp1, PINK1 may act to facilitate localized repair and fusion in response to minor mitochondrial stress. With severe mitochondrial damage, PINK1 facilitates aggregation and clearance of depolarized mitochondria through interactions with Parkin and possibly Beclin1. This switch in function most probably involves altered processing, post-translational modification and/or localization of PINK1, as overexpression of full-length PINK1 is required for mitochondrial Parkin recruitment. Under conditions of PINK1 deficiency, dysregulation of reactive oxygen species, electron transport chain function and calcium homeostasis trigger altered mitochondrial dynamics, indicating compromise of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms. Nevertheless, Parkin- and Beclin1-regulated mitochondrial autophagy remains effective at recycling PINK1-deficient mitochondria; failure of this final tier of mitochondrial quality control contributes to cell death. Thus, PINK1 plays a pivotal, multifactorial role in mitochondrial homeostasis. As autophagic recycling represents the final tier of mitochondrial quality control, whether PINK1 levels are enhanced or reduced, strategies to promote selective mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis may prove effective for multiple forms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20385539

Chu, Charleen T

2010-04-12

101

Dopamine Induced Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundParkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species production and calcium dysregulation, which increases susceptibility to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. The basis

Sonia Gandhi; Annika Vaarmann; Zhi Yao; Michael R. Duchen; Nicholas W. Wood; Andrey Y. Abramov

2012-01-01

102

The Pink Palace, policy and power: Home-making practices and gentrification in Northcote  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural practices constitute cultural spaces, which include, or exclude, specific identities. This article examines a set of particular ‘home-making’ cultural practices surrounding gentrification in Northcote, Melbourne. I use the notion of home making to understand the implications of gentrification on a particular site, the Pink Palace. The Pink Palace was a former warehouse, located on Eastment Street, Northcote, which operated

Rosemary Overell

2009-01-01

103

Relating Induced In Situ Conditions of Raw Chicken Breast Meat to Pinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to simulate the pink color defect in cooked chicken breast meat with treatment combinations that would induce measurable changes in the conditions of raw meat. In addition, the feasibility of using induced raw meat conditions to develop a logistic regression model for prediction of pinking was studied. Approximately 960 breast fillets from 2 plants with 2 replications

K. Holownia; M. S. Chinnan; A. E. Reynolds; J. W. Davis

104

Caenorhabditits elegans LRK-1 and PINK-1 Act Antagonistically in Stress Response and Neurite Outgrowth*  

PubMed Central

Mutations in two genes encoding the putative kinases LRRK2 and PINK1 have been associated with inherited variants of Parkinson disease. The physiological role of both proteins is not known at present, but studies in model organisms have linked their mutants to distinct aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction, increased vulnerability to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and intracellular protein sorting. Here, we show that a mutation in the Caenorhabditits elegans homologue of the PTEN-induced kinase pink-1 gene resulted in reduced mitochondrial cristae length and increased paraquat sensitivity of the nematode. Moreover, the mutants also displayed defects in axonal outgrowth of a pair of canal-associated neurons. We demonstrate that in the absence of lrk-1, the C. elegans homologue of human LRRK2, all phenotypic aspects of pink-1 loss-of-function mutants were suppressed. Conversely, the hypersensitivity of lrk-1 mutant animals to the endoplasmic reticulum stressor tunicamycin was reduced in a pink-1 mutant background. These results provide the first evidence of an antagonistic role of PINK-1 and LRK-1. Due to the similarity of the C. elegans proteins to human LRRK2 and PINK1, we suggest a common role of both factors in cellular functions including stress response and regulation of neurite outgrowth. This study might help to link pink-1/PINK1 and lrk-1/LRRK2 function to the pathological processes resulting from Parkinson disease-related mutants in both genes, the first manifestations of which are cytoskeletal defects in affected neurons.

Samann, Julia; Hegermann, Jan; von Gromoff, Erika; Eimer, Stefan; Baumeister, Ralf; Schmidt, Enrico

2009-01-01

105

EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

106

Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of ‘Pink Lady’ and other late?season apple cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink Lady’ is a late maturing ‘Lady Williams’ × ‘Golden Delicious’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivar developed in Western Australia and imported into New Zealand by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in 1986. We used trained and consumer panellists, and chemical and physical analyses, to compare the sensory quality of ‘Pink Lady’ with that of four standard late?harvest apple

Virginia K. Corrigan; Paul L. Hurst; Geraldine Boulton

1997-01-01

107

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs.,

ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH; GENE S. WICKHAM; NORMAN R. PACE

1994-01-01

108

Pink Salmon Spawning Habitat is Recovering a Decade after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intertidal sediment surrounding many spawning streams for pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in western Prince William Sound, Alaska, was contaminated by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Biochemical and egg-dig evidence suggested that oil reduced the survival of pink salmon embryos for several years. Previous research also demonstrated that dissolved oil can be transferred to developing embryos from surrounding oiled

Mark G. Carls; Stanley D. Rice; Gary D. Marty; Diane K. Naydan

2004-01-01

109

Evidence for Size-Selective Mortality after the First Summer of Ocean Growth by Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that

Jamal H. Moss; David A. Beauchamp; Alison D. Cross; Katherine W. Myers; Edward V. Farley Jr; James M. Murphy; John H. Helle

2005-01-01

110

Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

Kim, Bo Sun

2012-01-01

111

Pink Salmon, 'Oncorhynchus gorbusha', Tagging Experiments in Southeastern Alaska, 1938-42 and 1945.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 20,532 pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) were tagged and released in southeastern Alaska from 1938 to 1942, and in 1945. The recovery of 7,027 tags in the fish traps confirmed that the pink salmon stocks of the northern part of southeast Ala...

R. E. Nakatani G. J. Paulik R. Van Cleve

1975-01-01

112

Taxonomy of the bean goose-pink-footed goose.  

PubMed

The bean goose Anser fabalis and the pink-footed goose A. brachyrhynchus breed in the tundra and taiga zones of Eurasia and eastern Greenland, and the taxonomy of the group based on morphology has been controversial. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships within the bean goose-the pink-footed goose complex using mitochondrial control region sequences of 199 individuals collected from the breeding areas in the Palaearctic and Eastern Nearctic. We found three mitochondrial clades geographically distributed to (1) Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard (A. brachyrhynchus), (2) the eastern taiga zone (former subspecies A. fabalis middendorffii), and (3) the western taiga and the tundra zone (subspecies A. fabalisrossicus, serrirostris and fabalis). MtDNA phylogeny suggests that morphological affinities between the taxa, e.g. in the bill structure, result from convergent evolution due to adaptation to similar habitats. Although a latitudinal cline in morphology was observed, clear phylogenetic discontinuities exist in the taiga and tundra zones supporting a species status for brachyrhynchus and middendorffii. PMID:18550388

Ruokonen, M; Litvin, K; Aarvak, T

2008-05-03

113

Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)--mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts--has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field--ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area--were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

Simmons, Gregory S; McKemey, Andrew R; Morrison, Neil I; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S; Phillips, Caroline E; Miller, Ernie D; Rose, Robert I; Staten, Robert T; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke

2011-09-13

114

The Loss of PGAM5 Suppresses the Mitochondrial Degeneration Caused by Inactivation of PINK1 in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is required for mitochondrial homeostasis, is a gene product responsible for early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Another early onset PD gene product, Parkin, has been suggested to function downstream of the PINK1 signalling pathway based on genetic studies in Drosophila. PINK1 is a serine/threonine kinase with a predicted mitochondrial target sequence and a probable transmembrane domain at the N-terminus, while Parkin is a RING-finger protein with ubiquitin-ligase (E3) activity. However, how PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial activity is largely unknown. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the interaction between PINK1 and Parkin, we biochemically purified PINK1-binding proteins from human cultured cells and screened the genes encoding these binding proteins using Drosophila PINK1 (dPINK1) models to isolate a molecule(s) involved in the PINK1 pathology. Here we report that a PINK1-binding mitochondrial protein, PGAM5, modulates the PINK1 pathway. Loss of Drosophila PGAM5 (dPGAM5) can suppress the muscle degeneration, motor defects, and shorter lifespan that result from dPINK1 inactivation and that can be attributed to mitochondrial degeneration. However, dPGAM5 inactivation fails to modulate the phenotypes of parkin mutant flies. Conversely, ectopic expression of dPGAM5 exacerbated the dPINK1 and Drosophila parkin (dParkin) phenotypes. These results suggest that PGAM5 negatively regulates the PINK1 pathway related to maintenance of the mitochondria and, furthermore, that PGAM5 acts between PINK1 and Parkin, or functions independently of Parkin downstream of PINK1.

Sawada, Tomoyo; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Yosuke; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Lu, Bingwei; Takahashi, Ryosuke

2010-01-01

115

Hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root in rats.  

PubMed

The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (family Malvaceae) root extract was studied on triton and cholesterol-rich high fat diet (HFD) induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. In triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia, feeding with root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.) exerted lipid-lowering effect, as assessed by reversal of plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG) and reactivation of post-heparin lipolytic activity (PHLA) of plasma. The other model was fed with cholesterol-rich HFD and root extract (500 mg/kg body wt/ day p.o.) simultaneously for 30 days. This also caused lowering of lipid levels in plasma and liver homogenate and reactivation of plasma PHLA and hepatic total lipoprotein lipase activity. The hypolipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis root was compared with a standard drug guggulipid (200 mg/kg body wt/day p.o.), a known lipid- lowering agent in both models. Histopathological findings in rat liver supported the protective role of H. rosa sinensis root extract in preventing cholesterol-rich HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. PMID:20361715

Kumar, Vishnu; Singh, Pradyumn; Chander, Ramesh; Mahdi, Farzana; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Ranjana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Vinod Kumar

2009-12-01

116

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced rat hepatic damage.  

PubMed

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound found in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), was demonstrated to have an antioxidant effect in vitro and in vivo, and an antitumor property in our previous study. In the present study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) to induce rat liver inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and found that pretreatment with PCA decreased the liver iNOS and the serum total nitrite induced by LPS. Our investigation showed that pretreatment of rats with PCA (0.2 and 0.5 mmol/kg dosed by gavage) for 5 days significantly decreased the serum levels of the hepatic enzyme markers alanine- and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase) induced by the 6-h treatment with LPS (i.p.; 5 mg/kg). Histopathological evaluation of the rat livers revealed that PCA reduced the incidence of liver lesions induced by LPS, including neutrophil infiltration, congestion, and liver cell swelling induced by LPS in rats. We conclude that PCA, an antioxidant, presents an inhibitory potential on iNOS and hepatic damage induced by LPS. PMID:12491040

Lin, W-L; Hsieh, Y-J; Chou, F-P; Wang, C-J; Cheng, M-T; Tseng, T-H

2002-11-12

117

Hibiscus acid as an inhibitor of starch digestion in the Caco-2 cell model system.  

PubMed

Hibiscus acid, an alpha-amylase inhibitor isolated from roselle tea, and its derivatives were compared in an inhibition test for starch digestion. An alpha-amylase-added Caco-2 system was established as a useful model to evaluate the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on starch digestion. Hibiscus acid showed weak inhibition in this model system, and the methyl ester derivatives showed even weaker or no acitivity. PMID:11676026

Hansawasdi, C; Kawabata, J; Kasai, T

2001-09-01

118

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

2000-01-01

119

The p23 Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Is Indispensable for Host-Specific Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting

Xiao-Zhen Liang; Andrew P. Lucy; Shou-Wei Ding; Sek-Man Wong

2002-01-01

120

Studies on the antifertility potentiality of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Parts of medicinal value; selection of species and seasonal variations.  

PubMed

The postcoital antifertility properties of benzene hot extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers, leaves, and stembarks, collected during the winter, spring, rainy, and summer seasons, were investigated in female rats. Only extracts from the flowers of the plant were 100% effective in preventing pregnancy. Those flowers collected during the winter showed the greatest potency, followed by those collected in the spring, rainy season, and summer, in decreasing order. Benzene extracts of flowers collected from Hibiscus mutabilis, Hibiscus schizopetalus, and Malvasicus grandiflorus, plants resembling Hibiscus rosa sinensis in petaloid structure, did not markedly affect pregnancy. PMID:840927

Kholkute, S D; Mudgal, V; Udupa, K N

1977-02-01

121

'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease.  

PubMed

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'. PMID:11411679

Montano, H G; Davis, R E; Dally, E L; Hogenhout, S; Pimentel, J P; Brioso, P S

2001-05-01

122

Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series.  

PubMed

Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. PMID:23066249

Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

2012-08-01

123

DJ-1, PINK1 and their effects on Mitochondrial Pathways  

PubMed Central

Genetic forms of parkinsonism are interesting for two particular reasons. First, finding a gene identifies a cause for a disease that would otherwise be unexplained. Second, finding several genes for the same disorder allows us to reconstruct molecular pathways that, in the example of Parkinson’s disease, are be associated with the survival of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Two rare causes of parkinsonism, DJ-1 and PINK1, are associated with mitochondria. This organelle has long been linked with Parkinson’s disease, and recent results are starting to show how mutations impact mitochondrial function. In this short review, I will discuss how we can use some of this information to understand why it is that neurons become dysfunctional in PD.

Cookson, Mark R

2009-01-01

124

Parkinson's disease mutations in PINK1 result in decreased Complex I activity and deficient synaptic function  

PubMed Central

Mutations of the mitochondrial PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue)-induced kinase1 (PINK1) are important causes of recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Studies on loss of function and overexpression implicate PINK1 in apoptosis, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, impaired dopamine release and motor deficits. However, the fundamental mechanism underlying these various phenotypes remains to be clarified. Using fruit fly and mouse models we show that PINK1 deficiency or clinical mutations impact on the function of Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in mitochondrial depolarization and increased sensitivity to apoptotic stress in mammalian cells and tissues. In Drosophila neurons, PINK1 deficiency affects synaptic function, as the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles is not mobilized during rapid stimulation. The fundamental importance of PINK1 for energy maintenance under increased demand is further corroborated as this deficit can be rescued by adding ATP to the synapse. The clinical relevance of our observations is demonstrated by the fact that human wild type PINK1, but not PINK1 containing clinical mutations, can rescue Complex 1 deficiency. Our work suggests that Complex I deficiency underlies, at least partially, the pathogenesis of this hereditary form of PD. As Complex I dysfunction is also implicated in sporadic PD, a convergence of genetic and environmental causes of PD on a similar mitochondrial molecular mechanism appears to emerge.

Morais, Vanessa A; Verstreken, Patrik; Roethig, Anne; Smet, Joel; Snellinx, An; Vanbrabant, Mieke; Haddad, Dominik; Frezza, Christian; Mandemakers, Wim; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Van Coster, Rudy; Wurst, Wolfgang; Scorrano, Luca; De Strooper, Bart

2009-01-01

125

PINK1 autophosphorylation upon membrane potential dissipation is essential for Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Dysfunction of PINK1, a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, causes familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have revealed that PINK1 is rapidly degraded in healthy mitochondria but accumulates on the membrane potential (??m)-deficient mitochondria, where it recruits another familial PD gene product, Parkin, to ubiquitylate the damaged mitochondria. Despite extensive study, the mechanism underlying the homeostatic control of PINK1 remains unknown. Here we report that PINK1 is autophosphorylated following a decrease in ??m and that most disease-relevant mutations hinder this event. Mass spectrometric and mutational analyses demonstrate that PINK1 autophosphorylation occurs at Ser228 and Ser402, residues that are structurally clustered together. Importantly, Ala mutation of these sites abolishes autophosphorylation of PINK1 and inhibits Parkin recruitment onto depolarized mitochondria, whereas Asp (phosphorylation-mimic) mutation promotes mitochondrial localization of Parkin even though autophosphorylation was still compromised. We propose that autophosphorylation of Ser228 and Ser402 in PINK1 is essential for efficient mitochondrial localization of Parkin.

Okatsu, Kei; Oka, Toshihiko; Iguchi, Masahiro; Imamura, Kenji; Kosako, Hidetaka; Tani, Naoki; Kimura, Mayumi; Go, Etsu; Koyano, Fumika; Funayama, Manabu; Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Sato, Shigeto; Shimizu, Hideaki; Fukunaga, Yuko; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Komatsu, Masaaki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2012-01-01

126

Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 iPS cells  

PubMed Central

Genetic Parkinson disease (PD) has been associated with mutations in PINK1, a gene encoding a mitochondrial kinase implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial degradation. While the studies so far examined PINK1 function in non-neuronal systems or through PINK1 knockdown approaches, there is an imperative to examine the role of endogenous PINK1 in appropriate human-derived and biologically relevant cell models. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from skin fibroblasts taken from three PD patients with nonsense (c.1366C>T; p.Q456X) or missense mutations (c.509T>G; p.V170G) in the PINK1 gene. These cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons that upon mitochondrial depolarization showed impaired recruitment of lentivirally expressed Parkin to mitochondria, increased mitochondrial copy number and upregulation of PGC-1?, an important regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, these alterations were corrected by lentiviral expression of wild-type PINK1 in mutant iPS cell-derived PINK1 neurons. In conclusion, our studies suggest that fibroblasts from genetic PD can be reprogrammed and differentiated into neurons. These neurons exhibit distinct phenotypes that should be amenable to further mechanistic studies in this relevant biological context.

Seibler, Philip; Graziotto, John; Jeong, Hyun; Simunovic, Filip; Klein, Christine; Krainc, Dimitri

2011-01-01

127

Induction of apoptosis by Hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl2 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA

Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ta-Wei Kao; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Wei-Long Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

2000-01-01

128

Vitiquinolone - A quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2013-09-07

129

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

Alqasoumi, S I

2011-11-07

130

'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity  

PubMed Central

In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property.

Alqasoumi, S.I.

2011-01-01

131

Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsmealybug.

The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

2012-01-01

132

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles).  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An Argentine ant worker (Linepithema humile) tends mealybugs in exchange for honeydew (visible in its mandibles). The Argentine ant is a widespread and ecologically damaging invasive species native to South America. In its native range, it co-occurs with the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), another widespread invasive that is native to the same region. A recent study documented strong and symmetric competitive interactions between these two species in areas within their native ranges where they occur in the same habitats. The species were observed to forage at similar times, occupy similar trophic positions, and frequently engage in intense conflicts over food resources. Carbohydrate-rich resources, such as honeydew, were found to facilitate interspecific competition. The research results strongly suggest that release from interspecific competition contributes to the success of the Argentine ant and the red imported fire ant when these species are introduced into new areas. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:1) in January of 2007.

Wild, Alex

2010-02-12

133

Tricornered/NDR kinase signaling mediates PINK1-directed mitochondrial quality control and tissue maintenance  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotes employ elaborate mitochondrial quality control (MQC) to maintain the function of the power-generating organelle. Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 and Parkin actively participate in MQC. However, the signaling events involved are largely unknown. Here we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin 2 (mTORC2) and Tricornered (Trc) kinases act downstream from PINK1 to regulate MQC. Trc is phosphorylated in mTORC2-dependent and mTORC2-independent manners and is specifically localized to mitochondria in response to PINK1, which regulates mTORC2 through mitochondrial complex-I activity. Genetically, mTORC2 and Trc act upstream of Parkin. Thus, multiplex kinase signaling is acting between PINK1 and Parkin to regulate MQC, a process highly conserved in mammals.

Wu, Zhihao; Sawada, Tomoyo; Shiba, Kahori; Liu, Song; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

2013-01-01

134

Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

135

Women are more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility.  

PubMed

Although females of many species closely related to humans signal their fertile window in an observable manner, often involving red or pink coloration, no such display has been found for humans. Building on evidence that men are sexually attracted to women wearing or surrounded by red, we tested whether women show a behavioral tendency toward wearing reddish clothing when at peak fertility. Across two samples (N = 124), women at high conception risk were more than 3 times more likely to wear a red or pink shirt than were women at low conception risk, and 77% of women who wore red or pink were found to be at high, rather than low, risk. Conception risk had no effect on the prevalence of any other shirt color. Our results thus suggest that red and pink adornment in women is reliably associated with fertility and that female ovulation, long assumed to be hidden, is associated with a salient visual cue. PMID:23842955

Beall, Alec T; Tracy, Jessica L

2013-07-10

136

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1994-06-01

137

The PINK1–Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two Parkinson’s disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight

Gina Lee; Jongkyeong Chung

2009-01-01

138

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65.  

PubMed

Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser(65). We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser(65). We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65) leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser(65) or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr(257), which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65) and/or PINK1 at Thr(257) represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD. PMID:22724072

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I; Campbell, David G; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R; Muqit, Miratul M K

2012-05-01

139

PINK1 is activated by mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and stimulates Parkin E3 ligase activity by phosphorylating Serine 65  

PubMed Central

Summary Missense mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause autosomal-recessive inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). We have exploited our recent discovery that recombinant insect PINK1 is catalytically active to test whether PINK1 directly phosphorylates 15 proteins encoded by PD-associated genes as well as proteins reported to bind PINK1. We have discovered that insect PINK1 efficiently phosphorylates only one of these proteins, namely the E3 ligase Parkin. We have mapped the phosphorylation site to a highly conserved residue within the Ubl domain of Parkin at Ser65. We show that human PINK1 is specifically activated by mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) depolarization, enabling it to phosphorylate Parkin at Ser65. We further show that phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 leads to marked activation of its E3 ligase activity that is prevented by mutation of Ser65 or inactivation of PINK1. We provide evidence that once activated, PINK1 autophosphorylates at several residues, including Thr257, which is accompanied by an electrophoretic mobility band-shift. These results provide the first evidence that PINK1 is activated following ??m depolarization and suggest that PINK1 directly phosphorylates and activates Parkin. Our findings indicate that monitoring phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65 and/or PINK1 at Thr257 represent the first biomarkers for examining activity of the PINK1-Parkin signalling pathway in vivo. Our findings also suggest that small molecule activators of Parkin that mimic the effect of PINK1 phosphorylation may confer therapeutic benefit for PD.

Kondapalli, Chandana; Kazlauskaite, Agne; Zhang, Ning; Woodroof, Helen I.; Campbell, David G.; Gourlay, Robert; Burchell, Lynn; Walden, Helen; Macartney, Thomas J.; Deak, Maria; Knebel, Axel; Alessi, Dario R.; Muqit, Miratul M. K.

2012-01-01

140

Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

141

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.  

PubMed

In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. Our objective in this study was to examine the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 pre- and mildly hypertensive adults, age 30-70 y, not taking blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications, with either 3 240-mL servings/d of brewed hibiscus tea or placebo beverage for 6 wk. A standardized method was used to measure BP at baseline and weekly intervals. At 6 wk, hibiscus tea lowered systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-7.2 +/- 11.4 vs. -1.3 +/- 10.0 mm Hg; P = 0.030). Diastolic BP was also lower, although this change did not differ from placebo (-3.1 +/- 7.0 vs. -0.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.160). The change in mean arterial pressure was of borderline significance compared with placebo (-4.5 +/- 7.7 vs. -0.8 +/- 7.4 mm Hg; P = 0.054). Participants with higher SBP at baseline showed a greater response to hibiscus treatment (r = -0.421 for SBP change; P = 0.010). No effects were observed with regard to age, gender, or dietary supplement use. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions. PMID:20018807

McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Saltzman, Edward; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2009-12-16

142

Mitochondrial Alterations in PINK1 Deficient Cells Are Influenced by Calcineurin-Dependent Dephosphorylation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Previous studies have shown that PINK1 influences both mitochondrial function and morphology although it is not clearly established which of these are primary events and which are secondary. Here, we describe a novel mechanism linking mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial morphology related to PINK1. Cell lines were

Anna Sandebring; Kelly Jean Thomas; Alexandra Beilina; Marcel van der Brug; Megan M. Cleland; Rili Ahmad; David W. Miller; Ibardo Zambrano; Richard F. Cowburn; Homira Behbahani; Angel Cedazo-Mínguez; Mark R. Cookson; Yue Feng

2009-01-01

143

Pink teeth in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck.  

PubMed

Pink teeth have most often been observed in victims of drowning but have also been reported in subjects who died suddenly and unnaturally. There is general agreement that there is no obvious connection between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death, but the condition of the surroundings (especially humidity) must certainly play an important role in the development of the pink-tooth phenomenon. The frequency and distribution of postmortem pink coloration of the teeth have been studied among a representative sample of 52 cadavers. All the bodies were victims of a single shipwreck that occurred on March 13, 1997, in the middle of the Otranto Canal (Mediterranean Sea). The bodies were recovered from the seawater after approximately 7 months. A distinct pink coloration of the teeth was found in only 18 cadavers (13 females and 5 males) of ages ranging between 13 and 60 years. The phenomenon was more pronounced in younger individuals due to age-related changes of the root canal, less penetrable by the pigment responsible for the postmortem pink staining. By histochemical methods and autofluorescence, hemoglobin and its derivatives have been identified as the most likely pigments responsible for this postmortem process that can be considered analogous to postmortem lividity. These data are consistent with previous reports on pink teeth, indicating that the diffusion of the blood in the pulp into the dentinal tubules causes the red discoloration of the teeth. Based on the results, the pigmentation is more prominent on the teeth with single roots rather than in the posterior teeth with multiple roots. PMID:17133027

Campobasso, Carlo P; Di Vella, Giancarlo; De Donno, Antonio; Santoro, Valeria; Favia, Gianfranco; Introna, Francesco

2006-12-01

144

Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

2010-12-01

145

An analysis of histone modifications in relation to sex-specific chromatin organization in the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus.  

PubMed

The male-specific heterochromatization of the paternal genome, observed in coccids, is an example of both genomic imprinting and differential regulation of homologous chromosomes. We observed a highly nuclease-resistant chromatin (NRC) organization of a part of the paternal genome in males of Maconellicoccus hirsutus as reported earlier in Planococcus lilacinus. The nuclease resistance of NRC is correlated with nuclear matrix association and is lost when NRC is dissociated from the matrix. We carried out a comparative analysis of epigenetic modifications of histones in matrix associated chromatin of male and female mealybugs by ELISA. We detected H3K27me3, H4K20me3, H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 in both males and females and observed significant enrichment of H3K27me3 in the nuclear matrix of males compared to that of females. To further examine the presence of NRC in the germ line, nuclei were sorted based on chromatin compaction. The analysis of sorted nuclei indicates the presence of NRC in nuclei with different DNA content including the haploid nuclei from males. We discuss these results in the light of the presence of NRC exclusively in male nuclei and the retention of the maternal genome in sperm nuclei of mealybugs. PMID:20616523

Mathur, V; Mendiratta, G; Ganapathi, M; Kennady, P K; Dwarkanath, B S; Pande, G; Brahmachari, V

2010-07-08

146

Mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2 are ubiquitinated in a PINK1/parkin-dependent manner upon induction of mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbed degradation of proteins have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 genes are a cause of familial PD. PINK1 is a putative kinase associated with mitochondria, and loss of PINK1 expression leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which increases with time. Parkin is suggested to be downstream of PINK1 and also mediates the removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy (mitophagy). We investigated whether mitochondrial dysfunction in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells following decreased PINK1 expression by RNAi may in part be due to the inhibition of mitophagy. Reduced flux through the macroautophagy pathway was found to be coincident with the inhibition of ATP synthesis following 12 days of PINK1 silencing. Overexpression of parkin in these cells restored both autophagic flux and ATP synthesis. Overexpression and RNAi studies also indicated that PINK1 and parkin were required for mitophagy following CCCP-induced mitochondrial damage. The ubiquitination of several mitochondrial proteins, including mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2, were detected within 3 h of CCCP treatment. These post-translational modifications were reduced following the silencing of parkin or PINK1. The ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins appears to identify mitochondria for degradation and facilitate mitophagy. PINK1 and parkin are thus required for the removal of damaged mitochondria in dopaminergic cells, and inhibition of this pathway may lead to the accumulation of defective mitochondria which may contribute to PD pathogenesis.

