Sample records for pink hibiscus mealybug

  1. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas

    E-print Network

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

    2007-09-14

    The pink hibiscus mealybug is a new pest in Texas that could potentially damage ornamental plants and agricultural crops. This publication explains how to distinguish this pest from other mealybug species and what to do if an infestation...

  2. Pink Hibiscus Mealybug: A New Pest in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott

    2007-09-14

    The pink hibiscus mealybug is a new pest in Texas that could potentially damage ornamental plants and agricultural crops. This publication explains how to distinguish this pest from other mealybug species and what to do if an infestation...

  3. Prey consumption by the mealybug predator Spalgis epius on pink hibiscus mealybug ( Maconellicoccus hirsutus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anegunda S. Dinesh; Melally G. Venkatesha

    2011-01-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major pest of economically important crops. The apefly Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a potential predator of various species of mealybugs. Studies of its preying potential\\u000a and preference for prey stages on M. hirsutus are incomplete. An investigation was undertaken to determine the daily prey consumption and preference

  4. Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Roltsch; Dale E. Meyerdirk; Richard Warkentin; Earl R. Andress; Karina Carrera

    2006-01-01

    A cooperative classical biological control project against the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), infestation in the low-desert region of California was initiated in the fall of 1999. Subsequently, the parasitoids Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Encyrtidae), Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam & Agarwal (Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. nr. mecrida (Walker) (Platygastridae) were reared and released for permanent establishment. Population densities of mealybug

  5. Economic Impacts of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug in Florida and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Ranjan

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimates the direct and indirect impacts of the Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation on the economies of Florida and the rest of the United States. The approach involves a Markov chain analysis wherein both short run and long run expected damages from infestation are calculated. Use is made of the CLIMEX model that predicts the potential pest-establishment regions in

  6. Economic impacts of Pink Hibiscus Mealybug in Florida and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Ranjan

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates the expected annual impacts of the Pink Hibiscus Mealybug infestation on the economies of Florida and the rest of the United States. The approach involves a Markov chain analysis wherein both short run and long run expected damages from infestation are calculated. Use is made of the CLIMEX model that predicts the potential pest-establishment regions in the

  7. OLFACTORY DISCRIMINATION OF SEX PHEROMONE STEREOISOMERS: CHIRALITY RECOGNITION BY PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous field studies suggested that the two chiral centers that existed in sex pheromone of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, could elicit different male attractive responses. The chiral center in the acidic moiety of the ester seemed to be more critical than the alcoholic por...

  8. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  9. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG, MACONELLICOCCUS HIRSUTUS (HOMOPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE) TO METHYL BROMIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggs, crawlers, early nymphs, late nymphs, and adults of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were tested for their susceptibility to methyl bromide in 2 hr laboratory fumigations at ambient conditions (25 C, 95% RH). Dose response tests indicated that the egg was the most s...

  10. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  11. Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

  12. Biological Control of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus Hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moses T. K. Kairo; Gene V. Pollard; Dorothy D. Peterkin; Vyjayanthi F. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    The hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green, was first reported in the Caribbean in 1994 in Grenada. This was the first record of the insect as a major pest in the New World. By the beginning of 2001, the pest had spread to over 25 territories from Guyana and Venezuela in the South to Bahamas in the North. The pest has

  13. Design, Development, and Use of Molecular Primers and Probes for the Detection of Gluconacetobacter Species in the Pink Sugarcane Mealybug

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid H. Franke-Whittle; Michael G. O’Shea; Graham J. Leonard; Lindsay I. Sly

    2005-01-01

    Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment.

  14. Immune response of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), to oviposition of the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A Sagarra; D. D Peterkin; C Vincent; R. K Stewart

    2000-01-01

    Anagyrus kamali Moursi has been recently introduced into the Caribbean as a biological agent against the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. This host has a cellular defense reaction that involves encapsulation and melanization of the endoparasitoid egg. The impact of this immune response on the parasitoid progeny was assessed, as well as the response of the parasitoid countermeasures to overcome

  15. Design, development, and use of molecular primers and probes for the detection of Gluconacetobacter species in the pink sugarcane mealybug.

    PubMed

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; O'Shea, Michael G; Leonard, Graham J; Sly, Lindsay I

    2005-07-01

    Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment. The presence of these species in the PSMB occurred over a wide range of sites, but not in all sites in sugarcane-growing areas of Queensland, Australia, and was variable over time. Molecular probes for use in FISH were also designed for the three acetic acid bacterial species, and shown to be specific only for the target species. Use of these probes in FISH of "squashed" whole mealybugs indicated that these acetic acid bacteria species represent only a small proportion of the microbial population of the PSMB. Despite the detection of Glac. sacchari, Glac. diazotrophicus, and Glac. liquefaciens by PCR from different mealybugs isolated at various times and from various sugarcane-growing areas in Queensland, Australia, these bacteria do not appear to be significant commensals in the PSMB environment. PMID:16047097

  16. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  17. Molecular detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari associated with the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) and the sugarcane leaf sheath microenvironment by FISH and PCR.

    PubMed

    Franke; Fegan; Hayward; Leonard; Sly

    2000-01-01

    Molecular tools for the detection of the newly described acetic acid bacterium Gluconacetobacter sacchari from the pink sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae), and in the sugarcane leaf sheath microenvironment were developed. G. sacchari specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide primers were designed and used in PCR amplification of G. sacchari DNA directly from mealybugs, and in a nested PCR to detect low numbers of the bacteria from sugarcane leaf sheath fluid and cane internode scrapings. A sensitivity level of detection of 40-400 cells/reaction was obtained using PCR from exponentially grown bacterial cultures and of 1-10 cells in cane internode scrapings and leaf sheath fluid samples using nested PCR. The specificity of the primer set was demonstrated by the lack of amplification product formation in PCR by closely related acetic acid bacteria, including Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. A Cy3 labeled probe for G. sacchari was designed and shown to be specific for the species. Investigation of the mealybug microenvironment by whole cell fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that G. sacchari appears to represent only a minor proportion of the population of the microbiota in the mealybugs tested. This study has shown the usefulness of 16S rRNA-based molecular tools in the identification and detection of G. sacchari from environmental samples and will allow these tools to be used in further ecological research. PMID:10620720

  18. Influence of Host Stage on Oviposition, Development, Sex Ratio, and Survival of Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a Parasitoid of the Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A Sagarra; C Vincent

    1999-01-01

    Host stage selection, host suitability, and sex allocation by the solitary encyrtid parasitoid,Anagyrus kamaliMoursi (Hym., Encyrtidae), were studied in laboratory experiments in order to improve mass production of this parasitoid. All nymphal stages and adult females of the Hibiscus Mealybug (HMB),Maconellicoccus hirsutusGreen (Hom., Pseudococcidae), were parasitized in no-choice experiments. In two-choice experiments third larval instar and preoviposition adult females were

  19. 212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG,

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    212 Florida Entomologist 89(2) June 2006 CLASSICAL BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF THE PAPAYA MEALYBUG The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and was causing serious damage to papaya, plume- ria, hibiscus, and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki

  20. 110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc-

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    110 Plant Protection Quarterly Vol.19(3) 2004 Summary The papaya mealybug (PM), Paracoc- cus 2002 and was causing serious damage to papaya, Plumeria spp., Hibiscus spp. and other plants. The parasitoids Anagyrus loecki, Pseudleptomastix mexicana and Acerophagous papayae totalling 46 200 individuals

  1. 7, 23892475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 2389­2475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS J.-P. Pommereau et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign J.-P. Pommereau 1 , A. Garnier 1 , G. Held 2 , A.-M. Gomes 2 Laboratoire d'A´erologie, Toulouse, France 2389 #12;ACPD 7, 2389­2475, 2007 Overview HIBISCUS J.-P. Pommereau

  2. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. D. Wilson; M. Y. Menzel

    1964-01-01

    Uses of 16 species of Hibiscus, section Furcaria DC, are discussed, with particular reference to kenaf (H. cannabinus L.)\\u000a and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.), the two most important species grown commercially as fiber plants. Other uses of this versatile\\u000a group include use as ornamentals and employment of various plant parts as food, medicine, wood for musical instruments, and\\u000a in superstitious

  3. Mealybugs of importance at United States ports of entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research provides a Lucid expert system for the identification of the 58 most commonly intercepted mealybug species at US ports-of-entry. The system includes an identification key with images of each character state, a well illustrated glossary of terms, images of each mealybug species as it a...

  4. MORFOLOGIA POLÍNICA DE HIBISCUS PERNAMBUCENSIS ARRUDA E HIBISCUS TILIACEUS L. (MALVACEAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Hilder Magalhães; Paulino Pereira Oliveira; Francisco de Assis; Ribeiro dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    POLLEN MORFOLOGY OF HIBISCUS PERNAMBUCENSIS ARRUDA AND HIBISCUS TILIACEUS L. (MALVACEAE). Hibiscus is an important genus of the Malvaceae, having representatives with economic potential to production of textile fibers, wood and ones used in popular medicine and ornamentation. Some species are not taxonomically established yet. The species Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and Hibiscus tiliaceus L. are very similar in gross morphology,

  5. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Pink Wings (Cultivated) 

    E-print Network

    Beverly Thompson

    2011-08-10

    oysters were remov- ed at random from the three aquaria and placed three each in six fingerbowls containing 1 liter of water each. Bowls I a u b received 0. 2gm/1 of NF-180 (twice the prescribed concentration), bowls II a d. b received O. lmg/1... ~ nd D~rm- c~stldium could be cl seed only s massive. The numerical rating was used in computing the weighted incidence, which is used to indicate the relative infection levels in an oyster population, from the follcwing relation- ship t c where...

  6. Cytogenetic characteristics and the breeding system in six Hibiscus species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Akpan

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic characteristics confirm that Hibiscus acetosella and Hibiscus cannabinus are outbreeders, while Hibiscus asper, Hibiscus physaloides, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus surattensis have evolved into inbreeders. The inbreeding species appear to have co-evolved a floral structure in which some anthers abut\\u000a on the stigma prior to anthesis.

  7. BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women)

    E-print Network

    Auckland, University of

    BPW HIBISCUS COAST (Business & Professional Women) $2000 STUDY AWARD Year 2012 Awarded to a female student who is a past or present Hibiscus Coast Resident, who has completed at least one full year HIBISCUS COAST ~ PO Box 321, Silverdale 0944 $2000 STUDY AWARD YEAR 2012 CONDITIONS AND CRITERIA 1

  8. Pink Bollworm Management in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Allen, Charles T.

    1995-01-12

    Pink bollworms sometimes cause extensive damage to cotton crops in Texas. This publication describes the life cycle and season-long management of the pink bollworm. Texas Department of Agriculture Regulatory Requirements, cultural control zones...

  9. Occurrence of a Begomovirus with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; K. V. Padmalatha; V. G. Malathi; S. K. Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    A whitefly transmitted Begomovirus (Geminiviridae: Begomovirus) with a satellite (?-DNA associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been detected for the first time in mesta growing regions of India.

  10. Molecular and Histological Characterization of Primary (Betaproteobacteria) and Secondary (Gammaproteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Three Mealybug Species

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A.; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. PMID:22156418

  11. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing the production and processing efficiency of a selected kenaf crop is not only dependent of the production location and cultural aspects, and the differences in yield componen...

  12. Haematinic activity of Hibiscus cannabinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel A. Agbor; Julius E. Oben; Jeanne Y. Ngogang

    2005-01-01

    The haematinic activity of an orally administered aqueous extract of Hibiscus cannabinus leaves was studied on haemolytic anaemic rats. Anaemia was induced by an oral administration of phenylhydrazine for a period of 8 days. Red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, and pack cell volume were analysed as indices of anaemia. The mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell

  13. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period. PMID:22082650

  14. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  15. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  16. Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat Language: English ... a pink or reddish color. What Causes Pink Eye? There are four main causes of pink eye: ...

  17. Laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of the entomopathogen; Isaria farinosa, on citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fikret Demirci; Murat Mu?tu; M. Bora Kaydan; Selma Ülgentürk

    Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the main pests on citrus trees. Biological control of the pest is based on\\u000a the release of hymenopterous parasitoids and coccinellid predators at present. The effectiveness of entomopathogen fungus\\u000a Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fries ([Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales] (Syn: Paecilomyces farinosus), as an alternative biological control agent on citrus mealybug, was investigated using

  18. Evolutionary Relationships among Primary Endosymbionts of the Mealybug Subfamily Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) ?

    PubMed Central

    Gruwell, Matthew E.; Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria (“Candidatus Tremblaya princeps”) containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps.” Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: “Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola” for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids (“Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola”), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups. PMID:20851962

  19. Development, life history characteristics and behaviour of mealybug predator, Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anegunda S. Dinesh; Melally G. Venkatesha; Sompalyam Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    The development of immature stages, life history and behaviour of mealybug predator, Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) reared on mealybugs, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) was studied in the laboratory. Larvae of S. epius are a potential predator of different species of mealybugs in India. The predator completed its life cycle in 23.8 days with\\u000a four larval instars. Mean incubation period

  20. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  1. DETECTION OF TOBACCO STREAK VIRUS FROM HIBISCUS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viruses have recently been isolated from hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), which is often observed in Florida landscapes and garden centers with virus-like symptoms. An unknown virus was transmitted to Nicotiana tabacum from symptomatic hibiscus in Florida in 2003. This virus was propagated...

  2. Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante-

    E-print Network

    74(1) 1 Introduction The primary pink shrimp, Farfante- penaeus duorarum, fishing grounds con- sist in part by the establishment of sanctuaries which The U.S. Gulf of Mexico Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus.hart@noaa.gov). ABSTRACT--U.S. Gulf of Mexico, pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, catch statistics have been collected

  3. Interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the main natural enemies of the vine and citrus mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramzi Mansour; Pompeo Suma; Gaetana Mazzeo; Alessandra La Pergola; Vito Pappalardo; Kaouthar Grissa Lebdi; Agatino Russo

    2012-01-01

    Honeydew-excreting hemipterans, such as mealybug pests, can be protected from their natural enemies by tending ants in return for honeydew, thereby compromising the aims of biological control. In this respect, antagonistic interactions between the ant Tapinoma nigerrimum, native to the Mediterranean basin, and the main natural enemies of both the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, and the citrus mealybug, P. citri,

  4. Baby T (Pink) (Size: Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  5. Baby T (Pink) (Size: Small)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  6. Baby T (Pink) (Size: Medium)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  7. Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals 1

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, William R.; Hanchey, Susan H.; Chisholm, Duane N.

    1985-01-01

    Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability. PMID:16664472

  8. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  9. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  10. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ...the green scale; Sybra alternans (Wiedemann), a longhorned beetle; Dymicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley), the gray pineapple mealybug; Geococcus coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus...

  11. Mass rearing of Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), a potential predator of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melally Giddegowda Venkatesha; Anegunda Shankar Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) has been recorded as a potential predator of various species of mealybug crop pests worldwide. We describe the mass rearing of S. epius, as no information on this topic is available. Outdoor nylon tent cages of different dimensions were provided to achieve mating and oviposition as S. epius adults did not mate in the laboratory cages.

  12. Effect of Temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink was investigated in the laboratory. Paracoccus marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 ± 1°C. At 15, 34, and 35°C, the eggs hatched after 27, 6,...

  13. Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

  14. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

  15. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  16. Systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov is presented. Nine species are treated, including D. millari which is described as new. The 8 previously described species are: Delottococcus aberiae (De Lotto), D. confusus (De Lotto), D. elisabethae (Brain), D. euphorbiae (E...

  17. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  18. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  19. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  20. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  1. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Gr...

  2. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

    2013-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  3. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Michael J.; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Neupane, Kabi R.; Hu, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3? termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92% identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  4. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants. PMID:25026682

  5. Development and Optimization of Methods for Using Sex Pheromone for Monitoring the Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California Vineyards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn G. Millar; Kent M. Daane; J. Steven Mcelfresh; Jardel A. Moreira; Raksha Malakar-Kuenen; Marta Guillén; Walt J. Bentley

    2002-01-01

    J. Econ. Entomol. 95(4): 706Ð714 (2002) ABSTRACT The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identiÞed as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of

  6. Inheritance of pink flower color in Styrax japonicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cultivars produce white flowers, but a few pink-flowered forms have been reported. ‘Pink Chimes’ is the most widely grown pink-flowered form and the only S. japonicus cultivar with deep pink flowers that hold their color even under hot growing conditions. ...

  7. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones. PMID:23185505

  8. The Correlation Between Herbivory and Medicinal Activity in Thespesia Populnea, Hibiscus Tiliaceus, and Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis on Mo'orea, French Polynesia

    E-print Network

    Cox, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    AND MEDICINAL  ACTIVITY IN THESPESIA POPULNEA, HIBISCUS and  Hibiscus  rosa?sinensis.   All  three  plant  species  demonstrated  an  inverse  relationship  between  herbivory  and  medicinal medicinal activity and whether or not the within?plant ODT  is  followed  in  three  ethnobotanically  useful  Malvaceae  species,  Thespesia  populnea,  Hibiscus 

  9. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  10. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Lo?árek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant. PMID:25920224

  11. Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2012-10-01

    Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found. PMID:22361038

  12. Hot water treatment and insecticidal coatings for disinfesting limes of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, W P; McGuire, R G

    2000-06-01

    Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment. PMID:10902365

  13. Facultative heterochromatization in parahaploid male mealybugs: involvement of a heterochromatin-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, S; Mazzuoli, M; Masci, S; Prantera, G

    2001-10-01

    The behavior of chromosomes during development of the mealybug Planococcus citri provides one of the most dramatic examples of facultative heterochromatization. In male embryos, the entire haploid paternal chromosome set becomes heterochromatic at mid-cleavage. Male mealybugs are thus functionally haploid, owing to heterochromatization (parahaploidy). To understand the mechanisms underlying facultative heterochromatization in male mealybugs, we have investigated the possible involvement of an HP-1-like protein in this process. HP-1 is a conserved, nonhistone chromosomal protein with a proposed role in heterochromatinization in other species. It was first identified in Drosophila melanogaster as a protein enriched in the constitutive heterochromatin of polytene chromosome. Using a monoclonal antibody raised against the Drosophila HP-1 in immunoblot and immunocytological experiments, we provide evidence for the presence of an HP-1-like in Planococcus citri males and females. In males, the HP-1-like protein is preferentially associated with the male-specific heterochromatin. In the developing male embryos, its appearance precedes the onset of heterochromatization. In females, the HP-1-like protein displays a scattered but reproducible localization pattern along chromosomes. The results indicate a role for an HP-1-like protein in the facultative heterochromatization process. PMID:11585806

  14. A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

  15. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-01-01

    Background?Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions?Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding. PMID:25452881

  16. Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum

    E-print Network

    Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, in Two Divergent Habitats, Director Diel and Seasonal Occurrence of Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum Burkenroad, in Two Divergent and equipment 2 Diel fluctuations of catch and size of pink shrimp in relation to light 2 Seasonal changes

  17. PINK BOLLWORM ERADICATION PLAN IN THE U.S

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Grefenstette; Osama El-Lissy; R. T. Staten

    An area-wide pink bollworm eradication program, involving growers and state and federal cooperators, has been proposed by the National Cotton Council's Pink Bollworm Action Committee. The program's objective is to eradicate the pink bollworm (PBW) from the infested areas of the U.S., essentially the southwestern portion of the Cotton Belt. Through the coordinated efforts of cotton producer communities, and federal,

  18. Resistance of cotton to pink bollworm damage 

    E-print Network

    Brazzel, J. R.

    1956-01-01

    screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U- 1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW-298, (E) G^ stocksii, '(F) Stoneville 2-B x G. tomentosum, (G) Hexaploia Z-61j., (H) MW-1U7 . ? 5U... Percentage of survival of larvae that entered bolls on mean boll weight for 108 cottons in greenhouse screening experiment for resistance to pink bollworm damage, College Station, Texas, 195U-1955: (A) Deltapine 15, (B) G^ thurberi, (C) Texas 389, (D) MW...