Gegg, Matthew E.; Cooper, J. Mark; Chau, Kai-Yin; Rojo, Manuel; Schapira, Anthony H.V.; Taanman, Jan-Willem

2010-01-01

147

Ancestry of Pink Disease (Infantile Acrodynia) Identified as a Risk Factor for Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Pink disease (infantile acrodynia) was especially prevalent in the first half of the 20th century. Primarily attributed to exposure to mercury (Hg) commonly found in teething powders, the condition was developed by approximately 1 in 500 exposed children. The differential risk factor was identified as an idiosyncratic sensitivity to Hg. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have also been postulated to be produced by Hg. Analogous to the pink disease experience, Hg exposure is widespread yet only a fraction of exposed children develop an ASD, suggesting sensitivity to Hg may also be present in children with an ASD. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with a known hypersensitivity to Hg (pink disease survivors) may be more likely to have descendants with an ASD. Five hundred and twenty-two participants who had previously been diagnosed with pink disease completed a survey on the health outcomes of their descendants. The prevalence rates of ASD and a variety of other clinical conditions diagnosed in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome) were compared to well-established general population prevalence rates. The results showed the prevalence rate of ASD among the grandchildren of pink disease survivors (1 in 25) to be significantly higher than the comparable general population prevalence rate (1 in 160). The results support the hypothesis that Hg sensitivity may be a heritable/genetic risk factor for ASD.

Kerrie, Shandley; Austin, David W.

2011-01-01

148

Spawning migration and intraspecies differentiation of pink salmon from northwestern Sakhalin waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pacific salmon fishery near the northwestern Sakhalin coast is based on fish spawning both in the island and continental rivers. Salmon fishery near the Sakhalin coast of Amur Estuary has significantly lost contact with the main salmon rivers of the region. Pink salmon is the most abundant salmon species of the region rivers. Biology of the northwestern Sakhalin pink salmon is less studied of all the fishery regions on the island. So far, their migratory ways from feeding and wintering areas to the spawning rivers have not been ascertained. The results of monitoring for pink salmon have shown that by some biological indices, commercial-statistic data, and also by the data of satellites NOAA-10, NOAA-12, NOAA-14, their commercial catches near the northwestern Sakhalin are formed by fish groups migrating both through the Amur Estuary from the south, and through the Sakhalin Bay from the north. The base of spawning fish in rivers of northwestern Sakhalin is formed by the summer pink salmon migrating from the north. A preliminary computation of distinguished pink salmon groups (summer southern and northern autumn) shows a ratio 0.1:5.7:1 in odd years and 1:2:1 in even years.

Ivanov, Alexander N.; Shershnev, Alexej; Kaplanova, Nina P.; Pusankov, Konstantin L.; Ivanova, Lubov V.; Pusankova, Ekaterina N.

2002-03-01

149

Structures and reactions of compounds involved in pink discolouration of onion.  

PubMed

In "pinking" of onion, E-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide is first cleaved by alliinase to yield colour developers (CDs), which react with amino acids, such as valine, to form pigment precursors (PPs). The PPs react with naturally occurring carbonyls (NOCs) to form pigments. By inducing a PP from previously isolated cepathiolanes and L-valine, it was confirmed that cepathiolanes constitute at least a part of the CDs. From the PP and formaldehyde as a NOC, two colourless and two pink compounds were derived. The structure of one of the colourless compounds was established as 2-(2-(1-(1-carboxy-2-methylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methyl-3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)-3-methylbutanoic acid. The structures of the other colourless compound and the pink pigments were predicted based on their molecular formula and the MS(n) spectral data. A trimeric pigment structure was predicted for one of the pink pigments, which was believed to be the first to be reported in the literature. With these, a new reaction scheme for "pinking" of onion is proposed. PMID:23561186

Kato, Masahiro; Kamoi, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke; Sakurai, Nozomu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Imai, Shinsuke

2013-01-16

150

The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process  

SciTech Connect

The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jongkyeong [National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusong-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jchung@kaist.ac.kr

2009-01-16

151

Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

SciTech Connect

Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide.

Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

1986-04-01

152

7 CFR 319.37-6 - Specific treatment and other requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Cuscuta spp., and other noxious weeds listed in 7 CFR 360.200. Hibiscus spp. (hibiscus, rose mallow) seeds All, with the exception of kenaf seed (Hibiscus cannabinus ) from Mexico that is to be imported into pink bollworm...

2010-01-01

153

Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation.

Sangeetha Arullappan; Zubaidah Zakaria; Dayang Fredalina Basri

2009-01-01

154

TISSUE LIPID PROFILE OF RATS ADMINISTERED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS. LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of orally administered aqueous extract of the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis on tissue lipid profile of albino rats has been determined. Consequently 20 albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. They were given rats mash and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, during which they were subjected to different dosages of the aqueous extract.

Kate E. Imafidon

2010-01-01

155

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different

N Adhirajan; T Ravi Kumar; N Shanmugasundaram; Mary Babu

2003-01-01

156

VEIN YELLOWING OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS CAUSED BY EGGPLANT MOTTLED DWARF VIRUS IN SOUTHERN ITALY  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) was detected for the first time in southern Italy in several Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants with vein yellowing. The virus was identified by the reactions of a herbaceous host range, cytopathology and serology. Virions were ob- served only in the nuclei of infected cells where they ac- cumulated between the inner and outer lamella

A. De Stradis; G. Parrella; C. Vovlas; A. Ragozzino

2008-01-01

157

Extraction of Lipid Components from Seeds of Perennial and Woody Hibiscus species by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials, with both edible and industrial applications. Components such as flowers and green tissues may be consumed as specialty foods, while the bast fibers (cellulosic), core fibers (lignitic and cellulosic), and seed oils (primarily poly-unsatur- ates) are a renewable source of industrial materials and edible oils. In this study,

R. A. Holser; G. A. Bost

158

Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and

Touba Eslaminejad; Maziah Zakaria

2011-01-01

159

Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core as a containerized growth medium component  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stems contain two distinct fiber types, bast and core. The absorbent, low density core (xylem) is a possible potting mix component. Two greenhouse studies were conducted during 1993 and 1995 to determine the feasibility of substituting kenaf core for vermiculite and bark. In Study 1, fine-grade kenaf was substituted for vermiculite in three volume ratios (1,

Charles L. Webber; Julia Whitworth; John Dole

1999-01-01

160

Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cytotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes and hepatotoxicity in rats. The results demonstrated that HAs, at the concentrations of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml, significantly decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and the formation of malondialdehyde induced by a 30-min treatment of t-BHP (1.5 mM). The in vivo investigation showed that the oral pretreatment of HAs (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 5 days before a single dose of t-BHP (0.2 mmol/kg, ip) significantly lowered the serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase) and reduced oxidative liver damage. The histopathological evaluation of the liver revealed that Hibiscus pigments reduced the incidence of liver lesions including inflammatory, leucocyte infiltration, and necrosis induced by t-BHP in rats. Based on the results described above, we speculate that Hibiscus pigments may play a role in the prevention of oxidative damage in living systems. PMID:10762726

Wang, C J; Wang, J M; Lin, W L; Chu, C Y; Chou, F P; Tseng, T H

2000-05-01

161

Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract

V. S Kasture; C. T Chopde; V. K Deshmukh

2000-01-01

162

Antioxidant power quantification of decoction and cold infusions of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the overall antioxidant power, expressed as Briggs–Rauscher antioxidant index, of decoction or cold infusions of dried Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers was determined at 25 and 37°C, to compare the scavenger ability of the beverages at either room or physiological temperature. Total polyphenol contents and the absorbance of anthocyanin pigments were also determined, and the trend with the overall

Enrico Prenesti; Silvia Berto; Pier G. Daniele; Simona Toso

2007-01-01

163

Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal

Daizy Philip

2010-01-01

164

The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the antihypertensive effectiveness of sour tea (ST; Hibiscus sabdariffa) with black tea (BT) infusion in diabetic patients, this double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out. Sixty diabetic patients with mild hypertension, without taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidaemic medicines, were recruited in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to the ST and BT groups and instructed to drink ST

H Mozaffari-Khosravi; B-A Jalali-Khanabadi; M Afkhami-Ardekani; F Fatehi; M Noori-Shadkam

2009-01-01

165

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Calyce) Extract on Biochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that substances incorporated into milk before and after fermentation elicit profound influence on the physicochemical properties of yogurt and consumers' sensory perception of their acceptability as healthy and refreshing drinks. This study examined the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on pH, titratable acidity (TA), syneresis, ash and moisture contents in two brands of low fat

2007-01-01

166

Prevailing insects in Roselle plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., and their efficiency on pollination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field surveys of Roselle plant fields were conducted during two successive seasons of 2006 and 2007. The total counted insects on Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa attained 16 species belong to seven insect Orders [(Hemiptera (3 species), Homoptera (1 species), Lepidoptera (3 species), Neuroptera (1 species), Coleoptera (3 species), Diptera (1 species), Hymenoptera (4 species)]. Variable numbers of insects were counted on

A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem; T. E. Abd El-Wahab; N. A. Farag

2011-01-01

167

Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

2013-07-16

168

The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension.  

PubMed

Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively. Patients with secondary hypertension or those consuming more than two drugs were excluded from the study. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and 15 days after the intervention. In the experimental group, 45% of the patients were male and 55% were female, and the mean age was 52.6 +/- 7.9 years. In the control group, 30% of the patients were male, 70% were female, and the mean age of the patients was 51.5 +/- 10.1 years. Statistical findings showed an 11.2% lowering of the systolic blood pressure and a 10.7% decrease of diastolic pressure in the experimental group 12 days after beginning the treatment, as compared with the first day. The difference between the systolic blood pressures of the two groups was significant, as was the difference of the diastolic pressures of the two groups. Three days after stopping the treatment, systolic blood pressure was elevated by 7.9%, and diastolic pressure was elevated by 5.6% in the experimental and control groups. This difference between the two groups was also significant. This study proves the public belief and the results of in vitro studies concerning the effects of sour tea on lowering high blood pressure. More extensive studies on this subject are needed. PMID:10404421

Haji Faraji, M; Haji Tarkhani, A

1999-06-01

169

A Review of the Hatchery Programs for Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hatcheries in Prince William Sound, Alaska, release more than 500 million juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuschaeach year, constituting one of the largest salmon hatchery programs in the world. Before the program was initiated in 1974, pink salmon catches were very low, averaging 3 million fish per year between 1951 and 1979. Since 1980 the catch has averaged more than

Ray Hilborn; Doug Eggers

2000-01-01

170

The mitochondrial kinase PINK1, stress response and Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial dysfunction is well documented in presymptomatic brain tissue with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Identification\\u000a of the autosomal recessive variant PARK6 caused by loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 provides an\\u000a opportunity to dissect pathogenesis. Although PARK6 shows clinical differences to PD, the induction of alpha-synuclein “Lewy”\\u000a pathology by PINK1-deficiency proves that mitochondrial pathomechanisms are relevant for old-age PD. Mitochondrial

Marina Jendrach; Suzana Gispert; Filomena Ricciardi; Michael Klinkenberg; Rudolf Schemm; Georg Auburger

2009-01-01

171

The human PINK1 locus is regulated in vivo by a non-coding natural antisense RNA during modulation of mitochondrial function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are implicated in early-onset Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is expressed abundantly in mitochondria rich tissues, such as skeletal muscle, where it plays a critical role determining mitochondrial structural integrity in Drosophila. RESULTS: Herein we characterize a novel splice variant of PINK1 (svPINK1) that is homologous to the C-terminus regulatory domain of

Camilla Scheele; Natasa Petrovic; Mohammad A Faghihi; Timo Lassmann; Katarina Fredriksson; Olav Rooyackers; Claes Wahlestedt; Liam Good; James A Timmons

2007-01-01

172

PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of the Parkin ubiquitin-like domain primes mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and regulates mitophagy  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease genes PINK1 and parkin encode kinase and ubiquitin ligase, respectively. The gene products PINK1 and Parkin are implicated in mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy. Upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), cytosolic Parkin is recruited to the mitochondria by PINK1 through an uncharacterised mechanism – an initial step triggering sequential events in mitophagy. This study reports that Ser65 in the ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl) of Parkin is phosphorylated in a PINK1-dependent manner upon depolarisation of ??m. The introduction of mutations at Ser65 suggests that phosphorylation of Ser65 is required not only for the efficient translocation of Parkin, but also for the degradation of mitochondrial proteins in mitophagy. Phosphorylation analysis of Parkin pathogenic mutants also suggests Ser65 phosphorylation is not sufficient for Parkin translocation. Our study partly uncovers the molecular mechanism underlying the PINK1-dependent mitochondrial translocation and activation of Parkin as an initial step of mitophagy.

Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Imai, Yuzuru; Yoshida, Shigeharu; Ishihama, Yasushi; Kanao, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeto; Hattori, Nobutaka

2012-01-01

173

Drought stress influences leaf water content, photosynthesis, and water-use efficiency of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis at three potassium concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of drought stress (DS) upon whole-plant water content, water relations, photosynthesis, and water-use efficiency of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun (Hibiscus) plants at three levels of potassium (K) nutritional status were determined after a 21-d gradually imposed DS treatment. Compared to K-deficient plants, adequate K supply improved the leaf water content (LWC) and leaf water relations of Hibiscus by

J. N. Egilla; T. W. Boutton

2005-01-01

174

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvaceae) and cross-species amplifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the development of 10 microsatellite markers in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Hrs). Three markers were obtained from sequences available in GenBank and seven were isolated using a two-step ‘primer extension’\\u000a procedure, based on the microsatellite-AFLP (M-AFLP) technique. Polymorphism was explored in 21 Hrs genotypes representing\\u000a the genetic variation within commercial varieties. Inter-specific amplification was assessed on 12 Hibiscus wild species.

Simona Bruna; Ezio Portis; Luca Braglia; Laura De Benedetti; Cinzia Comino; Alberto Acquadro; Antonio Mercuri

2009-01-01

175

Effects of Promoters and Inhibitors of Ethylene and ABA on Flower Senescence of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flowers (cv La France) senesce and die over a 12-h period after opening. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological\\u000a mechanisms regulating the senescence process of ephemeral hibiscus flowers. Different flower stages and floral organs were\\u000a used to determine whether any interaction existed during flower senescence between endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and the\\u000a predisposition

Alice Trivellini; Antonio Ferrante; Paolo Vernieri; Anna Mensuali-Sodi; Giovanni Serra

2011-01-01

176

Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L. were

T.-H. Tseng; E.-S. Kao; C.-Y. Chu; F.-P. Chou; H.-W. Lin Wu; C.-J. Wang

1997-01-01

177

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. water extract inhibits the adipocyte differentiation through the PI3-K and MAPK pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a tropical beverage material and medical herb, is used commonly as in folk medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, inflammation, liver disorders, and obesity. This report was designed to investigate the inhibitory mechanisms of hibiscus extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The possible inhibitory pathways that regulate the adipocyte differentiation contain the adipogenic transcription factors, C\\/EBP? and PPAR?,

Jin-Kyung Kim; Hongseob So; Myung-Ja Youn; Hyung-Jin Kim; Yunha Kim; Channy Park; Se-Jin Kim; Young-Ae Ha; Kyu-Yun Chai; Shin-Moo Kim; Ki-Young Kim

2007-01-01

178

Hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects of vescalagin from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] in high-fructose diet-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Vescalagin, an active component from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] fruit, with glucose uptake enhancing ability in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes, as shown in our previous study, was further evaluated for its hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with vescalagin from Pink wax apple daily during the last 4 weeks. The results of biochemical parameters showed that fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, fructosamine, triglyceride and free fatty acid contents decreased by 44.7%, 46.2%, 4.0%, 42.5%, and 10.8%, respectively, in the HFD-induced diabetic rats administered with vescalagin at 30 mg/kg body weight in comparison with those of control HFD-induced diabetic rats. However, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol content increased by 14.4% in the HFD rats treated with vescalagin. The present study reveals that vescalagin could have therapeutic value against diabetic progression via its anti-hypertriglyceridemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. PMID:23122137

Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang

2012-08-30

179

The use of pink porcelain to manage a malposed anterior implant: case report.  

PubMed

Pink porcelain was used in a custom zirconia abutment with a zirconia implant-supported anterior crown to compensate for a malposed anterior implant with horizontal bone deficiency and lack of keratinized tissue. This clinical procedure was able to reduce abutment height, mask the horizontal defect and create a symmetrical and esthetic effect. PMID:24059481

Kalman, Les; Macintosh, Kayleigh

2013-09-01

180

The Mouse PinkEyed Dilution Gene: Association with Human Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary DNA clones from the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of mouse chromosome 7 were isolated from murine melanoma and melanocyte libraries. The transcript from this gene is missing or altered in six independent mutant alleles of the p locus, suggesting that disruption of this gene results in the hypopigmentation phenotype that defines mutant p alleles. Characterization of the human homolog

John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Yoichi Gondo; Susan Lee; Mary F. Lyon; Richard A. King; Murray H. Brilliant

1992-01-01

181

Pink Bollworm Resistance to Bt Cotton: Still Rare After All These Years.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins reduce reliance on insecticides, but evolution of resistance by pests could cut short their usefulness. Pink bollworm is a major pest that has experienced intense selection for resistance to Bt cotton in Arizona since 1997. Unexpectedly...

182

Heterozygous carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation share a common functional endophenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To use a combined neurogenetic-neuroimaging approach to examine the functional consequences of preclinical dopaminergic nigrostriatal dysfunction in the human motor system. Specifically, we examined how a single heterozygous mutation in different genes associated with recessively inherited Parkinson disease alters the cortical control of sequential finger movements. METHODS: Nonmanifesting individuals carrying a single heterozygous Parkin (n = 13) or PINK1

B. F. L. van Nuenen; M. M. Weiss; B. R. Bloem; K. Reetz; T. van Eimeren; K. Lohmann; J. Hagenah; P. P. Pramstaller; F. Binkofski; C. Klein; H. R. Siebner

2009-01-01

183

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD OF ADULT PINK SALMON AT THREE STAGES OF MATURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected characteristics of the blood of adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuschtl) were studied in fish at three stages of maturity-migrating fish approaching the general area of spawning streams but still in the open ocean, fish in the immediate vicinity of the spawning stream but in the The blood chemistry of salmon of the genus Oncorhynchus is especially interesting because of

KENNETH E. HUTTON

184

Marine Survival of Pink Salmon Fry from Early and Late Spawners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, eggs were collected from early-run and late-run spawners at Auke Creek, Alaska, and reared separately in a hatchery in deep-gravel incubators. Both groups of fry were marked the day after emergence, then released, unfe...

S. G. Taylor

1980-01-01

185

Review of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Effects on Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Exxon Valdez oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in March of 1989 was the largest crude oil spill in the United States at that time, and it was anticipated to have disastrous effects on the ecology and fisheries of that coastal region. The large pink salmon returns to the sound, a major commercial species in Alaska,

E. L. Brannon; K. Collins; M. A. Cronin; L. L. Moulton; A. L. Maki; K. R. Parker

2012-01-01

186

Empirical Evaluation of Cell Critical Volume Dose Vs. Cell Response Function for Pink Mutations in Tradescantia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microdosimetric spectra for 0.43, 1.8, and 14.7 MeV neutrons, and for 215 kVp x rays and 1250 keV gammas were used in conjunction with relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for pink mutations in Tradescantia to obtain an effectiveness function (i...

M. N. Varma V. P. Bond

1982-01-01

187

Response of Marguerite Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink' to Plant Growth Regulators1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of pinching, daminozide, flurprimidol, uniconazole, or paclobutrazol + daminozide tank mix for plant height control, diameter control, and days to anthesis were inves- tigated on marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink'. Plants were pinched 14 d after transplanting or treated 23 d after transplanting with foliar sprays of five concentra- tions from each plant growth regulator. Pinching reduced

Todd J. Cavins; James L. Gibson; Brian E. Whipker; John M. Dole

188

Dominant lethal mutations in insects with holokinetic chromosomes: irradiation of pink bollworm sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult males of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gosypiella (Saunders), were irradiated with 19 and 30 krad of gamma radiation and mated with virgin, untreated females. Males treated with 19 or 30 krad of gamma radiation, at 2 to 24-h or 48 to 72-h postemergence, respectively, did not show reduced mating frequency compared with the untreated male controls. However, transfer of

G. J. Berg; L. E. LaChance

1976-01-01

189

The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Analysis of impacts on the Prince William Sound pink salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 6 years following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989, a number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted to assess spill?related effects on all critical life stages of the Prince William Sound pink salmon population. In many cases, the results of these studies are in close agreement, but in others they are not. The conclusions

E. L. Brannon; A. W. Maki

1996-01-01

190

Impacts to Pink Salmon Following the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Persistence, Toxicity, Sensitivity, and Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injury to a species resulting from long-term exposure to low concentrations of pollutants is seldom noted or even tested. One of the products of the Exxon Valdez oil spill was the first report of damage to eggs and larvae of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) following long-term exposure to low concentrations of weathered crude oil. These life stages were previously thought

Stanley D. Rice; Robert E. Thomas; Mark G. Carls; Ronald A. Heintz; Alex C. Wertheimer; Michael L. Murphy; Jeffrey W. Short; Adam Moles

2001-01-01

191

The Pink Terror, Part 1: The Rape of the 17th Assembly District Branch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last week we told about the unleashing of the Pink Terror against the Left Wing by the State Com- mittee at Albany. This week we have to record the ac- tual massacre in full swing. One dark and gloomy night the Cossacks, Bashi- Bazooks, and Oprichniki of the Right Wing swooped down on the 17th AD Branch, slaughtered the rank

John Reed

192

TRANSGENIC COMPARISONS OF PINK BOLLWORM EFFICACY AND RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifteen lines from 3 different cotton families were compared. Each family had a conventional, non-transgenic standard, as well as 4 other transgenic lines. Each Bt line was evaluated for this trait's efficacy in controlling pink bollworm under high pressure, artificial infestations. Various agronomi...

193

Effects of Delay Processing of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) Byproducts into Fishmeal  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of temperature and storage on raw pink salmon heads and viscera were evaluated to determine the quality of fish meal processed. The raw byproducts were stored at 6C from 0-10 days and 15C from 0-4 days. During each day the raw byproducts were processed into fish meal. Nutritional and che...

194

Parkin-catalyzed ubiquitin-ester transfer is triggered by PINK1-dependent phosphorylation.  

PubMed

PINK1 and PARKIN are causal genes for autosomal recessive familial Parkinsonism. PINK1 is a mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase, whereas Parkin functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Under steady-state conditions, Parkin localizes to the cytoplasm where its E3 activity is repressed. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential triggers Parkin E3 activity and recruits it to depolarized mitochondria for ubiquitylation of mitochondrial substrates. The molecular basis for how the E3 activity of Parkin is re-established by mitochondrial damage has yet to be determined. Here we provide in vitro biochemical evidence for ubiquitin-thioester formation on Cys-431 of recombinant Parkin. We also report that Parkin forms a ubiquitin-ester following a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in cells, and that this event is essential for substrate ubiquitylation. Importantly, the Parkin RING2 domain acts as a transthiolation or acyl-transferring domain rather than an E2-recruiting domain. Furthermore, formation of the ubiquitin-ester depends on PINK1 phosphorylation of Parkin Ser-65. A phosphorylation-deficient mutation completely inhibited formation of the Parkin ubiquitin-ester intermediate, whereas phosphorylation mimics, such as Ser to Glu substitution, enabled partial formation of the intermediate irrespective of Ser-65 phosphorylation. We propose that PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Parkin leads to the ubiquitin-ester transfer reaction of the RING2 domain, and that this is an essential step in Parkin activation. PMID:23754282

Iguchi, Masahiro; Kujuro, Yuki; Okatsu, Kei; Koyano, Fumika; Kosako, Hidetaka; Kimura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

2013-06-10

195

Dopamine Induced Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine depletion in the striatum. Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease. Loss of PINK1 function causes mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species production and calcium dysregulation, which increases susceptibility to neuronal death in Parkinson's disease. The basis of neuronal vulnerability to dopamine in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Methodology We investigated the mechanism of dopamine induced cell death in transgenic PINK1 knockout mouse neurons. We show that dopamine results in mitochondrial depolarisation caused by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Dopamine-induced mPTP opening is dependent on a complex of reactive oxygen species production and calcium signalling. Dopamine-induced mPTP opening, and dopamine-induced cell death, could be prevented by inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, by provision of respiratory chain substrates, and by alteration in calcium signalling. Conclusions These data demonstrate the mechanism of dopamine toxicity in PINK1 deficient neurons, and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease.

Yao, Zhi; Duchen, Michael R.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2012-01-01

196

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Atomic Hydrogen (H sup 0) Centers in Pink Tourmaline from Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for explaining the atom of hydrogen (H/sup 0/) in pink tourmaline irradiated with gamma rays is presented. The concentration of H/sup 0/ was evaluated and the H/sup 0/ lines using the electron paramagnetic resonance were analysed. The g factor and...

M. B. Camargo

1985-01-01

197

EFFECTS OF AERIAL THERMAL FOG APPLICATIONS OF FENTHION ON CAGED PINK SHRIMP, MYSIDS AND SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mosquito control applications of fenthion by aerial thermal fog equipment were studied at two sites in Collier County, FL, for sprays that occurred on 20 and 23 June 1984. Acute, lethal effects of fenthion deposited in these estuarine habitats were assessed for caged pink shrimp ...

198

Trace metal incorporation in otoliths of pink snapper ( Pagrus auratus) as an environmental monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otolith metal concentrations may be related to the environmental exposure history of fish to contamination. Otoliths of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) collected from the marine basin of Cockburn Sound and offshore near Rottnest Island were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA–ICP–MS) to measure the concentrations of 11 trace metals. The following metals were investigated using their

Melinda Marie Ranaldi; Marthe Monique Gagnon

2010-01-01

199

Recovery of Pink Salmon Spawning Areas after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 70% of wild pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spawn in intertidal stream areas, many of which were contaminated by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. To assess recovery of salmon habitat after the spill, we analyzed sediment samples from stream deltas throughout Prince William Sound from 1989 to 1991 and 1995. In 1989, petroleum

Michael L. Murphy; Ronald A. Heintz; Jeffrey W. Short; Marie L. Larsen; Stanley D. Rice

1999-01-01

200

The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pink peppers, also known as “pimenta-rosa” and “poivre rose”, are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

2012-08-01

201

Lean Finely Textured Beef: The 'Pink Slime' Controversy, April 6, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since early March 2012, the use of lean finely textured beef (LFTB) in the U.S. ground beef supply has come under a barrage of media criticism and consumer backlash. The depiction of LFTB in the media as pink slime raised the products yuck factor and impl...

J. L. Greene

2012-01-01

202

Temperature affects color and quality characteristics of ‘Pink’ wax apple fruit discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red color plays a very important role when wax apple fruits are purchased. Temperature is one of the key factors among those influencing red color development. We evaluated the effects of temperature on color formation and other quality characteristics of ‘Pink’ wax apple fruit discs by using constant, slow-increase, fast-increase, transient shifting to high temperature, shifting to high temperature for

Hsiao-hua Pan; Zen-hong Shü

2007-01-01

203

Diet Development for Post-Larval Pink and Chum Salmon Held in Salt Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project first established that commercial diets developed for other species of Pacific salmon fry fed in fresh water at moderate temperatures were not the best for Alaskan pink salmon fry held in salt water at lower water temperatures. Three diets wer...

C. L. Kerns

1985-01-01

204

The effect of acclimation salinity and age on the salinity tolerance of pink shrimp postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad) lives in south Florida ecosystems in different salinity regimes ranging from brackish to hypersaline. In Florida Bay, the main nursery grounds, juveniles reside in 25–50 salinity; while 20km northwest of the Bay, juveniles inhabit more estuarine salinities between 5 and 15. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the disparate salinity regimes in

Maria M. Criales; Ian C. Zink; Joan A. Browder; Thomas L. Jackson

205

Genetic and metabolic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in phyllosphere of tropical plants  

PubMed Central

Diversity of Pink-Pigmented Facultative Methylotrophs (PPFMs) in phyllosphere of cotton, maize and sunflower was determined based on differential carbon-substrate utilization profile and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA data. Results indicate that six diversified groups of PPFMs are found in these crops. Sunflower and maize phyllosphere harbor four different groups of methylobacteria while cotton has only two groups.

Balachandar, D.; Raja, P.; Sundaram, SP.