  19. Integrated control of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus [Hom.: Pseudococcidae] , in avocado plantations in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Swirski; Y. Izhar; M. Wysoki; E. Gurevitz; S. Greenberg

    1980-01-01

    Avocado plantations in Israel neighbouring cotton fields were heavily infested with and damaged by the long-tailed mealybugPseudococcus longispinus\\u000a Targioni Tozzetti. Drift of pesticides from the aerial sprays of those cotton fields upset the biological equilibrium and resulted in outbreaks\\u000a of the mealybug population.\\u000a \\u000a The honeydew moth,Cryptoblabes gnidiella\\u000a Mill. is attracted to the honeydew and its larvae gnaw the fruit. Avocado

  20. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2011-03-01

    The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

  1. Pink1 forms a multi-protein complex with Miro and Milton, linking Pink1 function to mitochondrial trafficking‡

    PubMed Central

    Weihofen, Andreas; Thomas, Kelly Jean; Ostaszewski, Beth L.; Cookson, Mark R.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    Recessive mutations in Pink1 lead to a selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is characteristic of Parkinson disease. Pink1 is a kinase that is targeted in part to mitochondria, and loss of Pink1 function can alter mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, thus supporting a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson disease etiology. Here, we report the unbiased identification and confirmation of a mitochondrial multi-protein complex that contains Pink1, the atypical GTPase Miro, and the adaptor protein Milton. Our screen also identified an interaction between Pink1 and Mitofilin. Based on previously established functions for Miro and Milton in the trafficking of mitochondria along microtubules, we postulate here a role for Pink1 in mitochondrial trafficking. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that the overexpression of Miro and Milton, both of which are known to reside at the outer mitochondrial membrane, increases the mitochondrial Pink1 pool, suggesting a function of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Further, we document that Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence can still be targeted to a mitochondria-enriched subcellular fraction via Miro and Milton. The latter finding is important for the interpretation of a previously reported protective effect of Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Finally, we find that Miro and Milton expression suppresses altered mitochondrial morphology induced by loss of Pink1 function in cell culture. Our findings suggest that Pink1 functions in the trafficking of mitochondria in cells. PMID:19152501

  2. Pink1 forms a multiprotein complex with Miro and Milton, linking Pink1 function to mitochondrial trafficking.

    PubMed

    Weihofen, Andreas; Thomas, Kelly Jean; Ostaszewski, Beth L; Cookson, Mark R; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2009-03-10

    Recessive mutations in Pink1 lead to a selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is characteristic of Parkinson disease. Pink1 is a kinase that is targeted in part to mitochondria, and loss of Pink1 function can alter mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, thus supporting a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and Parkinson disease etiology. Here, we report the unbiased identification and confirmation of a mitochondrial multiprotein complex that contains Pink1, the atypical GTPase Miro, and the adaptor protein Milton. Our screen also identified an interaction between Pink1 and Mitofilin. Based on previously established functions for Miro and Milton in the trafficking of mitochondria along microtubules, we postulate here a role for Pink1 in mitochondrial trafficking. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that the overexpression of Miro and Milton, both of which are known to reside at the outer mitochondrial membrane, increases the mitochondrial Pink1 pool, suggesting a function of Pink1 at the outer membrane. Further, we document that Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence can still be targeted to a mitochondria-enriched subcellular fraction via Miro and Milton. The latter finding is important for the interpretation of a previously reported protective effect of Pink1 expressed without a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Finally, we find that Miro and Milton expression suppresses altered mitochondrial morphology induced by loss of Pink1 function in cell culture. Our findings suggest that Pink1 functions in the trafficking of mitochondria in cells. PMID:19152501

  3. Baby T (Pink) (Size: XXX Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  4. Baby T (Pink) (Size: XX Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  5. Baby T (Pink) (Size: X Large)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    Short sleeve, two-color, Women's 100% cotton T-shirt with Pink sleeves, imprinted with I LOVE SCIENCE on front and NSTA logo on back. Available in Adult sizes: Small, Medium, Large, X Large, XX Large, XXX Large. Also available in Black or Blue.

  6. Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

    1991-12-01

    Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

  7. Potential of temperature, controlled atmospheres, and ozone fumigation to control thrips and mealybugs on ornamental plants for export.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Armstrong, John W

    2005-04-01

    Ozone (O3) fumigation is a potential quarantine treatment alternative for controlling stored-product pests and surface insect pests on fresh agricultural commodities. We explored the effects of temperature, treatment time, controlled atmospheres, and vacuum in combination with O3 to control two important pests of ornamental crops: western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni Tozzetti. Treatment parameters tested were O3 concentrations from 0 to 3,800 ppm, treatment durations were from 30 to 120 min, vacuums were from 0 to 0.41 bar below ambient, temperatures were from 32.2 to 40.6 degrees C, and controlled atmospheres were composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or breathing air [BA]. Treatment efficacy was enhanced by higher O3 concentration and temperature, lower oxygen, and longer treatment times. Reduced pressure was not an important factor. Mealybugs were more difficult to kill than thrips. A 30-min treatment of O3 at approximately 200 ppm in 100% CO2 at 37.8 degrees C killed 47.9 and 98.0% of mealybugs and adult female thrips, respectively. All of the ornamentals tested were damaged to some degree by O3 treatments. However, crops with thick leaves such as orchids exhibited little damage, and the waxy portions of certain flowers were not damaged. The results suggest that O3 has potential as a quarantine treatment to control thrips and mealybugs on selected commodities. PMID:15889716

  8. Note: The malvastrum mealybug Ferrisia malvastra (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae): Distribution, host plants and pest status in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yair Ben-Dov

    2005-01-01

    The malvastrum mealybugFerrisia malvastra (McDaniel) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) is widely distributed in Israel, recorded so far from 30 species of host\\u000a plants belonging to 18 families. Its occurrence on herbal plants and on avocado should be considered by farmers in Israel.

  9. Unusual microtubular patterns and three-dimensional movement of mealybug sperm and sperm bundles.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Robison, W G

    1969-02-01

    The spermatozoon of the mealybug Pseudococcus obscurus Essig is a filamentous cell (0.25 micro by 300 micro) which exhibits three-dimensional flagellations throughout most of its length. It has microtubules (200 A diameter) and a threadlike nuclear core (0.07-0.09 micro diameter) which extend almost its entire length, but apparently it has no mitochondria, centrioles, typical flagellum, or acrosome. The microtubules are arranged in two and a half concentric rings and total 56 in the most actively motile region but form two or three concentric rings with totals of 28 or 56 tubules, respectively, in less active regions. The relation of unusual microtubular patterns to the 9 + 2 complex and to flagellar motion is discussed. Mealybug spermatozoa are transmitted to the female in motile bundles which are approximately 1.3 micro by 750 micro and have four regions: (1) an anterior corkscrew region; (2) a region which contains approximately 16 spermatozoa; (3) a region of amorphous content; and (4) an endpiece. Bundle motility originates from the synchronous movements of its spermatozoa which appear to be arranged in two concentric multistranded helices. The spermatozoa provide both forward and gyratory motions of the bundle, and the corkscrew complements bundle propulsion by converting part of the rotation into forward movement. PMID:5761921

  10. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengjun; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Fang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Jinming; Lu, Yaobin; Ruan, Yongming

    2011-01-01

    The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs. PMID:21818315

  11. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  12. A case report of pink breast milk.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jenny; Crete, Joan; Neumeier, Robin

    2014-01-01

    A woman presented for her postpartum examination alarmed about pink stains on her breast pads and on her infant's burp pads and diapers. The stains were also found in her breast pump and the infant's bottles. Out of concern, she stopped breastfeeding. The diagnosis was colonization of mother and infant with Serratia marcescens. They were managed conservatively without antibiotics. The mother was guided to restart breastfeeding. The infant resumed nursing and continued to thrive. PMID:25141908

  13. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  14. Pyruvate stimulates mitophagy via PINK1 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwoo; Choi, Seon-Guk; Yoo, Seung-Min; Nah, Jihoon; Jeong, Eunil; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2015-09-01

    Damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation by an autophagy pathway known as mitophagy. Despite efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying mitophagy, aspects of mitophagy regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, by using a cell-based fluorescence assay reflecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, we have screened cDNA expression library encoding mitochondrial proteins and identified PDK4 as a mitophagy regulator. Ectopic expression of PDK4 stimulated the clearance of mitochondrial proteins during CCCP-induced mitophagy and enhanced pyruvate levels in both the cytosol and mitochondria. Interestingly, mitochondrial degradation during the mitophagy was not efficient in the absence of pyruvate. Pyruvate was required for PINK1 stabilization during mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent PARK2 translocation and LC3 recruitment onto damaged mitochondria. This pyruvate-mediated mitophagy was not affected by OXPHOS or cellular ATP levels, thus independent of energy metabolism. Rather, pyruvate was required for the interaction between PINK1 and TOMM20 under CCCP condition. These results suggest that pyruvate is required for CCCP-induced PINK1/PARK2-mediated mitophagy. PMID:26071202

  15. Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, BK Charan; Sivapathasundharam, B; Chatterji, Ananjan; Chatterji, BL

    2015-01-01

    This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally. PMID:26005309

  16. Chemical, Cultural and Mechanical Control of the Pink Bollworm. 

    E-print Network

    Adkisson, Perry L.; Wilkes, L. H.; Johnson, S. P.

    1958-01-01

    " Chemical, Cultural and Mechanical Control of the * Pink Bollworm in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D: LEWIS. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS SUMMARY This bulletin... summarizes much of the research conducted on the pink bollworm by the Texas AgricuP Experiment Station during 1 953-57. A review of the life and seasonal history of the pink bollworm is presented along with descriptior damage resulting to cotton from...

  17. Factors contributing to resistance of cotton to pink bollworm attack 

    E-print Network

    Williams, Robert Kenneth

    1959-01-01

    cage used in the anti?biosis s t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ? 0 Appendix II. Figure 1* Pink bollworm emergence data, College Station, Texas ,19f?6-195>8. . 1^2 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RESISTANCE OF COTTON TO PINK BOLLWORM ATTACK...LIBRARY A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO RESISTANCE OP COTTON TO PINK BOLLWORM ATTACK A Dissertation *>y Robert K, Williams Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas In partial...

  18. Le bissap ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) : composition et principales utilisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mady Cisse; Manuel Dornier; Mama Sakho; Augustin Ndiaye; Max Reynes; Oumar Sock

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a herbaceous plant, cultivated largely in tropical and subtropical areas of both hemispheres. This plant is used for its fibre; mainly for its calyx, which is of three types: green, red and dark red. Composition. The red calyxes are the most used and are characterised by their concentration of anthocyanin, which can reach 1.5 g·kg

  19. The genome biogeography of Hibiscus L. section Furcaria DC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Douglas Wilson

    1994-01-01

    Hibiscus L. section Furcaria DC. (Malvaceae) is a natural group of more than 100 known species, many of which are handsome ornamentals with large, showy, delicate flowers. This group includes the fiber, food, and medicinal plants kenaf, H. cannabinus L., and roselle, H. sabdariffa L. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature are found diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid,

  20. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Tolulope

    The use of medicinal plants as raw materials in the production of drugs is again gaining popularity. Hibiscus sabdariffa is widely taken in the South-western part of Nigeria for the treatment of various diseases. Aqueous-methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was investigated for its phytochemical con- stituents, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps lethality assay. The extract was found to

  1. Immunomodulatory effect of Hibiscus cannabinus extract on macrophage functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Gyu Lee; Se Eun Byeon; Joo Young Kim; Ji Yeon Lee; Man Hee Rhee; Sungyoul Hong; Jin Cheng Wu; Han Shin Lee; Myong Jo Kim; Dong Ha Cho; Jae Youl Cho

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Malvaceae) (known as Kenaf) has long been used as a folk medicine in India and Africa for the treatment of blood and throat disorders, bilious conditions, fever and puerperium. In this study, therefore, we aimed either to demonstrate its ethnopharmacological activity by examining its macrophage function-regulating effects or to expand its therapeutic efficacy into other macrophage-mediated diseases.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohamed Essa; P. Subramanian

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg? 1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia,

  3. Reproduction of Four Races of Meloidogyne incognita on Hibiscus cannabinus

    PubMed Central

    Veech, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of cultivation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) in the United States is receiving a multifaceted evaluation. Among the factors being evaluated is kenafs susceptibility to nematodes. In this investigation, four races of Meloidogyne incognita reproduced extensively on each of the several kenaf genotypes examined in greenhouse tests. Some genotypes of kenaf, however, demonstrated limited resistance to certain races of M. incognita. PMID:19283051

  4. Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Jen Tsai; John McIntosh; Philip Pearce; Blake Camden; Brian R Jordan

    2002-01-01

    The relation between antioxidant activity and anthocyanin was determined in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) petals. Petals from Roselle, cultivar F141, were collected and dried in Taitung, Taiwan. Roselle extract was prepared by extracting dried Roselle petals in boiling water. The relation between the anthocyanin color and antioxidant capacity was elucidated by comparing absorbance at 520 nm, with ferric reducing ability

  5. The effect of sour tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Haji Faraji; A. H Haji Tarkhani

    1999-01-01

    Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, its debilitating end organ damage, and the side effects of chemical drugs used for its treatment, we conducted this experimental study to evaluate the effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. For this purpose, 31 and 23 patients with moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group, respectively.

  6. Producing composite particleboard from kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hülya Kalayc?oglu; Gökay Nemli

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stalks as a raw material for particleboard manufacturing. The parameters affecting particleboard manufacturing from kenaf were determined to be press temperature, and time, pressure, density and shelling ratio. The experimental results showed that the parameters were found to be effective on the physical (thickness swelling)

  7. Acquisition, transmission and host range of a begomovirus associated with yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta ( Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chatterjee; A. Roy; S. K. Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Yellow vein mosaic, a disease causing serious reductions in fibre yield of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and associated with a begomovirus, was effectively transmitted by cleft grafting and whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), but not through seed or by mechanical means. Association of the begomovirus with infected experimental host plants was\\u000a determined by Southern hybridisation using a DNA A targeting

  8. 77 FR 60207 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation...Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation...Service (Service) propose to list the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle,...

  9. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A.-M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Riviére, E.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2007-02-01

    HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February-March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420-440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

  10. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  11. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided. PMID:25544203

  12. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET

    E-print Network

    56 SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum, AND FLEET CONCENTRATIONS ON THE TORTUGAS of Commercial Fisheries, Donald L. McKernan, Director SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PINK SHRIMP, Penaeus duorarum Acknowledgments 3 Methods and materials 3 Vessels and gear 3 Observations of fleet activity 5 Shrimp discards 6

  13. Correlation of winter temperature and landings of pink shrimp

    E-print Network

    Correlation of winter temperature and landings of pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum in North Carolina model was retained. The new re- gression to determine spring pink shrimp landings in North Carolina shrimp Penaeus duorarum in the North Carolina spring fishery, February-July, based on average water

  14. Is Brain Damage the Cause of ``Pink Spot''?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Nunn; R. H. Wheeler

    1966-01-01

    RECENT reports on the occurrence of ``pink spot'' in the urines of schizophrenics are somewhat conflicting and cast doubt on its chemical identity and its relationship to schizophrenia1-6. In this hospital we began an experiment earlier in the year to isolate ``pink spot'' in milligram amounts with the intention of establishing its chemical structure by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic

  15. PINK1 and Parkin flag Miro to direct mitochondrial traffic.

    PubMed

    Kane, Lesley A; Youle, Richard J

    2011-11-11

    The Parkinson's disease proteins PINK1 and Parkin are proposed guardians of mitochondrial fidelity, targeting damaged mitochondria for degradation by mitophagy. In this issue of Cell, Wang et al. (2011) now show that PINK1 and Parkin also regulate mitochondrial trafficking and quarantine damaged mitochondria by severing their connection to the microtubule network. PMID:22078873

  16. Inter- and intraspecific interactions in two mealybug predators Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri in the presence and absence of prey.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, A S; Venkatesha, M G

    2014-02-01

    Spalgis epius and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri are the two potential predators of different species of mealybugs. However, the mode of their interactions is not known to use these predators together in the field. Hence, we investigated on the possible interactions i.e., cannibalism, intraguild predation (IGP) and competition between the predators in the presence and absence of prey Planococcus citri. In the presence of prey, no cannibalism and predation were observed in both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae. A pair of S. epius larvae consumed significantly more number of mealybugs than one S. epius/C. montrouzieri larva or a pair of C. montrouzieri larvae. The predation of S. epius larva by C. montrouzieri larva was significantly more than the predation of C. montrouzieri by S. epius. Conspecific and interspecific egg predation was absent both in S. epius and C. montrouzieri. Cannibalism in C. montrouzieri was more than that in S. epius. The study indicated that C. montrouzieri larvae can be used as an additive along with voracious S. epius larvae under abundant prey population. IGP was asymmetric between the two predators in the absence of prey. Both S. epius and C. montrouzieri larvae can maintain a stable coexistence when prey is abundantly available, however, in the complete absence of prey C. montrouzieri may dominate the guild. This study provides an insight into the possible complex inter- and intraspecific predatory phenomena in the field to use these two predators in the biological control of mealybugs. PMID:24044725

  17. Multifaceted Therapeutic Value of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – Malvaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armando González-Stuart

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Approximately two-thirds of the world’s population rely on a great variety of plants used in ­various systems of traditional\\u000a medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases and ailments\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), also known as hibiscus or “sour tea,” is a tropical plant which is used throughout the world as a source of nutritious\\u000a sustenance to humans, but

  18. Cytotoxicity of phenylpropanoid esters from the stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Lin Wu; Ta-Hsien Chuang; Cai-Xia He; Tian-Shung Wu

    2004-01-01

    The separation of an extract prepared from the stems of the previously uninvestigated Hibiscus taiwanensis led to the isolation of three new phenylpropanoid esters, (7S,8S)-demethylcarolignan E (1), hibiscuwanin A (2), hibiscuwanin B (3), in addition to eight known ones. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical transformation studies. In cytotoxicity evaluation of the isolates, 9,9?-O-feruloyl-(?)-secoisolaricinresinol (8)

  19. Nonlocal nonlinear refraction in Hibiscus Sabdariffa with large phase shifts.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Martínez, D; Alvarado-Méndez, E; Trejo-Durán, M; Vázquez-Guevara, M A

    2014-10-20

    In this work we present a study of nonlinear optical properties in organic materials (hibiscus sabdariffa). Our results demonstrate that the medium exhibits a highly nonlocal nonlinear response. We show preliminary numerical results of the transmittance as nonlocal response by considering, simultaneously, the nonlinear absorption and refraction in media. Numerical results are accord to measurement obtained by Z- scan technique where we observe large phase shifts. We also analyze the far field diffraction ring patterns of the sample. PMID:25401548

  20. Callus induction and adventitious organogenesis of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. McLean; G. W. Lawrence; N. A. Reichert

    1992-01-01

    Callus production along with caulogenesis and rhizogenesis were obtained from internodal stem explants of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) after 4 weeks in culture. Murashige and Skoog medium was used for two 4×4 matrix experiments designed to determine suitable growth regulator combinations (NAA\\/BAP or 2,4-D\\/kinetin) and concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg\\/L). The most abundant callus production was observed at 0.3\\/3.0

  1. Anthocyanin production in callus cultures of roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Mizukami; Kaomi Tomita; Hiromu Ohashi; Noboru Hiraoka

    1988-01-01

    Callus tissues derived from seedlings of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were shown to produce two cyanidin glycosides as major anthocyanin pigments. Both callus growth and anthocyanin synthesis were remarkably stimulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The highest anthocyanin yield was observed when 1 µM 2,4-D in combination with 0.1–1 µM kinetin was supplemented to the culture medium. In contrast, gibberellic acid showed

  2. Esterification of high ?-cellulose extracted from Hibiscus cannabinus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Saikia; F. Ali; T. Goswami; Anil C. Ghosh

    1995-01-01

    High ?-cellulose has been extracted from a fast-growing annual plant, namely Hibiscus cannabinus L. Esterified products from this ?-cellulose and from a commercially available rayon-grade pulp were prepared by adopting homogeneous esterification procedures. The physico-chemical properties of the esterified products obtained were studied and the products were characterized using IR, UV and NMR techniques. The esterified products obtained from the

  3. PINK1 cleavage at position A103 by the mitochondrial protease PARL

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Gandhi, Sonia; Desmond, Howard; Kjaer, Svend; Loh, Samantha H.Y.; Renton, Alan E.M.; Harvey, Robert J.; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Martins, L. Miguel; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause early onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 is a 63 kDa protein kinase, which exerts a neuroprotective function and is known to localize to mitochondria. Upon entry into the organelle, PINK1 is cleaved to produce a ?53 kDa protein (?N-PINK1). In this paper, we show that PINK1 is cleaved between amino acids Ala-103 and Phe-104 to generate ?N-PINK1. We demonstrate that a reduced ability to cleave PINK1, and the consequent accumulation of full-length protein, results in mitochondrial abnormalities reminiscent of those observed in PINK1 knockout cells, including disruption of the mitochondrial network and a reduction in mitochondrial mass. Notably, we assessed three N-terminal PD-associated PINK1 mutations located close to the cleavage site and, while these do not prevent PINK1 cleavage, they alter the ratio of full-length to ?N-PINK1 protein in cells, resulting in an altered mitochondrial phenotype. Finally, we show that PINK1 interacts with the mitochondrial protease presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL) and that loss of PARL results in aberrant PINK1 cleavage in mammalian cells. These combined results suggest that PINK1 cleavage is important for basal mitochondrial health and that PARL cleaves PINK1 to produce the ?N-PINK1 fragment. PMID:21138942

  4. Short mitochondrial ARF triggers Parkin/PINK1-dependent mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Karl; Kontogiannea, Maria; Fon, Edward A

    2014-10-24

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Multiple genes have been associated with PD, including Parkin and PINK1. Recent studies have established that the Parkin and PINK1 proteins function in a common mitochondrial quality control pathway, whereby disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential leads to PINK1 stabilization at the mitochondrial outer surface. PINK1 accumulation leads to Parkin recruitment from the cytosol, which in turn promotes the degradation of the damaged mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy). Most studies characterizing PINK1/Parkin mitophagy have relied on high concentrations of chemical uncouplers to trigger mitochondrial depolarization, a stimulus that has been difficult to adapt to neuronal systems and one unlikely to faithfully model the mitochondrial damage that occurs in PD. Here, we report that the short mitochondrial isoform of ARF (smARF), previously identified as an alternate translation product of the tumor suppressor p19ARF, depolarizes mitochondria and promotes mitophagy in a Parkin/PINK1-dependent manner, both in cell lines and in neurons. The work positions smARF upstream of PINK1 and Parkin and demonstrates that mitophagy can be triggered by intrinsic signaling cascades. PMID:25217637

  5. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both species were evaluated. Sulfuric acid scarification was very

  6. Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yomna Ibrahim Mahmoud

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult

  7. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

  8. Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes more than 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in It...