2008-01-01

206

The PinkThing for analysing ChIP profiling data in their genomic context  

PubMed Central

Background Current epigenetic research makes frequent use of whole-genome ChIP profiling for determining the in vivo binding of proteins, e.g. transcription factors and histones, to DNA. Two important and recurrent questions for these large scale analyses are: 1) What is the genomic distribution of a set of binding sites? and 2) Does this genomic distribution differ significantly from another set of sites? Findings We exemplify the functionality of the PinkThing by analysing a ChIP profiling dataset of cohesin binding sites. We show the subset of cohesin sites with no CTCF binding have a characteristic genomic distribution different from the set of all cohesin sites. Conclusions The PinkThing is a web application for fast and easy analysis of the context of genomic loci, such as peaks from ChIP profiling experiments. The output of the PinkThing analysis includes: categorisation of position relative to genes (intronic, exonic, 5’ near, 3’ near 5’ far, 3’ far and distant), distance to the closest annotated 3’ and 5’ end of genes, direction of transcription of the nearest gene, and the option to include other genomic elements like ESTs and CpG islands. The PinkThing enables easy statistical comparison between experiments, i.e. experimental versus background sets, reporting over- and underrepresentation as well as p-values for all comparisons. Access and use of the PinkThing is free and open (without registration) to all users via the website: http://pinkthing.cmbi.ru.nl

2013-01-01

207

The Bioenergetic Status Relates to Dopamine Neuron Loss in Familial PD with PINK1 Mutations  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause autosomal recessive familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). The gene encodes a mitochondrial protein kinase that plays an important role in maintaining mitochondrial function and integrity. However, the pathophysiological link between mutation-related bioenergetic deficits and the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons remains to be elucidated. We performed phosphorous (31P) and proton (1H) 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) in 11 members of a German family with hereditary PD due to PINK1 mutations (PARK6) compared to 23 age-matched controls. All family members had prior 18-Fluorodopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET). The striatal FDOPA uptake was correlated with quantified metabolic brain mapping in MRSI. At group level, the heterozygous PINK1 mutation carriers did not show any MRSI abnormalities relative to controls. In contrast, homozygous individuals with manifest PD had putaminal GPC, PCr, HEP and ?-ATP levels well above the 2SD range of controls. Across all subjects, the FDOPA Ki values correlated positively with MI (r?=?0.879, p<0.001) and inversely with ?-ATP (r?=??0.784, p?=?0.008) and GPC concentrations (r?=??0.651, p?=?0.030) in the putamen. Our combined imaging data suggest that the dopaminergic deficit in this family with PD due to PINK1 mutations relates to osmolyte dysregulation, while the delivery of high energy phosphates was preserved. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that PINK1 mutations result in reduced neuronal survival, most likely due to impaired cellular stress resistance.

Hilker, Ruediger; Pilatus, Ulrich; Eggers, Carsten; Hagenah, Johann; Roggendorf, Julia; Baudrexel, Simon; Klein, Johannes C.; Neumaier, Bernd; Fink, Gereon R.; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Klein, Christine; Hattingen, Elke

2012-01-01

208

Silencing of PINK1 Expression Affects Mitochondrial DNA and Oxidative Phosphorylation in DOPAMINERGIC Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and an increased frequency in deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes some of the subunits of the ETC, have been reported in the substantia nigra of PD brains. The identification of mutations in the PINK1 gene, which cause an autosomal recessive form of PD, has supported mitochondrial involvement in PD. The PINK1 protein is a serine/threonine kinase localized in mitochondria and the cytosol. Its precise function is unknown, but it is involved in neuroprotection against a variety of stress signalling pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report we have investigated the effect of silencing PINK1 expression in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by siRNA on mtDNA synthesis and ETC function. Loss of PINK1 expression resulted in a decrease in mtDNA levels and mtDNA synthesis. We also report a concomitant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis, with the activity of complex IV of the ETC most affected. This mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in increased markers of oxidative stress under basal conditions and increased cell death following treatment with the free radical generator paraquat. Conclusions This report highlights a novel function of PINK1 in mitochondrial biogenesis and a role in maintaining mitochondrial ETC activity. Dysfunction of both has been implicated in sporadic forms of PD suggesting that these may be key pathways in the development of the disease.

Gegg, Matthew E.; Cooper, J. Mark; Schapira, Anthony H. V.; Taanman, Jan-Willem

2009-01-01

209

PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding  

PubMed Central

Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin–ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin.

Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P.; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay

2013-01-01

210

Parkinson Phenotype in Aged PINK1-Deficient Mice Is Accompanied by Progressive Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Absence of Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is an adult-onset movement disorder of largely unknown etiology. We have previously shown that loss-of-function mutations of the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1) cause the recessive PARK6 variant of PD. Methodology/Principal Findings Now we generated a PINK1 deficient mouse and observed several novel phenotypes: A progressive reduction of weight and of locomotor activity selectively for spontaneous movements occurred at old age. As in PD, abnormal dopamine levels in the aged nigrostriatal projection accompanied the reduced movements. Possibly in line with the PARK6 syndrome but in contrast to sporadic PD, a reduced lifespan, dysfunction of brainstem and sympathetic nerves, visible aggregates of ?-synuclein within Lewy bodies or nigrostriatal neurodegeneration were not present in aged PINK1-deficient mice. However, we demonstrate PINK1 mutant mice to exhibit a progressive reduction in mitochondrial preprotein import correlating with defects of core mitochondrial functions like ATP-generation and respiration. In contrast to the strong effect of PINK1 on mitochondrial dynamics in Drosophila melanogaster and in spite of reduced expression of fission factor Mtp18, we show reduced fission and increased aggregation of mitochondria only under stress in PINK1-deficient mouse neurons. Conclusion Thus, aging Pink1?/? mice show increasing mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired neural activity similar to PD, in absence of overt neuronal death.

Gispert, Suzana; Ricciardi, Filomena; Kurz, Alexander; Azizov, Mekhman; Hoepken, Hans-Hermann; Becker, Dorothea; Voos, Wolfgang; Leuner, Kristina; Muller, Walter E.; Kudin, Alexei P.; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Zimmermann, Annabelle; Roeper, Jochen; Wenzel, Dirk; Jendrach, Marina; Garcia-Arencibia, Moises; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; Huber, Leslie; Rohrer, Hermann; Barrera, Miguel; Reichert, Andreas S.; Rub, Udo; Chen, Amy; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Auburger, Georg

2009-01-01

211

PINK1 stabilized by mitochondrial depolarization recruits Parkin to damaged mitochondria and activates latent Parkin for mitophagy.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Recent identification of genes linked to familial forms of PD such as Parkin and PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) has revealed that ubiquitylation and mitochondrial integrity are key factors in disease pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism underlying the functional interplay between Parkin-catalyzed ubiquitylation and PINK1-regulated mitochondrial quality control remains an enigma. In this study, we show that PINK1 is rapidly and constitutively degraded under steady-state conditions in a mitochondrial membrane potential-dependent manner and that a loss in mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 mitochondrial accumulation. Furthermore, PINK1 recruits Parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria with low membrane potential to initiate the autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria. Interestingly, the ubiquitin ligase activity of Parkin is repressed in the cytoplasm under steady-state conditions; however, PINK1-dependent mitochondrial localization liberates the latent enzymatic activity of Parkin. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 and Parkin interfere with the aforementioned events, suggesting an etiological importance. These results provide crucial insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of PD. PMID:20404107

Matsuda, Noriyuki; Sato, Shigeto; Shiba, Kahori; Okatsu, Kei; Saisho, Keiko; Gautier, Clement A; Sou, Yu-Shin; Saiki, Shinji; Kawajiri, Sumihiro; Sato, Fumiaki; Kimura, Mayumi; Komatsu, Masaaki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Keiji

2010-04-19

212

Purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), a Carmovirus, occurs worldwide and induces chlorotic ringspots on leaves, stunting and flower distortion in Hibiscus species, including kenaf. The HCRSV capsid has T = 3 icosahedral symmetry and contains 180 copies of the coat protein. A virus yield of 48-70 mg per 100 g of infected kenaf leaves was achieved with an improved purification scheme involving sucrose-cushion and sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. The virus was crystallized using PEG 8000 and 2,3-butanediol as co-precipitants. The crystals belonged to the cubic space group P23, with unit-cell parameter a = 392 A, and diffracted X-rays to at least 4.5 A resolution. PMID:12876359

Lee, Kian-Chung; Lim, Daina; Wong, Sek-Man; Dokland, Terje

2003-07-23

213

Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) 'Roselle' on excretion of a diclofenac formulation.  

PubMed

The effect of beverages prepared from the dried calyx of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the excretion of diclofenac was investigated using a controlled study in healthy human volunteers. A high pressure liquid chromatographic method was used to analyse the 8 h urine samples collected after the administration of diclofenac with 300 mL (equivalent to 8.18 mg anthocyanins) of the beverage administered daily for 3 days. An unpaired two-tailed t-test was used to analyse for significant difference observed in the amount of diclofenac excreted before and after administration of the beverage. There was a reduction in the amount of diclofenac excreted and the wide variability observed in the control with the water beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (p < 0.05). There is an increasing need to counsel patients against the use of plant beverages with drugs. PMID:17094172

Fakeye, T O; Adegoke, A O; Omoyeni, O C; Famakinde, A A

2007-01-01

214

Polyphenol extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus attenuate nephropathy in experimental type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is one of the precipitation factors in diabetic nephropathy. Previously, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus and its polyphenol extracts were found to possess antioxidative effects. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. polyphenol extract (HPE) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. The results show that HPE reduced kidney mass induced by STZ significantly, as well as improving hydropic change of renal proximal convoluted tubules in the rats. HPE also significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL in STZ induced rats. Treatment with HPE significantly increased the activity of catalase and glutathione and reduced lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). The findings of this research show the beneficial effects of HPE on STZ induced diabetic nephropathy including pathology, serum lipid profile and oxidative marker in kidney. PMID:19219995

Lee, Wen-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Jen-Dong; Cheng, Su-Ya; Chen, Hong-Chen; Lee, Huei-Jane

2009-03-25

215

The hypolipidemic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting hepatic lipid clearance.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) was shown to lower the plasma lipid level and reduce the liver damage. In the present study, we investigated if Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) exerted a hypolipidemic effect and its putative mechanism on liver. HPE exhibited more potency to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than the crude extract HSE, and increased HDL cholesterol dose-dependently. It decreased the lipid content of hepatocyte through the activation of AMPK and reduction of SREBP-1, thus inhibiting the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase. LDLR and LDL binding of HepG2 cells were enhanced when treated with HPE. In conclusion, HPE is worthy of being further investigated and could be developed as an adjunctive for hepatic lipid control and hypolipidemic therapy. PMID:20017484

Yang, Mon-Yuan; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

2010-01-27

216

Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium in the Presence of an Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (white) in controlling corrosion of aluminium at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn 2+ . The formulation consisting of 8 mL flower extract (FE) and 50 ppm of Zn 2+ had 98% inhibition efficiency. Polarization study revealed that this

S. Rajendran; J. Jeyasundari; P. Usha; J. A. Selvi; B. Narayanasamy; A. P. P. Regis; P. Rengan

2009-01-01

217

Influence of phloem transport on flower abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering cultivars of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. were either cross-pollinated or self-pollinated. Fruit set was observed on 52% of the cross-fertilized flowers, while only 4.6% of the self-fertilized flowers were not abscised. Once during fruit and seed growth, the subtending leaf was exposed to 14CO2, and translocation of labelled photoassimilate was recorded by macro- and microautoradiography. Phloem transport into the raphe

Doris Krabel; Walter Eschrich

1990-01-01

218

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

2008-01-01

219

Gas chromatographic identification of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and hydrocarbons of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves (family Malvaceae) were analyzed for their fatty acid, fatty alcohol, and hydrocarbon contents. Wax hydrocarbons ranging\\u000a from C16 to C32 with C23, C25, C27, and C31 as major components and wax alcohols between C21 and C30 with C26, iso-C28, and iso-C30 as major components were found to be present in the petroleum ether fraction of the leaves.

D. N. Srivastava; S. K. Bhatt; K. N. Udupa

1976-01-01

220

Production of taxol from Phyllosticta dioscoreae , a leaf spot fungus isolated from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxol is a highly functionalized anticancer drug widely used in hospitals and clinics. The leaf spot fungus, Phyllosticta dioscoreae was isolated from diseased leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and screened for extracellular production of taxol in M1D (Modified liquid medium) and PDB (Potato dextrose broth) medium\\u000a for the first time. The fungus was identified by its morphological and conidial features in

Rangarajulu Senthil Kumaran; Johnpaul Muthumary; Eun-Ki Kim; Byung-Ki Hur

2009-01-01

221

Effect of GA 4+7 on growth and cellular change in uniconazole-treated hibiscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ‘Jane Cowl’ in 1.5–1 pots were given a soil drench of 0.2 mg uniconazole, pruned 2 weeks later, and treated with a foliar\\u000a application of GA4+7 at 0, 25 (once or four times every 2 weeks), 50 (once or twice every 4 weeks), or 100 mg L-1. One application of GA4+7 at 100 mg L-1, two applications at

Yin-Tung Wang; James R. Dunlap

1994-01-01

222

Carbon balance and ethylene in the postharvest life of flowering hibiscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The display life of potted flowering Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. plants (held in a simulated interior environment) was terminated by depletion of their carbohydrate reserves, as determined by reduction in dry matter content of roots, stems, leaves, buds, and flowers. The substantial dry matter content of the short-lived flowers (0.2 g for singles, 0.6 g for doubles) was only partially recaptured

Michael S. Reid; Bernd Wollenweber; Margrethe Serek

2002-01-01

223

Effects of various chemical agents and early ethylene production on floral senescence of Hibiscus syriacus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the factors that induce floral senescence in Hibiscus syriacus L., we have investigated the effects of various chemical agents on flower senescence at two different flowering stages, before\\u000a and after full bloom, as well as the relationship between flower longevity and endogenous ethylene production before full\\u000a bloom. Treatments with ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and ethephon enhanced floral senescence,

Sang-Gyu Seo; Seung-Won Kang; Ie-Sung Shim; Wook Kim; Shinsuke Fujihara

2009-01-01

224

Colouring matter of the flowers of Hibiscus cannabinus : Constitution of Cannabiscetin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The colouring matter of the flower petals ofHibiscus cannabinus consists mostly of the glucoside cannabiscitrin along with small quantities of the corresponding aglucone cannabiscetin.\\u000a The properties and reactions of these two substances are described along with those of some of their derivatives.\\u000a \\u000a Cannabiscetin forms a hexaacetate and a hexamethyl ether. It is a flavonol exhibiting similarities with gossypetin and herbacetin

K. Neelakantam; P. Suryaprakasa Rao; T. R. Seshadri

1941-01-01

225

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4°C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-'. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by micro- electrodes inserted in the style. lhe resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20)

Jorg Fromm; Mohammad Hajirezaei

1995-01-01

226

The waxy matter of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Carthamus tinctorius  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The waxy matter isolated from the flowers ofHibiscus sabdariffa by alcohol extraction yielded phytosterolin as the ether-insoluble component. The ether-soluble portion consisted mainly\\u000a of hydrocarbons having chain lenghts round about C27 along with very small amounts of sitosterol. By the extraction of safflower with carbon tetrachloride was obtained a wax\\u000a made up mostly of paraffin of chain lenght C29 and

P. Bhaskara Rama Murti; T. R. Seshadri

1945-01-01

227

Delayed autonomous selfing and inbreeding depression in the Australian annual Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian annual, Hibiscus trionum var. vesicarius, produces large, showy flowers typical of an outcrossing species, yet flowers autonomously self-pollinate. We used experimental pollinations to examine self-compatibility, inbreeding depression and the efficiency and mechanism of autonomous selfing. Seed set of self- or cross-pollinated flowers did not differ, indicating that plants were fully self-compatible. Seed set following autonomous selfing varied among

Leahwyn SeedA; Glenda Vaughton; Mike Ramsey

2006-01-01

228

Polysaccharides from Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers stimulate proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Raw polysaccharides, previously described in detail, were isolated from the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography into one neutral and three acidic subfractions. Raw polysaccharides and all acidic subfractions caused a strong induction of proliferation of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) of up to 40 %, while the neutral polymers were ineffective. While mitochondrial activity was not influenced, raw polysaccharides induced early differentiation of primary natural human keratinocytes, as determined by involucrin formation. PMID:15095156

Brunold, C; Deters, A; Knoepfel-Sidler, F; Hafner, J; Müller, B; Hensel, A

2004-04-01

229

Optimization of the sonication extraction method of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of several experimental parameters on the ultrasonic extraction of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers were investigated: extraction time, solvent polarity, sample amount, solvent volume and sample particle size. It was concluded that the most influential variables were extraction time and solvent polarity. The optimized procedure employed 5g of ground flowers, 150mL of methanol and 140min of extraction. The extracts

Maria Inês Soares Melecchi; Valéria Flores Péres; Cláudio Dariva; Claudia Alcaraz Zini; Fernanda Contieri Abad; Migdália Miranda Martinez; Elina Bastos Caramão

2006-01-01

230

Isolation of hibiscitrin from the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa : Constitution of Hibiscetin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new flavonol glycoside has been isolated from the flower petals ofHibiscus sabdariffa, and has been named Hibiscitrin. Its aglycone, Hibiscetin is a hexahydroxy flavonol forming a heptaacetyl derivative on acetylation.\\u000a When decomposed with boiling 50% alkali, its heptamethyl ether produces trimethyl gallic acid, indicating thereby the existence\\u000a of hydroxyl groups in 3?, 4? and 5? positions in hibiscetin. On

P. Suryaprakasa Rao; T. R. Seshadri

1942-01-01

231

Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

2008-09-01

232

The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

2005-01-01

233

Inherited chilling tolerance in somatic hybrids of transgenic Hibiscus rosa-sinensis x transgenic Lavatera thuringiaca selected by double-antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for increased frost tolerance has been attempted through somatic hybridization with the frost tolerant Lavatera thuringiaca. Cell suspensions from Hibiscus and Lavatera were transformed with A. tumefaciens harboring plasmids containing selectable genes coding for kanamycin and hygromycin resistance, respectively. We provided evidence that H. rosa-sinensis and L. thuringiaca were transformed by strong selection of transformed calluses

Alejandro Vazquez-Thello; Jun Yang; Makoto Hidaka; Takeshi Uozumi

1996-01-01

234

Caractérisation de la mycoflore pathogène d'Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. et d'Acalypha wilkesiana J. Mueller de la ville de Kénitra (Maroc)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survey of Acalypha wilkesiana and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis., two widespread species in the gardens of the city of Kénitra (Morocco), revealed the presence of fungal agents affecting different organs of these plants. Drechslera cynodontis and Drechslera sacchari are among the leaf parasites encountered on Acalypha wilkesiana. Drechslera spicifera, Drechslera halodes, Curvularia lunata Fusarium oxysporum were among those met on Hibiscus

Nabila MEDDAH; Amina OUAZZANI TOUHAMI; Rachid BENKIRANE; Allal DOUIRA

235

Identification and genetic variation among Hibiscus species (Malvaceae) using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Germplasm identification and characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Traditionally, species or cultivars identification has relied on morphological characters like growth habit or floral morphology like flower colour and other characteristics of the plant. Studies were undertaken for identification and determination of genetic variation within the two species of Hibiscus and 16 varieties of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. through random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) markers. Primer screening was made by using the DNA of variety "Prolific". Genetic analysis was made by using ten selected decamer primers. A total of 79 distinct DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 kb were amplified by using ten selected random decamer primers. The genetic similarity was evaluated on the basis of presence or absence of bands. The cluster analysis indicated that the 16 varieties and two species formed one cluster. The first major cluster consisted of three varieties and a second major cluster consisted of two species and 13 varieties. The genetic distance was very close within the varieties and also among the species. Thus, these RAPD markers have the potential for identification of species/varieties and characterization of genetic variation within the varieties. This is also helpful in Hibiscus breeding programs and provides a major input into conservation biology. PMID:16610229

Barik, Suvakanta; Senapati, Sunil Kumar; Aparajita, Subhashree; Mohapatra, Anuradha; Rout, Gyana Ranjan

236

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on reserpine-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.  

PubMed

Effect of methanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (100-300 mg/kg) was studied on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and neurochemical alterations. The rats were treated with intraperitoneal reserpine (1 mg/kg, ip) for 3 days every other day. On day 5, vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions were counted for 5 min. Reserpine treated rats significantly developed vacuous chewing movements and tongue protrusions however, coadministration of Hibiscus rosa sinensis roots extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, per orally) attenuated the effects. Biochemical analysis of brain revealed that the reserpine treatment significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSH), an index of oxidative stress process. Coadministration of extract significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation and reversed the decrease in brain SOD, CAT and GSH levels. The results of the present study suggested that Hibiscus rosa sinensis had a protective role against reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and oxidative stress. PMID:19761039

Nade, V S; Dwivedi, Subhash; Kawale, L A; Upasani, C D; Yadav, A V

2009-07-01

237

Results of a comparison study of advanced reactors. A report by a working group of PINK Programme 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PINK programme is a 4-year programme of five parties involved in nuclear energy in the Netherlands: GKN (operator of the Dodewaard plant), KEMA (Research institute of the Netherlands Utilities), ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation), NUCON (Eng...

K. G. Bueno de Mesquita W. Gout J. A. Heil R. H. J. Tanke F. Geevers

1991-01-01

238

Prodiginine (Prodigiosin-Like) Pigments from Streptoverticillium rubrireticuli, an Organism That Causes Pink Staining of Polyvinyl Chloride  

PubMed Central

Red pigments were extracted from Streptoverticillium rubrireticuli strain 100-19, an organism frequently incriminated in pink staining of polyvinyl chloride. These pigments were identified as undecylprodiginine and butylcycloheptylprodiginine.

Gerber, Nancy N.; Stahly, Donald P.

1975-01-01

239

Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat  

PubMed Central

Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms) in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

Gauthaman, Karunakaran K; Saleem, Mohamed TS; Thanislas, Peter T; Prabhu, Vinoth V; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan K; Devaraj, Niranjali S; Somasundaram, Jayaprakash S

2006-01-01

240

Distribution, size, and interannual, seasonal and diel food habits of northern Gulf of Alaska juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integral part of assessing the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) ecosystem is the analysis of the food habits and feeding patterns of abundant zooplanktivorous fish. Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha are highly abundant zooplanktivores, and support valuable commercial fisheries as adults. We document variability in pink salmon distribution and size from summer to early fall, and present major trends in their food habits by summarizing interannual (August 1999-2001), seasonal (July-October 2001) and diel (August 2000, and July-September 2001) feeding patterns based on analysis of stomach contents of juvenile pink salmon collected along the Seward Line (GOA) and in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. Diets of juvenile pink salmon were more diverse in 2001 compared to either 1999 or 2000. Small pteropods ( Limacina helicina) composed the majority (>60%) of prey consumed in 1999 and 2000; whereas large copepods, euphausiids, and small pteropods composed the majority of prey in 2001. As juvenile pink salmon increased in size, they consumed increasingly larger prey from August to October 2001 in the GOA. The diet of GOA juvenile pink salmon was different and more diverse than the diet of fish caught in PWS. The dominant prey in PWS during July-October was hyperiid amphipods, whereas the primary prey in the GOA were larvaceans and euphausiids in July, then copepods plus small pteropods, amphipods, euphausiids, larval crabs, and shrimp in August. In September and October, diets in both PWS and GOA included high percentages of larger prey items, including fish, euphausiids, and large pteropods ( Clio pyramidata). Diel comparisons of stomach contents showed pink salmon fed during daylight hours with stomach fullness increasing from dawn to a maximum fullness 8-12 h after sunrise, and declining thereafter. We hypothesize that juvenile pink salmon in the northern GOA consumed distinct and varied prey from the suite of zooplankton available during summer months, July-September. These prey were not necessarily the planktonic species with the greatest biomass or highest abundance on the shelf. Pink salmon fed on prey that were highly visible during daylight hours in the neuston and upper 10 m of the water column. Further work will integrate food habits with fish condition and growth data, zooplankton abundance, and water temperature to develop foraging and bioenergetics models. These models will enable us to assess the habitat quality and growth conditions for juvenile pink salmon and contribute to the goal of understanding how pink salmon and, therefore, tertiary production are affected by changes in ocean conditions.

Armstrong, Janet L.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Cross, Alison D.; Moss, Jamal H.; Davis, Nancy D.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.; Beauchamp, David A.; Haldorson, Lewis J.

2005-01-01

241

Two different transposable elements inserted in flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase gene contribute to pink flower coloration in Gentiana scabra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink-flowered gentian plants (Gentiana scabra) have been bred from spontaneous mutations of blue-flowered gentian plants, but the formation mechanism(s) is unknown so\\u000a far. To investigate the process, two independent pink-flowered gentian plant lines were analyzed by a molecular biological\\u000a approach. HPLC analysis showed that petals of the blue-flowered cultivar contained a small amount of cyanidin derivatives\\u000a and major delphinidin derivatives,

Takashi Nakatsuka; Masahiro Nishihara; Keiichiro Mishiba; Hiroshi Hirano; Saburo Yamamura

2006-01-01

242

Survival of Puget Sound chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in response to climate-induced competition with pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for competition between pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) originating from rivers in the Puget Sound area using coded-wire-tagged subyearling hatchery chinook salmon. Following a 2-year life cycle, many juvenile pink salmon enter Puget Sound in even- numbered years, whereas few migrate during odd-numbered years. During 1984-1997, juvenile chinook salmon re- leased during even-numbered years

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Frederick A. Goetz

2004-01-01

243

The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin promote mitochondrial fission and\\/or inhibit fusion in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (pink1) or parkin cause autosomal-recessive and some sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. pink1 acts upstream of parkin in a common genetic pathway to regulate mitochondrial integrity in Drosophila. Mitochondrial morphology is maintained by a dynamic balance between the opposing actions of mitochondrial fusion, controlled by Mitofusin (mfn) and Optic atrophy 1 (opa1), and mitochondrial fission,

Hansong Deng; Mark W. Dodson; Haixia Huang; Ming Guo

2008-01-01

244

Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1–0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and

L. M. Sammel; J. R. Claus

2007-01-01

245

Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.  

PubMed

Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed. PMID:22980141

Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

2012-09-11

246

Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins.

Trempe, Jean-Francois; Fon, Edward A.

2013-01-01

247

Impact of transgenic Bt-cotton on the diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) are one of the beneficial proteobacteria commonly found in phyllosphere,\\u000a rhizosphere and as endophytes in cotton. To assess the impact of transgenic Bt-cotton on changes in the diversity and community\\u000a profile of PPFMs by comparing with its non-transgenic cotton, a polyphasic approach including differential carbon-substrate\\u000a utilization profiling and DNA fingerprinting techniques like ARDRA, RISA, BOX-PCR and

D. Balachandar; P. Raja; K. Nirmala; T. R. Rithyl; S. P. Sundaram

2008-01-01

248

Acclimatization of Pink Salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the European North: mtDNA Restriction Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon spawners introduced into the White Sea basin (the Umba River) were compared to the spawners from the basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (the Ola River) using restriction analysis of two fragments of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One of the fragments included genes ND5\\/ND6, the other, the cytochrome b gene and the D-loop. It was found that mtDNA variation

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2004-01-01

249

Influence of some mineralizers in the synthesis of sphene-pink pigments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the sphene-pink pigment with and without different mineralizers has been synthesized in order to know the best additive and proportion in which it has to be added. Characterisation of samples by X-ray diffraction indicates that samples without mineralizers exhibit peaks of small intensities assigned to the sphene structure after firing at 1300 °C\\/2h. The addition of H3BO3

E. Cordoncillo; F. del Río; J. Carda; M. Llusar; P. Escribano

1998-01-01

250

Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink Salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

1985-01-01

251

Antioxidant Activity of Pink-Flesh Guava ( Psidium guajava L.): Effect of Extraction Techniques and Solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of commonly used techniques and solvents in the antioxidant activities of pink-flesh guava fruit were studied.\\u000a The extraction techniques compared were homogenization, shaking, sonication, magnetic stirring, and maceration for 1, 2, and\\u000a 3 days. The solvent systems used were methanol, ethanol, and acetone at three different concentrations (50%, 70%, and 100%)\\u000a and with 100% distilled water. The antioxidant activity

Khalid Hamid Musa; Aminah Abdullah; Khairiah Jusoh; Vimala Subramaniam

2011-01-01

252

Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ?20 to ?50 million during 1998–2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early

Thomas C. Kline; Jennifer L. Boldt; Edward V. Farley; Lewis J. Haldorson; John H. Helle

2008-01-01

253

Marine Survival of Pink Salmon Fry from Early and Late Spawners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, eggs were collected from early-run and late-run spawners at Auke Creek, Alaska, and reared separately in a hatchery in deep-gravel incubators. Both groups of fry were marked the day after emergence, then released, unfed, to complete downstream migration. Early hatchery fry migrated downstream about 35 days ahead of late hatchery fry and about 55 days ahead

Sidney G. Taylor

1980-01-01

254

Prevention of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria ( Methylohacterium mesophilicum ) contamination of plant tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs) have been found on the surfaces of leaves of most plants tested. We found PPFMs on the leaf surfaces of all 40 plants (38 species) tested and on soybean pods by pressing onto AMS medium with methanol as the sole carbon source. The abundance ranged from 0.5 colony forming unit (cfu) \\/cm2 to 69.4 cfu\\/cm2

Sermsiri Chanprame; J. J. Todd; J. M. Widholm

1996-01-01

255

Minimal requirements in defined media for improved growth of some radio-resistant pink tetracocci.  

PubMed

Defined media permitting extensive growth of representative pink radio-resistant tetracocci (Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus roseus, and Micrococcus radiophilus) and two controls (an ultraviolet-sensitive mutant of M. radiodurans and Micrococcus luteus) are described. Availability of Fe (especially Fe3+) proved essential for good growth, as evidenced by (i) favorable effects of hydroxamic acids, e.g., salicylhydroxamic acid, and (ii) the growth promotion by hemin when joined with elevated concentrations of Fe. Cobalamin (B12) and methionine were interchangeable as an absolute requirement for methionine not affected by B12. M. luteus required neither. Pink radio-resistant micrococci may form a coherent group. Some divergences among them might be attributable to the method for isolating them, which for ordinary bacteria would be mutagenic to the point of total lethality. The ecology of these tetracocci vis-à-vis other pink-red radio-resistant organisms is discussed in relation to a question: can these bacteria be isolated without dependence on radiation as the cardinal selective factor? PMID:879774

Shapiro, A; DiLello, D; Loudis, M C; Keller, D E; Hutner, S H

1977-05-01

256

Risk of weathered residual Exxon Valdez oil to pink salmon embryos in Prince William Sound.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that pink salmon eggs incubating in intertidal streams transecting Prince William Sound (PWS) beaches oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill were exposed to lethal doses of dissolved hydrocarbons. Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in the incubation gravel were too low to cause mortality, the allegation is that dissolved high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (HPAH) leaching from oil deposits on the beach adjacent to the streams were the source of toxicity. To evaluate this hypothesis, we placed pink salmon eggs in PWS beach sediments containing residual oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and in control areas without oil. We quantified the hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs after three weeks of incubation. Tissue PAH concentrations of eggs in oiled sediments were generally < 100 ppb and similar to background levels on nonoiled beaches. Even eggs in direct contact with oil in the sediment resulted in tissue PAH loads well below the lethal threshold concentrations established in laboratory bioassays, and very low concentrations of HPAH compounds were present. These results indicate that petroleum hydrocarbons dissolved from oil deposits on intertidal beaches are not at concentrations that pose toxic risk to incubating pink salmon eggs. The evidence does not support the hypothesis that interstitial pore water in previously oiled beaches is highly toxic. PMID:17447564

Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Cronin, Mathew A; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R; Wilson, William

2007-04-01

257

Toxicity of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to pink salmon embryos.  

PubMed

Research was conducted at the University of Idaho (Moscow, ID, USA) on the toxicity of weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to embryos of pink salmon from 2001 to 2003 for the purpose of comparing these data with those from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Laboratory at Auke Bay (AK, USA). Mortality reported at Auke Bay for embryos chronically exposed to very low concentrations of aqueous solutions of weathered oil, measured as dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), was inconsistent with that in other published research. Using the Auke Bay experimental design, we found that toxicity is not evident in pink salmon embryos until chronic exposure to laboratory weathered and naturally weathered oil concentrations exceeding 1,500 and 2,250 ppm, respectively, representing a total PAH tissue burden in excess of 7,100 ppb. Effluent hydrocarbons also drop well below concentrations sufficient to cause harm over the time frame of a few weeks, regardless of oiling level. Resolution of differences with Auke Bay involved the source of contributing hydrocarbons. The experimental design did not exclude dispersed oil droplets from the aqueous solution; thus, toxicity was not limited to the dissolved hydrocarbon fraction. The implications of the present results are discussed regarding the toxic risk of weathered oil to pink salmon embryos in streams of Prince William Sound (AK, USA). PMID:16629135

Brannon, Ernest L; Collins, Keya M; Brown, John S; Neff, Jerry M; Parker, Keith R; Stubblefield, William A

2006-04-01

258

Minimal requirements in defined media for improved growth of some radio-resistant pink tetracocci.  

PubMed Central

Defined media permitting extensive growth of representative pink radio-resistant tetracocci (Micrococcus radiodurans, Micrococcus roseus, and Micrococcus radiophilus) and two controls (an ultraviolet-sensitive mutant of M. radiodurans and Micrococcus luteus) are described. Availability of Fe (especially Fe3+) proved essential for good growth, as evidenced by (i) favorable effects of hydroxamic acids, e.g., salicylhydroxamic acid, and (ii) the growth promotion by hemin when joined with elevated concentrations of Fe. Cobalamin (B12) and methionine were interchangeable as an absolute requirement for methionine not affected by B12. M. luteus required neither. Pink radio-resistant micrococci may form a coherent group. Some divergences among them might be attributable to the method for isolating them, which for ordinary bacteria would be mutagenic to the point of total lethality. The ecology of these tetracocci vis-à-vis other pink-red radio-resistant organisms is discussed in relation to a question: can these bacteria be isolated without dependence on radiation as the cardinal selective factor?

Shapiro, A; DiLello, D; Loudis, M C; Keller, D E; Hutner, S H

1977-01-01

259

PINK1 Deficiency Enhances Inflammatory Cytokine Release from Acutely Prepared Brain Slices  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative motor disease caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Because brain inflammation has been considered a risk factor for PD, we analyzed whether PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), an autosomal recessive familial PD gene, regulates brain inflammation during injury states. Using acutely prepared cortical slices to mimic injury, we analyzed expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 at the mRNA and protein levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of these cytokines was higher at 6-24 h after slicing in PINK1 knockout (KO) slices compared to that in wild-type (WT) slices. In serial experiments to understand the signaling pathways that increase inflammatory responses in KO slices, we found that I?B degradation was enhanced but Akt phosphorylation decreased in KO slices compared to those in WT slices. In further experiments, an inhibitor of PI3K (LY294002) upstream of Akt increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency enhance brain inflammation through reduced Akt activation and enhanced I?B degradation in response to brain injury.

Kim, Jun; Byun, Ji-Won; Choi, Insup; Kim, Beomsue; Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Jou, Ilo

2013-01-01

260

Trace metal incorporation in otoliths of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) as an environmental monitor.  

PubMed

Otolith metal concentrations may be related to the environmental exposure history of fish to contamination. Otoliths of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) collected from the marine basin of Cockburn Sound and offshore near Rottnest Island were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure the concentrations of 11 trace metals. The following metals were investigated using their respective isotopes: aluminum (27Al), calcium (44Ca), manganese (55Mn), iron (57Fe), copper (65Cu), zinc (66Zn), strontium (88Sr), cadmium (111Cd), barium (138Ba), mercury (202Hg) and lead (208Pb). Significant differences in otolith metal concentrations were found between the sampling locations for Zn, Cd and Pb. These metals were significantly higher in the otolith edges of the pink snapper captured from the extensive industrial area bordering Cockburn Sound. Life history transects of Zn, Cd and Pb within otoliths of pink snapper sampled from Cockburn Sound typically showed temporal trends that may correspond to the movement of this fish species in and out of this contaminated area during the yearly spawning season. PMID:20451659

Ranaldi, Melinda Marie; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

2010-05-06

261

Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O'Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

2012-01-01

262

Use of Recombinant Tobacco Mosaic Virus To Achieve RNA Interference in Plants against the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)  

PubMed Central

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W.

2013-01-01

263

Use of Recombinant Tobacco Mosaic Virus To Achieve RNA Interference in Plants against the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

2013-09-09

264

Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots.  

PubMed

Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, S K

2008-03-01

265

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on oestrous cycle & reproductive organs in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on the estrous cycle and reproductive organs was studied in female albino rats. Depending on the dose and duration of treatment, the benzene extract of the flowers disrupted the estrous cycle. Treatment for 30 days resulted in a significant (p less than .05) reduction in the weight of the ovaries, uterus, and pituitary gland. Ovarian follicular atresia and uterine atrophy were observed. Treatment resulted in degranulated gonadotrophs in the pituitary, with the extent of damage being dose-dependent. PMID:1035904

Kholkute, S D; Chatterjee, S; Udupa, K N

1976-11-01

266

Isolation of methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate--a new oleanane Triterpenoid from the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius.  

PubMed

A new oleanane triterpenoid, methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate (2), together with eight known compounds viz. oleanolic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-D-rhamnopyranoside, gossypin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mangiferin were isolated from the ethanol extract of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated from spectroscopic, ESI-MS and physical data. The eight known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. PMID:23738444

Ramasamy, Duraisamy; Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

2013-04-01

267

Optimization of the sonication extraction method of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers.  

PubMed

The influence of several experimental parameters on the ultrasonic extraction of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers were investigated: extraction time, solvent polarity, sample amount, solvent volume and sample particle size. It was concluded that the most influential variables were extraction time and solvent polarity. The optimized procedure employed 5 g of ground flowers, 150 mL of methanol and 140 min of extraction. The extracts were fractionated using preparative silica columns and the resulting fractions were analyzed by GC/MS. Some saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols, and vitamin E were identified in the plant extracts. PMID:15993639

Melecchi, Maria Inês Soares; Péres, Valéria Flores; Dariva, Cláudio; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz; Abad, Fernanda Contieri; Martinez, Migdália Miranda; Caramão, Elina Bastos

2005-07-01

268

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

269

Colonization history of the high-arctic pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus.  

PubMed

Population structure and phylogeography of the pink-footed goose, Anser brachyrhynchus Baillon 1833, was studied using mtDNA control region sequences (221 bp) from 142 individuals. Present breeding areas of the species in Greenland, Iceland, and Svalbard were largely covered by ice during the late Pleistocene. In pairwise comparisons phiST estimates showed significant differentiation among eastern and western populations, whereas sampling localities within both areas were not differentiated. The mtDNA data indicate that the populations have separated recently (less than 10 000 years ago) and present breeding areas were colonized from one refugial population. The levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were approximately five times higher for the eastern population compared to the western population and suggest that the latter was colonized by a subset of eastern birds. Time to the most recent common ancestor of the species is 32 000-46 000 years, i.e. the present mtDNA variation of the pink-footed goose has accumulated during the last 0.1 My. Estimates of the long-term female effective population size (5400-7700 for the eastern population) imply that the refugial population of the pink-footed goose has been large. Tundra habitats were more extensive in cold periods of the late Pleistocene than today and may have sustained population sizes that allowed the accumulation of extant genetic polymorphism. It is not probable that the postulated small refugial areas in the high latitudes had a significant role in maintaining this diversity. PMID:15643960

Ruokonen, M; Aarvak, T; Madsen, J

2005-01-01

270

Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on Wound Healing Activity: A Preclinical Study in a Sprague Dawley Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hibiscus rosa sinensis (H rosa sinensis), a plant product, has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases as well as to promote wound healing. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis flower was determined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models and is presented in this report. The animals were

B. Shivananda Nayak; S. Sivachandra Raju; F. A. Orette; A. V. Chalapathi Rao

2007-01-01

271

Hibiscus virus S is a new subgroup II tobamovirus: evidence from its unique coat protein and movement protein sequences.  

PubMed

The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) sequences of a new tobamovirus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L were determined. The CP gene encodes 163 amino acid (aa) residues and with a theoretical molecular weight of 18.19 kDa. The MP gene encodes 282 amino acids and its theoretical molecular weight is 30.36 kDa. The nucleotide (nt) and aa sequences of the CP were 46.88 % to 51.63 % and 45.34 % to 57.06 % identical to other tobamoviruses, respectively. The nt and aa sequence identities of MP ranged from 38.81 % to 43.90 % and 30.85 % to 37.88 %, respectively. The predicted virion origin of assembly (OAS) was located in the CP gene. Phylogenetic trees generated based on the nt and aa sequences of both CP and MP genes indicate that this new virus clusters with members of subgroup II of tobamoviruses. Although this hibiscus virus shared a high nt and aa sequence identity with Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV), Western analysis showed that it is serologically unrelated to SHMV. We propose the name Hibiscus virus S (HVS) for this Singapore isolate. This is the first report on partial nt sequence of a tobamovirus that infects hibiscus. PMID:12181677

Srinivasan, K G; Narendrakumar, R; Wong, S M

2002-08-01

272

CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

2007-01-01

273

Interhabitat differences in ant activity on plant foliage: ants at extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis in sandy and mangrove forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between visiting ants and the extrafloral nectaries (EFN)-bearing shrub Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae) was investigated in two different coastal habitats - a permanently dry sandy forest and a regularly inundated mangrove forest. In both habitats the frequency of plants with ants and the mean number of ants per plant were much higher on H. pernambucensis than on non-nectariferous

Rodrigo Cogni; Andre V. L. Freitas; Paulo S. Oliveira

2003-01-01

274

Temporal and Geographic Variation in Predispersal Seed Predation on Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae) in Ohio and Maryland, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed predation has the potential to strongly reduce seed production and thereby act as a selective force on the evolution of flowering traits and other defenses against herbivory. We characterized levels of predispersal seed predation on Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) during 2001 and 2002 at four sites in Ohio and Maryland, USA. The seed predators were a weevil, Conotrachelus fissinguis (Coleoptera,

ROBERT A. KLIPS; PATRICIA M. SWEENEY; ELISABETH K. F. BAUMAN; ALLISON A. SNOW

2005-01-01

275

Investigation of the microbial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under differing conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

276

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hyperthermophilic Pink Filament Community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This journal article reports the molecular phylogenetic approach used to analyze a microbial community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring. The authors perform techniques such as microscopy, DNA extraction and amplification, cloning and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, phylogenetic analysis, and in situ hybridization to determine the limited phylogenetic diversity of the pink filaments including hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Located in PubMed, this article contains a link to a printable PDF version.

Pace, Norman R.; Wickham, Gene S.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise

2010-02-19

277

Wearing pink as a stand against bullying: why we need to say more.  

PubMed

This article presents a contextual discourse analysis of the media response to a campaign against bullying that was developed in the spring of 2007 in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. As a feature of masculine socialization, male-on-male bullying secures the reproduction of an aggressive and heteronormative hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) for boys and young men in contemporary North American mainstream culture. I argue that the celebration of the "Pink Campaign" is illustrative of the normalizing silences, or "unremarkability," about the related discourses of sexism and homophobia that motivate everyday practices of male-on-male bullying. PMID:20390998

Naugler, Diane

2010-01-01

278

Predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae on different stages of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: a threat to cotton in South Asia.  

PubMed

The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators. PMID:23464378

Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

2012-01-01

279

Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.  

PubMed

For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

2006-02-17

280

[Analysis of bacterial composition of the pink mat from spectacles hot spring in Tengchong by culture-independent approach].  

PubMed

The bacterial composition of the pink mat was studied by culture-independent approach. 23 complete 16S rDNA sequences were obtained. According to the sequences alignment and analysis of comparability, the bacteria of the pink mat was consisted of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacter, Deinococcus-thermus, Aquificals. And compared with bacterial composition of the mats from Octopus spring in Yellowstone Park and Haegindi and Fluidir spring, Olkelduhals, Grensdalur spring in Iceland, the pink mat in spectacles spring had highest bacterial diversity among them because it perhaps included lots of bacteria at lower temperature. And the result indicated the same community lived in the same niche and Aquficales was dominant group among bacterial composition of the mat in higher temperature and near-neutral hot spring. PMID:16110968

Zhang, Dong-Hua; Li, Qin-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Qian

2004-12-01

281

Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.  

PubMed

The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population. PMID:17705439

Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Arranz, Sara; Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

2007-08-17

282

Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.

2012-01-01

283

The pink-blue spot syndrome in Acropora eurystoma (Eilat, Red Sea): a possible marker of stress?  

PubMed

The appearance of pink-blue spots (termed here as pink-blue spot syndrome - PBSS) in the branching coral Acropora eurystoma from the Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea, is described. We monitored 18 transects (10 x 1 m2 each) in front of the H. Steinitz Marine Laboratory (Eilat), at 3, 6 and 9 m depth, during March and August in 2001 and 2002. Transect measurements revealed high frequencies of colonies with PBSS (up to 100% of colonies) between 3 and 9 m depth. Ten PBSS-affected colonies of A. eurystoma were labelled and monitored for the development of spots. From March to August 2001, the number of spots per colony increased and remained constantly high at both sampling dates in 2002. Spot size ranged between 7 and 149 mm2. Spots were primarily recorded in areas where coral tissues contacted foreign biological matter, either around regenerative wounds or when surrounded by encrusting organisms, in fast-growing areas and in allogeneic interactions. A preliminary biochemical examination suggested that the pink-blue pigment in A. eurystoma is part of a family of compounds (pocilloporin) responsible for the pink-blue colours in pocilloporid and acroporid corals. Pink-blue colour could be experimentally induced in A. eurystoma by tissue-to-tissue contacts between distressed and non-distressed allogeneic branches. PBSS was also induced in healthy coral tissue by contact with inert objects, e.g., by bandaging a branch with plastic strips. Any specific pink-blue colour spots faded within 1-3 months from onset. These results suggest that PBSS in A. eurystoma may not be considered a regular coral disease, but rather a locally induced syndrome caused by restricted environmental and/or biological stress conditions. PMID:16351972

Bongiorni, Lucia; Rinkevich, Baruch

2005-08-11

284

Relationship of size at return with environmental variation, hatchery production, and productivity of wild pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska: does size matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) returning to Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, have increased to historically high levels of abundance in recent years, but average body size at return has declined. We examined how body size at return of PWS pink salmon was related to 10 biophysical factors, including the scale of hatchery production. We also examined the effect of body

Alex C. Wertheimer; William R. Heard; J. M. Maselko; William W. Smoker

2004-01-01

285

The Influence of Climate on the Stock and Recruitment of Pink and Sockeye Salmon from the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the spawning stock and the subsequent recruitment of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka from the Fraser River improve significantly when the data are separated by climate and ocean regimes. Our analyses show changes in these relationships as regimes shift, indicating that the trend in marine survival of pink and sockeye salmon changes on

R. J. Beamish; J. T. Schnute; A. J. Cass; C. M. Neville; R. M. Sweeting

2004-01-01

286

Contrasting the structure and morphology of the radial and diffuse flesh browning disorders and CO 2 injury of ‘Cripps Pink’ apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flesh browning of ‘Cripps Pink’ apples has been categorised into three separate disorders based on visual symptoms and cell morphology. Radial flesh browning (RFB) was identified by browning of the vascular tissue, in contrast diffuse flesh browning (DFB) was identified as browning of the cortex tissue. Carbon dioxide injury of ‘Cripps Pink’ apples was identified by the formation of pits

Hannah J. James; Jenny J. Jobling

2009-01-01

287

K- ras oncogene DNA Sequences in Pink Salmon in Streams Impacted by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: No Evidence of Oil-induced Heritable Mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no

Matthew A. Cronin; Jeffrey K. Wickliffe; Yelena Dunina; Robert J. Baker

2002-01-01

288

PINK1 deficiency attenuates astrocyte proliferation through mitochondrial dysfunction, reduced AKT and increased p38 MAPK activation, and downregulation of EGFR.  

PubMed

PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), a familial Parkinson's disease (PD)-related gene, is expressed in astrocytes, but little is known about its role in this cell type. Here, we found that astrocytes cultured from PINK1-knockout (KO) mice exhibit defective proliferative responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fetal bovine serum. In PINK1-KO astrocytes, basal and EGF-induced p38 activation (phosphorylation) were increased whereas EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and AKT activation were decreased. p38 inhibition (SB203580) or knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued EGFR expression and AKT activation in PINK1-KO astrocytes. Proliferation defects in PINK1-KO astrocytes appeared to be linked to mitochondrial defects, manifesting as decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level, decreased glucose-uptake capacity, and decreased ATP production. Mitochondrial toxin (oligomycin) and a glucose-uptake inhibitor (phloretin) mimicked the PINK1-deficiency phenotype, decreasing astrocyte proliferation, EGFR expression and AKT activation, and increasing p38 activation. In addition, the proliferation defect in PINK1-KO astrocytes resulted in a delay in the wound healing process. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency causes astrocytes dysfunction, which may contribute to the development of PD due to delayed astrocytes-mediated repair of microenvironment in the brain. PMID:23440919

Choi, Insup; Kim, Jun; Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Kim, Beomsue; Jou, Ilo; Park, Sang Myun; Chen, Linan; Kang, Un-Jung; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Joe, Eun-Hye

2013-02-26

289

PINK1 Deficiency Attenuates Astrocyte Proliferation Through Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Reduced AKT and Increased p38 MAPK Activation, and Downregulation of EGFR  

PubMed Central

PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), a familial Parkinson's disease (PD)-related gene, is expressed in astrocytes, but little is known about its role in this cell type. Here, we found that astrocytes cultured from PINK1-knockout (KO) mice exhibit defective proliferative responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fetal bovine serum. In PINK1-KO astrocytes, basal and EGF-induced p38 activation (phosphorylation) were increased whereas EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and AKT activation were decreased. p38 inhibition (SB203580) or knockdown with small interfering RNA (siRNA) rescued EGFR expression and AKT activation in PINK1-KO astrocytes. Proliferation defects in PINK1-KO astrocytes appeared to be linked to mitochondrial defects, manifesting as decreased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species level, decreased glucose-uptake capacity, and decreased ATP production. Mitochondrial toxin (oligomycin) and a glucose-uptake inhibitor (phloretin) mimicked the PINK1-deficiency phenotype, decreasing astrocyte proliferation, EGFR expression and AKT activation, and increasing p38 activation. In addition, the proliferation defect in PINK1-KO astrocytes resulted in a delay in the wound healing process. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency causes astrocytes dysfunction, which may contribute to the development of PD due to delayed astrocytes-mediated repair of microenvironment in the brain.

Choi, Insup; Kim, Jun; Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Kim, Beomsue; Jou, Ilo; Park, Sang Myun; Chen, Linan; Kang, Un-Jung; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Joe, Eun-hye

2013-01-01

290

Distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs on leaves of vegetables.  

PubMed

The distribution of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs) on the leaves of various vegetables was studied. All kinds of vegetable leaves tested gave pink-pigmented colonies on agar plates containing methanol as sole carbon source. The numbers of PPFMs on the leaves, colony-forming units (CFU)/g of fresh leaves, differed among the plants, although they were planted and grown at the same farm. Commercial green perilla, Perilla frutescens viridis (Makino) Makino, gave the highest counts of PPFMs (2.0-4.1×10(7) CFU/g) of all the commercial vegetable leaves tested, amounting to 15% of total microbes on the leaves. The PPFMs isolated from seeds of two varieties of perilla, the red and green varieties, exhibited high sequence similarity as to the 16S rRNA gene to two different Methylobacterium species, M. fujisawaense DSM5686(T) and M. radiotolerans JCM2831(T) respectively, suggesting that there is specific interaction between perilla and the PPFMs. PMID:22451403

Mizuno, Masayuki; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Yoshida, Naoko; Iguchi, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

2012-01-01

291

Disruptions of the pulp-dentin complex in an investigated case of pink secondary retained molar.  

PubMed

A pink retained left mandibular first molar without carious lesions was diagnosed in a healthy 12-year-old girl presenting normal clinical tests. An orthopantomogram failed to detect other retained teeth. Both periapical radiography and computed tomography showed the absence of a periodontal ligament space in the bifurcation area and the presence of radiolucency or calcifications in the pulp cavity. The coronal part of the removed tooth was subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis using anti-PCNA (proliferation marker) and anti-p53 (apoptosis marker) antibodies. Root surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The pink color of the molar reflected the extension of resorptive tissue into the clinical crown and the underlining proliferation of pulp vessels. Ankylosis observed in the bifurcation area was also detected in the coronal part of the pulp. Whereas odontoblasts secreted tertiary dentin despite no evidence for a carious lesion, only osteocytes in the newly formed bone were apoptotic and the root surfaces were free of resorption lacunae. The etiopathology of the lesion in this case indicated a pulp origin, suggesting that new therapies targeting this tissue should be developed. PMID:20652799

Roy, Véronique; Jamazi, Imene; Jemmali, Badiaa; Ghoul-Mazgar, Sonia

2010-07-23

292

Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic diversity of a well-known pink filament community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was examined. Three phylogenetic types ("phylotypes"), designated EM 3, EM 17, and EM 19, were identified by cloning and sequencing the small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) obtained by PCR amplification of mixed-population DNA. All three phylotypes diverge deeply within the phylogenetic domain Bacteria sensu Woese (C. R. Woese, O. Kandler, and M. L. Wheelis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:4576-4579, 1990). No members of the Archaea or Eucarya were detected. EM 3 comprises a unique lineage within the Thermotogales group, and EM 17 and EM 19 are affiliated with the Aquificales. A total of 35 clones were examined, of which the majority (26 clones) were of a single sequence type (EM 17) closely related to Aquifex pyrophilus. In situ hybridization with clone-specific probes attributes the majority sequence, EM 17, to the pink filaments. Images

Reysenbach, A L; Wickham, G S; Pace, N R

1994-01-01

293

Evidence for size-selective mortality after the first summer of ocean growth by pink salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pink salmon Onchorhynchus gorbuscha with identifiable thermal otolith marks from Prince William Sound hatchery release groups during 2001 were used to test the hypothesis that faster-growing fish during their first summer in the ocean had higher survival rates than slower-growing fish. Marked juvenile pink salmon were sampled monthly in Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska, and adults that survived to maturity were recovered at hatchery release sites the following year. Surviving fish exhibited significantly wider circuli spacing on the region of the scale formed during early marine residence than did juveniles collected at sea during their first ocean summer, indicating that marine survival after the first growing season was related to increases in early marine growth. At the same circuli, a significantly larger average scale radius for returning adults than for juveniles from the same hatchery would suggest that larger, faster-growing juveniles had a higher survival rate and that significant size-selective mortality occurred after the juveniles were sampled. Growth patterns inferred from intercirculi spacing on scales varied among hatchery release groups, suggesting that density-dependent processes differed among release groups and occurred across Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska. These observations support other studies that have found that larger, faster-growing fish are more likely to survive until maturity. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

Moss, J. H.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Cross, A. D.; Myers, K. W.; Farley, Jr. , E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Helle, J. H.

2005-01-01

294

High-Frequency Genetic Reversion Mediated by a DNA Duplication: The Mouse PinkEyed Unstable Mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse pink-eyed unstable (pun) mutation, affecting coat color, exhibits one of the highest reported reversion frequencies of any mammalian mutation and is associated with a duplication of genomic DNA at the p locus. In this study, genomic clones containing the boundaries of the pun duplication were isolated and characterized. The structure of these sequences and their wild-type and revertant

Yoichi Gondo; John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Donna Durham-Pierre; Susan A. Deveau; Cynthia Kuper; Murray H. Brilliant

1993-01-01

295

The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

Gilliam, James E.