  9. Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Ching Chang; Hui-Pei Huang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Shun-Fa Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

    2005-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant

  10. The Phloem-Sap Feeding Mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) Carries ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations That Do Not Cause Disease in Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T.; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G.; Stocks, Ian C.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24×107 to 1.07×104 Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

  11. Phytotoxicity and Efficacy of Fascination (6-Benzyl Adenine + Gibberellic Acid)

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Branching of Hibiscus (Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink') By Heiner Lieth, Director Linda Dodge Shannon: Hibiscus Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink' REASON: enhanced branching of potted crops SOIL TYPE plants of Hibiscus moscheutos `Disco Belle Pink' were received from Yoder Bros. on 4/12/04. These were

  12. Molecular typing of mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis populations from different hosts and locations in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Sharma, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajinder; Gupta, V K; Dilawari, V K

    2012-05-01

    True identity and existence of genetic variability in mealy bug from different regions holds immense significance for adopting appropriate control measures along with predicting the development of any biotypes. Mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis adults were collected from four host plants i.e., Gossypium hirsutum--cotton (C), Abelmoschus esculentus--okra (O), Pennisetum glaucum--Napier Bajra (B) and a weed--Parthenium hysterophorus (P) in five cotton growing districts i.e., Abohar, Bathinda, Mansa, Muktsar and Faridkot of Punjab state. Variability among different populations was investigated through comparative analysis of four different RAPD markers. The genetic similarity dendrogram established that irrespective of the host plant and the collection site, 20 mealybug populations were distinguishable into two major clades that were related to each other by 68%. Clade 1 included populations from Abohar district; it also included a single population each from Muktsar and Bathinda districts. The populations from all the other districts were grouped under Clade 2 with genetic similarity of 78% Even under Clade 2, individual populations appeared to exist in location specific sub-clades. Thus, there is great possibility of development of biotypes which may differ in resistance to insecticides and host plant specificity. PMID:23029900

  13. Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production. PMID:24766493

  14. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-03-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug.

  15. Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.

    PubMed

    Andrea-Silva, Jenny; Cosme, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Luís Filipe; Moreira, Ana S P; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-06-18

    Pinking is the terminology used for the salmon-red blush color that may appear in white wines produced exclusively from white grape varieties. The isolation of pinking compounds and their analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS(n) showed that the origin of the pinking phenomenon in white wines from Vitis vinifera L. of S??ria grape variety are the anthocyanins, mainly malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The analysis showed that the anthocyanins were located both in the pulp and in the skin. Wine pinking severity was negatively related with the increase of the average temperature of the first 10 days of October, the final period of grape maturation. The minimum amount of anthocyanins needed for the pink color visualization in wine was 0.3 mg/L. The appearance of pinking in white wines after bottling is due to the lowering of free sulfur dioxide, which leads to an increase of the relative amount of the anthocyanins red flavylium form and their polymerization, resulting in the formation of colored compounds resistant to pH changes and sulfur dioxide bleaching. PMID:24857316

  16. Investigation of the antispasmodic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces.

    PubMed

    Ali, M B; Salih, W M; Mohamed, A H; Homeida, A M

    1991-02-01

    Addition of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces (2.5 ml/bath approximately 125 mg of starting crude material) inhibited the tone of various isolated muscle preparations (rabbit aortic strip, rhythmically contracting rat uterus, guinea-pig tracheal chain and rat diaphragm). Other muscles were stimulated (quiescent rat uterus and frog rectus abdominis). Intravenous injection of the extract to anaesthetized cats lowered the blood pressure in a dose-response manner. The inhibitory effects were resistant to a number of standard receptor blockers but the hypotensive influence was partially blocked by atropine and the tonic effects on rat uterus were partially reduced by hydrocortisone and indomethacin. PMID:2023432

  17. The balloon flights in the Tropics of the HIBISCUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

    2005-08-01

    HIBISCUS is a project for studying the dynamics, microphysics and chemistry of the Tropical Tropopause Layer based on balloon measurements. Thirteen heavy sondes and 18 short duration balloons of different types have been used for local process studies. Eight superpressure (BP) and 3 Infra Red Montgolfier (MIR) long duration balloons have been flown for extending the investigations at global scale around the world. Overall the campaign has been very successful operationally as well as scientifically. The paper provides a description of the balloons, the instruments and the strategy used for meeting at best the goals of the project.

  18. The effect of metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) on ‘Hass’ avocado fruit physiology and mortality of longtailed mealybug ( Pseudococcus longispinus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Zulhendri; L. E. Jamieson; C. O. Perera; R. M. McDonald; P. G. Connolly; S. Y. Quek; A. B. Woolf

    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a potential quarantine treatment in which a combination of cycles of rapid decompression and compression are followed by exposure to ethanol vapour under decompression. The response of ‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill., cv. Hass) to MSDD treatment for control of longtailed mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus) was investigated. The best treatment for the most resistant

  19. A new lavandulol-related monoterpene in the sex pheromone of the grey pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2015-02-01

    The grey pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus neobrevipes, is a serious pest that attacks a variety of crops in tropical regions. Recently, it was recorded on an island in southwestern Japan, suggesting that its distribution is expanding. As a measure against this expansion, a monitoring tool is urgently needed. In this study we determined the structure of the sex pheromone of D. neobrevipes in order to develop an efficient lure for monitoring traps. Volatiles collected from virgin adult females were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography, and fractions were tested for attractiveness to males in a laboratory bioassay. A single compound was isolated which was as attractive to males as the crude collections, and this was proposed to be the main, if not the only, component of the female-produced sex pheromone. The structure of this was determined to be (E)-2-isopropyl-5-methylhexa-3,5-dienyl acetate by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. This compound was synthesized through four steps, and the synthetic chemical was as attractive as the natural product in a greenhouse bioassay. The enantiomers of the synthetic acetate were obtained by enantioselective HPLC fractionation of the corresponding alcohols, and the natural pheromone was shown to be the (+)-isomer. The carbon skeleton of this novel compound is related to lavandulol, a monoterpene with an unusual non-head-to-tail connection of isoprene units that is often found in mealybug pheromones. PMID:25618324

  20. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Da-Costa-Rocha, Inês; Bonnlaender, Bernd; Sievers, Hartwig; Pischel, Ivo; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record. PMID:25038696

  1. Evaluation for morphological, reproductive, anthocyanin index, and flavonol traits in ornamental and nutraceutical producing Hibiscus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of twenty accessions representing 11 diverse Hibiscus species were evaluated for morphological, anthocyanin index, flavonol variability, and association correlations for these traits. While considerable variation in all morphological traits were found, H. radiatus produced the tallest ...

  2. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  3. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  4. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Drosophila pink1 is required for mitochondrial

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ming

    ; hereafter called pink1) function results in male sterility, apoptotic muscle degeneration, defects rescues the male sterility and mitochondrial morphology defects of pink1 mutants, whereas double mutants completely male sterile and almost completely female sterile. Because proper mitochondrial function

  5. Full-Genome Sequence of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus from Israel

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

  6. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    PubMed

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

  7. Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyanins against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chau-Jong Wang; Jin-Ming Wang; Wea-Lung Lin; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Tsui-Hwa Tseng

    2000-01-01

    Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs), a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., which is a local soft drink material and medical herb, were studied for antioxidant bioactivity. The preliminary study showed that HAs were able to quench the free radicals of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. This antioxidant bioactivitiy was further evaluated using the model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced

  8. Hibiscus protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide in rat primary hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Chau-Jong Wang; Erl-Shyh Kao; hia-Yih Chu

    1996-01-01

    Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was studied for its protective effects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) in a primary culture of rat hepatocytes. It had been reported that exposure of isolated hepatocytes to t-BHP results in leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine transaminase (ALT), peroxidation of cellular lipids, and

  9. Parkin and PINK1: much more than mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Scarffe, Leslie A; Stevens, Daniel A; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. Although most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models have linked Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy); however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  10. Functions and characteristics of PINK1 and Parkin in cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Minami, Akari; Wada, Yoko; Kitagishi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Parkinson disease (PD) linked genes are also associated with cancers. In particular, phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin, both of which are involved in recessively inherited familial forms of PD linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, appear to be abnormally expressed in cancers. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that rids the cell of damaged mitochondria. Although PD and cancer are obviously disparate human disorders, there is an evidence for low cancer rates in patients with PD. The relationship between cancer rates and PD might be related to the involvement of common pathways in both diseases. This paper provides a concise overview on the cellular functions of the PINK1 and Parkin. PMID:25553463

  11. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Eiyama, Akinori; Okamoto, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria-specific autophagy (mitophagy) is a fundamental process critical for maintaining mitochondrial fitness in a myriad of cell types. Particularly, mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial quality control by selectively eliminating dysfunctional mitochondria. In mammalian cells, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin act cooperatively in sensing mitochondrial functional state and marking damaged mitochondria for disposal via the autophagy pathway. Notably, ubiquitin and deubiquitinases play vital roles in modulating Parkin activity and mitophagy efficiency. In this review, we highlight recent breakthroughs addressing the key issues of how PINK1 activates Parkin in response to mitochondrial malfunction, how Parkin localizes specifically to impaired mitochondria, and how ubiquitination and deubiquitination regulate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy. PMID:25697963

  12. Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups and were given: (a) distilled water, (b) cold Hibiscus aqueous extract, and (c) boiled Hibiscus aqueous extract. Hibiscus extract was administered orally daily for 4 weeks in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/mouse. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, mice were decapitated and the testes and epididymides were excised and processed for transmission electron microscopy to assess ultrastructural and sperm abnormalities. The results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extracts from dried calyx of H. sabdariffa, either cold or boiled, alter normal sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure and adversely influence the male reproductive fertility in albino mice. The current data suggest that Hibiscus extract should be consumed with caution, and reasonable estimates of the human risk associated with its consumption should be provided. PMID:21798576

  13. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  14. PINK1-induced mitophagy promotes neuroprotection in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, B; El Fissi, N; Aouane, A; Cabirol-Pol, M-J; Rival, T; Liévens, J-C

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by aberrant expansion of CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) alters multiple cellular processes, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. Among those alterations, impaired mitochondrial metabolism seems to have a major role in HD pathogenesis. In this study, we used the Drosophila model system to further investigate the role of mitochondrial damages in HD. We first analyzed the impact of mHtt on mitochondrial morphology, and surprisingly, we revealed the formation of abnormal ring-shaped mitochondria in photoreceptor neurons. Because such mitochondrial spheroids were previously detected in cells where mitophagy is blocked, we analyzed the effect of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which controls Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Consistently, we found that PINK1 overexpression alleviated mitochondrial spheroid formation in HD flies. More importantly, PINK1 ameliorated ATP levels, neuronal integrity and adult fly survival, demonstrating that PINK1 counteracts the neurotoxicity of mHtt. This neuroprotection was Parkin-dependent and required mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, mitofusin and the voltage-dependent anion channel. Consistent with our observations in flies, we demonstrated that the removal of defective mitochondria was impaired in HD striatal cells derived from HdhQ111 knock-in mice, and that overexpressing PINK1 in these cells partially restored mitophagy. The presence of mHtt did not affect Parkin-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination but decreased the targeting of mitochondria to autophagosomes. Altogether, our findings suggest that mitophagy is altered in the presence of mHtt and that increasing PINK1/Parkin mitochondrial quality control pathway may improve mitochondrial integrity and neuroprotection in HD. PMID:25611391

  15. Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante-

    E-print Network

    60 Abstract--The variability in the supply of pink shrimp (Farfante- penaeus duorarum) postlarvae. Simulation Variability in supply and cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum response become incorporated into the behavior of pink shrimp. Manuscript submitted 16 September 2003

  16. 78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation...proposed designation of critical habitat for Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle under the...Conservation Agreement and Strategy for the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, and an...

  17. METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES FOR

    E-print Network

    METHOD OF DETERMINING CAROTENOID CONTENTS OF ALASKA PINK SHRIMP AND REPRESENTATIVE VALVES is described for estimating the amount of carotenoids in pink shrimp. The carot- enoid index is useful are reported. The carotenoid content of Alaska pink shrimp is affected by many conditions and can be used

  18. Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th Saturday November 15th

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Latin America Pink Tide Symposium Friday November 14th ­ Saturday November 15th Humanities Center ­ 602 Cathedral ­ University of Pittsburgh The Pink Tide is the label used for the wave of Latin, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela. The Pink Tide seems to be receding, but it may have transformed politics

  19. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  20. Induction of apoptosis by Hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl2 expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsui-Hwa Tseng; Ta-Wei Kao; Chia-Yih Chu; Fen-Pi Chou; Wei-Long Lin; Chau-Jong Wang

    2000-01-01

    Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA

  1. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Ferrara, Anna Maria; Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Giannetti, Fabio; Sanz, María José; Manning, William J

    2009-03-01

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. PMID:19081168

  2. 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Alqasoumi, S I

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of 'Okra' Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

  3. Three naphthalenes from root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, I D; Yun, B S; Lee, I K; Ryoo, I J; Choung, D H; Han, K H

    1998-03-01

    Three new naphthalenes, designated as syriacusins A-C, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. These compounds were identified as 2,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 1-carboxy-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxynaphthalenecarbolactone (1-->8), respectively, on the basis of various spectral studies. The compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50s of 0.54, 5.90 and 1.02 micrograms ml-1, respectively. The first compound also showed cytotoxicity against some human cancer cell lines with an ED50 of 1.5-2.4 micrograms ml-1. PMID:9542172

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa affects ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats.

    PubMed

    Essa, M Mohamed; Subramanian, P

    2007-09-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg(-1) body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

  5. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Essa, M. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg?1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides (HP). However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS. PMID:17965762

  6. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments. PMID:24996300

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

  8. Indexing of yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Arpita

    2013-05-15

    The assessment of severity with chronological development of disease of mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus, cv. HC-583) on a particular diseased plant was studied. Based on the symptomatology and intensity of diseases caused by Begomovirus an empirical formula was developed. A methodology for assessing the disease intensity of yellow vein mosaic disease of mesta grown under natural field condition was proposed and it was validated by comparing with infected plants grown under field as well as glasshouse conditions. Quantitative assessment of the disease indicated that the disease index value at different stages of pathogenesis varied from 1.82 to 49.44 under field condition whereas the same varied from 2.78 to 50.83 under glasshouse condition. Mortality of infected leaves was noticed when the index value reached maximum. With the present methodology scoring of gradual development of disease has become possible for a particular plant and even for an individual leaf of a particular cultivar. PMID:24498814

  9. Cirrus clouds in convective outflow during the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.

    2007-05-01

    Light-weight microlidar measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (22 S, 49 W). Tropical cirrus observations showed high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. The cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height. It was found that the clouds were composed of different layers, characterized by a marked variability in height, thickness and optical properties. Trajectory analysis and mesoscale transport simulations clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region, while the observed optical properties and cloud structure variability could be linked to different residence times of convective-processed air in the upper troposphere. Mesoscale simulations were able to reproduce the supersaturation due to recent outflow, while it was necessary to consider the presence of other formation processes than convective hydration for cirrus forming in aged detrained anvils.

  10. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  11. ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Alqasoumi, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

  12. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa. PMID:26058153

  13. Teaching Social Justice and Encountering Society: The Pink Triangle Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Stein, Jill M.; Conley, Terri D.

    1999-01-01

    Studied student reflections and responses when they took on a stigmatized role, wearing a pink triangle in support of gay rights. Many of the 103 college students advanced through stages of identity development and moved to more open and positive ways of thinking about others. (SLD)

  14. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  15. Bloggers as Citizen Journalists: The 2012 Pink Slime Incident 

    E-print Network

    Pannone, Anthony

    2013-08-22

    . In the dynamic environment of the Internet it is increasingly important to understand the information about the U.S. food system and, more specifically, ground beef. The purpose of this study was to examine the 2012 pink slime incident using...

  16. PINK1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and promotes lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marta; Lai, Yen-Chun; Romero, Yair; Brands, Judith; St Croix, Claudette M; Kamga, Christelle; Corey, Catherine; Herazo-Maya, Jose D; Sembrat, John; Lee, Janet S; Duncan, Steve R; Rojas, Mauricio; Shiva, Sruti; Chu, Charleen T; Mora, Ana L

    2015-02-01

    Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung. PMID:25562319

  17. PINK1 deficiency impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and promotes lung fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Marta; Lai, Yen-Chun; Romero, Yair; Brands, Judith; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Kamga, Christelle; Corey, Catherine; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Sembrat, John; Lee, Janet S.; Duncan, Steve R.; Rojas, Mauricio; Shiva, Sruti; Chu, Charleen T.; Mora, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    Although aging is a known risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the effects of advancing age remain largely unexplained. Some age-related neurodegenerative diseases have an etiology that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we found that alveolar type II cells (AECIIs) in the lungs of IPF patients exhibit marked accumulation of dysmorphic and dysfunctional mitochondria. These mitochondrial abnormalities in AECIIs of IPF lungs were associated with upregulation of ER stress markers and were recapitulated in normal mice with advancing age in response to stimulation of ER stress. We found that impaired mitochondria in IPF and aging lungs were associated with low expression of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1). Knockdown of PINK1 expression in lung epithelial cells resulted in mitochondria depolarization and expression of profibrotic factors. Moreover, young PINK1-deficient mice developed similarly dysmorphic, dysfunctional mitochondria in the AECIIs and were vulnerable to apoptosis and development of lung fibrosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 deficiency results in swollen, dysfunctional mitochondria and defective mitophagy, and promotes fibrosis in the aging lung. PMID:25562319

  18. Morphometric differentiation in small juveniles of the pink spotted shrimp

    E-print Network

    is also reported from Mauritania to Angola in the eastern Atlantic Ocean (Pérez- Farfante, 1969; Pérez the population (Dall et al., 1990; Pérez-Castañeda and Defeo, 2001). In the western Atlantic Ocean, Pérez environments of the Atlantic Ocean. The pink spot- ted shrimp is distributed within the western Atlantic from

  19. Analysis of Pineapple Mealybug Wilt Associated Virus -1 and -2 for Potential RNA Silencing Suppressors and Pathogenicity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Kishore K.; Borth, Wayne B.; Melzer, Michael J.; Wang, Ming-Li; Hu, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher plants use RNA silencing to defend against viral infections. As a counter defense, plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing. Mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP), an important disease of pineapple, has been associated with at least three distinct viruses, Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1, -2, and -3 (PMWaV-1, -2, and -3). Selected open reading frames (ORFs) of PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2 were screened for their local and systemic suppressor activities in Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays using green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results indicate that PMWaV-2 utilizes a multiple-component RNA silencing suppression mechanism. Two proteins, p20 and CP, target both local and systemic silencing in N. benthamiana, while the p22 and CPd proteins target only systemic silencing. In the related virus PMWaV-1, we found that only one of the encoded proteins, p61, had only systemic suppressor activity. Of all the proteins tested from both viruses, only the PMWaV-2 p20 protein suppressed local silencing induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but only when low levels of inducing dsRNA were used. None of the proteins analyzed could interfere with the short distance spread of silencing. We examined the mechanism of systemic suppression activity by investigating the effect of PMWaV-2-encoded p20 and CP proteins on secondary siRNAs. Our results suggest that the PMWaV-2 p20 and CP proteins block the systemic silencing signal by repressing production of secondary siRNAs. We also demonstrate that the PMWaV-2 p20 and p22 proteins enhanced the pathogenicity of Potato virus X in N. benthamiana. PMID:25751306

  20. Analysis of pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1 and -2 for potential RNA silencing suppressors and pathogenicity factors.

    PubMed

    Dey, Kishore K; Borth, Wayne B; Melzer, Michael J; Wang, Ming-Li; Hu, John S

    2015-03-01

    Higher plants use RNA silencing to defend against viral infections. As a counter defense, plant viruses have evolved proteins that suppress RNA silencing. Mealybug wilt of pineapple (MWP), an important disease of pineapple, has been associated with at least three distinct viruses, Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus -1, -2, and -3 (PMWaV-1, -2, and -3). Selected open reading frames (ORFs) of PMWaV-1 and PMWaV-2 were screened for their local and systemic suppressor activities in Agrobacterium-mediated transient assays using green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Results indicate that PMWaV-2 utilizes a multiple-component RNA silencing suppression mechanism. Two proteins, p20 and CP, target both local and systemic silencing in N. benthamiana, while the p22 and CPd proteins target only systemic silencing. In the related virus PMWaV-1, we found that only one of the encoded proteins, p61, had only systemic suppressor activity. Of all the proteins tested from both viruses, only the PMWaV-2 p20 protein suppressed local silencing induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but only when low levels of inducing dsRNA were used. None of the proteins analyzed could interfere with the short distance spread of silencing. We examined the mechanism of systemic suppression activity by investigating the effect of PMWaV-2-encoded p20 and CP proteins on secondary siRNAs. Our results suggest that the PMWaV-2 p20 and CP proteins block the systemic silencing signal by repressing production of secondary siRNAs. We also demonstrate that the PMWaV-2 p20 and p22 proteins enhanced the pathogenicity of Potato virus X in N. benthamiana. PMID:25751306

  1. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-01

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species. PMID:22703121

  2. PINK1 Is Dispensable for Mitochondrial Recruitment of Parkin and Activation of Mitophagy in Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kubli, Dieter A.; Cortez, Melissa Q.; Moyzis, Alexandra G.; Najor, Rita H.; Lee, Youngil; Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2015-01-01

    Myocyte function and survival relies on the maintenance of a healthy population of mitochondria. The PINK1/Parkin pathway plays an important role in clearing defective mitochondria via autophagy in cells. However, how the PINK1/Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial quality control and whether it coordinates with other mitophagy pathways are still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of PINK1-deficiency on mitochondrial quality control in myocytes. Using PINK1-deficient (PINK1-/-) mice, we found that Parkin is recruited to damaged cardiac mitochondria in hearts after treatment with the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP or after a myocardial infarction even in the absence of PINK1. Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria correlates with increased ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins and activation of mitophagy in PINK1-/- myocytes. In addition, induction of mitophagy by the atypical BH3-only protein BNIP3 is unaffected by lack of PINK1. Overall, these data suggest that Parkin recruitment to depolarized cardiac mitochondria and subsequent activation of mitophagy is independent of PINK1. Moreover, alternative mechanisms of Parkin activation and pathways of mitophagy remain functional in PINK1-/- myocytes and could compensate for the PINK1 deficiency. PMID:26110811

  3. The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-03-01

    Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2) = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth. PMID:25684096

  4. Detailed analysis of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects caused by loss of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Amo, Taku; Saiki, Shinji; Sawayama, Tadashi; Sato, Shigeto; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2014-09-19

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessive forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 acts upstream of parkin, regulating mitochondrial elimination (mitophagy) in cultured cells treated with mitochondrial uncouplers that cause mitochondrial depolarization. PINK1 loss-of-function decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, although the exact function of PINK1 in mitochondria has not been fully elucidated. We have previously found that PINK1 deficiency causes a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which is not due to a proton leak, but to respiratory chain defects. Here, we examine mitochondrial respiratory chain defects in PINK1-deficient cells, and find both complex I and complex III are defective. These results suggest that mitochondrial respiratory chain defects may be associated with PD pathogenesis caused by mutations in the PINK1 gene. PMID:25092611

  5. Notice to nurserymen of the naming and release for propagation of lufkin red an american hardy hibiscus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus laevis ‘Lufkin Red’, a new hardy native ornamental hibiscus is recommended for trial by nurserymen and horticulturists as a summer flowering perennial landscape plant nationwide but is particularly adapted to conditions in the South. ‘Lufkin Red’ was selected for its outstanding red flowe...