1991-01-01

296

Identification of a Melanosomal Membrane Protein Encoded by the PinkEyed Dilution (Type II Oculocutaneous Albinism) Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in the mouse is critical to melanogenesis; mutations in the homologous locus in humans, P, are a cause of type II oculocutaneous albinism. Although a cDNA encoded by the p gene has recently been identified, nothing is known about the protein product of this gene. To characterize the protein encoded by the p gene, we

Susana Rosemblat; Donna Durham-Pierre; John M. Gardner; Yoshimichi Nakatsu; Murray H. Brilliant; Seth J. Orlow

1994-01-01

297

Influence of the sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific subarctic frontal zone on the pink salmon's winter survival ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to other high-latitude ocean basins, the subarctic Pacific exhibits strong seasonal and inter-annual variations in the abiotic factors of the environment, which, in turn, strongly influence biological objects. One of the principal factors of this kind is the temperature regime. For our research, we chose pink salmon because more than 90% of its natural mortality occurs precisely during the wintering period. The lifetime of pink salmon is only one year, and the conditions of their populations reflect the thermal regime of the given year. The main wintering area of Asian pink salmon is the part of the subarctic frontal zone located south of the Aleutian Islands (43° 46°N). This region features sufficiently high wintertime concentrations of chlorophyll a and temperature conditions favorable for pink salmon wintering. The interannual temperature variability in the frontal zone is close to zero, and the width of the frontal zone may significantly change depending on the winter severity. In “milder” winters, the area of wintering extends, while, in “severe” winters, it is rather narrow, the forage base for fish decreases, they become more accessible for predators, and their survival rates sharply drop.

Tananaeva, Yu. N.

2008-06-01

298

Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

page 371 Abstract Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Jennifer L. Nielsen

2005-01-01

299

Effect of Lactic Starter Culture on Pink Discoloration and Oxidation-Reduction Potential in Italian Cheese[1] and [2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen cultures of high-temperature streptococci and lactobacilli were evaluated for their effects on development of pink discoloration in Romano cheese. Certain strains of lactobacilli used as starter cul- tures were found to be consistently asso- ciated with appearance of the discoloration, whereas other strains, and strains of Strep- tococcus thermophilus, never caused the defect. Using a combination of S. ther-

E. L. Shannon; N. F. Olson; J. H. von Elbe

1969-01-01

300

THE EFFECT OF CHITOSAN AND BION ON RESISTANCE TO PINK SNOW MOULD IN PERENNIAL RYEGRASS AND WINTER WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of chitosan on resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) were studied in young winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Folke) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars Viris, Riikka and Norlea) under controlled environmental conditions. In perennial ryegrass, the ...

301

Romance in the Age of Cybernetic Conviviality: Hsia Yü's Pink Noise and the Poetics of Postcolonial Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

:In 2007, acclaimed Taiwanese postmodern poet Hsia Yü published a transparent book of bilingual poems generated mostly from weblogs (in English) and from a computer translation program (in Chinese). The book, Pink Noise (now available on Amazon), has ignited enthusiastic responses among Hsia Yü's \\

Lili Hsieh

2009-01-01

302

Influence of Reduced Feed Ration on Lepeophtheirus salmonis Infestation and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Juvenile Pink Salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of reduced feed ration on infestation levels with the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and gene expression in juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha was tested in three laboratory trials. Body weight was significantly lower among fish on the reduced ration for 27, 34, or 65 d than fish on the full ration. Neither the prevalence nor the abundance of

Simon R. M. Jones; Mark D. Fast; Stewart C. Johnson

2008-01-01

303

The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.  

PubMed

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance. PMID:22848685

Wan, Peng; Huang, Yunxin; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-07-27

304

The Halo Effect: Suppression of Pink Bollworm on Non-Bt Cotton by Bt Cotton in China  

PubMed Central

In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this “halo effect” against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Huang, Minsong; Wu, Kongming

2012-01-01

305

Evidence of Damage to Pink Salmon Populations Inhabiting Prince William Sound, Alaska, Two Generations after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations into the effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, suggest that chronic damage occurred to some populations of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Significantly elevated embryo mortalities were observed from 1989 through 1993 in populations inhabiting streams previously contaminated by oil. No statistically detectable difference in embryo mortality was observed in 1994 and

Brian G. Bue; Samuel Sharr; James E. Seeb

1998-01-01

306

Assessing Prey and Competitor/Predators of Pink Salmon Fry. 'Exxon Valdez' Oil Spill Restoration Project Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Multi-frequency acoustic/net sampling assessments of the pink salmon food supply and predators were conducted in Prince William Sound during spring 2001. Five cruises were completed between April 18 and June 15,200 1. The results of this monitoring were i...

G. L. Thomas R. E. Thorne

2002-01-01

307

First report of major histocompatibility complex class II loci from the Amazon pink river dolphin (genus Inia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB1 sequences for the two species of pink river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis) inhabiting the Amazon and Orinoco River basins. These sequences were found to be polymorphic within the Inia genus and showed shared homology with cetacean DQB- 1 sequences, especially, those of the Monodontidae and Phocoenidae. On the other

M. Martínez-Agüero; S. Flores-Ramírez; M. Ruiz-García

2006-01-01

308

Straying of Adult Pink Salmon from their Natal Stream following Embryonic Exposure to Weathered Exxon Valdez Crude Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numbers of strays (adult salmon returning to a nonnatal stream), straying rates, and distribution of strays were estimated for pink salmon incubated in oil-contaminated gravel and for an unexposed control group. The treatment groups were incubated in oiled gravel, which resulted in initial aqueous exposures for total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) of 5 and 19 ?g\\/L for a low and

Alex C. Wertheimer; Ron A. Heintz; John F. Thedinga; Jacek M. Maselko; Stanley D. Rice

2000-01-01

309

INDUCTION OF MATURATION AND SPAWNING OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM, BY CHANGING WATER TEMPERATURE, AND SURVIVAL OF GROWTH OF YOUNG  

EPA Science Inventory

Maturation, mating, and spawning of pink shrimp, Panaeus duorarum, are described. hree temperature cycles over 130 days produced three separate periods of maturation and spawning within 7 to 14 days after the water temperature increased from the minimum of 20.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C ...

310

[Genetic differentiation of pink salmon oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range].  

PubMed

Genetic variation at 19 allozyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples of odd- and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation over the allozyme loci, per broodline, were on average 0.43% (GST), while over the microsatellite loci it was 0.26% (the theta(ST) coefficient, F-statistics based on the allele frequency variance), and 0.90% (the rho(ST) coefficient, R-statistics based on the allele size variance). The values of interlinear component constituted 2.34, 0.31, and 1.05% of the total variation, respectively. Using the allozyme loci, statistically significant intralinear heterogeneity was demonstrated among the regions, as well as among the populations of Southern Sakhalin Island. Multivariate scaling based on the allozyme data demonstrated regional clustering of the sample groups, representing certain populations during the spawning run or in different years. Most of the microsatellite loci examined were found to be highly polymorphic (mean heterozygosity > 0.880). The estimates of interlinear, interregional, and interpopulation variation over these loci in terms of theta(ST) values were substantially lower than in terms of rho(ST) values. Regional genetic differentiation, mostly expressed at the allozyme loci among the populations from the northern and southern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk (i.e., between the Sakhalin and Kuril populations), was less expressed at the microsatellite loci. The differentiation between these regions observed can be considered as the evidence in favor of a large-scale isolation by distance characterizing Asian pink salmon. It is suggested that in pink salmon, low genetic differentiation at neutral microsatellite loci can be explained by extremely high heterozygosity,of the loci themselves, as well as by the migration gene exchange among the populations (the estimate of the genetic migration coefficient inferred from the "private" allele data constituted 2.6 to 3.4%), specifically, by the ancient migration exchange, which occurred during postglacial colonization and colonization of the range. PMID:17152707

Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Altukhov, Iu P; Afanas'ev, K I; Rubtsova, G A; Vasil'eva, Iu V

2006-10-01

311

In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.  

PubMed

Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. PMID:12963149

Adhirajan, N; Ravi Kumar, T; Shanmugasundaram, N; Babu, Mary

2003-10-01

312

Antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in two forms of experimental hypertension: salt-induced and L-NAME (N(omega)-L-arginine methyl ester)-induced and in normotensive controls. The blood pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in both the hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous injection of 1-125 mg/kg of HS, suggesting that HS possesses anti-hypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. The fall in mean arterial pressure was significantly pronounced in the hypertensive rats (salt-induced: 94.4+/-8.6 mm Hg; L-NAME-induced: 136.5+/-10.3 mm Hg) than in the normotensive controls (50.2+/-5.1 mm Hg; P<0.05). PMID:17482378

Mojiminiyi, F B O; Dikko, M; Muhammad, B Y; Ojobor, P D; Ajagbonna, O P; Okolo, R U; Igbokwe, U V; Mojiminiyi, U E; Fagbemi, M A; Bello, S O; Anga, T J

2007-04-11

313

The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl(4) by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1-5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced the liver damage including steatosis and fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, HSE significantly decreased the elevation in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also restored the decrease in glutathione content and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. In the primary culture, HSE also significantly inhibited the activation of the hepatic stellate cells. These results suggested that HSE may protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced fibrosis. This protective effect appears due to HSEs antioxidant properties. PMID:16176854

Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Chang-Che; Wang, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2005-09-19

314

Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

2013-01-01

315

Inhibition of intestinal motility by methanol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in rats.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (p < 0.01) showed a significant dose dependent relaxant effect (IC50) = 350 microM) on rat ileal strip comparable to the effect shown by nifedipin and papaverine as reference compounds. Similarly, the extract when administered intraperitoneally significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) reduced the intestinal transit (13%-35%) in rats (IC50, = 250 microM). The extracts (40% +/- 04%) and nifedipin (51% +/- 05%) also potentiated the diarrhoea inducing effect of castor oil (IC50 = 350 microM). It is postulated that these effects are possibly generated by constituents such as quercetin and eugenol via a Ca2+ channel modulated mode of action. PMID:12164279

Salah, A M; Gathumbi, J; Vierling, W

2002-05-01

316

[The relationship between allozyme and morphometric variation in pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha from Southern Sakhalin].  

PubMed

The relationship between allozyme polymorphism and morphometric variation in pink salmon from Southern Sakhalin was examined in order to determine the effects of individual genes. Dramatic differences were found between individuals of some genotypes. For instance, the difference in average male body length between the two prevailing PGDH* genotypes reached 36sigma, which corresponds to 5% contribution to the total variance of the trait. It would take only several generations for selection in favor of extreme phenotypes to rapidly shift the allele frequencies at loci of such a strong effect, which should be taken into account both in fishery management and in practical hatchery. Long-term selection can result in irreversible genetic changes in the population, which may be hazardous in the context of causing irreparable harm to the biological resources of the Earth. PMID:17486753

Moskale?chik, F F

2007-03-01

317

Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 ? upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 ? error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather than Early Solar System spallation were the dominant source of 10Be in the Early Solar System, since their contribution to 36Cl would have been tiny. If the variability of 36Cl abundances is caused by temporal differences in the alteration that formed sodalite, sodalite in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule may have formed ?0.5 and ?0.2 Ma after formation of the sodalite in the Ningqiang CAI analyzed by Lin et al. [Lin, Y., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ouyang, Z. and Wang, D. (2005) Short-lived chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 1306-1311]. The Pink Angel sodalite that we analyzed may have formed ˜0.3 Ma after formation of the sodalite in the Pink Angel analyzed by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529]. The estimated temporal differences suggest that alteration extended over at least 0.5 Ma. If previous works showing very low initial 36Cl/ 35Cl in the Allende CAIs and a H3 chondrite CAI are also considered, then alteration processes may have been more than 1.7 Ma.

Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

2008-12-01

318

Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (family Malvaceae).  

PubMed

Aqueous (A), hydroalcoholic (AE) and ethanolic (E) extracts and fractions of dried calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated for anxiolytic property using elevated-plus maze (EPM), and sedative properties using ketamine-induced sleep in animal models. The extracts exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the time spent in the open arm with ethanol extracts having the best anxiolytic activity. The extracts at A 5 mg/kg, AE 5 mg/kg and A 50 mg/kg did not cause an increase in time spent in the open arms (p < 0.05) but other doses significantly did when compared with the vehicle control. The fractions of the hydroalcoholic extracts showed no significant anxiolytic activity. Neither the extracts nor the fractions significantly reduced or increased latency to sleep after a single dose except AE 300 (p < 0.01). There was significant reduction in onset of sleep, and increase in sleeping time with A and AE extracts with multiple doses at A 300, AE 50 and AE 300 mg/kg dose groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). A reduction in sleeping time after several daily doses of ethanol extracts doses was observed. A single dose of one of the fractions (EAC at 50 mg/kg) caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in sleep duration. The study showed that extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa possess anxiolytic and sedative effects which become more pronounced with administration of repeated doses of the extracts. PMID:18756855

Fakeye, T O; Pal, A; Khanuja, S P S

2008-03-01

319

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:15922006

Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Hui-Pei; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Chau-Jong

2004-12-07

320

Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

Chang, Y.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-D. [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

2005-06-15

321

Effects of Resistance to Bt Cotton on Diapause in the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella  

PubMed Central

Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are expected to delay the evolution of resistance. In a previous study where pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), larvae overwintered in outdoor insectaries, individuals from Bt-resistant strains had lower survival than individuals from Bt-susceptible strains or F1 progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible adults. To investigate the physiological basis of such recessive cost, diapause duration was experimentally manipulated in the laboratory. Compared to a Bt-susceptible strain and F1 progeny, we hypothesized that Bt-resistant strains could exhibit a lower propensity or intensity of diapause, faster weight loss during overwintering, lower initial weight of diapausing larvae, and reduced longevity of moths emerging from diapause. Results were as expected for initial weight of diapausing larvae and longevity of overwintered male moths or female moths remaining in diapause for a short period. However, a higher diapause induction and intensity and slower weight loss occurred in F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains than in a Bt-susceptible strain. Moreover, F1 progeny had greater overwintering survival than the Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains, and F1 female moths had the greatest longevity after sustaining long diapausing periods. All of these unexpected results may be explained by pleiotropic effects of resistance to Bt cotton that increased the strength of diapause in the F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains. Incomplete resistance was reflected in disadvantages suffered by Bt-resistant individuals feeding on a Bt diet instead of a non-Bt diet, including lower diapause propensity, lower diapause intensity and reduced longevity of overwintered male moths. While this study suggests that the evolution of resistance to Bt cotton and feeding on a Bt diet in Bt-resistant individuals have pervasive effects on several traits associated with diapause, further field experiments are needed to elucidate the basis of the overwintering cost in the pink bollworm.

Carriere, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Biggs, Robert W.; Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

2007-01-01

322

Plant mucilages. XLIII. A representative mucilage with biological activity from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.  

PubMed

A representative mucilage, called Hibiscus-mucilage RL, was isolated from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. It was homogeneous on electrophoresis, and its molecular mass was estimated to be roughly 1.0 x 10(7). Its intrinsic viscosity value in aqueous solution was 23.2. The major constituent is an acidic polysaccharide composed of L-rhamnose: D-galactose: D-galacturonic acid: D-glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of 5:8:3:2. Methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated its main structural features including a unique backbone chain composed of alpha-1,4-linked D-galactosyl alpha-1,2-linked L-rhamnosyl alpha-1,4-linked D-galacturonic acid units. The mucilage showed considerable anti-complementary activity. PMID:8220317

Shimizu, N; Tomoda, M; Suzuki, I; Takada, K

1993-08-01

323

Hepatoprotective effect of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith, ethanolic extract in paracetamol and CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Hibiscus hispidissimus Griff. is used in tribal medicine of Kerala, the southern most state of India, to treat liver diseases. In the present study, the effect of the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hispidissimus whole plant on paracetamol (PCM)-induced and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in healthy Wistar albino rats was studied. The results showed that significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained against liver damage induced by PCM and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of serum enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SAKP), serum bilirubin (SB) and an almost normal histological architecture of the liver of the treated groups compared to the toxin controls. The extract also showed significant antilipid peroxidant effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in quenching 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, indicating its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:18949895

Krishnakumar, N M; Latha, P G; Suja, S R; Shine, V J; Shyamal, S; Anuja, G I; Sini, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Unni, P K Somasekharan; Rajasekharan, S

2008-09-01

324

Induction of apoptosis by hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression.  

PubMed

Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis after a 9-hr treatment with Hibiscus PCA (2 mM). Flow cytometric analysis of the DNA content of cells treated with PCA for 12 hr showed that the cells were distributed mainly in the hypodiploid phase (apoptotic peak, 46.7%), less in the G(1) (34.2%) and S phase (14.0%), and few in the G(2)/M phase (5.1%). Moreover, PCA treatment caused an increase in the level of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma (RB; 180% of control at the 6-hr time point) and, on the contrary, a decline in hyperphosphorylated RB. A rapid loss of RB was observed when the treatment period was extended. Further studies showed that Hibiscus PCA application reduced Bcl-2 protein expression to 47%, and increased Bax protein expression to 181% after 1.5 hr as compared with time 0. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in HL-60 cells delayed the occurrence of Hibiscus PCA-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that Hibiscus PCA is an apoptosis inducer in human leukemia cells, and that RB phosphorylation and Bcl-2 protein may play a crucial role in the early stage. PMID:10856425

Tseng, T H; Kao, T W; Chu, C Y; Chou, F P; Lin, W L; Wang, C J

2000-08-01

325

Spatial and temporal distribution of mineral nutrients and sugars throughout the lifespan of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the physiological and molecular mechanisms of flower development and senescence have been extensively investigated,\\u000a a whole-flower partitioning study of mineral concentrations has not been carried out. In this work, the distribution of sucrose,\\u000a total reducing sugars, dry and fresh weight and macro and micronutrients were analysed in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. petals, stylestigma including stamens and ovary at different developmental

Alice Trivellini; Antonio Ferrante; Paolo Vernieri; Giulia Carmassi; Giovanni Serra

2011-01-01

326

Critical ethylene exposure for Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is dependent on an interaction between ethylene concentration and duration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were designed to test the effects of ethylene on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, and to define the critical level of ethylene exposure to elicit a response. Plants were exposed to 72 h of darkness at 18 ° and 19 °C in two experiments respectively, and exposed to 0.05, 0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 ?l l?1 ethylene for 6, 12, 24 and 72

Lars Høyer

1996-01-01

327

Hibiscus virus S is a new subgroup II tobamovirus: evidence from its unique coat protein and movement protein sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) sequences of a new tobamovirus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L were determined. The CP gene encodes 163 amino acid (aa) residues and with a theoretical molecular weight of 18.19?kDa.\\u000a The MP gene encodes 282 amino acids and its theoretical molecular weight is 30.36?kDa. The nucleotide (nt) and aa sequences\\u000a of the CP were

K. G. Srinivasan; R. Narendrakumar; S. M. Wong

2002-01-01

328

In vitro culture of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.: Influence of iron, calcium and BAP on establishment and multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some factors influencing in vitro cultures of potted Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. using nodal cuttings were investigated. A protocol using a modified MS medium helped to overcome chlorosis, shoot tip necrosis\\u000a (STN) and leaf drop. These disorders have been caused by mineral imbalance associated with calcium and iron deficiency. STN\\u000a and leaf drop were overcome by increasing calcium level from 3 mM

Brian Christensen; Sridevy Sriskandarajah; Margrethe Serek; Renate Müller

2008-01-01

329

Blastocyst implantation failure in mice due to “nonreceptive endometrium”: endometrial alterations by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants are known to possess antifertility activity. However, limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers have been shown to possess antifertility and abortifacient activity. In this report, antiimplantation activity of water extract of leaves of H. rosa-sinensis was investigated. Pregnant female mice were dosed with extract (100 mg\\/kg body weight) from days 1

Manish Nivsarkar; Manoj Patel; Harish Padh; Cherian Bapu; Neeta Shrivastava

2005-01-01

330

The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 ?mol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, ?mol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to light quality appears to be controlled partly by the presence of leaves. The delay of bud

Meeteren van U; Gelder van A

2000-01-01

331

Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February-March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (muSDLA), a surface acoustic wave (SAW) and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ) on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances

N. Montoux; A. Hauchecorne; J.-P. Pommereau; F. Lefèvre; G. Durry; R. L. Jones; A. Rozanov; S. Dhomse; J. P. Burrows; B. Morel; H. Bencherif

2009-01-01

332

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus) PULP AND NANOFIBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone) and three-stage bleaching (DEpD) processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high- pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and

Manjusri Misra

333

Investigation of the pH effect and UV radiation on kinetic degradation of anthocyanin mixtures extracted from Hibiscus acetosella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major anthocyanin pigments extracted from Hibiscus acetosella flower were investigated by UV–Vis spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Pure spectra and kinetic of the species present at different pH values were recovered for anthocyanins transformation and degradation products, found with and without UV radiation exposure. In the absence of UV radiation, up to seven different species were

Paulo Henrique Março; Ronei Jesus Poppi; Ieda Spacino Scarminio; Romà Tauler

2011-01-01

334

Antioxidant Actions of Dried Flower Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. On Sodium Arsenite - Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The antioxidant actions of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) - induced oxidative stress in rats. The oral administration of the extracts (200 and 300mg\\/kg body

2005-01-01

335

The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

1998-01-01

336

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver\\u000a diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 ?g\\/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment),

Guojun Yin; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao

2011-01-01

337

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization.

Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

2013-01-01

338

EVALUACIÓN DE LOS FORRAJES DE MORERA Morus alba Y TULIPÁN Hibiscus rosa-sinensis A DIFERENTES EDADES DE CORTE COMO SUPLEMENTO PARA CORDEROS EN PASTOREO Evaluation of white mulberry Morus alba and chinese hibiscus Hibiscus rosa-sinensis forage harvested at dierent ages as supplements for grazing lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and metabolic behaviour of grazing lambs supplemented with Morus alba (M) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (T) were evaluated. A total of 32 male crossbreeding lambs (Pelibuey x Dorper or Black Belly) with an average body weight of 18.33±1.56 k were studied during 90 days. The animals were allowed to graze continuously and were supplemented (300 g animal 1 d

PV Obrador-Olán; D Hernández-Sánchez; A Gómez-Vázquez; W Camacho-Chiu

2007-01-01

339

Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods  

PubMed Central

Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent.

Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

2013-01-01

340

Conceptual comparison of pink water treatment technologies: granular activated carbon, anaerobic fluidized bed, and zero-valent iron-Fenton process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pink water, explosive-laden wastewater produced in army ammunition plants is often treated using expensive and non-destructive granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. This paper compares GAC adsorption and two alternative treatment technologies, anaerobic GAC fluidized bed reactor and zero- valent iron-Fenton process. The bench-scale demonstration of the zero-valent iron-Fenton process with real pink water is reported. The features of three technologies

S.-Y. Oh; D. K. Cha; P. C. Chiu; B. J. Kim

341

Accumulation of cadmium in the otoliths and tissues of juvenile pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster) following dietary and waterborne exposure.  

PubMed

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine if incorporation of Cd into the otoliths of juvenile pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster) was related to levels in the food or water. In the first experiment, fish were fed a regular diet (control group) or a Cd-contaminated diet (500mgCdkg(-1) or 1500mgCdkg(-1)) for 35days. In the second experiment, fish were exposed to waterborne Cd concentrations of <0.002microgL(-1) (control), 50microgL(-1), 100microgL(-1) and 150microgL(-1) for 35days. The sagittal otoliths were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Juvenile fish exposed to higher concentrations of waterborne or dietary Cd showed increased Cd levels in their otoliths. This study clearly demonstrated that both aqueous and dietary Cd exposures can result in Cd incorporation into the otoliths of pink snapper. PMID:19559813

Ranaldi, Melinda Marie; Gagnon, Marthe Monique

2009-06-25

342

Genetic diversity and phylogeny of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria isolated from the phyllosphere of tropical crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus, Methylobacterium, was assessed using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), and differential\\u000a carbon-substrate utilization profile in the phyllosphere of cotton, maize, sunflower, soybean, and mentha plants. Methylobacterium populi, Methylobacterium thiocyanatum, Methylobacterium suomiense, M. aminovorans, and Methylobacterium fujisawaense were identified to colonize the phyllosphere

P. Raja; D. Balachandar; S. P. Sundaram

2008-01-01

343

A gene for the mouse pink-eyed dilution locus and for human type II oculocutaneous albinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus on chromosome 7 is associated with defects of skin, eye and coat pigmentation1. Mutations at p cause a reduction of eumelanin (black-brown) pigment and altered morphology of black pigment granules (eumelano-somes), but have little effect on pheomelanin (yellow-red) pigment2. We show here that the human complementary DNA DN10, linked to thep locus in mice3-5,

Eugene M. Rinchik; Scott J. Bultman; Bernhard Horsthemke; Seung-Taek Lee; Kathleen M. Strunk; Richard A. Spritz; Karen M. Avidano; Michelle T. C. Jong; Robert D. Nicholls

1993-01-01

344

The mitochondrial protease HtrA2 is regulated by Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice, targeted deletion of the serine protease HtrA2 (also known as Omi) causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to a neurodegenerative disorder with parkinsonian features. In humans, point mutations in HtrA2 are a susceptibility factor for Parkinson's disease (PARK13 locus). Mutations in PINK1, a putative mitochondrial protein kinase, are associated with the PARK6 autosomal recessive locus for susceptibility to early-onset Parkinson's

Hélène Plun-Favreau; Kristina Klupsch; Nicoleta Moisoi; Sonia Gandhi; Svend Kjaer; David Frith; Kirsten Harvey; Emma Deas; Robert J. Harvey; Neil McDonald; Nicholas W. Wood; L. Miguel Martins; Julian Downward

2007-01-01

345

Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate.  

PubMed

Little is known of the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of climate change on animals, yet it is clear that some species appear more resilient than others. As pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in British Columbia, Canada, have flourished in the current era of climate warming in contrast to other Pacific salmonids in the same watershed, this study investigated whether the continuing success of pink salmon may be linked with exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance of adult fish during their spawning migration. Sex-specific differences existed in minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates (M(O2,min) and M(O2,max), respectively) across the temperature range of 8 to 28°C, reflected in a higher aerobic scope (M(O2,max)-M(O2,min)) for males. Nevertheless, the aerobic scope of both sexes was optimal at 21°C (T(opt)) and was elevated across the entire temperature range in comparison with other Pacific salmonids. As T(opt) for aerobic scope of this pink salmon population is higher than in other Pacific salmonids, and historic river temperature data reveal that this population rarely encounters temperatures exceeding T(opt), these findings offer a physiological explanation for the continuing success of this species throughout the current climate-warming period. Despite this, declining cardiac output was evident above 17°C, and maximum attainable swimming speed was impaired above ?23°C, suggesting negative implications under prolonged thermal exposure. While forecasted summer river temperatures over the next century are likely to negatively impact all Pacific salmonids, we suggest that the cardiorespiratory capacity of pink salmon may confer a selective advantage over other species. PMID:21865520

Clark, Timothy D; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

2011-09-15

346

Infection by a Hematodinium-like parasitic dinoflagellate causes Pink Crab Disease (PCD) in the edible crab Cancer pagurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edible crab (Cancer pagurus) supports a large and valuable fishery in UK waters. Much of the catch is transported live to continental Europe in specially designed live-well (`vivier') vehicles. During the winter of 2000\\/2001, many trap-caught crabs from Guernsey, Channel Islands, UK, were reportedly moribund and pink in colour. These crabs generally died before and during vivier transportation. We

G. D. Stentiford; M. Green; K. Bateman; H. J Small; D. M Neil; S. W Feist

2002-01-01

347

Zinc incorporation in the otoliths of juvenile pink snapper ( Pagrus auratus Forster): The influence of dietary versus waterborne sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separate laboratory experiments were conducted to examine if incorporation of Zn into the otoliths of juvenile pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster) was related to levels in the food and\\/or water. In the first experiment, fish were fed a regular diet (600 mg Zn kg?1 dw, control group) or a Zn-enriched diet (6000 mg Zn kg?1 dw or 9000 mg Zn kg?1 dw) for

Melinda Marie Ranaldi; Marthe Monique Gagnon

2008-01-01

348

Accumulation of cadmium in the otoliths and tissues of juvenile pink snapper ( Pagrus auratus Forster) following dietary and waterborne exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine if incorporation of Cd into the otoliths of juvenile pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster) was related to levels in the food or water. In the first experiment, fish were fed a regular diet (control group) or a Cd-contaminated diet (500mgCdkg?1 or 1500mgCdkg?1) for 35days. In the second experiment, fish were exposed to waterborne Cd

Melinda Marie Ranaldi; Marthe Monique Gagnon

2009-01-01

349

Significance of the parkin and PINK1 gene in Jordanian families with incidences of young-onset and juvenile parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, where most cases are sporadic with a late onset. In rare incidences familial forms of early-onset parkinsonism occur, and when recessively inherited, cases are often explained by mutations in either the parkin (PARK2) or PINK1 (PARK6) gene or on exceptional occasions the DJ-1 (PARK7) or ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene. Recessively inherited deletions\\/duplications and

Ronny Myhre; Stina Steinkjer; Alice Stormyr; Gina L Nilsen; Hiba Abu Zayyad; Khalid Horany; Mohamad K Nusier; Helge Klungland

2008-01-01

350

Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a critical regulator of organellar homeostasis, particularly of mitochondria. Upon the loss of membrane potential, dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy through recruitment of the E3 ligase Parkin by the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and subsequent ubiquitination of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Mammalian sequestrome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) is an autophagy adaptor, which has been proposed to shuttle ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation downstream of Parkin. Here, we show that loss of ref(2)P, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian P62, results in abnormalities, including mitochondrial defects and an accumulation of mitochondrial DNA with heteroplasmic mutations, correlated with locomotor defects. Furthermore, we show that expression of Ref(2)P is able to ameliorate the defects caused by loss of Pink1 and that this depends on the presence of functional Parkin. Finally, we show that both the PB1 and UBA domains of Ref(2)P are crucial for mitochondrial clustering. We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance. PMID:24157867

de Castro, I P; Costa, A C; Celardo, I; Tufi, R; Dinsdale, D; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

2013-10-24

351

Genetic Analysis of PARK2 and PINK1 Genes in Brazilian Patients with Early-Onset Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the world, affecting 1-2% of individuals over the age of 65. The etiology of Parkinson's disease is complex, with the involvement of gene-environment interactions. Although it is considered a disease of late manifestation, early-onset forms of parkinsonism contribute to 5–10% of all cases. In the present study, we screened mutations in coding regions of PARK2 and PINK1 genes in 136 unrelated Brazilian patients with early-onset Parkinson's disease through automatic sequencing. We identified six missense variants in PARK2 gene: one known pathogenic mutation, two variants of uncertain role, and three nonpathogenic changes. No pathogenic mutation was identified in PINK1 gene, only benign polymorphisms. All putative pathogenic variants found in this study were in heterozygous state. Our data show that PARK2 point mutations are more common in Brazilian early-onset Parkinson's disease patients (2.9%) than PINK1 missense variants (0%), corroborating other studies worldwide.

Moura, Karla Cristina Vasconcelos; Campos Junior, Mario; de Rosso, Ana Lucia Zuma; Nicaretta, Denise Hack; Pereira, Joao Santos; Silva, Delson Jose; dos Santos, Flavia Lima; Rodrigues, Fabiola da Costa; Santos-Reboucas, Cintia Barros; Pimentel, Marcia Mattos Goncalves

2013-01-01

352

Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.  

PubMed

The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 ?g(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

2011-06-17

353

Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a pink salmon population.  

PubMed

To predict how climate change will influence populations, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, that allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study, we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been a genetic change towards earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon that shows phenotypic change; average migration time occurs nearly two weeks earlier than it did 40 years ago. Experimental genetic data support the hypothesis that there has been directional selection for earlier migration timing, resulting in a substantial decrease in the late-migrating phenotype (from more than 30% to less than 10% of the total abundance). From 1983 to 2011, there was a significant decrease--over threefold--in the frequency of a genetic marker for late-migration timing, but there were minimal changes in allele frequencies at other neutral loci. These results demonstrate that there has been rapid microevolution for earlier migration timing in this population. Circadian rhythm genes, however, did not show any evidence for selective changes from 1993 to 2009. PMID:22787027

Kovach, Ryan P; Gharrett, Anthony J; Tallmon, David A

2012-07-11

354

Genetic change for earlier migration timing in a pink salmon population  

PubMed Central

To predict how climate change will influence populations, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms, particularly microevolution and phenotypic plasticity, that allow populations to persist in novel environmental conditions. Although evidence for climate-induced phenotypic change in populations is widespread, evidence documenting that these phenotypic changes are due to microevolution is exceedingly rare. In this study, we use 32 years of genetic data (17 complete generations) to determine whether there has been a genetic change towards earlier migration timing in a population of pink salmon that shows phenotypic change; average migration time occurs nearly two weeks earlier than it did 40 years ago. Experimental genetic data support the hypothesis that there has been directional selection for earlier migration timing, resulting in a substantial decrease in the late-migrating phenotype (from more than 30% to less than 10% of the total abundance). From 1983 to 2011, there was a significant decrease—over threefold—in the frequency of a genetic marker for late-migration timing, but there were minimal changes in allele frequencies at other neutral loci. These results demonstrate that there has been rapid microevolution for earlier migration timing in this population. Circadian rhythm genes, however, did not show any evidence for selective changes from 1993 to 2009.

Kovach, Ryan P.; Gharrett, Anthony J.; Tallmon, David A.

2012-01-01

355

Evaluation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria for phosphate solubilization.  

PubMed

Thirteen pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) strains isolated from Adyar and Cooum rivers in Chennai and forest soil samples in Tamil Nadu, India, along with Methylobacterium extorquens, M. organophilum, M. gregans, and M. komagatae were screened for phosphate solubilization in plates. P-solubilization index of the PPFMs grown on NBRIP-BPB plates for 7 days ranged from 1.1 to 2.7. The growth of PPFMs in tricalcium phosphate amended media was found directly proportional to the glucose concentration. Higher phosphate solubilization was observed in four strains MSF 32 (415 mg l(-l)), MDW 80 (301 mg l(-l)), M. komagatae (279 mg l(-l)), and MSF 34 (202 mg l(-l)), after 7 days of incubation. A drop in the media pH from 6.6 to 3.4 was associated with an increase in titratable acidity. Acid phosphatase activity was more pronounced in the culture filtrate than alkaline phosphatase activity. Adherence of phosphate to densely grown bacterial surface was observed under scanning electron microscope after 7-day-old cultures. Biochemical characterization and screening for methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF) confirmed the strains as methylotrophs. The mxaF gene sequence from MSF 32 clustered towards M. lusitanum sp. with 99% similarity. This study forms the first detailed report on phosphate solubilization by the PPFMs. PMID:21445558

Jayashree, Shanmugam; Vadivukkarasi, Ponnusamy; Anand, Kirupanithi; Kato, Yuko; Seshadri, Sundaram

2011-03-29

356

A preliminary investigation of the possible hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic activity of an ethanol extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied in glucose located rats. After a single dose of the extract, a slight but insignificant hypoglycemic effect was observed at 30 and 90 min. At 120 min it was mild but significant. After repeated administration of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose levels was observed at 30, 90 and 120 min after glucose loading. The average hypoglycemic activity, after repeated administration of 250 mg kg-1 leaf extract was 81%, under similar conditions average activity of tolbutamide was 96%. At 250 mg.kg-1 the efficacy of the extract was found to be 84% of tolbutamide (100 mg.kg-1). Repeated treatment of animals either with tolbutamide a sulphonylurea or H. rosa-sinensis caused a 2-3-fold improvement in glucose tolerance as compared to those receiving only once. These data suggest that the leaf extract acts like tolbutamide and the mechanism of action may be a stimulation of pancreatic beta cells to produce more insulin or an increase of the glycogen deposition in liver. It appears that the active principle in the tested extract has the sulphonylurea skeleton in which-SO2-NH-CO-group and the substituents (S1 and S2) may be the possible active sites responsible for its hypoglycemic activity. PMID:10674186

Sachdewa, A; Khemani, L D

1999-09-01

357

Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts.  

PubMed

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15?min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360??g/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure-LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%-75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Tá?a

2010-09-07

358

Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. PMID:21839160

Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

2011-08-03

359

Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.  

PubMed

The aqueous fraction of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces was given to Wistar albino rats (150-200g) orally as drugs to study the toxicity of the extract. The rats, which were fed with commercial diet and water ad libitum, were divided into six groups of four rats each. Treatments 1 through 6 received 0, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 doses of 250 mg/kg each, respectively; the control group received physiological saline (0.9% NaCl). Results of the studies showed that the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the treatments compared with the control group. However, the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. Only the group with 15 doses had their serum level of albumin significantly (P<0.05) increased. However, the results of histopathological studies showed that both the livers and hearts gave no pathological features for all the treatments. The results showed that prolong usage of this extract at 15-dose level could cause liver injury while the effect was mild at small dose levels (1-10). Though the average consumption of 150-180 mg/kg per day appears safe, the extract should be taken with caution bearing in mind that higher doses could affect the liver. PMID:14522449

Akindahunsi, A A; Olaleye, M T

2003-11-01

360

Testicular effects of sub-chronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous extract in rats.  

PubMed

The sub-chronic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyx aqueous extract on the rat testes was investigated with a view to evaluate the pharmacological basis for the use of HS calyx extract as an aphrodisiac. Three test groups received different doses of 1.15, 2.30, and 4.60 g/kg based on the LD(50). The extracts were dissolved in the drinking water. The control group was given equivalent volume of water only. The animals were allowed free access to drinking solution during the 12-week period of exposure. At the expiration of the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, testes excised and weighed, and epididymal sperm number recorded. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results did not show any significant (P>0.05) change in the absolute and relative testicular weights. There was, however, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the epididymal sperm counts in the 4.6 g/kg group, compared to the control. The 1.15 g/kg dose group showed distortion of tubules and a disruption of normal epithelial organization, while the 2.3 g/kg dose showed hyperplasia of testis with thickening of the basement membrane. The 4.6 g/kg dose group, on the other hand, showed disintegration of sperm cells. The results indicate that aqueous HS calyx extract induces testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:15019726

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Husaini, Danladi Chiroma; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson

361

Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers.  

PubMed

Acetaminophen, a common antipyretic-analgesic OTC drug is often administered orally anytime of the day with water or beverages irrespective of possible interactions. Zobo drink, is a sweetened water extract of the dried calyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa. This work is designed to investigate the effect of zobo drink on an oral dose of acetaminophen. Six healthy male volunteers, ages 28.50 +/- 1.76 years, weighing 62.67 +/- 1.67kg participated in the study. The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phases an oral dose of acetaminophen (1g) was administered to the volunteers and in the second phases, zobo drink was ingested by the volunteers 1.30 h prior the administration of acetaminophen (1g). Acetaminophen concentration in plasma was determined using a validated spectrophotometric method. Pharmacokinetic values obtained were found to be in similar ranges as those previously reported. The absorption parameters t1/2a, Ka, Tmax, Cmax and AUC0-alpha showed no statistically significant changes (p>0.05) after the administration of zobo. There were however statistically significant changes (p<0.05) in Kbeta and t1/2beta of acetaminophen when administered after the zobo drink. This also resulted in 11.69% increase in ClT. PMID:15151167

Kolawole, J A; Maduenyi, A

362

Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts  

PubMed Central

Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15?min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360??g/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerova, Tana

2011-01-01

363

[Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].  

PubMed

A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. PMID:23755502

Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

2013-03-01

364

In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.

Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

2012-01-01

365

Hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hyperlipidemic rats.  

PubMed

The present study is designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract from the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSEE) in hyperlipidemic rats. In the present work, HSEE was evaluated at three doses (i.e. 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, orally) in cholesterol-induced (2 g/kg, orally) hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as the standard drug. Administration of HSEE (200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) together with continuous cholesterol feeding for four weeks showed significant reduction in serum cholesterol level by 18.5% and 22%, respectively (p < 0.05); serum triglyceride level by 15.6% and 20.6%, respectively (p < 0.05); serum LDL level by 24% and 30%, respectively (p < 0.05), and serum VLDL level by 15.5% and 20.5%, respectively (p < 0.05), as compared to cholesterol group. However, no significant change in HDL level was observed. HSEE 300 mg/kg was more effective than HSEE 200 mg/kg dose but less effective than the standard drug, atorvastatin. HSEE 100 mg/kg did not show any significant reduction in lipid levels. These results indicate that HSEE exhibit the hypolipidemic effect and among all HSEE groups investigated, HSEE 300 mg/kg has the best hypolipidemic effect. PMID:20369795

Gosain, Sandeep; Ircchiaya, Raghuveer; Sharma, Prabodh Chander; Thareja, Suresh; Kalra, Atin; Deep, Aakash; Bhardwaj, Tilak Raj

366

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. leaves and calyces extracts in rats.  

PubMed

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of the extracts of leaves and calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were investigated by studying their in vitro inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation and in vivo effects on cholesterol induced hyperlipidemia. Highest antioxidant activity was exhibited by ethanolic extract of calyces followed by ethanolic extract of leaves followed by aqueous extract of leaves of H. sabdariffa. In cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic model, groups of rats treated with extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdariffa showed a significant decrease in the serum TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TAG values alongwith an increase in serum HDL-C levels. The treated groups also showed significant decrease in the atherogenic index, LDL-C: HDL-C risk ratios, and in the levels of SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities compared to cholesterol induced hyperlipidemic control group. Significant antihyperlipidemic activity was shown by ethanolic extract of calyces, followed by ethanolic extract of leaves. It was observed from the histopathological findings that rats fed with H. sabdariffa extracts showed decrease in granular degeneration caused by cholesterol feedings. Results suggest that the ethanolic extracts of calyces and leaves of H. sabdarifa containing polyphenols and flavanols possess significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities. PMID:19382724

Ochani, Pooja C; D'Mello, Priscilla

2009-04-01

367

Effect of the temperature on the spray drying of Roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).  

PubMed

The effect of the drying temperature on the volatile components and sensory acceptance of the Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) extract in powder was investigated. The Roselle extraction was carried out by maceration with 7 L of 30% ethanol (v/v), 560 g of fresh Roselle calyces for 168 h. The Roselle extracts were spray dried at different temperatures 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 degrees C, giving different outlet values about yield and final moisture. The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). Twenty volatile compounds were identified in the extracts among them terpenoids, esters, hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the powder sample, but only ten were present in the Roselle extract. This indicates that some compounds were lost and some others were generated due to a degradation process. An acceptability sensory analysis showed that the best powder sample was the Roselle extract dehydrated using temperature between 190 degrees C and 200 degrees C (p<0.05). There was not statistically significant difference in the pH of Roselle extracts ranging from 3.4 to 3.9. It was concluded that the spray drying temperature of the Roselle extracts has an effect on the volatile compounds losses. PMID:19082732

Gonzalez-Palomares, Salvador; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio; Andrade-González, Isaac

2009-03-01

368

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract and anthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls. PMID:22428240

Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumyia; Ziada, Amal; Al Salam, Suhail; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Blunden, Gerald

2012-01-01

369

Toxic effects of oral administration of extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae).  

PubMed

The effects of a 90-day oral administration of water and alcohol extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated in albino rats. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were monitored every 30 days.The death of the animals was preceded by a severe loss in weight, accompanied with diarrhoea in animals on the 2000 mg/kg dose. There was an increase in food intake (g) per kg body weight per day in the aqueous (A) and ethanol (E) 300 mg/kg extract groups. Significant reductions in the erythrocyte count with no difference in total leucocyte count were observed. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was enhanced by the administration of aqueous and 50% ethanol extract with a significant increase in its level at higher doses (p < 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine levels were significantly affected by all the extracts at the different dose levels. However, aqueous extracts exhibited a significant increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.05) at higher doses. The cholesterol levels were generally not significantly affected by the extracts. No significant histopathological changes were observed, although there was a significant reduction in the weight of the spleen of the animals administered with ethanol and water extracts when compared with the control (p < 0.01). Other organs were of the same relative weight. PMID:19003943

Fakeye, Titilayo O; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, D U; Yadav, N P; Khanuja, S P S

2009-03-01

370

Consumption demand of juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska in relation to prey biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prince William Sound hatcheries release over 600 million pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry each year. The effect of the additional consumption demand by hatchery fish on prey biomass in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska is unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (1) use bioenergetics models to compare spatial and temporal variation in the consumption demand and growth efficiency of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal Gulf of Alaska between May and October 2001; and (2) compare localized population-level consumption in each region to the standing stock biomass of coexisting prey. In order to achieve observed growth, juvenile pink salmon consumed at 64-107% of their theoretical maximum consumption rate. Individual juvenile pink salmon consumed an average of 366.5 g of prey from marine entry through October of their first growing season. Growth efficiency ranged from 18.9% to 33.8% over the model simulation period. Juvenile salmon that migrated to the Gulf of Alaska grew more efficiently than those that remained in Prince William Sound until August, but after August juvenile salmon in Prince William Sound grew more efficiently than those in the Gulf of Alaska due to differences in prey quality between regions. Temperatures did not vary much between regions; thus differences in the thermal experience of juvenile pink salmon did not affect growth, consumption, and growth efficiency as much as the effects of different prey quality. Consumption demand by juvenile pink salmon exceeded the average standing stock biomass of key prey (large copepods, pteropods, hyperiid amphipods, and larvaceans) during some months. Our results are consistent with advection and production of these prey replenishing the forage base, or the reliance of individual pink salmon on high-density prey patches that occur at finer temporal scales than we were capable of sampling.

Cross, Alison D.; Beauchamp, David A.; Armstrong, Janet L.; Blikshteyn, Mikhail; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Davis, Nancy D.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Moss, Jamal H.; Myers, Katherine W.; Walker, Robert V.

2005-01-01

371

Microtubule Affinity-regulating Kinase 2 (MARK2) Turns on Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) at Thr-313, a Mutation Site in Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

The kinase MARK2/Par-1 plays key roles in several cell processes, including neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease by phosphorylating tau and detaching it from microtubules. In search of interaction partners of MARK2, we identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is important for the survival of neurons and whose mutations are linked to familial Parkinson disease (PD). MARK2 phosphorylated and activated the cleaved form of PINK1 (?N-PINK1; amino acids 156–581). Thr-313 was the primary phosphorylation site, a residue mutated to a non-phosphorylatable form (T313M) in a frequent variant of PD. Mutation of Thr-313 to Met or Glu in PINK1 showed toxic effects with abnormal mitochondrial distribution in neurons. MARK2 and PINK1 were found to colocalize with mitochondria and regulate their transport. ?N-PINK1 promoted anterograde transport and increased the fraction of stationary mitochondria, whereas full-length PINK1 promoted retrograde transport. In both cases, MARK2 enhanced the effects. The results identify MARK2 as an upstream regulator of PINK1 and ?N-PINK1 and provide insights into the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons and neurodegeneration in PD.

Matenia, Dorthe; Hempp, Cindy; Timm, Thomas; Eikhof, Annika; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

2012-01-01

372

Environmental influences on potential recruitment of pink shrimp, Fatlantopenaeus duorarum, from Florida Bay nursery grounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two modeling approaches were used to explore the basis for variation in recruitment of pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, to the Tortugas fishing grounds. Emphasis was on development and juvenile densities on the nursery grounds. An exploratory simulation modeling exercise demonstrated large year-to-year variations in recruitment contributions to the Tortugas rink shrimp fishery may occur on some nursery grounds, and production may differ considerably among nursery grounds within the same year, simply on the basis of differences in temperature and salinity. We used a growth and survival model to simulate cumulative harvests from a July-centered cohort of early-settlement-stage postlarvae from two parts of Florida Bay (western Florida Bay and northcentral Florida Bay), using historic temperature and salinity data from these areas. Very large year-to-year differences in simulated cumulative harvests were found for recruits from Whipray Basin. Year-to-year differences in simulated harvests of recruits from Johnson Key Basin were much smaller. In a complementary activity, generalized linear and additive models and intermittent, historic density records were used to develop an uninterrupted multi-year time series of monthly density estimates for juvenile rink shrimp in the Johnson Key Basin. The developed data series was based on relationships of density with environmental variables. The strongest relationship was with sea-surface temperature. Three other environmental variables (rainfall, water level at Everglades National Park Well P35, and mean wind speed) also contributed significantly to explaining variation in juvenile densities. Results of the simulation model and two of the three statistical models yielded similar interannual patterns for Johnson Key Basin. While it is not possible to say that one result validates the other, the concordance of the annual patterns from the two models is supportive of both approaches.

Browder, J. A.; Restrepo, V. R.; Rice, J. K.; Robblee, M. B.; Zein-Eldin, Z.

1999-01-01

373

Out of the blue and into the pink. Is it so rosy for the cardiologist?  

PubMed

There is a stage in one's career when one is mature enough to be invited to give named lectures. Usually, one has never heard of the 'named' person. This occasion is different because I know Dr Keith. (Dr John Keith died February 8, 1989, aged 80 years. Obituary in Can J Cardiol 1989;5[3]:XI). His book was my reference when I became excited by congenital heart disease and two days ago I had the pleasure of speaking to him, explaining the title which he said was "quaint and interesting." He reminded me that when he started the Canadian Cardiovascular Society with Dr Harold Segall there were only a handful of people who came together to discuss mutual problems in cardiology. Looking at the remarkable list of distinguished physicians and surgeons who have come before me to give this important lecture, I hope that I can do justice to the honour that you have given in asking me to be the John Keith Lecturer in 1988. The title of this lecture was born when I received a blue anniversary card covered with pink hearts from a once deeply cyanosed, chairbound girl with Ebstein's anomaly, 20 years after she had reparative surgery and lived a normal life, for which she thanked me. I passed the message to Donald Ross, with whom I have been privileged to work with for 25 years in the National Heart Hospital in London, United Kingdom and whose courageous innovations have created so much good life for many with complex congenital heart disease. PMID:2393837

Somerville, J

374

Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

2003-01-01

375

Effect of potassium on drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun: Plant growth, leaf macro- and micronutrient content and root longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition for the limited water supply available for irrigation of horticultural crops increases, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance, plant water-use efficiency and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv.

Jonathan N. Egilla; Fred T. Davies; Malcolm C. Drew

2001-01-01

376

Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

377

Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa with captopril, a controlled and randomized clinical trial was done. Patients from 30 to 80 years old with diagnosed hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before were included. The experimental procedure consisted of the administration of an infusion prepared with

A. Herrera-Arellano; S. Flores-Romero; M. A Chávez-Soto; J Tortoriello

2004-01-01

378

INDUCTION OF PEROXIDASE AS A DISEASE RESISTANCE RESPONSE IN VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE RESISTANT (HIBISCUS TRIONUM) AND SUSCEPTIBLE (ALTHEA ARMENIACA), MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY MALVACEAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogen induced biosynthesis of peroxidase in two wild species of Malvaceae, Hibiscus trionum and Althea armeniaca was studied. After inoculation with the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, peroxidase activity increased more rapidly in the resistant plant (H. trionum) than in the susceptible pl...

379

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

380

The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon  

PubMed Central

The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci where SmaI SINEs have been species-specifically inserted in chum salmon, insertions of SINEs were polymorphic among populations of chum salmon. By contrast, at four loci where SmaI SINEs had been species-specifically inserted in pink salmon, the SINEs were fixed among all populations of pink salmon. The interspecific and intraspecific variation of the SmaI SINEs cannot be explained by the assumption that the SmaI family was amplified in a common ancestor of these two species. To interpret these observations, we propose several possible models, including introgression and the horizontal transfer of SINEs from pink salmon to chum salmon during evolution.

Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

1997-01-01

381

Altered Expression of DJ-1 and PINK1 in Sporadic ALS and in the SOD1G93A ALS Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). DJ-1 and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are important proteins for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and protection against cell death. Mutations in the genes coding for these proteins cause familial forms of Parkinson disease. Recent studies have postulated that changes in the expression of both proteins are also involved in pathologic mechanisms in ALS mouse models. Here, we studied the mRNA and protein expression of PINK1 and DJ-1 in postmortem brain and spinal cord tissue and muscle biopsy samples from ALS patients and controls and in brain, spinal cord, and gastrocnemius muscle of SOD1 ALS mice at different disease stages. We found significant decreases of PINK1 and DJ-1 mRNA levels in muscle tissue of SOD1 mice. Together with the significant decrease of PINK1 mRNA levels in human ALS muscle tissue, statistically nonsignificant reduction of DJ-1 mRNA levels, and reduced immunostaining for PINK1 in human ALS muscle, the results suggest potential pathophysiologic roles for these proteins in both mutant SOD1 transgenic mice and in sporadic ALS. PMID:24128678

Knippenberg, Sarah; Sipos, Julia; Thau-Habermann, Nadine; Körner, Sonja; Rath, Klaus Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne

2013-11-01

382

Early marine growth of pink salmon in Prince William Sound and the coastal gulf of Alaska during years of low and high survival  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that entered the ocean in 2002 (9%) and 2004 (8%). We used circulus patterns from scales to determine how the early marine growth of juvenile pink salmon differed (1) seasonally during May-October, the period hypothesized to be critical for survival; (2) between years of low and high survival; and (3) between hatchery and wild fish. Juvenile pink salmon exhibited larger average size, migrated onto the continental shelf and out of the sampling area more quickly, and survived better during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003. Pink salmon were consistently larger throughout the summer and early fall during 2002 and 2004 than during 2001 and 2003, indicating that larger, faster-growing juveniles experienced higher survival. Wild juvenile pink salmon were larger than hatchery fish during low-survival years, but no difference was observed during high-survival years. Differences in size among years were determined by some combination of growing conditions and early mortality, the strength of which could vary significantly among years. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Cross, A. D.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Myers, K. W.; Moss, J. H.

2008-01-01

383

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.  

PubMed Central

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism.

Fromm, J.; Hajirezaei, M.; Wilke, I.

1995-01-01

384

The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism. PMID:12228601

Fromm, J.; Hajirezaei, M.; Wilke, I.

1995-10-01

385

Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300??g/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75??g/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300??g/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16?g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5?mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5?mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5?mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3?mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

2010-01-01

386

The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes.  

PubMed

To compare the antihypertensive effectiveness of sour tea (ST; Hibiscus sabdariffa) with black tea (BT) infusion in diabetic patients, this double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out. Sixty diabetic patients with mild hypertension, without taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidaemic medicines, were recruited in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to the ST and BT groups and instructed to drink ST and BT infusions two times a day for 1 month. Their blood pressure (BP) was measured on days 0, 15 and 30 of the study. The mean of systolic BP (SBP) in the ST group decreased from 134.4+/-11.8 mm Hg at the beginning of the study to 112.7+/-5.7 mm Hg after 1 month (P-value <0.001), whereas this measure changed from 118.6+/-14.9 to 127.3+/-8.7 mm Hg (P-value=0.002) in the BT group during the same period. The intervention had no statistically significant effect on the mean of diastolic BP (DBP) in either the ST or BT group. The mean pulse pressure (PP) of the patients in the ST group decreased from 52.2+/-12.2 to 34.5+/-9.3 mm Hg (P-value <0.001) during the study, whereas in the BT group, it increased from 41.9+/-11.7 to 47.3+/-9.6 mm Hg (P-value=0.01). In conclusion, consuming ST infusion had positive effects on BP in type II diabetic patients with mild hypertension. This study supports the results of similar studies in which antihypertensive effects have been shown for ST. PMID:18685605

Mozaffari-Khosravi, H; Jalali-Khanabadi, B-A; Afkhami-Ardekani, M; Fatehi, F; Noori-Shadkam, M

2008-08-07

387

Herb-drug interaction between the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and hydrochlorothiazide in experimental animals.  