  6. Endothelial PINK1 mediates the protective effects of NLRP3 deficiency during lethal oxidant injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sauler, Maor; Shinn, Amanda S; Gong, Huan; Haslip, Maria; Shan, Peiying; Mannam, Praveen; Lee, Patty J

    2014-06-01

    High levels of inspired oxygen, hyperoxia, are frequently used in patients with acute respiratory failure. Hyperoxia can exacerbate acute respiratory failure, which has high mortality and no specific therapies. We identified novel roles for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial protein, and the cytosolic innate immune protein NLRP3 in the lung and endothelium. We generated double knockouts (PINK1(-/-)/NLRP3(-/-)), as well as cell-targeted PINK1 silencing and lung-targeted overexpression constructs, to specifically show that PINK1 mediates cytoprotection in wild-type and NLRP3(-/-) mice. The ability to resist hyperoxia is proportional to PINK1 expression. PINK1(-/-) mice were the most susceptible; wild-type mice, which induced PINK1 after hyperoxia, had intermediate susceptibility; and NLRP3(-/-) mice, which had high basal and hyperoxia-induced PINK1, were the least susceptible. Genetic deletion of PINK1 or PINK1 silencing in the lung endothelium increased susceptibility to hyperoxia via alterations in autophagy/mitophagy, proteasome activation, apoptosis, and oxidant generation. PMID:24778451

  7. PINK1 kinase catalytic activity is regulated by phosphorylation on serines 228 and 402.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Liesbeth; Craessaerts, Katleen; De Strooper, Bart; Morais, Vanessa A

    2015-01-30

    Mutations in the PINK1 gene cause early-onset recessive Parkinson disease. PINK1 is a mitochondrially targeted kinase that regulates multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology, from oxidative phosphorylation to mitochondrial clearance. PINK1 itself is also phosphorylated, and this might be linked to the regulation of its multiple activities. Here we systematically analyze four previously identified phosphorylation sites in PINK1 for their role in autophosphorylation, substrate phosphorylation, and mitophagy. Our data indicate that two of these sites, Ser-228 and Ser-402, are autophosphorylated on truncated PINK1 but not on full-length PINK1, suggesting that the N terminus has an inhibitory effect on phosphorylation. We furthermore establish that phosphorylation of these PINK1 residues regulates the phosphorylation of the substrates Parkin and Ubiquitin. Especially Ser-402 phosphorylation appears to be important for PINK1 function because it is involved in Parkin recruitment and the induction of mitophagy. Finally, we identify Thr-313 as a residue that is critical for PINK1 catalytic activity, but, in contrast to previous reports, we find no evidence that this activity is regulated by phosphorylation. These data clarify the regulation of PINK1 through multisite phosphorylation. PMID:25527497

  8. Parkinson's disease-associated PINK1 G309D mutation increases abnormal phosphorylation of Tau.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Zhou, Dai; Zhou, Youxin; Sun, Chunming

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in PINK1 gene have been considered the second most common cause of Autosomal Recessive Parkinsonism (ARP). So far, different homozygous PINK1 mutations have been identified in different ARP patients. Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of its biological activity. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that hyperphosphorylated tau is associated with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effects of PD associated PINK1 mutations in tau phosphorylation are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of G309D PINK1 mutation in tau phosphorylation. Cells transfected with mutant G309D PINK1 exhibited a significant increase in the phosphorylation of tau protein at the PHF-1 (ser396/404) site. The levels of CDK5, an important activator of tau phosphorylation, did not change in mutant G309D PINK1 transfected cells, suggesting that CDK5 is not involved in tau phosphorylation induced by mutant G309D PINK1. Notably, we found that mutant G309D PINK1 significantly reduced phosphorylation of GSK3? at serine 9, suggesting that alterations in GSK3? activity play an essential role in mutant G309D PINK1-induced tau phosphorylation at the PHF-1 site. PP2A activity maintained consistent in mutant G309D PINK1 transfected cells, suggesting that the increased tau hyperphosphorylation is not ascribed to reduction in PP2A activity. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 67(4):286-290, 2015. PMID:25899925

  9. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes. PMID:24262534

  10. Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

  11. Inheritance of nuclear DNA markers in gynogenetic haploid pink salmon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Spruell; K. L. Pilgrim; B. A. Greene; C. Habicht; K. L. Knudsen; K. R. Lindner; J. B. Olsen; G. K. Sage; J. E. Seeb; F. W. Allendorf

    1999-01-01

    We describe the inheritance of 460 PCR-based loci in the polyploid-derived pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) genome using gynogenetic haploid embryos. We detected a length polymorphism in a growth hormone gene (GH-2) intron that is caused by an 81 bp insertion homologous to the 39 end of the salmonid short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) SmaI. Such insertion polymorphisms within species bring

  12. Pink Root Disease of Onions and Its Control in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Taubenhaus, J. J. (Jacob Joseph); Mally, Frederick W. (Frederick William)

    1921-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. Preetdent ' ---- BULLETIN NO. 273 JANUARY, 1921 DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY PINK ROOT DISEASE OF ONIONS AND ITS. CONTROL IN TEXAS... ROOT DISEASE OF ONIONS AND ITS CONTROL IN TEXAS BY' J. J. T.ITJEEX1-IAUS AKD FREDERICK W. >SALLY* Onions ere considered an important economic crop in Texas. Ber- muda onions are grown especially in the Rio Grande Valley and in TlTebb, Dimmit...

  13. Factors contributing to resistance of cotton to pink bollworm attack

    E-print Network

    Williams, Robert Kenneth

    1959-01-01

    of Cotton Plants ............. Egg Collection Infesting Bolls ...... _2j.6 Collection of Larvae ????*?????????????? k-7 i . . . . . . . Larval Holding Period 47 Pupae and Adult Culture ???????????????? lj.8 Hating of the Female Moths ????????????? Ij... bollworm eggs laid under the calyces of bolls of different stocks of cotton. (Small cage test, 1958) ??? 98 26 Summary of data for comparing plants of Deltapihe 15 and Pubescent as hosts for oviposition by pink bollworm moths. (Special cage test, 1958...

  14. The Parkinson's gene PINK1 regulates cell cycle progression and promotes cancer-associated phenotypes.

    PubMed

    O'Flanagan, C H; Morais, V A; Wurst, W; De Strooper, B; O'Neill, C

    2015-03-12

    PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced kinase 1), a Parkinson's disease-associated gene, was identified originally because of its induction by the tumor-suppressor PTEN. PINK1 promotes cell survival and potentially metastatic functions and protects against cell stressors including chemotherapeutic agents. However, the mechanisms underlying PINK1 function in cancer cell biology are unclear. Here, using several model systems, we show that PINK1 deletion significantly reduced cancer-associated phenotypes including cell proliferation, colony formation and invasiveness, which were restored by human PINK1 overexpression. Results show that PINK1 deletion causes major defects in cell cycle progression in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from PINK1(-/-) mice, and in BE(2)-M17 cells stably transduced with short hairpin RNA against PINK1. Detailed cell cycle analyses of MEF cell lines from several PINK1(-/-) mice demonstrate an increased proportion of cells in G2/M and decreased number of cells in G1 following release from nocodazole block. This was concomitant with increased double and multi-nucleated cells, a reduced ability to undergo cytokinesis and to re-enter G1, and significant alterations in cell cycle markers, including failure to increase cyclin D1, all indicative of mitotic arrest. PINK1(-/-) cells also demonstrated ineffective cell cycle exit following serum deprivation. Cell cycle defects associated with PINK1 deficiency occur at points critical for cell division, growth and stress resistance in cancer cells were rescued by ectopic expression of human PINK1 and demonstrated PINK1 kinase dependence. The importance of PINK1 for cell cycle control is further supported by results showing that cell cycle deficits induced by PINK1 deletion were linked mechanistically to aberrant mitochondrial fission and its regulation by dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), known to be critical for progression of mitosis. Our data indicate that PINK1 has tumor-promoting properties and demonstrates a new function for PINK1 as a regulator of the cell cycle. PMID:24681957

  15. Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, A.; Zongo, S.; Mthunzi, P.; Rehman, S.; Alqaradawi, S. Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Maaza, M.

    2014-12-01

    The intensity-dependent refractive index n 2 and the nonlinear susceptibility ? (3) of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions in the nanosecond regime at 532 nm are reported. More presicely, the variation of n 2, ?, and real and imaginary parts of ? (3) versus the natural dye extract concentration has been carried out by z-scan and optical limiting techniques. The third-order nonlinearity of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions was found to be dominated by nonlinear refraction, which leads to strong optical limiting of laser.

  16. Wound Healing Potential of Formulated Extract from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx

    PubMed Central

    Builders, P. F.; Kabele-Toge, B.; Builders, M.; Chindo, B. A.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Isimi, Yetunde C.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (P<0.05) and concentration dependent wound healing activities. There was also evidence of synergism with creams containing a combination of gentamicin and H. sabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

  17. Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  18. Photosynthesis and kinetic characteristics of rubisco in Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A R; Das, V S

    2000-08-01

    Photosynthetic characteristics in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a C3 plant, were compared with Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, another member of Malvaceae. Kenaf leaves exhibited significantly higher rate of photosynthesis (40 mg CO2 dm(-2) hr(-1)) which was 24.6 mg dm(-2) hr(-1) in A. esculentus. Rate of photo and dark respiration was similar in both the species. Kenaf leaf photosynthesis had a higher optimum temperature (32 degrees C) than that of A. esculentus (26 degrees C). Photosynthesis in kenaf leaves required higher saturation irradiance (1,600 micromole m(-2) sec(-1)). There was a significant correlation between photosynthetic rate and biomass yield in these species. The primary product of photosynthesis after 5 seconds of 14C-assimilation was 3-PGA in both the species. The kinetic properties of RuBP carboxylase/oxygenase were determined in the leaf extracts. Higher carboxylase activities were recorded with kenaf leaf extracts (245 pmole mg chl(-1) hr(-1)). Km (CO2) for kenaf leaf carboxylase was significantly lower (7.8 microM) than A. esculentus (13.5 microM) and corresponding difference in Vmax values of carboxylase was recorded between the two species. The kinetic characteristics of oxygenase were similar in both the extracts. These results indicated the variation in carboxylase activity and its kinetic characteristics reflected a significant difference in CO2 assimilation in C3 plants. PMID:12557922

  19. PINK1 enhances insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent Akt signaling and protection against apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Akundi, Ravi S; Zhi, Lianteng; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the PARK6 gene coding for PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessive early-onset Parkinsonism. Although PINK1 and Parkin promote the degradation of depolarized mitochondria in cultured cells, little is known about changes in signaling pathways that may additionally contribute to dopamine neuron loss in recessive Parkinsonism. Accumulating evidence implicates impaired Akt cell survival signaling in sporadic and familial PD (PD). IGF-1/Akt signaling inhibits dopamine neuron loss in several animal models of PD and both IGF-1 and insulin are neuroprotective in various settings. Here, we tested whether PINK1 is required for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin dependent phosphorylation of Akt and the regulation of downstream Akt target proteins. Our results show that embryonic fibroblasts from PINK1-deficient mice display significantly reduced Akt phosphorylation in response to both IGF-1 and insulin. Moreover, phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) and nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 are decreased in IGF-1 treated PINK1-deficient cells. In addition, phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is reduced indicating decreased activity of mitochondrial target of rapamycin (mTOR) in IGF-1 treated PINK1(-/-) cells. Importantly, the protection afforded by IGF-1 against staurosporine-induced metabolic dysfunction and apoptosis is abrogated in PINK1-deficient cells. Moreover, IGF-1-induced Akt phosphorylation is impaired in primary cortical neurons from PINK1-deficient mice. Inhibition of cellular Ser/Thr phosphatases did not increase the amount of phosphorylated Akt in PINK1(-/-) cells, suggesting that components upstream of Akt phosphorylation are compromised in PINK1-deficient cells. Our studies show that PINK1 is required for optimal IGF-1 and insulin dependent Akt signal transduction, and raise the possibility that impaired IGF-1/Akt signaling is involved in PINK1-related Parkinsonism by increasing the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to stress-induced cell death. PMID:21945539

  20. Upregulation of human PINK1 gene expression by NF?B signalling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial malfunction is implicated in PD pathogenesis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a serine/threonine kinase, plays an important role in the quality control of mitochondria and more than 70 PINK1 mutations have been identified to cause early-onset PD. However, the regulation of PINK1 gene expression remains elusive. In the present study, we identified the transcription start site (TSS) of the human PINK1 gene using switching mechanism at 5’end of RNA transcription (SMART RACE) assay. The TSS is located at 91 bp upstream of the translation start site ATG. The region with 104 bp was identified as the minimal promoter region by deletion analysis followed by dual luciferase assay. Four functional cis-acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF?B)-binding sites within the PINK1 promoter were identified. NF?B overexpression led to the up-regulation of PINK1 expression in both HEK293 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. Consistently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a strong activator of NF?B, significantly increased PINK1 expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results clearly suggested that PINK1 expression is tightly regulated at its transcription level and NF?B is a positive regulator for PINK1 expression. PMID:25108683

  1. Loss of PINK1 Impairs Stress-Induced Autophagy and Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Bautista, Jorge; Hetzel, Miriam; Gispert, Suzana; Chimi, Marthe A.; Dröse, Stefan; Mai, Sören; Brandt, Ulrich; Auburger, Georg; Jendrach, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the ubiquitin ligase Parkin are participating in quality control after CCCP- or ROS-induced mitochondrial damage, and their dysfunction is associated with the development and progression of Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, PINK1 expression is also induced by starvation indicating an additional role for PINK1 in stress response. Therefore, the effects of PINK1 deficiency on the autophago-lysosomal pathway during stress were investigated. Under trophic deprivation SH-SY5Y cells with stable PINK1 knockdown showed downregulation of key autophagic genes, including Beclin, LC3 and LAMP-2. In good agreement, protein levels of LC3-II and LAMP-2 but not of LAMP-1 were reduced in different cell model systems with PINK1 knockdown or knockout after addition of different stressors. This downregulation of autophagic factors caused increased apoptosis, which could be rescued by overexpression of LC3 or PINK1. Taken together, the PINK1-mediated reduction of autophagic key factors during stress resulted in increased cell death, thus defining an additional pathway that could contribute to the progression of Parkinson's disease in patients with PINK1 mutations. PMID:24751806

  2. A New Cytosolic Pathway from a Parkinson Disease-associated Kinase, BRPK/PINK1

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Jin, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Futami, Jun-ichiro; Yamada, Hidenori; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunction of mitochondria is a common feature of Parkinson disease. Functional loss of a familial Parkinson disease-linked gene, BRPK/PINK1 (PINK1), results in deterioration of mitochondrial functions and eventual neuronal cell death. A mitochondrial chaperone protein has been shown to be a substrate of PINK1 kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that PINK1 has another action point in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of Akt at Ser-473 was enhanced by overexpression of PINK1, and the Akt activation was crucial for protection of SH-SY5Y cells from various cytotoxic agents, including oxidative stress. Enhanced Akt phosphorylation was not due to activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but due to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) by PINK1. Rictor, a specific component of mTORC2, was phosphorylated by overexpression of PINK1. Furthermore, overexpression of PINK1 enhanced cell motility. These results indicate that PINK1 exerts its cytoprotective function not only in mitochondria but also in the cytoplasm through activation of mTORC2. PMID:21177249

  3. Cell metabolism affects selective vulnerability in PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi; Gandhi, Sonia; Burchell, Victoria S; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2011-12-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly in autosomal recessive forms of the disease caused by mutations encoding PINK1. Although mitochondrial pathology can be demonstrated in many cell types, it is neurons that bear the brunt of cell death in PD. We studied the mitochondrial physiology of neurons and muscle cells with loss of function of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein PINK1. PINK1 is widely expressed in many types of tissues, but deficiency selectively induces death in neurons. We report here that the same genetic defect results in opposing phenotypes in different cell types, depending on the metabolic properties of the cell. Thus, PINK1-deficient myocytes exhibit high basal mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), whereas PINK1-deficient neurons have been shown to exhibit a low ??m. PINK1 deficiency induces impaired respiration in both cell types, with a concomitant increase in glycolytic activity. We demonstrate that the high glycolytic capacity in myocytes compared with neurons enables them to produce more ATP and, therefore, compensates for the metabolic defects induced by PINK1 deficiency. Furthermore, the high ??m generated in PINK1 knockout (KO) muscle mitochondria enables them to buffer cytosolic Ca(2+) fluxes, rendering them resistant to Ca(2+) stress effectively. Conversely, PINK1 KO neurons were previously shown to develop mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarisation. Prevention of Ca(2+) dysregulation in myocytes might therefore account for the sparing of these cells in PD. PMID:22223879

  4. Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide.

  5. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis. PMID:26071806

  6. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

  7. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    PubMed

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed. PMID:25204075

  8. The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Wahabi; L. A. Alansary; A. H. Al-Sabban; P. Glasziuo

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionHypertension is a common global health problem with significant mortality and morbidity. Hibiscus sabdariffa is a plant known in many countries and is consumed as hot and cold drinks In addition to its use in folk medicine; it has been suggested as treatment for many conditions including hypertension.

  9. The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mozaffari-Khosravi; B-A Jalali-Khanabadi; M Afkhami-Ardekani; F Fatehi; M Noori-Shadkam

    2009-01-01

    To compare the antihypertensive effectiveness of sour tea (ST; Hibiscus sabdariffa) with black tea (BT) infusion in diabetic patients, this double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out. Sixty diabetic patients with mild hypertension, without taking antihypertensive or antihyperlipidaemic medicines, were recruited in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to the ST and BT groups and instructed to drink ST

  10. TISSUE LIPID PROFILE OF RATS ADMINISTERED AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS. LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate E. Imafidon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of orally administered aqueous extract of the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis on tissue lipid profile of albino rats has been determined. Consequently 20 albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. They were given rats mash and water ad libitum for 4 weeks, during which they were subjected to different dosages of the aqueous extract.

  11. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daizy Philip

    2010-01-01

    Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal

  12. Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S Kasture; C. T Chopde; V. K Deshmukh

    2000-01-01

    The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract

  13. Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeetha Arullappan; Zubaidah Zakaria; Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation.