PubMed

Decoctions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Family Malvaceae) are very popular for the preparation of homemade refreshing drinks and are also used medicinally for a variety of ailments. Particularly remarkable are the various scientific reports supporting diuretic and antihypertensive potentials. It is therefore not unusual for patients who are on orthodox antihypertensive medications to use medicinal H. sabdariffa drinks concomitantly without regard to the possibility of herb-drug interactions. This possibility necessitated this study in which the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), a commonly prescribed diuretic drug, were examined. The effects of concomitant administration of HSE on urine volume, urine pH, and urinary concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions, as well as on the pharmacokinetic parameters of HCT, were determined in experimental rats and rabbits. Co-administration of HSE with HCT caused a significant increase in the volume of urine excreted and resulted in a decrease in the pH of urine and the concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions. Co-administration of HSE (20-40?mg/kg) with HCT (10?mg/kg) increased and prolonged the plasma concentration, the mean area under the concentration-time curve, and the volume of distribution of HCT achieved over the 24-hour sampling period. The plasma clearance and the elimination rate constant of HCT decreased with increasing dose of HSE co-administered with the HCT. The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction involving HCT and HSE, used as an ingredient in medicinal or refreshing drinks in many countries. PMID:21480802

Ndu, Okechukwu O; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Ehiemere, Chinwendu O; Ndukwe, Nichola C; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S

2011-04-11

388

Chemopreventive properties and molecular mechanisms of the bioactive compounds in Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne is a traditional Chinese rose tea and has been effectively used in folk medicines for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions. H. sabdariffa aqueous extracts (HSE) were prepared from the dried flowers of H. sabdariffa L., which are rich in phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In this review, we discuss the chemopreventive properties and possible mechanisms of various H. sabdariffa extracts. It has been demonstrated that HSE, H. sabdariffa polyphenol-rich extracts (HPE), H. sabdariffa anthocyanins (HAs), and H. sabdariffa protocatechuic acid (PCA) exert many biologic effects. PCA and HAs protected against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl droperoxide (t-BHP) in rat primary hepatocytes. In rabbits fed cholesterol and human experimental studies, these studies imply HSE could be pursued as atherosclerosis chemopreventive agents as they inhibit LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, as well as smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation. The extracts also offer hepatoprotection by influencing the levels of lipid peroxidation products and liver marker enzymes in experimental hyperammonemia. PCA has also been shown to inhibit the carcinogenic action of various chemicals in different tissues of the rat. HAs and HPE were demonstrated to cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in leukemia and gastric cancer. More recent studies investigated the protective effect of HSE and HPE in streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy. From all these studies, it is clear that various H. sabdariffa extracts exhibit activities against atherosclerosis, liver disease, cancer, diabetes and other metabolic syndromes. These results indicate that naturally occurring agents such as the bioactive compounds in H. sabdariffa could be developed as potent chemopreventive agents and natural healthy foods. PMID:21291361

Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong

2011-01-01

389

Fermentation behavior of osmophilic yeast Candida tropicalis isolated from the nectar of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers for xylitol production.  

PubMed

Eighteen yeast species belonging to seven genera were isolated from ten samples of nectar from Hibiscus rosa sinensis and investigated for xylitol production using D-xylose as sole carbon source. Amongst these isolates, no. 10 was selected as the best xylitol producer and identified as Candida tropicalis on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 26S rDNA sequencing. C. tropicalis produced 12.11 gl(-1) of xylitol in presence of 50 gl(-1) of xylose in 72 h at pH 5, 30°C and 200 rpm. The strain of C. tropicalis obtained through xylose enrichment technique has resulted in a yield of 0.5 gg(-1) with a xylitol volumetric productivity of 1.07 gl(-1)h(-1) in the presence of 300 gl(-1) of xylose through batch fermentation. This organism has been reported for the first time from Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers. Realizing, the importance of this high valued compound, as a sugar substitute, xylose enrichment technique was developed in order to utilize even higher concentrations of xylose as substrate for maximum xylitol production. PMID:21956659

Misra, Swati; Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Gupta, Pritesh; Dutt, Kakoli; Saxena, R K

2011-09-29

390

The effect of a water extract and anthocyanins of hibiscus sabdariffa L on paracetamol-induced hepatoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of the water extract of the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa) on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The water extract was given in lieu of drinking water for 2, 3 or 4 consecutive weeks, and the HAs were given orally at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg for five consecutive days. Paracetamol was given orally at a dose of 700 mg/Kg to induce hepatotoxicity at the end of the water extract and Has treatments. Six hours thereafter the rats were killed and their liver function evaluated biochemically and histologically. Given for 4 weeks (but not for 2 or 3 weeks) the extract significantly improved some of the liver function tests evaluated, but did not alter the histology of the paracetamol-treated rats or the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time. At a dose of 200 mg/Kg, the hepatic histology and the biochemical indices of liver damage were restored to normal. Lower does were ineffective. Pending more evaluation for safety and efficacy, the HAs can potentially be used in mitigating paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:12557248

Ali, B H; Mousa, H M; El-Mougy, S

2003-01-01

391

Polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by improving antioxidative conditions and regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus has been found to possess antioxidant effects. In this study, polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HPE) were used to detect anti-inflammatory effects on nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated RAW264.7 cells. Sequentially, an animal model examination was performed to confirm the effects of HPE on LPS-induced hepatic inflammation. The results showed that HPE reduced 94.6% of xanthine oxidase activity in vitro, and decreased nitrite and PGE(2) secretions in LPS-induced cells. In LPS-treated rats, HPE significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase. In the liver, lipid peroxidation and liver lesions decreased, and catalase activity and glutathione increased. The study also revealed that down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and p-P38 might have been involved. In sum, this study found an anti-inflammatory potency of HPE both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19202285

Kao, Erl-Shyh; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Su-Huei; Cheng, Su-Ya; Lee, Huei-Jane

2009-02-07

392

The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans.  

PubMed

Diet supplementation and/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cellular death induced by H(2)O(2) and a significant role in the production of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, the extract promotes the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreases the concentration of MCP-1 in supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. In humans, the ingestion of an acute dose of the extract (10g) was well tolerated and decreased plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly without further effects on other cytokines. This effect was not due to a concomitant increase in the antioxidant capacity of plasma. Instead, its mechanisms probably involve a direct inhibition of inflammatory and/or metabolic pathways responsible for MCP-1 production, and may be relevant in inflammatory and chronic conditions in which the role of MCP-1 is well established. If beneficial effects are confirmed in patients, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be considered a valuable traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with the advantage of being devoid of caloric value or potential alcohol toxicity. PMID:19765963

Beltrán-Debón, R; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Aragonès, G; Rodríguez-Medina, I; Rull, A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Camps, J; Joven, J

2009-09-17

393

Inhibitory effect of marinades with hibiscus extract on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality of fried beef patties.  

PubMed

Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) are carcinogenic compounds found in the crust of fried meat. The objective was to examine the possibility of inhibiting HAA formation in fried beef patties by using marinades with different concentrations of hibiscus extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa) (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 g/100g). After frying, patties were analyzed for 15 different HAA by HPLC-analysis. Four HAA MeIQx (0.3-0.6 ng/g), PhIP (0.02-0.06 ng/g), co-mutagenic norharmane (0.4-0.7 ng/g), and harmane (0.8-1.1 ng/g) were found at low levels. The concentration of MeIQx was reduced by about 50% and 40% by applying marinades containing the highest amount of extract compared to sunflower oil and control marinade, respectively. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC-Assay/Folin-Ciocalteu-Assay) was determined as 0.9, 1.7, 2.6 and 3.5 micromol Trolox antioxidant equivalents and total phenolic compounds were 49, 97, 146 and 195 microg/g marinade. In sensory ranking tests, marinated and fried patties were not significantly different (p>0.05) to control samples. PMID:20418021

Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

2010-03-27

394

Effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract induces apoptosis of proliferating smooth muscle cell via activation of P38 MAPK and p53 pathway.  

PubMed

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in Sudan and in eastern Taiwan. It has been reported to contain a number of protocatechuic acid and anthocyanins. In vitro experimental studies have shown that anthocyanins administration of the extract produces anti-inflammation and chemoprevention effects. In spite of the wide use of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in folk medicine for treating various diseases, our previous study indicated a potency of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in anti-atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of anthocyanins administration of the extract produce from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. to attenuate atherosclerosis were not clarified. In this study, we found that Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) could inhibit the serum-stimulated proliferation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and result in cell apoptosis. The HAs inducing cell apoptosis was dose dependent. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) to block cellular apoptosis and evaluate its effect on the HAs-inducing SMC death via some apoptosis criteria including DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry. We suggested that the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of HAs on atherosclerosis could be via inhibiting the proliferation of SMC. HAs induces apoptosis via (i) activating p38 MAP kinase that subsequently phosphorylates target protein c-Jun and transduces the signal to further activate the apoptotic protein cascades that contain Fas-mediated signaling (Fas/caspase-8 signaling module) and (ii) activating p53 and inducing bax expression. As an outcome of the events, cytochrome c releases from the mitochondria, leading to cell apoptosis. In these experiments, HAs showed strong potential to induce SMC cell apoptosis via p38 and p53 pathway. In consequence, the rate of atherosclerotic formation is slowed down, and the progress is suppressed. PMID:18030661

Lo, Chia-Wen; Huang, Hui-Pei; Lin, Hui-Mei; Chien, Cheng-Ting; Wang, Chau-Jong

2007-12-01

395

Pink manganian phengite in a high P/ T meta-conglomerate from northern Syros (Cyclades, Greece)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new occurrence of Mn-rich rocks was discovered within the high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks on the Palos peninsula of Syros (Greece). Near the summit of Mount Príonas, a meta-conglomerate consists of calcite (~63 wt%), pink manganian phengite, blue-purple manganian aegirine-jadeite, microcline, albite and quartz. In addition, it contains abundant braunite-rich aggregates (up to ~1.5 cm in diameter) that include hollandite [(Ba0.98-1.02K<0.01Na<0.02Ca<0.03) (Mn{1.02-1.52/3+}Fe{0.38-0.88/3+}Ti0.29-0.92Mn{5.11-5.76/4+})O16], barite and manganian hematite. Due to metamorphic recrystallization and deformation, the contacts between clasts and matrix are blurred and most clasts have lost their identity. In back-scattered electron images, many aegirine-jadeite grains appear patchy and show variable jadeite contents (Jd10-67). These pyroxenes occur in contact with either quartz or albite. Manganian phengite (3.41-3.49 Si per 11 oxygen anions) is of the 3T type and contains 1.4-2.2 wt% of Mn2O3. At the known P- T conditions of high-pressure metamorphism on Syros (~1.4 GPa/ 470 °C), the mineral sub-assemblage braunite + quartz + calcite (former aragonite) suggests high oxygen fugacities relative to the HM buffer (+7 ? ?fO2 ? + 17) and relatively high CO2 fugacities. The exact origin of the conglomerate is not known, but it is assumed that the Fe-Mn-rich and the calcite-rich particles originated from different sources. Braunite has rather low contents of Cu (~0.19 wt%) and the concentrations of Co, Ni and Zn are less than 0.09 wt%. Hollandite shows even lower concentrations of these elements. Furthermore, the bulk-rock compositions of two samples are characterized by low contents of Cu, Co and Ni, suggesting a hydrothermal origin of the manganese ore. Most likely, these Fe-Mn-Si oxyhydroxide deposits consisted of ferrihydrite, todorokite, birnessite, amorphous silica (opal-A) and nontronite. Al/(Al + Fe + Mn) ratios of 0.355 and 0.600 suggest the presence of an aluminosilicate detrital component.

Altherr, Rainer; Soder, Christian; Panienka, Sandra; Peters, Daniel; Meyer, Hans-Peter

2013-11-01

396

Coded wire tag recoveries from pink salmon in Prince William sound salmon fisheries, 1993. Restoration project 93067. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report  

SciTech Connect

Coded wire tags applied to pink salmon fry in 1992 at four hatcheries in Prince William Sound were recovered in the commercial catch of 1993 and used to provide inseason estimates of hatchery contributions. These estimates were used by fishery managers to target the numerically superior hatchery returns, and reduce the pressure on oil-damaged wild stocks. Inseason estimates were made in two stages. The postseason analysis revealed that of a catch of 3.51 million pink salmon, 1.12 million were estimated to be of wild origin.

Sharr, S.; Peckham, C.J.; Sharp, D.G.; Evans, D.G.; Bue, B.G.

1995-11-01

397

The pink gene encodes the Drosophila orthologue of the human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 (HPS5) gene.  

PubMed

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) consists of a set of human autosomal recessive disorders, with symptoms resulting from defects in genes required for protein trafficking in lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules. A number of human HPS genes and rodent orthologues have been identified whose protein products are key components of 1 of 4 different protein complexes (AP-3 or BLOC-1, -2, and -3) that are key participants in the process. Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model organism in demonstrating the in vivo significance of many genes involved in protein trafficking pathways; for example, mutations in the "granule group" genes lead to changes in eye colour arising from improper protein trafficking to pigment granules in the developing eye. An examination of the chromosomal positioning of Drosophila HPS gene orthologues suggested that CG9770, the Drosophila HPS5 orthologue, might correspond to the pink locus. Here we confirm this gene assignment, making pink the first eye colour gene in flies to be identified as a BLOC complex gene. PMID:17632576

Syrzycka, Monika; McEachern, Lori A; Kinneard, Jennifer; Prabhu, Kristel; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen; Schulze, Sandra; Rawls, John M; Lloyd, Vett K; Sinclair, Donald A R; Honda, Barry M

2007-06-01

398

Rendimiento y calidad de forraje de kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) en tres edades en comparación con maíz y sorgo x Sudán nervadura café Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) forage yield and quality at three ages compared to corn and brown midrib sorghum x Sudangrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) shows forage potential as an alternative crop in farm production systems. In the present study, yield potential and forage quality in kenaf varieties 'Tainung 2' and 'Everglades 41' at three different ages were evaluated, and compared to corn and brown midrib sorghum x sudangrass. The present study was conducted in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico in the summers

David Guadalupe; Reta Sáncheza; Sarel Cruz Cruzb; Arturo Palomo Gilb; J. Santos Serrato; José Antonio Cueto Wongd

399

Heterologous expression of tyrosinase recapitulates the misprocessing and mistrafficking in oculocutaneous albinism type 2: Effects of altering intracellular pH and pink-eyed dilution gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing and trafficking of tyrosinase, a melanosomal protein essential for pigmentation, was investigated in a human epithelial 293 cell line that stably expresses the protein. The effects of the pink-eyed dilution (p) gene product, in which mutations result in oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), on the processing and trafficking of tyrosinase in this cell line were studied. The majority

Li Ni-Komatsu; Seth J. Orlow

2006-01-01

400

Pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on the Southern Plains of Texas and in New Mexico: Distribution and eradication of a remnant population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), is one of the most economically important insect pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the world. Losses in the U.S. before widespread use of Bt cotton were estimated at $32 million per year. Eradication programs were initiated in the El Pas...

401

Energetic costs of migration through the Fraser River Canyon, British Columbia, in adult pink ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) and sockeye ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) salmon as assessed by EMG telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) depend on energy reserves to complete their upriver spawning migration. Little is known about how flow patterns and bank characteristics affect energetics or how species differ in reach-specific energy use. In 1999, electromyogram (EMG) radiotelemetry was used to describe activity levels and estimate energy use of 12 adult pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) during their upstream

Emily M. Standen; Scott G. Hinch; Michael C. Healey; Anthony P. Farrell

2002-01-01

402

Magnitude and Trends in Abundance of Hatchery and Wild Pink Salmon, Chum Salmon, and Sockeye Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance estimates of wild and hatchery Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. are important for evaluation of stock status and density-dependent interactions at sea. We assembled available salmon catch and spawning abundance data for both Asia and North America and reconstructed total abundances of pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, and sockeye salmon O. nerka during 1952–2005. Abundance trends were

Gregory T. Ruggerone; Randall M. Peterman; Brigitte Dorner; Katherine W. Myers

2010-01-01

403

Coded Wire Tag Recoveries from Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound Salmon Fisheries, 1994 to 1997. EXXON VALDEZ Oil Spill Restoration Project 97186 Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1993 to 1996, between 0.49 and 0.64 billion pink salmon fry were released annually into Prince William Sound from the A.F. Koernig, W.H. Noerenberg, Cannery Creek, and Solomon Gulch hatcheries, of which 0.940 to 1.07 million were tagged with half len...

R. R. Riffe D. G. Evans

1998-01-01

404

Interannual and Spatial Feeding Patterns of Hatchery and Wild Juvenile Pink Salmon in the Gulf of Alaska in Years of Low and High Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting growth and survival, we evaluated the summer diets and feeding patterns (prey composition, energy density, and stomach fullness) of hatchery and wild juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Prince William Sound (PWS) and the northern coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA). Our study (1999-2004) included 2 years of low (?3%), mid (?5%), and high

Janet L. Armstrong; Katherine W. Myers; David A. Beauchamp; Nancy D. Davis; Robert V. Walker; Jennifer L. Boldt; John J. Piccolo; Lewis J. Haldorson; Jamal H. Moss

2008-01-01

405

Cyt1A from Bacillus thuringiensis Lacks Toxicity to Susceptible and Resistant Larvae of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella) and Pink Bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella)  

PubMed Central

We tested Cyt1Aa, a cytolytic endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis, against susceptible and Cry1A-resistant larvae of two lepidopteran pests, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Unlike previous results obtained with mosquito and beetle larvae, Cyt1Aa alone or in combination with Cry toxins was not highly toxic to the lepidopteran larvae that we examined.

Meyer, Susan K.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Liu, Yong-Biao; Wirth, Margaret C.; Federici, Brian A.

2001-01-01

406

Effects of primary and secondary infection with potato virus X (PVX) on yield, size, chemical composition, blight resistance and cooking quality of potato variety Kerr's Pink  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trials with hand-inoculated and virus-free seed were set out from 1966–1970 to determine the effects of primary and secondary infection with potato virus X (PVX) on yield, tuber size, chemical composition, blight resistance and cooking quality of potato varietyKerr's Pink.

L. J. Dowley

1973-01-01

407

Bioenergetic model estimates of interannual and spatial patterns in consumption demand and growth potential of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in the Gulf of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A bioenergetic model of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) was used to estimate daily prey consumption and growth potential of four ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska during 2001 and 2002. Growth potential was not significantly higher in 2002 than in 2001 at an alpha level of 0.05 (P=0.073). Average differences in growth potential across habitats were minimal (slope habitat=0.844 g d-1, shelf habitat=0.806 g d-1, offshore habitat=0.820 g d-1, and nearshore habitat=0.703 g d-1) and not significantly different (P=0.630). Consumption demand differed significantly between hatchery and wild stocks (P=0.035) when examined within year due to the interaction between hatchery verses wild origin and year. However, the overall effect of origin across years was not significant (P=0.705) due to similar total amounts of prey consumed by all juvenile pink salmon in both study years. We anticipated that years in which ocean survival was high would have had high growth potential, but this relationship did not prove to be true. Therefore, modeled growth potential may not be useful as a tool for forecasting survival of Prince William Sound hatchery pink salmon stocks. Significant differences in consumption demand and a two-fold difference in nearshore abundance during 2001 of hatchery and wild pink salmon confirmed the existence of strong and variable interannual competition and the importance of the nearshore region as being a potential competitive bottleneck.

Moss, J. H.; Beauchamp, D. A.; Cross, A. D.; Farley, E. V.; Murphy, J. M.; Helle, J. H.; Walker, R. V.; Myers, K. W.

2009-01-01

408

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipolito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernandez, M. F.

2009-01-01

409

Effect of benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on the estrous cycle and ovarian activity in albino mice.  

PubMed

The benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers was administered intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult mice and resulted in an irregular estrous cycle with prolonged estrus and metestrus. An increase in the atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea indicate the antiovulatory effect of the extract. The extract also showed estrogenic activity in immature mice by early opening of the vagina, premature cornification of the vaginal epithelium and an increase in uterine weight. Therefore the antiovulatory effect may be due to an imbalance in the hormonal environment, as there may be an increase in the endogenous secretion of estrogen by atretic follicles, and also to the estrogenicity of the flower extract. PMID:9255415

Murthy, D R; Reddy, C M; Patil, S B

1997-07-01

410

[Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].  

PubMed

Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

2010-02-01

411

[Molecular characterization of cotton leaf Curl Multan virus and its satellite DNA that infects Hibiscus rosa-sinensis].  

PubMed

Virus isolate G6 was obtained from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis showing yellow and leaf curl symptoms in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined to be 2 737 nucleotides encoding six potential ORFs. Comparison showed that G6 DNA-A had more than 89% sequence identify with all isolates of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV) and shared the highest sequence identify (96.1%) with CLCuMV isolate 62. G6 DNA-A had 87.1%-89.8% sequence identity with those of CLCuRV isolates, while less than 87% identities with other begomoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of G6 DNA-A and selected begomoviruses showed that G6 was most closely related to CLCuMV isolates, and they clustered together as a separate branch. Satellite DNA molecule (G6 DNAbeta) was found to be associated with G6 using the primers beta01 and beta02. G6 DNAbeta contains 1346 nucleotides, with a potential functional ORF (C1) in complementary sense DNA. Pairwise comparison indicated that G6 DNAbeta had the highest sequence identities with CLCuMV DNAbeta (92.1%) and CLCuRV DNAbeta (88.7%), but less than 80% sequence identities with other reported satellite DNA molecules. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that G6 DNAbeta was most closely related to CLCuMV DNAbeta and the two DNAbetas clustered together as a separate branch, and formed the main branch with DNAbeta of CLCuRV and MYVV-Y47. It is concluded that G6 infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is an isolate of CLCuMV. PMID:18320825

Mao, Ming-Jie; He, Zi-Fu; Yu, Hao; Li, Hua-Ping

2008-01-01

412

Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development.  

PubMed

The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style-stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l(-1) methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style-stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style-stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

2011-08-12

413

Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were evaluated by their capacity of quenching 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. HS-E showed the greatest capacity of scavenging free radical (EC50=0.017mg/ml), and HS-C showed the strongest inhibitory effect on XO activity (EC5o=0.742 mg/ml). Furthermore, antioxidant bioactivities of these crude extracts were investigated using a model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in rat primary hepatocytes. All fractions were found to inhibit significantly the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by t-BHP at a concentration of 0.20 mg/ml. HS-C and HS-E also decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by t-BHP (1.5 mM) considerably at a concentration of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml in the rat primary hepatocyte cultures. These results indicated that the dried flower extracts (HS-C and HS-E) of H. sabdariffa L. protect rat hepatocytes from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by different mechanisms. PMID:9449221

Tseng, T H; Kao, E S; Chu, C Y; Chou, F P; Lin Wu, H W; Wang, C J

1997-12-01

414

Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus attenuate oxidized LDL-mediated foam cell formation involving regulation of CD36 gene.  

PubMed

A recent investigation highlighted that oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a garden plant containing a lot of pigments, was demonstrated to inhibit LDL oxidation and the progression of atherosclerosis in high cholesterol-fed rabbits. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of Hibiscus anthocyanin-rich extracts (HAs) on foam cell formation and the gene expression of scavenger receptor, CD36 and its upstream transcription factor, PPARgamma on oxLDL-treated mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. Quantitative lipid analysis indicates a dramatic increase in lipid accumulation in oxLDL-treated cells, while treatment of the cells with the HAs (0.05-0.2 mg/ml) largely prevents lipid accumulation. Our results show that HAs is able to decrease oxLDL mediated foam cell formation. The oxLDL-treated J774A.1 cells up-regulates the expression of CD36. After treatment with HAs, the expression of CD36 is found to be decreased both at the mRNA as well as protein level. Treatment of J774A.1 cells with oxLDL is found to significantly increase PPARgamma protein levels in nuclear extracts while treatment with HAs results in significant decreases in nuclear PPARgamma protein levels. Therefore, it suggests that HAs inhibits the macrophage uptake of oxLDL and this may involve CD36 downregulation. PMID:19330881

Kao, Erl-Shyh; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa; Lee, Huei-Jane; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

2009-05-15

415

Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development  

PubMed Central

The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1?mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500?nl l?1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1?mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9?h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1?h and 6?h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6?h and 9?h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied.

Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

2011-01-01

416

First report of major histocompatibility complex class II loci from the Amazon pink river dolphin (genus Inia).  

PubMed

We report the first major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DQB1 sequences for the two species of pink river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis and Inia boliviensis) inhabiting the Amazon and Orinoco River basins. These sequences were found to be polymorphic within the Inia genus and showed shared homology with cetacean DQB-1 sequences, especially, those of the Monodontidae and Phocoenidae. On the other hand, these sequences were shown to be divergent from those described for other riverine dolphin species, such as Lipotes vexillifer, the Chinese river dolphin. Two main conclusions can be drawn from our results: 1) the Mhc DQB1 sequences seem to evolve more rapidly than other nuclear sequences in cetaceans, and 2) differential positive selective pressures acting on these genes cause concomitant divergent evolutionary histories that derive phylogenetic reconstructions that could be inconsistent with widely accepted intertaxa evolutionary relationships elucidated with other molecular markers subjected to a neutral dynamics. PMID:17117356

Martínez-Agüero, M; Flores-Ramírez, S; Ruiz-García, M

2006-07-31

417

Nearshore concentration of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) postlarvae in northern Florida bay in relation to nocturnal flood tide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We address the question of whether the low abundance of juvenile pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Burkenroad, 1939) in northern-central Florida Bay results from (i) limiting environmental conditions, (ii) a reduced postlarval transport, or (iii) both. To explore this question, postlarvae were collected during the new moon in both summer and fall of 2004 and 2005 at six stations located on a transect from the bay's western margin to its interior. The highest concentrations of postlarvae occurred at two mid-transect stations located in shallow channels with moderate tidal amplitudes (15-20 cm) and dense seagrass beds. At the two interiormost stations postlarval concentrations decreased together with a reduction of the tidal amplitude (= 1 cm). Estimates of the cumulative flood-tide displacement with the semidiurnal M2 constituent indicated that the tide moves a maximum of 15 km in four nights, a distance that corresponds to the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. The size of postlarvae also reached a maximum at the location of the highest concentrations of postlarvae. Results suggest that postlarvae move into the bay's interior by a cumulative flood tidal process, advancing onshore during successive nights as far as they can go with the tide. Analyses indicate that, in addition to the tidal amplitude, cross-shelf wind stress and salinity also affect the concentrations of postlarvae. Peaks of postlarvae occurred at times of low salinity and strong southeasterly winds. While tidal transport appears to be insufficient for postlarvae to reach Florida Bay's interior, salinity and winds may also contribute to the observed distribution patterns of early pink shrimp recruits. ?? 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

Criales, M. M.; Robblee, M. B.; Browder, J. A.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, T. L.

2010-01-01

418

Pink-Colored Grape Berry Is the Result of Short Insertion in Intron of Color Regulatory Gene  

PubMed Central

We report here that pink grape berries were obtained by a short insertion in the intron of the MybA1 gene, a gene that regulates grape berry color. Genetic variation was detected among the MybA1 genes from grapes cultivated worldwide. PCR analysis of the MybA1 gene demonstrated that the size of the MybA1 gene in the red allele differs among grapes. Oriental V. vinifera bearing pink berries has the longest MybA1 gene among grapes, whereas the shortest MybA1 gene was detected in occidental V. vinifera grapes. The nucleotide sequences of the MybA1 genes demonstrated that oriental V. vinifera has two additional gene fragments (44 bp and 111 bp) in the promoter region of the MybA1 gene in the red allele and another 33 bp fragment in the second intron of the MybA1 gene in the red allele. The short insertion in the intron decreased the transcription activity in the model system and retained MybA1 transcripts with unspliced intron in the total RNA. From the experiments using deletion mutants of the 33 bp short insertion, 16 bp of the 3? end in the insertion is a key structure for a defect in splicing of MybA1 transcripts. Thus, a weakly colored grape berry might be a result of the short insertion in the intron of a color regulatory gene. This is new evidence concerning the molecular mechanism of the fate of grape berry color. These findings are expected to contribute to the further understanding of the color variation in grape berries, which is correlated with the evolutional events occurring in the MybA1 gene of grapes.