  14. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  15. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamadou Sarr; Saliou Ngom; Modou O Kane; Alassane Wele; Doudou Diop; Bocar Sarr; Lamine Gueye; Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina; Aminata S Diallo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. METHODS: Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The

  16. Pollen Competition as a Reproductive Isolating Mechanism between Two Sympatric Hibiscus Species (Malvaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Klips

    1999-01-01

    Differences in pollen tube growth rates (certation) between heterospecific (foreign) and conspecific pollen may strongly influence whether hybrid offspring are produced after mixed pollen loads are delivered to a stigma. For both members of a sympatric species pair, Hibiscus moscheutos and H. laevis, pollination by pure loads of foreign pollen resulted in fruit set that was not significantly different from

  17. Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core as a containerized growth medium component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Webber; Julia Whitworth; John Dole

    1999-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) stems contain two distinct fiber types, bast and core. The absorbent, low density core (xylem) is a possible potting mix component. Two greenhouse studies were conducted during 1993 and 1995 to determine the feasibility of substituting kenaf core for vermiculite and bark. In Study 1, fine-grade kenaf was substituted for vermiculite in three volume ratios (1,

  18. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of Hibiscus cannabinus grown in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Pascoal Neto; A. Seca; D. Fradinho; M. A. Coimbra; F. Domingues; D. Evtuguin; A. Silvestre; J. A. S. Cavaleiro

    1996-01-01

    Different morphological regions of Hibiscus cannabinus plants grown in Portugal were submitted to chemical composition studies. General chemical composition was determined by established methods. The polysaccharides were fractionated by successive extractions of holocellulose with aqueous KOH solutions. The sugar composition was determined by hydrolysis of polysaccharides followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis of neutral sugars and spectrophotometric determination of uronic

  19. A Genetic Analysis of Hydrologically Dispersed Seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

    2001-01-01

    The dispersal of floating seeds in wetland habitats should influence the genetic characteristics of plant metapopulations. We examined gene flow of a hydrochorous wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), by analyzing allozyme variation in current- year floating-seed populations. The genetic composition of floating seeds was compared to the genetic composition of established populations of H. moscheutosthat had been previously analyzed

  20. Fatty acid and oil variation in seed from kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Coetzee; M. T. Labuschagne; A. Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is a fibre plant native to east-central Africa. The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of edible oil is often overlooked when considering kenaf as a fibre and feed crop. The aim of this research was to study and compare the fatty acid composition and oil content of eight commercial kenaf varieties from various

  1. Parkinson's disease-associated kinase PINK1 regulates Miro protein level and axonal transport of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Sawada, Tomoyo; Lee, Seongsoo; Yu, Wendou; Silverio, George; Alapatt, Philomena; Millan, Ivan; Shen, Alice; Saxton, William; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD). PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. PMID:22396657

  2. Parkinson's Disease–Associated Kinase PINK1 Regulates Miro Protein Level and Axonal Transport of Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seongsoo; Yu, Wendou; Silverio, George; Alapatt, Philomena; Millan, Ivan; Shen, Alice; Saxton, William; Kanao, Tomoko; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Lu, Bingwei

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Pten-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) are linked to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease (FPD). PINK1 has previously been implicated in mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics, quality control, and electron transport chain function. However, it is not clear how these processes are interconnected and whether they are sufficient to explain all aspects of PINK1 pathogenesis. Here we show that PINK1 also controls mitochondrial motility. In Drosophila, downregulation of dMiro or other components of the mitochondrial transport machinery rescued dPINK1 mutant phenotypes in the muscle and dopaminergic (DA) neurons, whereas dMiro overexpression alone caused DA neuron loss. dMiro protein level was increased in dPINK1 mutant but decreased in dPINK1 or dParkin overexpression conditions. In Drosophila larval motor neurons, overexpression of dPINK1 inhibited axonal mitochondria transport in both anterograde and retrograde directions, whereas dPINK1 knockdown promoted anterograde transport. In HeLa cells, overexpressed hPINK1 worked together with hParkin, another FPD gene, to regulate the ubiquitination and degradation of hMiro1 and hMiro2, apparently in a Ser-156 phosphorylation-independent manner. Also in HeLa cells, loss of hMiro promoted the perinuclear clustering of mitochondria and facilitated autophagy of damaged mitochondria, effects previously associated with activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These newly identified functions of PINK1/Parkin and Miro in mitochondrial transport and mitophagy contribute to our understanding of the complex interplays in mitochondrial quality control that are critically involved in PD pathogenesis, and they may explain the peripheral neuropathy symptoms seen in some PD patients carrying particular PINK1 or Parkin mutations. Moreover, the different effects of loss of PINK1 function on Miro protein level in Drosophila and mouse cells may offer one explanation of the distinct phenotypic manifestations of PINK1 mutants in these two species. PMID:22396657

  3. PARK13 regulates PINK1 and subcellular relocation patterns under oxidative stress in neurons.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ketan S; Basak, Indranil; Lee, Sungsu; Abdullah, Rashed; Larsen, Jan Petter; Møller, Simon Geir

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder coupled to selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra. The majority of PD incidents are sporadic, but monogenic cases account for 5-10% of cases. Mutations in PINK1 cause autosomal recessive forms of early-onset PD, and PINK1 stimulates Omi/HtrA2/PARK13 protease activity when both proteins act as neuroprotective components in the same stress pathway. Studies on PINK1 and PARK13 have concentrated on phosphorylation-dependent PINK1-mediated activation of PARK13 and mitochondrial functions, because both proteins are classically viewed as mitochondrial. Although PARK13-mediated protective mechanisms are at least in part regulated by PINK1, little is known concerning how these two proteins are regulated in different subcellular compartments or, indeed, the influence of PARK13 on PINK1 characteristics. We show that PARK13 localizes to a variety of subcellular locations in neuronal cells and that PINK1, although more restrictive, also localizes to locations other than those previously reported. We demonstrate that PARK13 accumulation leads to a concomitant accumulation of PINK1 and that the increase in PINK1 levels is compartmental specific, indicating a correlative relationship between the two proteins. Moreover, we show that PARK13 and PINK1 protein levels accumulate in response to H2 O2 and L-DOPA treatments in a subcellular fashion and that both proteins show relocation to the cytoskeleton in response to H2 O2 . This H2 O2 -mediated relocation is abolished by PARK13 overexpression. This study shows that PARK13 and PINK1 are subcellular-specific, but dynamic, proteins with a reciprocal molecular relationship providing new insight into the complexity of PD. PMID:24798695

  4. The Classical Pink-Eyed Dilution Mutation Affects Angiogenic Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Michael S.; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M.; Birsner, Amy E.; Dietrich, William F.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  5. Bloggers as Citizen Journalists: The 2012 Pink Slime Incident

    E-print Network

    Pannone, Anthony

    2013-08-22

    beef possible, our research drove us to create the pH enhancement process, which relies upon slightly increasing the level of ammonium hydroxide already present in beef in order to elevate its pH. Ammonium hydroxide is naturally found in beef... of the stuff” (para. 1). Greene (2012) added this: The depiction of lean finely textured beef in the media as ‘pink slime’ raised the product’s ‘yuck’ factor and implied that there were food safety issues with LFTB, mainly because ammonium gas is used...

  6. P-Ink displays: flexible, low power, reflective color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Andre C.; Wang, Hai; Henderson, Eric; Kerins, Fergal; Kamp, Ulrich; Da Silva Bonifacio, Leonardo; Law, Pak Hin; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

    2013-03-01

    Opalux's P-Ink material represents a revolutionary step forward in display technology, offering the ability to reflect bright and vivid colors spanning the visible spectrum. By applying low power electric pulses, the color of this Photonic Color-based material can be selected at will, with the resulting electrically bi-stable color states requiring no power to maintain. It can be coated onto rigid and flexible substrates in scale, highlighting its potential to drive the development of bendable form factors for displays.

  7. Diel vertical distribution of early marine phase juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Diel vertical distribution of early marine phase juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. Nendick, C. DiBacco, C.J. Brauner, and A.P. Farrell Abstract: We observed diel vertical migration patterns and salinity conditions. Diel vertical distributions of juvenile pink salmon were observed during the first 3

  8. Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's Mark W Dodson1,2

    E-print Network

    Guo, Ming

    Pink1, Parkin, DJ-1 and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease Mark W Dodson1,2 and Ming forms and some sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease. Recent work on these genes underscores the central importance of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. In particular, pink1

  9. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNA-LOUISE REYSENBACH; GENE S. WICKHAM; NORMAN R. PACE

    1994-01-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs.,

  11. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Pathway in Pantoea citrea Leading to Pink Disease of Pineapple

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE J. PUJOL; CLARENCE I. KADO

    2000-01-01

    Pink disease of pineapple, caused by Pantoea citrea, is characterized by a dark coloration on fruit slices after autoclaving. This coloration is initiated by the oxidation of glucose to gluconate, which is followed by further oxidation of gluconate to as yet unknown chromogenic compounds. To elucidate the biochemical pathway leading to pink disease, we generated six coloration-defective mutants of P.

  12. Unconventional PINK1 localization to the outer membrane of depolarized mitochondria drives Parkin recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Okatsu, Kei; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysfunction of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a Ser/Thr kinase with an N-terminal mitochondrial-targeting sequence (MTS), causes familial recessive parkinsonism. Reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential limits MTS-mediated matrix import and promotes PINK1 accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of depolarized mitochondria. PINK1 then undergoes autophosphorylation and phosphorylates ubiquitin and Parkin, a cytosolic ubiquitin ligase, for clearance of damaged mitochondria. The molecular basis for PINK1 localization on the OMM of depolarized mitochondria rather than release to the cytosol is poorly understood. Here, we disentangle the PINK1 localization mechanism using deletion mutants and a newly established constitutively active PINK1 mutant. Disruption of the MTS through N-terminal insertion of aspartic acid residues results in OMM localization of PINK1 in energized mitochondria. Unexpectedly, the MTS and putative transmembrane domain (TMD) are dispensable for OMM localization, whereas mitochondrial translocase Tom40 (also known as TOMM40) and an alternative mitochondrial localization signal that resides between the MTS and TMD are required. PINK1 utilizes a mitochondrial localization mechanism that is distinct from that of conventional MTS proteins and that presumably functions in conjunction with the Tom complex in OMM localization when the conventional N-terminal MTS is inhibited. PMID:25609704

  13. Increase of oxidative stress by a novel PINK1 mutation, P209A.

    PubMed

    Chien, Wei-Lin; Lee, Tzeng-Ruei; Hung, Shih-Ya; Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Lee, Ming-Jen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-05-01

    Mutation in the human PTEN-induced protein kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is responsible for the second most common form of recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We have identified a single heterozygous PINK1 mutation, P209A, from a cohort of 68 patients with early onset PD. From age 31, this patient developed an asymmetric bradykinesia with rigidity that was L-DOPA responsive. An [(18)F]-fluorodopa PET scan showed reduced DOPA uptake in the bilateral basal ganglia. The H2O2-induced cell death, ROS production, and caspase-3 activation in SH-SY5Y cells were enhanced by the transfection of the PINK1 P209A mutant. The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in response to H2O2 and MPP(+) treatment was impaired by the overexpression of the PINK1 P209A mutant. In addition, SOD2 induction after TNF? treatment was also inhibited by the PINK1 P209A mutation. Akt and ERK are involved in HO-1 induction after oxidative stress. The phosphorylation of Akt and ERK after exposure to H2O2 or MPP(+) was also inhibited in PINK1 P209A mutant cells compared with empty-vector-transfected cells. These results indicate a novel pathway by which the P209A defect in the PINK1 kinase domain inhibits oxidative stress-induced HO-1 and SOD2 induction, which may accelerate the neurodegeneration in PD with PINK1 defect. PMID:23261939

  14. A subcellular analysis of genetic modulation of PINK1 on mitochondrial alterations, autophagy and cell death.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, P; Marongiu, R; Falleni, A; Gelmetti, V; Busceti, C L; Michiorri, S; Valente, E M; Fornai, F

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase1 (PINK1) represent the second most frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. The PINK1 protein mainly localizes to mitochondria and interacts with a variety of proteins, including the pro-autophagy protein beclin1 and the ubiquitin-ligase parkin. Upon stress conditions, PINK1 is known to recruit parkin at the surface of dysfunctional mitochondria and to activate the mitophagy cascade. Aim of this study was to use a simple and highly reproducible catecholamine cell model and transmission electron microscopy to characterize whether PINK1 could affect mitochondrial homeostasis, the recruitment of specific proteins at mitochondria, mitophagy and apoptosis. Samples were analyzed both in baseline conditions and following treatment with methamphetamine (METH), a neurotoxic compound which strongly activates autophagy and produces mitochondrial damage. Our data provide robust sub-cellular evidence that the modulation of PINK1 levels dramatically affects the morphology and number of mitochondria and the amount of cell death. In particular, especially upon METH exposure, PINK1 is able to increase the total number of mitochondria, concurrently recruit beclin1, parkin and ubiquitin and enhance the clearance of damaged mitochondria. In the absence of functional PINK1 and upon autophagy stress, we observe a failure of the autophagy system at large, with marked accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and dramatic increase of apoptotic cell death. These findings highlight the strong neuroprotective role of PINK1 as a key protein in the surveillance and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:23165879

  15. Loss of parkin or PINK1 function increases Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Lutz, A Kathrin; Exner, Nicole; Fett, Mareike E; Schlehe, Julia S; Kloos, Karina; Lämmermann, Kerstin; Brunner, Bettina; Kurz-Drexler, Annerose; Vogel, Frank; Reichert, Andreas S; Bouman, Lena; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Wurst, Wolfgang; Tatzelt, Jörg; Haass, Christian; Winklhofer, Konstanze F

    2009-08-21

    Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) and PINK1 gene (PARK6) are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. PINK1 deficiency was recently linked to mitochondrial pathology in human cells and Drosophila melanogaster, which can be rescued by parkin, suggesting that both genes play a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Here we demonstrate that an acute down-regulation of parkin in human SH-SY5Y cells severely affects mitochondrial morphology and function, a phenotype comparable with that induced by PINK1 deficiency. Alterations in both mitochondrial morphology and ATP production caused by either parkin or PINK1 loss of function could be rescued by the mitochondrial fusion proteins Mfn2 and OPA1 or by a dominant negative mutant of the fission protein Drp1. Both parkin and PINK1 were able to suppress mitochondrial fragmentation induced by Drp1. Moreover, in Drp1-deficient cells the parkin/PINK1 knockdown phenotype did not occur, indicating that mitochondrial alterations observed in parkin- or PINK1-deficient cells are associated with an increase in mitochondrial fission. Notably, mitochondrial fragmentation is an early phenomenon upon PINK1/parkin silencing that also occurs in primary mouse neurons and Drosophila S2 cells. We propose that the discrepant findings in adult flies can be explained by the time of phenotype analysis and suggest that in mammals different strategies may have evolved to cope with dysfunctional mitochondria. PMID:19546216

  16. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRAVIOLET-OZONE AND ULTRAVIOLET-OXIDANT TREATMENT OF PINK WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pink water, a solution of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitrobodies, is a major pollutant at ammunition plants engaged either in the manufacture of TNT or in the loading, assembly, and packing of bombs and shells. As an alternative to carbon adsorption for the treatment of pink...

  17. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro inhibits synaptic growth and protects dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Course, Meredith M; Lovas, Jonathan R; Hsieh, Chung-Han; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E; Wang, Xinnan

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 cause Parkinson's disease. One of the substrates of PINK1 is the outer mitochondrial membrane protein Miro, which regulates mitochondrial transport. In this study, we uncovered novel physiological functions of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Miro, using Drosophila as a model. We replaced endogenous Drosophila Miro (DMiro) with transgenically expressed wildtype, or mutant DMiro predicted to resist PINK1-mediated phosphorylation. We found that the expression of phospho-resistant DMiro in a DMiro null mutant background phenocopied a subset of phenotypes of PINK1 null. Specifically, phospho-resistant DMiro increased mitochondrial movement and synaptic growth at larval neuromuscular junctions, and decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons in adult brains. Therefore, PINK1 may inhibit synaptic growth and protect dopaminergic neurons by phosphorylating DMiro. Furthermore, muscle degeneration, swollen mitochondria and locomotor defects found in PINK1 null flies were not observed in phospho-resistant DMiro flies. Thus, our study established an in vivo platform to define functional consequences of PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of its substrates. PMID:25376463

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. water extract inhibits the adipocyte differentiation through the PI3-K and MAPK pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kyung Kim; Hongseob So; Myung-Ja Youn; Hyung-Jin Kim; Yunha Kim; Channy Park; Se-Jin Kim; Young-Ae Ha; Kyu-Yun Chai; Shin-Moo Kim; Ki-Young Kim

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a tropical beverage material and medical herb, is used commonly as in folk medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, inflammation, liver disorders, and obesity. This report was designed to investigate the inhibitory mechanisms of hibiscus extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The possible inhibitory pathways that regulate the adipocyte differentiation contain the adipogenic transcription factors, C\\/EBP? and PPAR?,

  19. Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-H. Tseng; E.-S. Kao; C.-Y. Chu; F.-P. Chou; H.-W. Lin Wu; C.-J. Wang

    1997-01-01

    Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdarrifa L. were

  20. Delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin, induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-Xing Hou; Xuhui Tong; Norihiko Terahara; Dong Luo; Makoto Fujii

    2005-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dp3-Sam could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia cells (HL-60) as characterized by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP). Molecular data showed that Dp3-Sam induced Bid truncation, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) loss, and

  1. PINK1 and Parkin target Miro for phosphorylation and degradation to arrest mitochondrial motility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2011-11-11

    Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson's disease proteins, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin, but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  2. PINK1 and Parkin Target Miro for Phosphorylation and Degradation to Arrest Mitochondrial Motility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinnan; Winter, Dominic; Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia; Wong, Yao Liang; Selkoe, Dennis; Rice, Sarah; Steen, Judith; LaVoie, Matthew J.; Schwarz, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Cells keep their energy balance and avoid oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial movement, distribution, and clearance. We report here that two Parkinson’s disease proteins, the Ser/Thr-kinase PINK1 and ubiquitin-ligase Parkin, participate in this regulation by arresting mitochondrial movement. PINK1 phosphorylates Miro, a component of the primary motor/adaptor complex that anchors kinesin to the mitochondrial surface. The phosphorylation of Miro activates proteasomal degradation of Miro in a Parkin-dependent manner. Removal of Miro from the mitochondrion also detaches kinesin from its surface. By preventing mitochondrial movement, the PINK1/Parkin pathway may quarantine damaged mitochondria prior to their clearance. PINK1 has been shown to act upstream of Parkin but the mechanism corresponding to this relationship has not been known. We propose that PINK1 phosphorylation of substrates triggers the subsequent action of Parkin and the proteasome. PMID:22078885

  3. Association of Parkinson disease-related protein PINK1 with Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmus, Micha M M; van der Pol, Susanne M A; Jansen, Quentin; Witte, Maarten E; van der Valk, Paul; Rozemuller, Annemieke J M; Drukarch, Benjamin; de Vries, Helga E; Van Horssen, Jack

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer disease (AD), and Parkinson disease (PD). Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrial kinase, have been linked to the occurrence of early onset parkinsonism. Currently, various studies support the notion of a neuroprotective role for PINK1, as it protects cells from stress-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Because information about the distribution pattern of PINK1 in neurological diseases other than PD is scarce, we here investigated PINK1 expression in well-characterized brain samples derived from MS and AD individuals using immunohistochemistry. In control gray matter PINK1 immunoreactivity was observed in neurons, particularly neurons in layers IV-VI. Astrocytes were the most prominent cell type decorated by anti-PINK1 antibody in the white matter. In addition, PINK1 staining was observed in the cerebrovasculature. In AD, PINK1 was found to colocalize with classic senile plaques and vascular amyloid depositions, as well as reactive astrocytes associated with the characteristic AD lesions. Interestingly, PINK1 was absent from neurofibrillary tangles. In active demyelinating MS lesions we observed a marked astrocytic PINK1 immunostaining, whereas astrocytes in chronic lesions were weakly stained. Taken together, we observed PINK1 immunostaining in both AD and MS lesions, predominantly in reactive astrocytes associated with these lesions, suggesting that the increase in astrocytic PINK1 protein might be an intrinsic protective mechanism to limit cellular injury. PMID:21145388

  4. MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001. PMID:24898855

  5. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2014-02-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  6. Oxidative stress and regulation of Pink1 in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, Madhusmita; Orosco, Lori A; Panula, Pertti J

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine. A lack of dopamine in the striatum is the most characteristic feature of PD, and the cause of the most dominant symptoms. Loss of function mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) gene cause autosomal recessive PD. This study explored the basic mechanisms underlying the involvement of pink1 in oxidative stress-mediated PD pathology using zebrafish as a tool. We generated a transgenic line, Tg(pink1:EGFP), and used it to study the effect of oxidative stress (exposure to H2O2) on pink1 expression. GFP expression was enhanced throughout the brain of zebrafish larvae subjected to oxidative stress. In addition to a widespread increase in pink1 mRNA expression, mild oxidative stress induced a clear decline in tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (th2), but not tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (th1) expression, in the brain of wild-type larvae. The drug L-Glutathione Reduced (LGR) has been associated with anti-oxidative and possible neuroprotective properties. Administration of LGR normalized the increased fluorescence intensity indicating pink1 transgene expression and endogenous pink1 mRNA expression in larvae subjected to oxidative stress by H2O2. In the pink1 morpholino oliogonucleotide-injected larvae, the reduction in the expression of th1 and th2 was partially rescued by LGR. The pink1 gene is a sensitive marker of oxidative stress in zebrafish, and LGR effectively normalizes the consequences of mild oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of pink1 and LGR may be significant and useful in drug development. PMID:24324558

  7. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  8. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  9. Predatory Potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Larvae on Different Stages of the Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: A Threat to Cotton in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Sayyed, Ali H.; Akram, Waseem; Raza, Sabtain; Ali, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators. PMID:23464378

  10. PINK1-associated Parkinson's disease is caused by neuronal vulnerability to calcium-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sonia; Wood-Kaczmar, Alison; Yao, Zhi; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Deas, Emma; Klupsch, Kristina; Downward, Julian; Latchman, David S; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Wood, Nicholas W; Duchen, Michael R; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2009-03-13

    Mutations in PINK1 cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase of unknown function. We investigated calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function in PINK1-deficient mammalian neurons. We demonstrate physiologically that PINK1 regulates calcium efflux from the mitochondria via the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. PINK1 deficiency causes mitochondrial accumulation of calcium, resulting in mitochondrial calcium overload. We show that calcium overload stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via NADPH oxidase. ROS production inhibits the glucose transporter, reducing substrate delivery and causing impaired respiration. We demonstrate that impaired respiration may be restored by provision of mitochondrial complex I and II substrates. Taken together, reduced mitochondrial calcium capacity and increased ROS lower the threshold of opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) such that physiological calcium stimuli become sufficient to induce mPTP opening in PINK1-deficient cells. Our findings propose a mechanism by which PINK1 dysfunction renders neurons vulnerable to cell death. PMID:19285945

  11. Impaired dopamine release and synaptic plasticity in the striatum of PINK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Tohru; Pisani, Antonio; Porter, Douglas R; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Tscherter, Anne; Martella, Giuseppina; Bonsi, Paola; Zhang, Chen; Pothos, Emmanuel N; Shen, Jie

    2007-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene have been linked to early-onset PD. How PINK1 deficiency causes dopaminergic dysfunction and degeneration in PD patients is unknown. Here, we investigate the physiological role of PINK1 in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic circuit through the generation and multidisciplinary analysis of PINK1(-/-) mutant mice. We found that numbers of dopaminergic neurons and levels of striatal dopamine (DA) and DA receptors are unchanged in PINK1(-/-) mice. Amperometric recordings, however, revealed decreases in evoked DA release in striatal slices and reductions in the quantal size and release frequency of catecholamine in dissociated chromaffin cells. Intracellular recordings of striatal medium spiny neurons, the major dopaminergic target, showed specific impairments of corticostriatal long-term potentiation and long-term depression in PINK1(-/-) mice. Consistent with a decrease in evoked DA release, these striatal plasticity impairments could be rescued by either DA receptor agonists or agents that increase DA release, such as amphetamine or l-dopa. These results reveal a critical role for PINK1 in DA release and striatal synaptic plasticity in the nigrostriatal circuit and suggest that altered dopaminergic physiology may be a pathogenic precursor to nigrostriatal degeneration. PMID:17563363

  12. Emerging modes of PINK1 signaling: another task for MARK2.

    PubMed

    Matenia, Dorthe; Mandelkow, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) acts at multiple levels to promote mitochondrial health, including regulatory influence on ATP-synthesis, protein quality control, apoptosis, mitochondrial transport, and destiny. PINK1 mutations are linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and mostly result in loss of kinase activity. But the molecular events responsible for neuronal death as well as the physiological targets and regulators of PINK1 are still a matter of debate. This review highlights the recent progress evolving the cellular functions of the cytosolic pool of PINK1 in mitochondrial trafficking and neuronal differentiation. Regulation of PINK1 signaling occurs by mitochondrial processing to truncated forms of PINK1, differentially targeted to several subcellular compartments. The first identified activating kinase of PINK1 is MAP/microtubule affinity regulating kinase 2 (MARK2), which phosphorylates T313, a frequent mutation site linked to PD. Kinases of the MARK2 family perform diverse functions in neuronal polarity, transport, migration, and neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease (AD). This new protein kinase signaling axis might provide a link between neurodegenerative processes in AD and PD diseases and opens novel possibilities in targeting pathological signaling processes. PMID:24847206

  13. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T

    2015-06-01

    Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. PMID:26035866

  14. Clueless, a protein required for mitochondrial function, interacts with the PINK1-Parkin complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Aditya; Kalvakuri, Sreehari; Bodmer, Rolf; Cox, Rachel T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of mitochondrial function often leads to neurodegeneration and is thought to be one of the underlying causes of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the precise events linking mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death remain elusive. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin (Park), either of which, when mutated, are responsible for early-onset PD, mark individual mitochondria for destruction at the mitochondrial outer membrane. The specific molecular pathways that regulate signaling between the nucleus and mitochondria to sense mitochondrial dysfunction under normal physiological conditions are not well understood. Here, we show that Drosophila Clueless (Clu), a highly conserved protein required for normal mitochondrial function, can associate with Translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) 20, Porin and PINK1, and is thus located at the mitochondrial outer membrane. Previously, we found that clu genetically interacts with park in Drosophila female germ cells. Here, we show that clu also genetically interacts with PINK1, and our epistasis analysis places clu downstream of PINK1 and upstream of park. In addition, Clu forms a complex with PINK1 and Park, further supporting that Clu links mitochondrial function with the PINK1-Park pathway. Lack of Clu causes PINK1 and Park to interact with each other, and clu mutants have decreased mitochondrial protein levels, suggesting that Clu can act as a negative regulator of the PINK1-Park pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that Clu directly modulates mitochondrial function, and that Clu's function contributes to the PINK1-Park pathway of mitochondrial quality control. PMID:26035866

  15. The effect of excessively high rainfall on pink bollworm infested cotton 

    E-print Network

    Showers, Wayne Allen

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY A A N COLLEGE OF T~XAG TIIF EFFECT OF EXCESSIVELY HIGH RAINFALL ON PINK BC~CIA INFEST. D COTTON A Thesis NAXN". " ALLEAX SHOMERS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... p. Gough, L. H. 1919. Qn the effects produced by the attacks of the pink bollworm on the yield of cottonseed and lint in 7', gypt. Bull. atom. Res. London Ko. 4 July 279-324. 32 Hunter, M. D. 1914. The pink bollworm. U. S. Dept. of Agric. Bur...

  16. Insect pests and predators inhabiting roselle plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a medicinal plant in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. H. Abdel-Moniem; T. E. Abd El-Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and faunistic composition of insect pests and the associated predators on roselle plants, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been studied during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons in El-Kanater El-Khayria (about 30 km north Cairo), Kalubia governorate, Egypt. Fourteen phytophagous insect species and six insect predators were recorded. The dominance percentage of insect pests was found to be higher than those

  17. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeru Vasudeva; S. K. Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants\\/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation

  18. Mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ajay; H. J. Chai; A. M. Mustafa; A. H. Gilani; M. R. Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in both humans and experimental animals. To explore the mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of the HS, we examined the effects of a crude methanolic extract of the calyces of HS (HSE) on vascular reactivity in isolated aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats. HSE relaxed, concentration-dependently, KCl (high K+,

  19. Influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the rhythmic alterations of liver markers in experimental hyperammonemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mohamed Essa; P. Subramanian

    2009-01-01

    Our aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa, an indigenous edible medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine in India, on the circadian alterations of hepatic marker enzymes in ammonium chloride (AC) induced hyperammonemic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (160 – 180 g) were divided into control, AC (daily i.p. injection of AC (100 mg\\/kg)) treated, AC + H.

  20. Vegetative Propagation and Tissue Culture Regeneration of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Govinden-Soulange; N. Boodia; C. Dussooa; R. Gunowa; S. Deensah; S. Facknath; B. Rajkomar

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) has gained popularity as an ornamental, medicinal, industrial and food plant. These industries rely on the fast and guaranteed supply of clones to be cost-effective. Two vegetative propagation methods for H. sabdariffa L. are proposed as a technique of ensuring maximum genetic stability. Softwood and semi hardwood cuttings from two-month-old plants were rooted on a medium

  1. Coumarins with monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and antioxidative coumarino-lignans from Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Yun, B S; Lee, I K; Ryoo, I J; Yoo, I D

    2001-09-01

    A previously undescribed coumarin and a new coumarino-lignan, together with the known compounds scopoletin and cleomiscosins A, C, and D, have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus, and their structures were assigned on the basis of various spectral studies. The coumarin analogue and scopoletin inhibited monoamine oxidase with moderate IC(50) values. The new coumarino-lignan and cleomiscosin C showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity comparable to vitamin E. PMID:11575966

  2. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

  3. Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium in the Presence of an Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajendran; J. Jeyasundari; P. Usha; J. A. Selvi; B. Narayanasamy; A. P. P. Regis; P. Rengan

    2009-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (white) in controlling corrosion of aluminium at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of Zn 2+ . The formulation consisting of 8 mL flower extract (FE) and 50 ppm of Zn 2+ had 98% inhibition efficiency. Polarization study revealed that this

  4. The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

    2005-01-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

  5. The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl 4-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jer-Yuh Liu; Chang-Che Chen; Wen-Hong Wang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Mon-Yuan Yang; Chau-Jong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl4 by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1–5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced

  6. The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorg Fromm; Mohammad Hajirezaei

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4°C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-'. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by micro- electrodes inserted in the style. lhe resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20)

  7. MICROGEOGRAPHIC GENETIC STRUCTURE AND GENE FLOW IN HIBISCUS MOSCHEUTOS (MALVACEAE) POPULATIONS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI KUDOH; DENNIS F. W HIGHAM

    1997-01-01

    Microgeographic genetic variation in populations of a wetland macrophyte, Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae), was investigated using allozyme polymorphism. The species is a self-compatible insect-pollinated perennial, and seeds are water dispersed (hydrochory). Six hundred plants were analyzed from eight brackish and two freshwater populations within the Rhode River watershed\\/estuarine system. The genetic structure of the populations was assessed by fixation indices

  8. Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A Akindahunsi; M. T Olaleye

    2003-01-01

    The aqueous fraction of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces was given to Wistar albino rats (150–200g) orally as drugs to study the toxicity of the extract. The rats, which were fed with commercial diet and water ad libitum, were divided into six groups of four rats each. Treatments 1 through 6 received 0, 1, 3, 5, 10

  9. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P Moundipa; P Kamtchouing; N Koueta; Justine Tantchou; N. P. R Foyang; Félicité T Mbiapo

    1999-01-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180–220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups

  10. Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Fiber\\/Polymer Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Tensile, compressive, flexural and wear resistance properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber-reinforced phenolic (Resorcinol Formaldehyde) resin matrix-based composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using these fibers as a new eco-friendly material in engineering applications. Polymer composite samples were fabricated by a compression-molding technique developed in our laboratory. The effect of fiber dimension on mechanical properties was evaluated. The interfacial

  11. Rheology of okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and dika nut ( Irvingia gabonensis) polysaccharides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ndjouenkeu; F. M. Goycoolea; E. R. Morrisa; J. O. Akingbala

    1996-01-01

    Polysaccharide extracts were prepared from two traditional food thickeners with extensive domestic use in central and western parts of Africa: okra (Hibiscus esculentis L.) and the seed kernel from ‘dika nut’ (Irvingia gabonensis). Both demonstrated typical polyelectrolyte behaviour in solution, and were therefore studied under fixed ionic conditions (0.1 M NaCl), yielding intrinsic viscosities of [?] = 7.6 dl g?1

  12. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (principal investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  13. The effect of hibiscus sabdariffa on lipid profile, creatinine, and serum electrolytes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  14. Impact of tropical convection on UTLS at global scale: the HIBISCUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

    The HIBISCUS project supported by the European Commission and CNES, and carried out in collaboration with the State University of Sao Paulo, is to study the impact of the tropical deep convection on the UTLS. Specific objectives are to address vertical and horizontal transport, microphysics through the formation of sub-visual cirrus clouds, radiation and chemistry, including NOx production by lightning, and additionally to validate a number of satellite experiments such as ENVISAT, SAGE 3 and ODIN. The HIBISCUS field campaign, which took place in January-March 2004 in Brazil together with the aircraft EU TROCCINOX and the Brazilian TROCCIBRAS projects, used of variety of balloons of different type and radio-sondes. The flight carried out include Infra-Red Montgolfier (MIR) and constant level superpressure (BP) long duration balloons to explore the UTLS at global scale, two 10 000 m3 (10 ZL) and four 3 000 m3 (3 SF) short duration balloons for slow descent across the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The objective of the talk is to show how the capacities of these balloons have been used to address the specific problems of the TTL science. http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/projet/HIBISCUS/index.html

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-? induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-?B pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-? and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25728636

  16. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  17. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    PubMed Central

    Gauthaman, Karunakaran K; Saleem, Mohamed TS; Thanislas, Peter T; Prabhu, Vinoth V; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan K; Devaraj, Niranjali S; Somasundaram, Jayaprakash S

    2006-01-01

    Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms) in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. PMID:16987414

  18. Mitochondrial Quality Control Mediated by PINK1 and Parkin: Links to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Narendra, Derek; Walker, John E.; Youle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in Parkin or PINK1 are the most common cause of recessive familial parkinsonism. Recent studies suggest that PINK1 and Parkin form a mitochondria quality control pathway that identifies dysfunctional mitochondria, isolates them from the mitochondrial network, and promotes their degradation by autophagy. In this pathway the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 senses mitochondrial fidelity and recruits Parkin selectively to mitochondria that lose membrane potential. Parkin, an E3 ligase, subsequently ubiquitinates outer mitochondrial membrane proteins, notably the mitofusins and Miro, and induces autophagic elimination of the impaired organelles. Here we review the recent rapid progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of PINK1- and Parkin-mediated mitophagy and the identification of Parkin substrates suggesting how mitochondrial fission and trafficking are involved. We also discuss how defects in mitophagy may be linked to Parkinson's disease. PMID:23125018

  19. Factors affecting persistent pinkness and premature browning of ground beef patties 

    E-print Network

    Cureington, Erin Ann

    2000-01-01

    The study objectives were to investigate factors contributing to persistent pinkness and premature browning in cooked beef patties. Various combinations of beef trimmings from cow and fed steer carcasses were obtained so that formulations were made...

  20. Mitochondrial Alterations in PINK1 Deficient Cells Are Influenced by Calcineurin-Dependent Dephosphorylation of Dynamin-Related Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Beilina, Alexandra; van der Brug, Marcel; Cleland, Megan M.; Ahmad, Rili; Miller, David W.; Zambrano, Ibardo; Cowburn, Richard F.; Behbahani, Homira; Cedazo-Mínguez, Angel; Cookson, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Previous studies have shown that PINK1 influences both mitochondrial function and morphology although it is not clearly established which of these are primary events and which are secondary. Here, we describe a novel mechanism linking mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial morphology related to PINK1. Cell lines were generated by stably transducing human dopaminergic M17 cells with lentiviral constructs that increased or knocked down PINK1. As in previous studies, PINK1 deficient cells have lower mitochondrial membrane potential and are more sensitive to the toxic effects of mitochondrial complex I inhibitors. We also show that wild-type PINK1, but not recessive mutant or kinase dead versions, protects against rotenone-induced mitochondrial fragmentation whereas PINK1 deficient cells show lower mitochondrial connectivity. Expression of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) exaggerates PINK1 deficiency phenotypes and Drp1 RNAi rescues them. We also show that Drp1 is dephosphorylated in PINK1 deficient cells due to activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Accordingly, the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 blocks both Drp1 dephosphorylation and loss of mitochondrial integrity in PINK1 deficient cells but does not fully rescue mitochondrial membrane potential. We propose that alterations in mitochondrial connectivity in this system are secondary to functional effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:19492085

  1. Altered regulation of the PINK1 locus: a link between type 2 diabetes and neurodegeneration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilla Scheele; Anders Rinnov Nielsen; Tomas B. Walden; Dean A. Sewell; Christian P. Fischer; Robert J. Brogan; Natasa Petrovic; Ola Larsson; Per A. Tesch; Kristian Wennmalm; Dana S. Hutchinson; Barbara Cannon; Claes Wahlestedt; Bente K. Pedersen; James A. Timmons

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 cause the mitochon- drial-related neurodegenerative disease Parkinson's. Here we investigate whether obesity, type 2 diabetes, or inactiv- ity alters transcription from the PINK1 locus. We utilized a cDNA-array and quantitative real-time PCR for gene expression analysis of muscle from healthy volunteers following physical inactivity, and muscle and adipose tissue from nonobese or obese subjects with normal glucose

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A neo-substrate that amplifies catalytic activity of parkinson's-disease-related kinase PINK1.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Nicholas T; Berthet, Amandine; Sos, Martin L; Thorn, Kurt S; Burlingame, Al L; Nakamura, Ken; Shokat, Kevan M

    2013-08-15

    Mitochondria have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 that reduce kinase activity are associated with mitochondrial defects and result in an autosomal-recessive form of early-onset PD. Therapeutic approaches for enhancing the activity of PINK1 have not been considered because no allosteric regulatory sites for PINK1 are known. Here, we show that an alternative strategy, a neo-substrate approach involving the ATP analog kinetin triphosphate (KTP), can be used to increase the activity of both PD-related mutant PINK1(G309D) and PINK1(WT). Moreover, we show that application of the KTP precursor kinetin to cells results in biologically significant increases in PINK1 activity, manifest as higher levels of Parkin recruitment to depolarized mitochondria, reduced mitochondrial motility in axons, and lower levels of apoptosis. Discovery of neo-substrates for kinases could provide a heretofore-unappreciated modality for regulating kinase activity. PMID:23953109

  4. Expression of Pink1 with ?-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons of Drosophila leads to increases in both lifespan and healthspan.

    PubMed

    Todd, A M; Staveley, B E

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the gene coding for ?-synuclein has been shown to be an inherited cause of Parkinson disease. Our laboratory has previously co-expressed the parkin and Pink1 genes to rescue ?-synuclein-induced phenotypes within a Drosophila model. To further investigate the effect of Pink1 in this model, we performed longevity and behavioral studies using several drivers to express the ?-synuclein and Pink1 genes. Our findings showed that overexpression of Pink1 and overexpression of Pink1 with ?-synuclein resulted in an increased lifespan when driven with the TH-Gal4 transgene. This increase in longevity was accompanied by an increased healthspan, as measured by mobility over time, suggesting that this is an example of improved functional aging. Our results indicate that, in the dopaminergic cells targeted by TH-Gal4, increased expression of ?-synuclein and Pink1 together have a synergistic effect, allowing for enhanced protection and increased survival of the organism. PMID:22653599

  5. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  6. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  7. Certain factors involved in the larval diapause and its termination in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders

    E-print Network

    Wellso, Stanley Gordon

    1962-01-01

    to their being transferred and maintained in the dark at 80oF. The effect of anterior and posterior injuries upon termination of diapause in pink bollworm larvae. Pink bookworm moth emergence ln 1959 from infested held on the soil surface overwinter... in relation to rains. boils spr ing 47 Pink bollworm moth emergence in 1960 from infested held on the soil surface, buried ln fall or spring relation to spring rains. boils in 10. Pink bollworm moth emergenoe ln 1961 from infested held on the soil...

  8. Chemical, morphology and thermal evaluation of cellulose microfibers obtained from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sonia, A; Priya Dasan, K

    2013-01-30

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomass material in nature and finds a range of application. Cellulose microfibers were extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa fibers by steam explosion technique. Structural and surface analysis of the microfibers showed a reduction in diameter and changes in surface morphology from that of the raw fibers. The chemical composition of fibers were analyzed according to the TAPPI standards and showed increase in ?-cellulose content and decrease in lignin and hemicelluloses for the microfibers. This has been further confirmed by SEM, XRD and FTIR results. Thermal characterization showed enhanced thermal stability of celluloses microfibers compared to raw fibers. PMID:23218352

  9. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neeru

    2008-01-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400?mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

  10. Isolation of methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate--a new oleanane Triterpenoid from the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Duraisamy; Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

    2013-04-01

    A new oleanane triterpenoid, methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate (2), together with eight known compounds viz. oleanolic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-D-rhamnopyranoside, gossypin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mangiferin were isolated from the ethanol extract of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated from spectroscopic, ESI-MS and physical data. The eight known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. PMID:23738444

  11. Multiple shoot regeneration of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) from a shoot apex culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Srivatanakul; S. H. Park; J. R. Sanders; M. G. Salas; R. H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    In this research, a medium was developed that would stimulate multiple shoot initiation from shoot apex explants of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf). Adventitious shoot formation on a shoot induction media supplemented with combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic\\u000a acid (2,4-D) (0, 0.5, 2.3??mol·l–1) and thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N?-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea; TDZ) (0, 1, 5, 20??mol·l–1) was evaluated. Multiple shoot induction medium with 1??mol·TDZ l–1 resulted in the

  12. Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1?/? motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J.; Humphries, Mark D.; Hammond, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1?/? mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14–P21) wild-type or PINK1?/? mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1?/? M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1?/? M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1?/? cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization. PMID:24904316

  13. Early Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PINK1 Knockout Rats.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Boska, Michael D; Fox, Howard S

    2014-11-25

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are responsible for an autosomal recessive, familial form of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 protein is a Ser/Thr kinase localized to the mitochondrial membrane and is involved in many processes including mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and proteasomal function. Using a new PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) rat model, we found altered brain metabolomic markers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified changes in mitochondrial pathways with quantitative proteomics using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry, and demonstrated mitochondrial functional alterations through measurement of oxygen consumption and acidification rates. The observed alterations included reduced creatine, decreased levels of complex I of the electron transport chain, and increased proton leak in the electron transport chain in PINK1 KO rat brains. In conjunction, these results demonstrate metabolomic and mitochondrial alterations occur during the asymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease in this model. These results indicate both potential early diagnostic markers and therapeutic pathways that can be used in PD. PMID:25421206

  14. Function of ?-synuclein and PINK1 in Lewy body dementia (Review).

    PubMed

    Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Ogura, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    ?-Synuclein (?-syn) is the major protein component of Lewy bodies, a key pathological characteristic of the degenerating brain. The misfolding and aggregation of ?-syn is associated with both the idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the function of ?-syn is poorly understood, as it shows both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) also cause recessively inherited PD. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. PINK1 plays an essential role in mitochondrial quality control and its homeostasis is maintained through mitochondrial stabilization. The ?-syn aggregation is linked to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1-related mitophagy. Determination of the molecular pathways that lead to ?-syn oligomerization and further aggregation may be the basis for the successful design and development of treatments for these neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the function of PINK1 underlying ?-syn aggregation and the mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this process. PMID:25355138

  15. Mitochondrial and cytosolic roles of PINK1 shape induced regulatory T-cell development and function.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gavin I; Zhi, Lianteng; Akundi, Ravi; Büeler, Hansruedi; Marti, Francesc

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), a serine/threonine kinase linked to familial early-onset Parkinsonism, compromise mitochondrial integrity and metabolism and impair AKT signaling. As the activation of a naïve T cell requires an AKT-dependent reorganization of a cell's metabolic machinery, we sought to determine if PINK1-deficient T cells lack the ability to undergo activation and differentiation. We show that CD4(+) T cells from PINK1 knockout mice fail to properly phosphorylate AKT upon activation, resulting in reduced expression of the IL-2 receptor subunit CD25. Following, deficient IL-2 signaling mutes the activation-induced increase in respiratory capacity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Under polarization conditions favoring the development of induced regulatory T cells, PINK1(-/-) T cells exhibit a reduced ability to suppress bystander T-cell proliferation despite normal FoxP3 expression kinetics. Our results describe a critical role for PINK1 in integrating extracellular signals with metabolic state during T-cell fate determination, and may have implications for the understanding of altered T-cell populations and immunity during the progression of active Parkinson's disease or other immunopathologies. PMID:24037540