Shimazaki, Mamiko; Fujita, Keiko; Kobayashi, Hironori; Suzuki, Shunji

2011-01-01

419

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

420

Three-way chemometric method study and UV-Vis absorbance for the study of simultaneous degradation of anthocyanins in flowers of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensys species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet-visible spectra of flower extracts of the Hibiscus rosa-sinensys L. var. regius maximus species have been measured between 240.02 and 747.97nm at pH values ranging from 1.1 to 13.0. Deconvolution of these spectra using the Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) model permitted the study of anthocyanin systems without isolation and purification of the individual species. Seven species were identified: flavilium cation,

Maria Alice B Levi; Ieda S Scarminio; Ronei J Poppi; Marcello G Trevisan

2004-01-01

421

Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Properties of Sour Tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa, calyx) and Green Tea ( Camellia sinensis ) on some Pro-oxidant-induced Lipid Peroxidation in Brain in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s\\u000a disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants\\u000a (dietary means). This present study sought to compare the ability of aqueous extract of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa, calyx) and green tea (Camellia sinensis)

G. Oboh; J. B. T. Rocha

2008-01-01

422

Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of aqueous extract of petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the established stages of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip renovascular hypertension was investigated in Sprague–Dawley rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced by subjecting the animals to left renal artery clamping using a 0.2mm silver clip under ether anesthesia. Sham-operated (Sh-Op) rats served as controls.Six weeks after renal artery clamping, one group of

I. P. Odigie; R. R. Ettarh; S. A. Adigun

2003-01-01

423

Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

2009-01-01

424

Covariation in the Capsid Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Induced by Serial Passaging in a Host That Restricts Movement Leads to Avirulence in Its Systemic Host  

PubMed Central

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) from naturally infected Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. loses virulence in its experimental systemic host Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf) after serial passages in a local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa. Here we report the genetic changes responsible for the loss of virulence at the molecular level. A remarkable covariation of eight site-specific amino acids was found in the HCRSV capsid protein (CP) after serial passages in C. quinoa: Val49?Ile, Ile95?Val, Lys270?Arg, Gly272?Asp, Tyr274?His, Ala311?Asp, Asp334?Ala, and Ala335?Thr. Covariation of at least three of the eight amino acids, Val49, Ile95, and Lys270, caused the virus to become avirulent in kenaf. Interestingly, the nature of the covariation was consistent and reproducible at each serial passage. These data indicate that the nonsynonymous substitutions of amino acids in the HCRSV CP after serial passages in C. quinoa are not likely to be random events but may be due to host-associated positive selection or accelerated genetic drift. The observed interdependence among the three amino acids leading to avirulence in kenaf may have implications for structural or functional relationships in this virus-host interaction.

Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lee, Bernett T. K.; Wong, Sek-Man

2002-01-01

425

Covariation in the capsid protein of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus induced by serial passaging in a host that restricts movement leads to avirulence in its systemic host.  

PubMed

Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) from naturally infected Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. loses virulence in its experimental systemic host Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf) after serial passages in a local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa. Here we report the genetic changes responsible for the loss of virulence at the molecular level. A remarkable covariation of eight site-specific amino acids was found in the HCRSV capsid protein (CP) after serial passages in C. quinoa: Val(49)-->Ile, Ile(95)-->Val, Lys(270)-->Arg, Gly(272)-->Asp, Tyr(274)-->His, Ala(311)-->Asp, Asp(334)-->Ala, and Ala(335)-->Thr. Covariation of at least three of the eight amino acids, Val(49), Ile(95), and Lys(270), caused the virus to become avirulent in kenaf. Interestingly, the nature of the covariation was consistent and reproducible at each serial passage. These data indicate that the nonsynonymous substitutions of amino acids in the HCRSV CP after serial passages in C. quinoa are not likely to be random events but may be due to host-associated positive selection or accelerated genetic drift. The observed interdependence among the three amino acids leading to avirulence in kenaf may have implications for structural or functional relationships in this virus-host interaction. PMID:12414972

Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lee, Bernett T K; Wong, Sek-Man

2002-12-01

426

Dynamics of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) recruitment potential in relation to salinity and temperature in Florida Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Progress is reported in relating upstream water management and freshwater flow to Florida Bay to a valuable commercial fishery for pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum), which has major nursery grounds in Florida Bay. Changes in freshwater inflow are expected to affect salinity patterns in the bay, so the effect of salinity and temperature on the growth, survival, and subsequent recruitment and harvest of this ecologically and economically important species was examined with laboratory experiments and a simulation model. Experiments were conducted to determine the response of juvenile growth and survival to temperature (15??C to 33??C) and salinity (2??? to 55???), and results were used to refine an existing model. Results of these experiments indicated that juvenile pink shrimp have a broad salinity tolerance range at their optimal temperature, but the salinity tolerance range narrows with distance from the optimal temperature range, 20-30??C. Acclimation improved survival at extreme high salinity (55???), but not at extremely low salinity (i.e., 5???, 10???). Growth rate increases with temperature until tolerance is exceeded beyond about 35??C. Growth is optimal in the mid-range of salinity (30???) and decreases as salinity increases or decreases. Potential recruitment and harvests from regions of Florida Bay were simulated based on local observed daily temperature and salinity. The simulations predict that potential harvests might differ among years, seasons, and regions of the bay solely on the basis of observed temperature and salinity. Regional differences in other characteristics, such as seagrass cover and tidal transport, may magnify regional differences in potential harvests. The model predicts higher catch rates in the September-December fishery, originating from the April and July settlement cohorts, than in the January-June fishery, originating from the October and January settlement cohorts. The observed density of juveniles in western Florida Bay during the same years simulated by the model was greater in the fall than the spring, supporting modeling results. The observed catch rate in the fishery, a rough index of abundance, was higher in the January-June fishery than the July-December fishery in most of the biological years from 1989-1990 through 1997-1998, contrary to modeling results and observed juvenile density in western Florida Bay.

Browder, J. A.; Zein-Eldin, Z.; Criales, M. M.; Robblee, M. B.; Wong, S.; Jackson, T. L.; Johnson, D.

2002-01-01

427

Similar genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Boll-selected and diet-selected strains of pink bollworm.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered cotton and corn plants producing insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests. Yet, evolution of resistance by pests threatens long-term insect control by these transgenic Bt crops. We compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in two independently derived, laboratory-selected strains of a major cotton pest, the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella [Saunders]). The Arizona pooled resistant strain (AZP-R) was started with pink bollworm from 10 field populations and selected with Cry1Ac in diet. The Bt4R resistant strain was started with a long-term susceptible laboratory strain and selected first with Bt cotton bolls and later with Cry1Ac in diet. Previous work showed that AZP-R had three recessive mutations (r1, r2, and r3) in the pink bollworm cadherin gene (PgCad1) linked with resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac. Here we report that inheritance of resistance to a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac was recessive in Bt4R. In interstrain complementation tests for allelism, F(1) progeny from crosses between AZP-R and Bt4R were resistant to Cry1Ac, indicating a shared resistance locus in the two strains. Molecular analysis of the Bt4R cadherin gene identified a novel 15-bp deletion (r4) predicted to cause the loss of five amino acids upstream of the Cry1Ac-binding region of the cadherin protein. Four recessive mutations in PgCad1 are now implicated in resistance in five different strains, showing that mutations in cadherin are the primary mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. PMID:22530065

Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Tabashnik, Bruce E

2012-04-18

428

Lotononis angolensis forms nitrogen fixing, lupinoid nodules with phylogenetically unique, fast-growing, pink-pigmented bacteria, which do not nodulate L. bainesii or L. listii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-nodule bacteria that nodulate the legume genus Lotononis are being investigated to develop new forage species for agriculture. Bacteria isolated from nodules of Lotononis angolensis were fast-growing, highly mucoid and pink-pigmented, and on the basis of 16S rRNA phylogeny <94% related to other genera in the Alphaproteobacteria. Root-nodule bacteria isolated from other Lotononis species (L. bainesii, L. solitudinis and L.

R. J. Yates; J. G. Howieson; W. G. Reeve; K. G. Nandasena; I. J. Law; L. Bräu; J. K. Ardley; H. M. Nistelberger; D. Real; G. W. O’Hara

2007-01-01

429

Early Marine Growth of Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound and the Coastal Gulf of Alaska During Years of Low and High Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although early marine growth has repeatedly been correlated with overall survival in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of smolt-to-adult survival. Smolt-to-adult survival of pink salmon O. gorbuscha returning to Prince William Sound was lower than average for juveniles that entered marine waters in 2001 and 2003 (3% in both years), and high for those that

Alison D. Cross; David A. Beauchamp; Katherine W. Myers; Jamal H. Moss

2008-01-01

430

Comparison of X-ray and gamma-ray dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations in Tradescantia clone 02  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Microdosimetric data indicate that the mean specific energy,?, produced by individual charged particles from X rays and gamma rays is different for the two radiation qualities by nearly a factor of two. In order to test whether this influences the initial, linear component in the dose-effect relations, a comparison was made between dose-response curves for pink somatic mutations inTradescantia

A. G. Underbrink; A. M. Kellerer; R. E. Mills; A. H. Sparrowt

1976-01-01

431

K-ras oncogene DNA sequences in pink salmon in streams impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill: no evidence of oil-induced heritable mutations.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no fish from the area impacted by the oil spill were analyzed. We assessed K-ras exon 1 and exon 2 DNA sequences in pink salmon from five streams that were oiled and five streams that were not oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, and two streams with natural oil seeps and one stream without seeps on the Alaska Peninsula. Of the 79 fish analyzed for exon 1 and the 89 fish analyzed for exon 2, none had the nucleotide substitutions representing the mutations induced in the laboratory study. Other variable nucleotides occurred in similar proportions in oiled and non-oiled streams and probably represent natural allelic variation. These data do not support the hypothesis that heritable mutations in the K-ras gene were induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill or oil seeps. PMID:12211696

Cronin, Matthew A; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Dunina, Yelena; Baker, Robert J

2002-08-01

432

A resource management scenario for traditional and scientific management of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis) in the Patos Lagoon estuary (RS), Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background This article aims to discuss the incorporation of traditional time in the construction of a management scenario for pink shrimp in the Patos Lagoon estuary (RS), Brazil. To meet this objective, two procedures have been adopted; one at a conceptual level and another at a methodological level. At the conceptual level, the concept of traditional time as a form of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) was adopted. Method At the methodological level, we conduct a wide literature review of the scientific knowledge (SK) that guides recommendations for pink shrimp management by restricting the fishing season in the Patos Lagoon estuary; in addition, we review the ethno-scientific literature which describes traditional calendars as a management base for artisanal fishers in the Patos Lagoon estuary. Results Results demonstrate that TEK and SK describe similar estuarine biological processes, but are incommensurable at a resource management level. On the other hand, the construction of a “management scenario” for pink shrimp is possible through the development of “criteria for hierarchies of validity” which arise from a productive dialog between SK and TEK. Conclusions The commensurable and the incommensurable levels reveal different basis of time-space perceptions between traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge. Despite incommensurability at the management level, it is possible to establish guidelines for the construction of “management scenarios” and to support a co-management process.

2013-01-01

433

Characteristics of a pink-pigmented bacterium isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.  

PubMed

Strain K-20, a Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and strictly aerobic rod, which produces a pale pink pigment, was isolated from biofilm in a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. The taxonomic feature of the strain was studied using phenotypic tests and phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain was related to Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea, Roseomonas gilardii subsp. gilardii, Roseomonas cervicalis and Roseomonas mucosa at 94.3-94.6 sequence similarities. Growth occurred at 25-40 C and pH 5.0-10.0, optimal at 35 C and pH 7.0. Growth did not occur in the presence of >or=2% NaCl. The API 20NE identification system gave a positive result for urease, L-arabinose, potassium gluconate, adipic acid, malic acid and trisodium citrate (API code number 0201465). The predominant fatty acids of strain K-20 were C18:1Delta11 (50.8%) and C16:1 (17.2%). Cells contained ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) as the major quinone and the G+C content was 72.0 mol%. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was assumed that strain K-20 (=JCM 14634) is a novel species of the genus Roseomonas. PMID:17579276

Furuhata, Katsunori; Goto, Keiichi; Kato, Yuko; Saitou, Keiko; Sugiyama, Jun-ichi; Hara, Motonobu; Yoshida, Shin-ichi; Fukuyama, Masafumi

2007-01-01

434

In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain lesion microbeam radiation therapy.  

PubMed

A fast 50 microm-accuracy alignment procedure has been developed for the radiosurgery of brain lesions in rats, using microbeam radiation therapy. In vivo imaging was performed using the pink beam (35-60 keV) produced by the ID17 wiggler at the ESRF opened at 120 mm and filtered. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation field size and to position the target with respect to the skull structures observed in X-ray images. The method proposed here allows tremendous time saving by skipping the swap from white beam to monochromatic beam and vice versa. To validate the concept, the somatosensory cortex or thalamus of GAERS rats were irradiated under several ports using this alignment procedure. The magnetic resonance images acquired after contrast agent injection showed that the irradiations were selectively performed in these two expected brain regions. Image-guided microbeam irradiations have therefore been realised for the first time ever, and, thanks to this new development, the ID17 biomedical beamline provides a major tool allowing brain radiosurgery trials on animal patients. PMID:20400830

Serduc, Raphaël; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Nemoz, Christian

2010-03-20

435

Exposure of pink salmon embryos to dissolved polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons delays development, prolonging vulnerability to mechanical damage.  

PubMed

Exposure to dissolved polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from crude oil delays pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryo development, thus prolonging their susceptibility to mechanical damage (shock). Exposure also caused mortality, edema, and anemia consistent with previous studies. Hatching and yolk consumption were delayed, indicating the rate of embryonic development was slowed by PAH exposure. The net result was that exposed embryos were more susceptible to shock than normal, unexposed embryos. Susceptibility to shock was protracted by 4-6d for more than a month in embryos exposed to exponentially declining, dissolved PAH concentrations in water passed through oiled rock; the initial total PAH concentration was 22.4microgL(-1) and the geometric mean concentration was 4.5microgL(-1) over the first 20d. Protracted susceptibility to shock caused by exposure to PAHs dissolved from oil could potentially increase the reported incidence of mortality in oiled stream systems, such as those in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, if observers fail to discriminate between direct mortality and shock-induced mortality. PMID:20089299

Carls, Mark G; Thedinga, John F

2009-12-21

436

A fixed angle double mirror filter for preparing a pink undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) use the full bandwidth of an undulator harmonic in order to maximize the coherent flux for small angle X-ray scattering experiments. X-ray mirrors and filters are typically used to select a given harmonic of the spectrum. At the University of Michigan/Howard University/Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs, Collaborative Access Team (MHATT-CAT) undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source, we have designed a fixed-angle Double Mirror Filter which will provide a ``pink beam'' (i.e., 2-3% bandwidth) for XPCS experiments. This device uses two small mirrors which vertically reflect a 0.1 mm×0.1 mm white beam in a symmetric geometry. The doubly reflected beam propagates parallel to the incident white beam, but is offset vertically by 35 mm. Using the standard offset of the APS allows one to stop the white beam with a standard APS beam stop. In this report, we will describe our design considerations for this instrument. We also report the results of preliminary tests of the performance. The mirrors preserve the transverse coherence of the source, and filter the undulator spectrum as expected. .

Dufresne, E.; Sanchez, T.; Nurushev, T.; Clarke, R.; Dierker, S. B.

2000-06-01

437

Nearest neighbor methods applied to dune field organization: The Coral Pink Sand Dunes, Kane County, Utah, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dune fields have recently come to be recognized as self-organizing systems that can be seen progressing from states of disorganization or randomness to uniformity. Dune systems can be highly sensitive to changes in factors, such as climate and sediment transport, that determine system state. Changes in climate and sediment state can take time to work their way through a dune system; this, in turn, leads to spatial heterogeneity in dune field organization. Using the Coral Pink Sand Dunes in southern Utah as a model, this study tests nearest neighbor analysis adapted as a method to objectively identify and characterize differences in two dimensional dune patterns within a dune field and to identify changes in dune patterns over time. Reducing transverse and barchanoid dunes from linear to three-point features in planar space emphasizes the clustering that occurs when dune lengths and wavelengths are more disorganized or random. This clustering may be in response to a system perturbation, such as an influx of sediment, and is reflected in lower nearest neighbor index (R) values. As the system adjusts to the perturbation and moves towards steady state, dune length and spacing increase through migration and coalescing of smaller dunes; the resulting higher R values reflect this move towards greater uniformity in dune pattern. With the organizational states of dune systems recording feedback to changes in extrinsic climate and sediment factors, nearest neighbor analysis provides a proxy measure of system stability.

Wilkins, David E.; Ford, Richard L.

2007-01-01

438

In vivo pink-beam imaging and fast alignment procedure for rat brain lesion microbeam radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

A fast 50?µm-accuracy alignment procedure has been developed for the radiosurgery of brain lesions in rats, using microbeam radiation therapy. In vivo imaging was performed using the pink beam (35–60?keV) produced by the ID17 wiggler at the ESRF opened at 120?mm and filtered. A graphical user interface has been developed in order to define the irradiation field size and to position the target with respect to the skull structures observed in X-ray images. The method proposed here allows tremendous time saving by skipping the swap from white beam to monochromatic beam and vice versa. To validate the concept, the somatosensory cortex or thalamus of GAERS rats were irradiated under several ports using this alignment procedure. The magnetic resonance images acquired after contrast agent injection showed that the irradiations were selectively performed in these two expected brain regions. Image-guided microbeam irradiations have therefore been realised for the first time ever, and, thanks to this new development, the ID17 biomedical beamline provides a major tool allowing brain radiosurgery trials on animal patients.

Serduc, Raphael; Berruyer, Gilles; Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Nemoz, Christian

2010-01-01

439

Effect of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract on glucose tolerance in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (Charles foster).  

PubMed

In an effort to test the hypoglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats, their alcoholic leaf extracts were studied. Both the groups of animals receiving either. A. marmelos or H. rosa sinensis leaf extract for seven consecutive days, at an oral dose equivalent to 250 mg kg-1 showed significant improvements in their ability to utilize the external glucose load. Average blood glucose lowering caused by A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 67% and 39% respectively, which shows that former significantly (p < 0.001) improves the glucose tolerance curve. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with both the plants. Efficacy of A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 71% and 41% of glybenclamide, respectively. These data throw some light on the possible mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of both the plants. The mechanism of action could be speculated partly to increased utilization of glucose, either by direct stimulation of glucose uptake or via the mediation of enhanced insulin secretion. PMID:11480352

Sachdewa, A; Raina, D; Srivastava, A K; Khemani, L D

2001-01-01

440

Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on wound healing activity: a preclinical study in a Sprague Dawley rat.  

PubMed

Hibiscus rosa sinensis (H rosa sinensis), a plant product, has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases as well as to promote wound healing. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis flower was determined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models and is presented in this report. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6 each in all the models. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis orally by mixing in drinking water (120 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, tensile strength (skin breaking strength), granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content. The antimicrobial activity of the flower extract against selected microorganisms that infect the wounds was also assessed. Animals treated with the extract exhibited an 86% reduction in the wound area compared with controls, who exhibited a 75% reduction. The extract-treated animals were found to epithelize their wounds significantly faster than controls (P < .002) and have shown significantly higher skin-breaking strength than controls (P < .002). The dry and wet weight of granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content were also increased significantly when compared with controls. The reported observations suggest H rosa sinensis aids wound healing in the rat model. PMID:17558005

Shivananda Nayak, B; Sivachandra Raju, S; Orette, F A; Chalapathi Rao, A V

2007-06-01

441

Flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, a potential source of contragestative agent. III: Interceptive effect of benzene extract in mouse.  

PubMed

In mouse, oral administration of the benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers at a dose level of 1 gm/kg body weight/day from day 5-8 of gestation led to termination of pregnancy in about 92% of the animals. The effect was associated with a significant fall in peripheral level of progesterone and increase in uterine acid phosphatase activity, as measured on day 10. The ovary exhibited signs of luteolysis, and the corpus luteal delta 5-3 beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity decreased markedly. The interceptive effect of the extract was prevented completely by exogenous progesterone (1 mg/mouse/day) or chorionic gonadotropin (1 I.U./mouse/day) and partially (62.5%) by exogenous prolactin (500 micrograms/mouse/day). In unilaterally pregnant mouse having trauma-induced deciduomata in the sterile horn, the extract caused resorption of the fetuses, and regression of the deciduomata accompanied by reduction in weight of the ovaries. Luteolysis, may be due to interference with the luteotropic influence, and a consequent fall in plasma level of progesterone have been suggested as the plausible cause of termination of pregnancy. PMID:3816235

Pakrashi, A; Bhattacharya, K; Kabir, S N; Pal, A K

1986-11-01

442

Blastocyst implantation failure in mice due to "nonreceptive endometrium": endometrial alterations by Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Many plants are known to possess antifertility activity. However, limited attempts have been made to scientifically evaluate these claims. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers have been shown to possess antifertility and abortifacient activity. In this report, antiimplantation activity of water extract of leaves of H. rosa-sinensis was investigated. Pregnant female mice were dosed with extract (100 mg/kg body weight) from days 1 to 6 of pregnancy. No implantation sites were observed in treated animals when they were surgically opened on day 15 of pregnancy. Biochemical and biophysical alterations were observed in the endometrium in treated animals, especially on day 5, at 4:40 a.m., the day of implantation. A sharp increase in superoxide anion radical and a sharp fall in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as seen in the endometrium from control animals, were altered in treated animals. The extract also exhibited antiestrogenic activity, as judged by increase in uterine weight. The physiological alterations induced by water extract of H. rosa-sinensis are discussed. PMID:15722074

Nivsarkar, Manish; Patel, Manoj; Padh, Harish; Bapu, Cherian; Shrivastava, Neeta

2005-03-01

443

Exploratory analysis of simultaneous degradation of anthocyanins in the calyces of flowers of the Hibiscus sabdariffa species by PARAFAC model.  

PubMed

A three-way resolution method based on PARAFAC model was applied for the UV-Vis spectra to study the simultaneous degradation of anthocyanins extracted from fresh calyces of flowers of the Hibiscus sabdariffa. This methodology was used to resolve a chemical system, for which there was no a priori information about the composition or the pure spectra, a so-called black system. In the pH range from 1 to 13, seven species were identified: flavylium cation, carbinol, quinoidal base, E- and Z-chalcones and E- and Z-ionized chalcones. The concentration changes were determined as functions of pH at different wavelengths. The pK values for the acidity constants as well as tautomeric constant were estimated as 2.70, 3.54 and 0.14, respectively. The spectral profiles recovered by the chemometric methods are in excellent agreement with bands of experimental spectra reported in the literature for the species measured at specific pH values. PMID:16379399

Marco, Paulo H; Levi, Maria Alice B; Scarminio, Ieda S; Poppi, Ronei J; Trevisan, Marcello G

2005-12-01

444

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 ?g/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment), and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl(4). CCl(4) at 8 mM in the culture medium produced significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate oxalate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment of the hepatocytes with H. sabdariffa extract significantly reduced the elevated levels of LDH, GOT, GPT, and MDA and increased the reduced activities of SOD and GSH-Px in a dose-dependent manner; post-treatment did not show any protective effect. The results suggest that H. sabdariffa extract can be potentially used for preventing rather than curing liver diseases in fish. PMID:21082285

Yin, Guojun; Cao, Liping; Xu, Pao; Jeney, Galina; Nakao, Miki

2010-11-17

445

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD(5), SD(10) and SD(15)). Only SD(5) did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SD(C). The opposite occurred in SD(15) group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD(10) responses were similar to SD(15), with the exception of food consumption. In both SD(C) and SD(5) groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O; Hayward-Jones, P M; Orta-Flores, Z; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Barradas-Dermitz, D M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G; Pedroza-Hernández, M F

2009-09-10

446

Mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica Led. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae, on semi artificial diets.  

PubMed

The effect of two different semi-artificial diets (S.A.D1 and S.A.D2) as well as a natural corn diet on the biology and bionomics of the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica was studied under laboratory conditions. The insect was successfully mass reared for ten successive generations at the conditions of 27 +/- 2 C degrees and 60-80% R.H. In addition, a photoperiod of 0:24 (L:D) for larvae and 12:12 (L:D) in concern to the other stages, respectively. ALong the ten successive generations, there were no significant differences between the larval periods for both the artificial diets. The S.A.D2 induced the shortest (24.0 days) larval period compared with the natural diet (27.5 days) and S.A.D1 (31.5 days). Rearing larvae on the natural diets revealed a pupal period of 11.0 days, while it was 10.0 days and 8.5 days for the artificial diets (S.A.D1) and in (S.A.D2), in respect. Moth longevity (pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods), to a certain extent, was affected by the larval diets. The maximal moth longevity (13.0 days) was observed for larva reared on corn plants (4, 8 and 1 days). On the other hand, the shortest period (10.5 days) of moth longevity was noticed in SAD2 (1, 9 and 0.5 days). S.A.D1 showed 11.0 days moth longevity (3,7 and 1 days). The longest oviposition period (9.0 days) was recorded in the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was only 7.0 days in the artificial diet S.A.D1 compared with 8.0 days in case of the natural diet. The number of deposited eggs increased with the progress of the 10 successive generations (G1:G10) from 150 to 265 and from 384 eggs to 564 eggs / female for the S.A.D1 and S.A.D2, in sequence. The highest mean number of deposited eggs per female (564) was for the derived females from larvae fed on the artificial diet in G10 of S.A.D2. The rate of the deposited eggs in S.A.D2 was gradually increased (from 9.70 to 61.14% increase) more than those reared on the natural diet throughout the ten generations. The highest significant percent hatchability (92.69%) has been resulted from the artificial diet SAD2. But, it has been decreased to 85.59% in the artificial diet S.A.D1 in comparison to 65.71% in the natural diet. In addition, the significant shortest total generation period was 44.0 days resulted from the artificial diet S.A.D2, while it was 53.5 and 54.0 days for corn plants and the artificial diet S.A.D1, consequently. In short, results indicated that the S.A.D2 could be considered as a suitable artificial diet for a feasible mass rearing of the pink corn borer, Sesamia cretica led. The S.A.D2 showed the shortest larval, pupal and life span for the generation periods. Moreover, it induced the longest oviposition period and the highest mean number of deposited eggs per female and the highest significant percent of eggs hatchability/fertility. The utilization of this artificial diet (S.A.D2) would supply the researchers with high-quality insects in adequate numbers, at specified times and specific stages of development for the bioassay, toxicological and biological studies. PMID:21539247

Masoud, M A; Saad, A S S; Mourad, A K; Ghorab, M A S

2010-01-01

447

Interspecific hybridisation between Hibiscus syriacus , Hibiscus sinosyriacus and Hibiscus paramutabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybrids from crosses between H. syriacus × H. paramutabilis and H. syriacus × H. sinosyriacus were obtained. In both cases unilateral incongruity was observed and reciprocal crosses yielded no fruits. In vitro embryo\\u000a rescue, 11 weeks after pollination, increased the germination capacity of H. syriacus × H. sinosyriacus embryos, while this was not the case for H. syriacus × H. paramutabilis embryos. However, a lot of the generated

Katrijn Van Laere; Johan M. Van Huylenbroeck; Erik Van Bockstaele

2007-01-01

448

Direct and indirect effects of simulated calcareous dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus.  

PubMed

The direct and indirect effects of a simulated, calcarenite-based dredge material on eggs and larvae of pink snapper Pagrus auratus were assessed. Direct effects were assessed by measuring hatch rate or survival of eggs and pre-feeding larvae, respectively, over a range of concentrations and exposure durations. Exposure of eggs to suspended solid concentrations up to 10 000 mg l(-1) for 24 h did not affect egg buoyancy or hatch rate, despite sediment adherence occurring at the two highest concentrations tested. Newly hatched larvae, whose mouths were still closed, were relatively tolerant of suspended solids, with a 12 h lethal concentration resulting in 50% mortality, LC(50), of 2020 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 150 mg l(-1). Once the larvae's mouths opened, tolerance was significantly reduced, with a 12 h LC(50) of 157 mg l(-1) and a first observable effect concentration of 4 mg l(-1). Tolerance of larvae to suspended solids was negatively correlated with suspended solids concentration and exposure time, with exposure durations of

Partridge, G J; Michael, R J

2010-07-01

449