  16. Pink1 protects cortical neurons from thapsigargin-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hu, Guo-ku

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis mediates the precise and programmed natural death of neurons and is a physiologically important process in neurogenesis during maturation of the central nervous system. However, premature apoptosis and/or an aberration in apoptosis regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Thus, it is important to identify neuronal pathways/factors controlling apoptosis. Pink1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced kinase 1] is a ubiquitously expressed gene and has been reported to have a physiological role in mitochondrial maintenance, suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress, fission and autophagy. However, how Pink1 is involved in neuronal survival against oxidative stress remains not well understood. In the present paper, we demonstrate that thapsigargin, a specific irreversible inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium-ATPase, could lead to dramatic oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis by ectopic calcium entry. Importantly, the neuronal toxicity of thapsigargin inhibits antioxidant gene Pink1 expression. Although Pink1 knockdown enhances the neuronal apoptosis by thapsigargin, its overexpression restores it. Our findings have established the neuronal protective role of Pink1 against oxidative stress and afford rationale for developing new strategy to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608948

  17. Formation of parkin aggregates and enhanced PINK1 accumulation during the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won; Park, Hyun Jung; Song, Jihwan; Jeon, Iksoo; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Phil Hyu; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2010-03-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a distinct set of motor symptoms. Loss-of-function mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin have been linked to early-onset autosomal recessive forms of familial PD. We have recently shown that parkin (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and PINK1 (a serine/threonine kinase) affect one other's stability, solubility, and tendency to form cytoprotective aggresomes (Um et al., 2009). Here we validated the functional relevance of this mutual interaction under pathologic PD conditions, by investigating the changes of expression and solubility of these factors in response to PD-linked toxins. Consistent with our previous cell culture data, exposure of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to PD-linked toxins (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion, 6-hydroxydopamine, or MG132) reduced Nonidet P-40-soluble parkin levels and induced PINK1 accumulation. Consistent with our previous findings from parkin knockout mice, rat models of PD (6-hydroxydopamine-, rotenone-, or MG132-induced PD) were also associated with an increase in soluble and insoluble PINK1 levels as well as enhanced formation of parkin aggregates. These findings suggest that both PINK1 and parkin play important roles in regulating the formation of Lewy bodies during the pathogenesis of sporadic and familial PD. PMID:20171192

  18. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    PubMed Central

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P??0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9?g of n-3 fatty acids per 100?g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5?g per 100?g of product. PMID:24804010

  19. Interhabitat differences in ant activity on plant foliage: ants at extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis in sandy and mangrove forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Cogni; Andre V. L. Freitas; Paulo S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    The association between visiting ants and the extrafloral nectaries (EFN)-bearing shrub Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (Malvaceae) was investigated in two different coastal habitats - a permanently dry sandy forest and a regularly inundated mangrove forest. In both habitats the frequency of plants with ants and the mean number of ants per plant were much higher on H. pernambucensis than on non-nectariferous

  20. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  1. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Beltrán-Debón; C. Alonso-Villaverde; G. Aragonès; I. Rodríguez-Medina; A. Rull; V. Micol; A. Segura-Carretero; A. Fernández-Gutiérrez; J. Camps; J. Joven

    2010-01-01

    Diet supplementation and\\/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral

  2. CORROSION INHIBITION OF CARBON STEEL IN LOW CHLORIDE MEDIA BY AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS LINN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Anuradha; R. Vimala; B. Narayanasamy; J. Arockia Selvi; Susai Rajendran

    2007-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of white flower, namely, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in an aqueous solution containing 60 ppm of Clhas been evaluated by the mass loss method. The flower extract (FE) shows good IE. In the presence of Zn, excellent IE is shown by the flower extract. A synergistic effect

  3. Physical and histochemical properties of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) grown under water deficit on a sandy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. I Ogbonnaya; H Roy-Macauley; M. C Nwalozie; D. J. M Annerose

    1997-01-01

    The effects of water deficit on the physical and histochemical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) relevant to pulp and paper production were investigated. The plants were grown on a loose-textured sandy soil in the greenhouse at CERAAS, Bambey, Sénégal. Three watering regimes representing well watered control, moderate stress and severe stress were imposed on the plants. Each watering treatment

  4. Hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from the dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vilasinee Hirunpanich; Anocha Utaipat; Noppawan Phumala Morales; Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara; Hitoshi Sato; Angkana Herunsale; Chuthamanee Suthisisang

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) with regard to protection of LDL oxidation in vivo and ex vivo in rats made hypercholesterolemic by continuous cholesterol feeding. Administering the dried calyx extracts of roselle at doses of 500 and 1000mg\\/kg together with continuous cholesterol feeding to hypercholesterolemic rats for

  5. Radiation-induced pink nickel oligomeric clusters in water. Pulse radiolysis study.

    PubMed

    Hioul, Mohamed Larbi; Lin, Mingzhang; Belloni, Jacqueline; Keghouche, Nassira; Marignier, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    ?-rays and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Ni(2+) ions in the presence of polyacrylate (PA(-)) and 2-propanol leads to the formation of metastable species absorbing at 540 nm that are ascribed to "pink" oligomeric clusters of a few nickel atoms only. The molar absorption coefficient is evaluated as ?540 nm = 3300 ± 300 L mol(-1) cm(-1) per Ni(0) atom. The successive steps from the reduction of Ni(2+) into Ni(+) ions to the formation of the pink clusters at 540 nm under conditions of complexation by PA(-) are investigated by pulse radiolysis. The yield of the formation of pink clusters increases markedly with the irradiation dose rate, demonstrating the occurrence of the disproportionation of the [Ni(+), PA(-)] complex after a single electron pulse. The reduction and nucleation mechanisms, including rate constants, in competition with the back oxidation by protons, particularly at low dose rate, are discussed. PMID:25198291

  6. The roles of PINK1, parkin, and mitochondrial fidelity in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pickrell, Alicia M; Youle, Richard J

    2015-01-21

    Understanding the function of genes mutated in hereditary forms of Parkinson's disease yields insight into disease etiology and reveals new pathways in cell biology. Although mutations or variants in many genes increase the susceptibility to Parkinson's disease, only a handful of monogenic causes of parkinsonism have been identified. Biochemical and genetic studies reveal that the products of two genes that are mutated in autosomal recessive parkinsonism, PINK1 and Parkin, normally work together in the same pathway to govern mitochondrial quality control, bolstering previous evidence that mitochondrial damage is involved in Parkinson's disease. PINK1 accumulates on the outer membrane of damaged mitochondria, activates Parkin's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and recruits Parkin to the dysfunctional mitochondrion. Then, Parkin ubiquitinates outer mitochondrial membrane proteins to trigger selective autophagy. This review covers the normal functions that PINK1 and Parkin play within cells, their molecular mechanisms of action, and the pathophysiological consequences of their loss. PMID:25611507

  7. PINK1- and PARK2-mediated local mitophagy in distal neuronal axons.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the PINK1 and PARK2/PARKIN genes are associated with hereditary early onset Parkinson disease (PD), and in cell lines the corresponding gene products play a critical role in mitophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria. In neurons, however, where the extraordinary cellular shapes pose particular challenges for maintaining healthy mitochondria, the pathways of mitophagy are less well understood. Both the location at which mitophagy occurs and the involvement of PINK1 and PARK2 have been controversial. Here we review our recent study where we found that selective damage to a subset of axonal mitochondria causes them to be engulfed within autophagosomes and cleared locally within the axon without the need for transport back to the soma. We also found this process to be completely dependent on neuronal PINK1 and PARK2. PMID:25607607

  8. Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

  9. Hibiscus protocatechuic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, T H; Wang, C J; Kao, E S; Chu, H Y

    1996-08-14

    Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple phenolic compound isolated from Hibiscus sabdariffa L., was studied for its protective effects against oxidative damage induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) in a primary culture of rat hepatocytes. It had been reported that exposure of isolated hepatocytes to t-BHP results in leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine transaminase (ALT), peroxidation of cellular lipids, and depolarization of mitochondria. The present investigations showed that PCA at concentrations of 0.05 mg/ml and 0.10 mg/ml significantly decreased the leakage of LDH (P < 0.01) and ALT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) induced by 30-min treatment with t-BHP (1.5 mM) in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. PCA also attenuated t-BHP (0.10 mM) induced mitochondrial depolarization as determined by a retention test of rhodamine 123 and DNA repair synthesis as evidenced by unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). In addition, PCA exhibited an effective ability to quench 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH). In conclusion, PCA demonstrated protective effects against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hepatocytes induced by t-BHP. One of mechanisms of PCA's protective effect may be associated with its property of scavenging free radicals. PMID:8760395

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent. PMID:25694272

  11. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  12. The p23 Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Is Indispensable for Host-Specific Replication

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lucy, Andrew P.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Wong, Sek-Man

    2002-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) possesses a novel open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a putative 23-kDa protein (p23). We report here the in vivo detection of p23 and demonstrate its essential role in viral replication. The expression of p23 could be detected in protein extracts from transfected kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) protoplasts and in HCRSV-infected leaves. Further, direct immunoblotting of infected kenaf leaves also showed the presence of p23, and transient expression in onion and kenaf cells demonstrated that the protein is distributed throughout the cell. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that mutations introduced into the ORF of p23 abolished viral replication in kenaf protoplasts and plants but not in Chenopodium quinoa L. The loss of function of the p23 mutant M23/S33-1 could be complemented in trans upon the induced expression of p23 from an infiltrated construct bearing the ORF (pCam23). Altogether, these results demonstrate that p23 is a bona fide HCRSV protein that is expressed in vivo and suggest that p23 is indispensable for the host-specific replication of HCRSV. In addition, we show that p23 does not bind nucleic acids in vitro and does not act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing in transgenic tobacco carrying a green fluorescent protein. PMID:12414971

  13. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect. PMID:22494845

  14. Presence of diverse ratios of lycopene\\/?-carotene in five pink or red-fleshed citrus cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Xu; Nengguo Tao; Qing Liu; Xiuxin Deng

    2006-01-01

    Pink or red-fleshed fruit mutations are commonly found in grapefruit, sweet orange, and occasionally in lemon, which combine novel appearance with fine eating quality. In order to identify the major coloured pigments, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection was applied for the separation and characterization of carotenoids from five pink or red-fleshed citrus cultivars. As a result, both

  15. Nitrogen pink afterglow: the mystery continues Vasco Guerra1, Paulo A. Sa2 and Jorge Loureiro1

    E-print Network

    Guerra, Vasco

    Nitrogen pink afterglow: the mystery continues Vasco Guerra1, Paulo A. S´a2 and Jorge Loureiro1 1@ist.utl.pt Abstract. This work extends our previous analysis of the nitrogen pink afterglow, by comparing our model. As singlet N2(a 1 - u ) metastables play a crucial role in nitrogen ionization, the new results imply

  16. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2249726

  17. PINK1 and Parkin – mitochondrial interplay between phosphorylation and ubiquitylation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of mutations in genes encoding protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin in familial Parkinson's disease and their association with mitochondria provides compelling evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of how PINK1 and Parkin enzymes are regulated and how they influence downstream mitochondrial signalling processes. We provide a critical overview of the key advances in the field and also discuss the outstanding questions, including novel ways in which this knowledge could be exploited to develop therapies against Parkinson's disease. PMID:25345844

  18. Movements of Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and Pink Shrimp, P. duorarum, Relative to the

    E-print Network

    Movements of Brown Shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, and Pink Shrimp, P. duorarum, Relative to the U. EMILIANI Introduction The major fishery for brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, occurs in the western Gulf of Mexico. Annual U.S. landings of brown shrimp off Texas averaged 13,800 metric tons (t) between 1970

  19. Oxidative Metabolism of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Pink Discoloration in Italian Cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Shannon; N. F. Olson; R. H. Deibel

    1977-01-01

    Metabolism of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 12278 and Lactobacillus belveticus ATCC 10797, associated with pink dis- coloration of cheese, was compared to that of Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 11061 which never caused the defect. Hydrogen peroxide was produced in various media by L. lactis but did not accumulate during growth of the other two strains. Cell suspensions of L. lactis consumed oxygen

  20. Mitochondrial import and enzymatic activity of PINK1 mutants associated to recessive parkinsonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Silvestri; Viviana Caputo; Emanuele Bellacchio; Luigia Atorino; Bruno Dallapiccola; Enza Maria Valente; Giorgio Casari

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness associated with a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway of the brain. Despite the overall rarity of the familial forms of PD, the identification of single genes linked to the disease has yielded crucial insights into possible mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Recently, a putative mitochondrial kinase, PINK1, has been found

  1. PINK BOLLWORM LARVAL MORTALITIES AND CRY1AC TOXIC PROTEIN IN FIELD GROWN BT COTTONS, 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated Cry1Ac levels in Bollgard® (Bt) and non-Bt cottons and their effects on pink bollworm (PBW) larval mortality. Cultivars were Delta and Pineland (DPL) 5415 RR®, NuCOTN 33B®, DPL 449 BG®/RR®. Cotton seeds were planted in six rows wide by 18 m long plots at the Western Cotton Research...

  2. G-435 AND ARS 96-138, PINK-FRUITED BLUEBERRY SELECTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    G-435 and ARS 96-138 are two pink-fruited blueberry selections selected from seedlings in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) blueberry breeding program. Because of interest by nurserymen in ornamental and decorative cultivars, this material is being released as germplasm for further evaluatio...

  3. DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp,

    E-print Network

    DIET OF PACIFIC COD, GADUS MACROCEPHALUS, AND PREDATION ON THE NORTHERN PINK SHRIMp, PANDALUS BOREALIS, IN PAVLOF BAY, ALASKA W. D. ALBERS AND P. J. ANDERSON! ABSTRACf Analysis of 455 Pacific cod more frequently with increasing cod size (30-69 cm fork length). Euphausids decreased in frequency

  4. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  5. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-print Network

    PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified

  6. ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM SALMON,

    E-print Network

    ZOOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE AND FEEDING HABITS OF FRY OF PINK SALMON, ONCORHYNCHUS GORBUSCHA, AND CHUM Alaska, fed little in freshwater but fed heavily in the estuary, mainly on pelagic zooplankters. Fry did.8°C to 16 h at 8.5°C. The abundance of zooplankton ranged from 9 to 154 organisms per liter

  7. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  8. White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking). PMID:24468979

  9. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  10. 78 FR 69002 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ...0648-XC965 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

  11. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...0648-XA803 Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National...SUMMARY: NMFS publishes Fraser River salmon inseason orders to regulate treaty and non-treaty (all citizen) commercial salmon fisheries in U.S. waters. The...

  12. Sustained susceptibility of Pink Bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producin...

  13. THE INHIBITION OF ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PINK SHRIMP 'PENAEUS DUORARUM' BY METHYL PARATHION AND ITS OXON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, E.C.3.1.1.7, (AChE) activity in the ventral nerve cord of pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum) by methyl parathion (MPT) and methyl paraoxon (MPO) was investigated. When the animals were exposed to these compounds in water (in vivo), AChE activit...

  14. Differential effects of PINK1 nonsense and missense mutations on mitochondrial function and morphology.

    PubMed

    Grünewald, A; Gegg, M E; Taanman, J-W; King, R H; Kock, N; Klein, C; Schapira, A H V

    2009-09-01

    Mutations of the PINK1 gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase of unknown function which is widely expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. We have studied fibroblast cultures from four family members harbouring the homozygous p.Q456X mutation in PINK1, three of their wild-type relatives, one individual with the homozygous p.V170G mutation and five independent controls. Results showed bioenergetic abnormalities involving decreased activities of complexes I and IV along with increased activities of complexes II and III in the missense p.V170G mutant. There were increased basal levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in these cells and an exaggerated increase of reduced glutathione in response to paraquat-induced free radical formation. Furthermore, swollen and enlarged mitochondria were observed in this sample. In the p.Q456X nonsense mutants, the respiratory chain enzymes were unaffected, but ATP levels were significantly decreased. These results confirm that mutations of PINK1 cause abnormal mitochondrial morphology, bioenergetic function and oxidative metabolism in human tissues but suggest that the biochemical consequences may vary between mutations. PMID:19500570

  15. Drosophila parkin requires PINK1 for mitochondrial translocation and ubiquitinates mitofusin.

    PubMed

    Ziviani, Elena; Tao, Ran N; Whitworth, Alexander J

    2010-03-16

    Loss of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin causes early onset Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. Parkin has been linked to multiple cellular processes including protein degradation, mitochondrial homeostasis, and autophagy; however, its precise role in pathogenesis is unclear. Recent evidence suggests that Parkin is recruited to damaged mitochondria, possibly affecting mitochondrial fission and/or fusion, to mediate their autophagic turnover. The precise mechanism of recruitment and the ubiquitination target are unclear. Here we show in Drosophila cells that PINK1 is required to recruit Parkin to dysfunctional mitochondria and promote their degradation. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin mediate the ubiquitination of the profusion factor Mfn on the outer surface of mitochondria. Loss of Drosophila PINK1 or parkin causes an increase in Mfn abundance in vivo and concomitant elongation of mitochondria. These findings provide a molecular mechanism by which the PINK1/Parkin pathway affects mitochondrial fission/fusion as suggested by previous genetic interaction studies. We hypothesize that Mfn ubiquitination may provide a mechanism by which terminally damaged mitochondria are labeled and sequestered for degradation by autophagy. PMID:20194754

  16. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  17. THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION

    E-print Network

    THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THRESHOLD FOR PINK SALMON EGGS IN RELATION TO A PROPOSED HYDROELECTRIC INSTALLATION JACK E. BAILEY' AND DALE R. EVANS' ABSTRACT A proposed hydroelectric installation in southeastern hydroelectric installation could result in temperatures as low as 4.5 0 C during spawning and initial incubation

  18. TRANSGENIC COMPARISONS OF PINK BOLLWORM EFFICACY AND RESPONSE TO HEAT STRESS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen lines from 3 different cotton families were compared. Each family had a conventional, non-transgenic standard, as well as 4 other transgenic lines. Each Bt line was evaluated for this trait's efficacy in controlling pink bollworm under high pressure, artificial infestations. Various agronomi...

  19. High-level resistance to Bt toxin cryiac and cadherin genotype in pink bollworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ac is linked with three recessive alleles of a cadherin gene in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), a major cotton pest. Here we analyzed a strain (MOV97-R) from the Mohave Valley of Arizona that had a...

  20. Response of Marguerite Daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink' to Plant Growth Regulators1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd J. Cavins; James L. Gibson; Brian E. Whipker; John M. Dole

    The efficacy of pinching, daminozide, flurprimidol, uniconazole, or paclobutrazol + daminozide tank mix for plant height control, diameter control, and days to anthesis were inves- tigated on marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens) 'Comet Pink'. Plants were pinched 14 d after transplanting or treated 23 d after transplanting with foliar sprays of five concentra- tions from each plant growth regulator. Pinching reduced

  1. Distribution and Abundance of Parasites of the Rhodesgrass Mealybug, Antonina graminis: Reassessment of a Classic Example of Biological Control in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Chantos, Jillian M.; Bradleigh Vinson, S.; Helms, Ken R.

    2009-01-01

    Control of the rhodesgrass mealybug, Antonina graminis Maskell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), by the encyrtid wasp Neodusmetia sangwani is considered a textbook example of classical biological control. However, recent evidence suggests that A. graminis is abundant in the southeastern United States and no recent surveys have been conducted to determine the status of N. sangwani or other A. graminis parasites. A survey was conducted and it was found that N. sangwani was uncommon overall, occurring at only 20 percent of survey sites. In addition, N. sangwani exhibited a patchy geographic distribution. Possible causes for these results are that N. sangwani has not dispersed widely since its introduction, or that the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is interfering with biological control. These results suggest that a reevaluation of the efficacy of biological control may be necessary. The survey also found two other encyrtid wasps utilizing A. graminis as a host. One, Acerophagus sp., is apparently native and was nearly as frequent as N. sangwani, while the other, Pseudectroma sp., is apparently introduced and relatively rare. PMID:20050768

  2. Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Roberta; Gandhi, Sonia; de Castro, Inês P; Lehmann, Susann; Angelova, Plamena R; Dinsdale, David; Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Hélène; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Abramov, Andrey Y; Willis, Anne E; Mallucci, Giovanna R; Loh, Samantha H Y; Martins, L Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Mutations in PINK1 cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies in Drosophila melanogaster have highlighted mitochondrial dysfunction on loss of Pink1 as a central mechanism of PD pathogenesis. Here we show that global analysis of transcriptional changes in Drosophila pink1 mutants reveals an upregulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, critical for neuronal mitochondrial DNA synthesis. These key transcriptional changes were also detected in brains of PD patients harbouring PINK1 mutations. We demonstrate that genetic enhancement of the nucleotide salvage pathway in neurons of pink1 mutant flies rescues mitochondrial impairment. In addition, pharmacological approaches enhancing nucleotide pools reduce mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Pink1 deficiency. We conclude that loss of Pink1 evokes the activation of a previously unidentified metabolic reprogramming pathway to increase nucleotide pools and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. PMID:24441527

  3. PINK1 drives Parkin self-association and HECT-like E3 activity upstream of mitochondrial binding.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Narendra, Derek P; Jin, Seok Min; Tekle, Ephrem; Banerjee, Soojay; Youle, Richard J

    2013-01-21

    Genetic studies indicate that the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the RING-between-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin function in the same pathway. In concurrence, mechanistic studies show that PINK1 can recruit Parkin from the cytosol to the mitochondria, increase the ubiquitination activity of Parkin, and induce Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we used a cell-free assay to recapitulate PINK1-dependent activation of Parkin ubiquitination of a validated mitochondrial substrate, mitofusin 1. We show that PINK1 activated the formation of a Parkin-ubiquitin thioester intermediate, a hallmark of HECT E3 ligases, both in vitro and in vivo. Parkin HECT-like ubiquitin ligase activity was essential for PINK1-mediated Parkin translocation to mitochondria and mitophagy. Using an inactive Parkin mutant, we found that PINK1 stimulated Parkin self-association and complex formation upstream of mitochondrial translocation. Self-association occurred independent of ubiquitination activity through the RING-between-RING domain, providing mechanistic insight into how PINK1 activates Parkin. PMID:23319602

  4. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/?) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/?, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  5. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

    2014-06-01

    Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions. PMID:24901221

  6. Phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyubiquitin by PINK1 promotes Parkin mitochondrial tethering.

    PubMed

    Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Arano, Taku; Matsumoto, Gen; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigeharu; Ishihama, Yasushi; Ryu, Kwon-Yul; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

    2014-12-01

    The kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of Ser65 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like (UBl) domain by PINK1 stimulates Parkin activation and translocation to damaged mitochondria, which induces mitophagy generating polyUb chain. However, Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation is insufficient for Parkin mitochondrial translocation. Here we report that Ser65 in polyUb chain is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and that phosphorylated polyUb chain on mitochondria tethers Parkin at mitochondria. The expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, which mimics phospho-Ser65 polyUb chains on the mitochondria, activated Parkin E3 activity and its mitochondrial translocation. An E3-dead form of Parkin translocated to mitochondria with reduced membrane potential in the presence of Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SE, whereas non-phospho-polyUb mutant Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SA abrogated Parkin translocation. Parkin binds to the phospho-polyUb chain through its RING1-In-Between-RING (IBR) domains, but its RING0-linker is also required for mitochondrial translocation. Moreover, the expression of Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SE improved mitochondrial degeneration in PINK1-deficient, but not Parkin-deficient, Drosophila. Our study suggests that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1 is implicated in both Parkin activation and mitochondrial translocation, predicting a chain reaction mechanism of mitochondrial phospho-polyUb production by which rapid translocation of Parkin is achieved. PMID:25474007

  7. Phosphorylation of Mitochondrial Polyubiquitin by PINK1 Promotes Parkin Mitochondrial Tethering

    PubMed Central

    Shiba-Fukushima, Kahori; Arano, Taku; Matsumoto, Gen; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Shigeharu; Ishihama, Yasushi; Ryu, Kwon-Yul; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Imai, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    The kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of Ser65 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like (UBl) domain by PINK1 stimulates Parkin activation and translocation to damaged mitochondria, which induces mitophagy generating polyUb chain. However, Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation is insufficient for Parkin mitochondrial translocation. Here we report that Ser65 in polyUb chain is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and that phosphorylated polyUb chain on mitochondria tethers Parkin at mitochondria. The expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, which mimics phospho-Ser65 polyUb chains on the mitochondria, activated Parkin E3 activity and its mitochondrial translocation. An E3-dead form of Parkin translocated to mitochondria with reduced membrane potential in the presence of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, whereas non-phospho-polyUb mutant Tom70MTS-4xUb SA abrogated Parkin translocation. Parkin binds to the phospho-polyUb chain through its RING1-In-Between-RING (IBR) domains, but its RING0-linker is also required for mitochondrial translocation. Moreover, the expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE improved mitochondrial degeneration in PINK1-deficient, but not Parkin-deficient, Drosophila. Our study suggests that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1 is implicated in both Parkin activation and mitochondrial translocation, predicting a chain reaction mechanism of mitochondrial phospho-polyUb production by which rapid translocation of Parkin is achieved. PMID:25474007

  8. The complex I subunit NDUFA10 selectively rescues Drosophila pink1 mutants through a mechanism independent of mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Joe H; Ivatt, Rachael M; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Tufi, Roberta; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

  9. Role of glucose metabolism and ATP in maintaining PINK1 levels during Parkin-mediated mitochondrial damage responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Schuyler; Zhang, Conggang; Liu, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in several genes, including PINK1 and Parkin, are known to cause autosomal recessive cases of Parkinson disease in humans. These genes operate in the same pathway and play a crucial role in mitochondrial dynamics and maintenance. PINK1 is required to recruit Parkin to mitochondria and initiate mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarization. In this study, we show that PINK1-dependent Parkin mitochondrial recruitment in response to global mitochondrial damage by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazine (CCCP) requires active glucose metabolism. Parkin accumulation on mitochondria and subsequent Parkin-dependent mitophagy is abrogated in glucose-free medium or in the presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose upon CCCP treatment. The defects in Parkin recruitment correlate with intracellular ATP levels and can be attributed to suppression of PINK1 up-regulation in response to mitochondria depolarization. Low levels of ATP appear to prevent PINK1 translation instead of affecting PINK1 mRNA expression or reducing its stability. Consistent with a requirement of ATP for elevated PINK1 levels and Parkin mitochondrial recruitment, local or individual mitochondrial damage via photoirradiation does not affect Parkin recruitment to damaged mitochondria as long as a pool of functional mitochondria is present in the photoirradiated cells even in glucose-free or 2-deoxy-D-glucose-treated conditions. Thus, our data identify ATP as a key regulator for Parkin mitochondrial translocation and sustaining elevated PINK1 levels during mitophagy. PINK1 functions as an AND gate and a metabolic sensor coupling biogenetics of cells and stress signals to mitochondria dynamics. PMID:25404737

  10. Silencing of PINK1 inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated receptor activation and neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Zárate, María J; Niño, Andrea; Rojas, Liliana; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2015-05-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease remains unknown. Mutations in PINK1 have provided an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathology. PINK1 and Parkin are important in the dismissal of dysfunctional mitochondria. However, the role of PINK1 in the control of neuronal survival pathways is not clear. To determine the role of PINK1 in the control of the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway mediated by insulin-like grow factor type 1 (IGF-1), we use a model of mesencephalic neurons (CAD cells), which were transfected with lentiviral PINK1 shRNA or control shRNA constructs. Silencing of PINK1 was determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting; cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays; proteins of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were tested by immunoblotting and IGF-1 receptor, and mitochondria were examined using fluorescence microscopy. PINK1 shRNA-transfected cells showed a reduction in cell survival compared to control shRNA cells. Exposure to IGF-1 induced a rapid and high increase in the phosphorylation level of IGF-1 receptor in control shRNA-transfected cells; however, silencing of PINK1 decreases phosphorylation level of IGF-1 receptor and downstream target proteins such as Akt, GSK3-beta, IRS-1, and hexokinase. Our results further suggest that PINK1 may be regulating the PI3K/Akt neuronal survival pathway through tyrosine kinase receptors such as IGF-1 receptor. PMID:25534921

  11. The Complex I Subunit NDUFA10 Selectively Rescues Drosophila pink1 Mutants through a Mechanism Independent of Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, Joe H.; Wilson, Emma; Mortiboys, Heather; Whitworth, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1, a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, cause autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Substantial evidence indicates that PINK1 acts with another PD gene, parkin, to regulate mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy. However, loss of PINK1 also causes complex I (CI) deficiency, and has recently been suggested to regulate CI through phosphorylation of NDUFA10/ND42 subunit. To further explore the mechanisms by which PINK1 and Parkin influence mitochondrial integrity, we conducted a screen in Drosophila cells for genes that either phenocopy or suppress mitochondrial hyperfusion caused by pink1 RNAi. Among the genes recovered from this screen was ND42. In Drosophila pink1 mutants, transgenic overexpression of ND42 or its co-chaperone sicily was sufficient to restore CI activity and partially rescue several phenotypes including flight and climbing deficits and mitochondrial disruption in flight muscles. Here, the restoration of CI activity and partial rescue of locomotion does not appear to have a specific requirement for phosphorylation of ND42 at Ser-250. In contrast to pink1 mutants, overexpression of ND42 or sicily failed to rescue any Drosophila parkin mutant phenotypes. We also find that knockdown of the human homologue, NDUFA10, only minimally affecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, and overexpression of NDUFA10 fails to restore Parkin mitochondrial-translocation upon PINK1 loss. These results indicate that the in vivo rescue is due to restoring CI activity rather than promoting mitophagy. Our findings support the emerging view that PINK1 plays a role in regulating CI activity separate from its role with Parkin in mitophagy. PMID:25412178

  12. The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jer-Yuh; Chen, Chang-Che; Wang, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2006-03-01

    Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl(4) by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1-5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced the liver damage including steatosis and fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, HSE significantly decreased the elevation in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also restored the decrease in glutathione content and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. In the primary culture, HSE also significantly inhibited the activation of the hepatic stellate cells. These results suggested that HSE may protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced fibrosis. This protective effect appears due to HSEs antioxidant properties. PMID:16176854

  13. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3?- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13?-olide (1), 3?- acetoxy-11?,12?-epoxy-olean-28,13?-olide (2), 19?-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17?,19?-lupan-3?-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 ?M). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies. PMID:24862067

  14. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri. PMID:23103459

  15. Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

    2008-08-01

    Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

  16. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  17. Genomic variants at the PINK1 locus are associated with transcript abundance and plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations in European whites.

    PubMed

    Franks, P W; Scheele, C; Loos, R J F; Nielsen, A R; Finucane, F M; Wahlestedt, C; Pedersen, B K; Wareham, N J; Timmons, J A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize associations between PINK1 genotypes, PINK1 transcript levels, and metabolic phenotypes in healthy adults and those with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We measured PINK1 skeletal muscle transcript levels and 8 independent PINK1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of 208 Danish whites and in a cohort of 1701 British whites (SNPs and metabolic phenotypes only). Furthermore, we assessed the effects of PINK1 transcript ablation in primary adipocytes using RNA interference (RNAi). Six PINK1 SNPs were associated with PINK1 transcript levels (P<0.04 to P<0.0001). Obesity modified the association between PINK1 transcript levels and T2D risk (interaction P=0.005); transcript levels were inversely related with T2D in obese (n=105) [odds ratio (OR) per sd increase in expression levels=0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.84; P=0.013] but not in nonobese (n=103) (OR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.76; P=0.34) individuals. In the British cohort, several PINK1 SNPs were associated with plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Nominal genotype associations were also observed for fasting glucose, 2-h glucose, and maximal oxygen consumption, although these were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. In primary adipocytes, Pink1 knockdown affected fatty acid binding protein 4 (Fabp4) expression, indicating that PINK1 may influence substrate metabolism. We demonstrate that PINK1 polymorphisms are associated with PINK1 transcript levels and measures of fatty acid metabolism in a concordant manner, whereas our RNAi data imply that PINK1 may indirectly influence lipid metabolism. PMID:18495756

  18. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (family Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Fakeye, T O; Pal, A; Khanuja, S P S

    2008-03-01

    Aqueous (A), hydroalcoholic (AE) and ethanolic (E) extracts and fractions of dried calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated for anxiolytic property using elevated-plus maze (EPM), and sedative properties using ketamine-induced sleep in animal models. The extracts exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the time spent in the open arm with ethanol extracts having the best anxiolytic activity. The extracts at A 5 mg/kg, AE 5 mg/kg and A 50 mg/kg did not cause an increase in time spent in the open arms (p < 0.05) but other doses significantly did when compared with the vehicle control. The fractions of the hydroalcoholic extracts showed no significant anxiolytic activity. Neither the extracts nor the fractions significantly reduced or increased latency to sleep after a single dose except AE 300 (p < 0.01). There was significant reduction in onset of sleep, and increase in sleeping time with A and AE extracts with multiple doses at A 300, AE 50 and AE 300 mg/kg dose groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). A reduction in sleeping time after several daily doses of ethanol extracts doses was observed. A single dose of one of the fractions (EAC at 50 mg/kg) caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in sleep duration. The study showed that extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa possess anxiolytic and sedative effects which become more pronounced with administration of repeated doses of the extracts. PMID:18756855

  19. Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-C. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Huang, H.-P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsu, J.-D. [Department of Pathology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, S.-F. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-J. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

  20. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae)on four host plant species under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survival and reproduction of the papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on three ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha sp. and Plumeria sp.) and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) were investigated. Papaya mealybug was able t...

  1. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided. PMID:24870105

  2. Characterization of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus) lignin by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Kuroda; Akiko Izumi; Bibhuti B Mazumder; Yoshito Ohtani; Kazuhiko Sameshima

    2002-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was applied to kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) fibers in order to clarify the chemical composition of in situ lignin. The core and bast samples obtained from the middle position of variety Chinpi-3 were pyrolyzed at 500°C for 4 s with TMAH. The core pyrogram revealed peaks retaining the structural attributes

  3. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte damage in Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte damage in fish and provide evidence as to whether it can be potentially used as a medicine for liver\\u000a diseases in aquaculture. H. sabdariffa extract (100, 200, and 400 ?g\\/mL) was added to the carp primary hepatocyte culture before (pre-treatment),

  4. Potential of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves for inhibiting the corrosion of aluminum in alkaline solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ehteram A. Noor

    2009-01-01

    Chemical (HE and WL) and electrochemical (PDP and EIS) measurements were applied to evaluate the potential of aqueous extract\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves (AEHSL) for inhibiting the corrosion of Al in 0.5 M NaOH. It was found that the inhibition efficiency increases with\\u000a the increase of AEHSL concentration. Electrochemical measurements revealed that AEHSL acts as a mixed-type inhibitor with\\u000a inhibition category

  5. Antioxidant Actions of Dried Flower Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. On Sodium Arsenite - Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    2 Abstract: The antioxidant actions of 80% ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vitamin C (VITC), were examined using a model of sodium arsenite (SA) - induced oxidative stress in rats. The oral administration of the extracts (200 and 300mg\\/kg body

  6. The effect of petal size manipulation on pollinator\\/seed-predator mediated female reproductive success of Hibiscus moscheutos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kudoh; Dennis F. Whigham

    1998-01-01

    The effects of petal-size manipulations on the behavior of pollinators and pollen\\/seed predators, and on pollen removal and\\u000a deposition, were studied in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. The ultimate effects on the female reproductive success of flowers, such as fruit set, seed predation\\u000a rate, and final seed set were also measured. We applied three levels of petal removal (100%, 50%, and

  7. Thermal stability of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. anthocyanins in solution and in solid state: effects of copigmentation and glass transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Gradinaru; C. G. Biliaderis; S. Kallithraka; P. Kefalas; C. Garcia-Viguera

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic studies on thermal stability of anthocyanins isolated from the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle) were carried out in aqueous solutions (55–98 °C), either as free or copigmented anthocyanins with chlorogenic acid, and in the dry state as free anthocyanins or co-lyophilized with an amorphous polysaccharide (pullulan) and stored in different relative humidity environments (water activities 0.33, 0.53, 0.75

  8. In vitro culture of callus tissues and cell suspensions from okra ( Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton ( gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Davis; Kendall E. Dusbabek; Roland A. Hoerauf

    1974-01-01

    Summary  Methods are described for starting and maintaining callus-tissue cultures of twoMalvaceae, okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Okra callus was slow to initiate, but once started it was easy to maintain, in contrast to cotton, which was difficult\\u000a to initiate and grow. Different media were required to establish the two species. The inclusion of 5 mg per

  9. PINK BOLLWORM AND TOBACCO BUDWORM, CABBAGE LOOPER AND BEET ARMYWORM LARVAL MORTALITIES FED ON BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS COTTON POLLENS AND PINK BOLLWORM ADULT MORTALITY FED ON SUCROSE SOLUTIONS CONTAINING CRY1AC TOXIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We fed pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), tobacco budworm (TBW) Heliothis virescens (L), cabbage looper (CL), Trichoplusia ni (Hubner), and beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), pollens from cottons containing the Bollgard (BG) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Kurst...

  10. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

  11. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter-rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  12. For Immediate Release --Tuesday, February 26, 2013 Pink Shirt Day: U of L Cyber-bullying experts available

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    gear up to wear pink shirts to support anti- bullying initiatives tomorrow, two be more aware of their children's internet use -- in particular cyber of the challenges faced by those being cyber-bullied, the relevant facts Bright and Dyck

  13. White -Parking Services Yellow Parking Services, return to appellant with reply Pink -Appellant's initial copy PLEASE READ REVERSE SIDE

    E-print Network

    White - Parking Services Yellow ­ Parking Services, return to appellant with reply Pink - Appellant's initial copy PLEASE READ REVERSE SIDE SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY PARKING SERVICES NOTICE OF APPEAL Section 1 - to be completed by Parking Services Date Appeal Received: ______________________________ Received by

  14. Nitric oxide induction of Parkin translocation in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) deficiency: functional role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase during mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Young; Kang, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Ha, Ji-Young; Son, Jin H

    2015-04-17

    The failure to trigger mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson disease that is caused by PINK1 or Parkin mutations. According to the prevailing PINK1-Parkin signaling model, mitophagy is promoted by the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an essential PINK1-dependent step that occurs via a previously unknown mechanism. Here we determined that critical concentrations of NO was sufficient to induce the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin even in PINK1 deficiency, with apparent increased interaction of full-length PINK1 accumulated during mitophagy, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Specifically, optimum levels of NO enabled PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells to regain the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, which appeared to be significantly suppressed by nNOS-null mutation. Moreover, nNOS-null mutation resulted in the same mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme deficits as PINK1-null mutation. The involvement of mitochondrial nNOS activation in mitophagy was further confirmed by the greatly increased interactions of full-length PINK1 with nNOS, accompanied by mitochondrial accumulation of phospho-nNOS (Ser(1412)) during mitophagy. Of great interest is that the L347P PINK1 mutant failed to bind to nNOS. The loss of nNOS phosphorylation and Parkin accumulation on PINK1-deficient mitochondria could be reversed in a PINK1-dependent manner. Finally, non-toxic levels of NO treatment aided in the recovery of PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells from mitochondrial ETC enzyme deficits. In summary, we demonstrated the full-length PINK1-dependent recruitment of nNOS, its activation in the induction of Parkin translocation, and the feasibility of NO-based pharmacotherapy for defective mitophagy and ETC enzyme deficits in Parkinson disease. PMID:25716315

  15. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

    2013-01-01

    Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

  16. PINK1-Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy Protects Mitochondrial Integrity and Prevents Metabolic Stress-Induced Endothelial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiwei; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zemin; Mao, Yun; Yuan, Liangshuai; Luo, Wei; Cui, Zhaoqiang; Cui, Taixing; Wang, Xing Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial injury and dysfunction, a significant feature in metabolic syndrome, triggers endothelial cell dysfunction and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitophagy, a process of autophagic turnover of damaged mitochondria, maintains mitochondrial integrity. PINK1 (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1) and Parkin signaling is a key pathway in mitophagy control. In this study, we examined whether this pathway could protect mitochondria under metabolic stress. We found that palmitic acid (PA) induced significant mitophagy and activated PINK1 and Parkin in endothelial cells. Knocking down PINK1 or Parkin reduced mitophagy, leading to impaired clearance of damaged mitochondria and intracellular accumulation of mitochondrial fragments. Furthermore, PINK1 and Parkin prevented PA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production and apoptosis. Finally, we show that PINK1 and Parkin were up-regulated in vascular wall of obese mice and diabetic mice. Our study demonstrates that PINK1-Parkin pathway is activated in response to metabolic stress. Through induction of mitophagy, this pathway protects mitochondrial integrity and prevents metabolic stress-induced endothelial injury. PMID:26161534

  17. Asymmetric hybridization and introgression between pink salmon and chinook salmon in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Jonathan A.; Todd, Thomas; Greil, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Among Pacific salmon collected in the St. Marys River, five natural hybrids of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and one suspected backcross have been detected using morphologic, meristic, and color evidence. One allozyme (LDH, l-lactate dehydrogenase from muscle) and one nuclear DNA locus (growth hormone) for which species-specific fixed differences exist were analyzed to detect additional hybrids and to determine if introgression had occurred. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was used to identify the maternal parent of each hybrid. Evidence of introgression was found among the five previously identified hybrids. All hybrid specimens had chinook salmon mtDNA, indicating that hybridization between chinook salmon and pink salmon in the St. Marys River is asymmetric and perhaps unidirectional. Ecological, physiological, and sexual selection forces may contribute to this asymmetric hybridization. Introgression between these highly differentiated species has implications for management, systematics, and conservation of Pacific salmon.

  18. Structure and Function of Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1, the Three Musketeers of Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Trempe, Jean-François; Fon, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson’s disease are caused by mutations in three genes: Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1. These genes encode for proteins with distinct enzymatic activities that may work together to confer neuroprotection. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been shown to ubiquitinate substrates and to trigger proteasome-dependent degradation or autophagy, two crucial homeostatic processes in neurons. PINK1 is a mitochondrial protein kinase whose activity is required for Parkin-dependent mitophagy, a process that has been linked to neurodegeneration. Finally, DJ-1 is a protein homologous to a broad class of bacterial enzymes that may function as a sensor and modulator of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review the literature on the structure and biochemical functions of these three proteins. PMID:23626584

  19. Hibiscus flower

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    The flower is the reproductive structure of the angiosperms. Many angiosperms need insects to transfer pollen from one flower to the stigma of another. After fertilization, the ovules inside the flower develop into seeds. Enclosed seeds distinguish angiosperms from gymnosperms.

  20. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack.

    PubMed

    Santiago, R; Souto, X C; Sotelo, J; Butrón, A; Malvar, R A

    2003-10-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre), is one of the most important insect pests of maize (Zea mays L.) in northwestern Spain. The objectives of this work were to evaluate, at different times during the growth of maize, structural traits related to the entry point and tissues on which larvae feed and to determine the relationship between these structural traits and the stem borer resistance. Six inbred lines with different levels of stem resistance to S. nonagrioides were evaluated in several trials. Potential structural resistance factors included rind and pith puncture resistance (RPR and PPR), rind thickness, length of the meristematic area (LMA), and pith parenchyma interlumen thickness (PPIT). Surprisingly, the inbred lines that showed the strongest stalks, EP42 and EP47, were not stem resistant to pink stem borer attack, while the stem resistant inbreds A509, CM151, and PB130 were among the least resistant to rind puncture. There were no significant differences among resistant and susceptible inbreds for the rind thickness. However, the susceptible inbred EP42 had the softest internode pith, and the resistant inbred PB130 showed the hardest, as was expected. Susceptible inbred lines in general showed higher values for the LMA, while the PPIT was important for individual inbreds. The results suggest that the usefulness of these characters as estimators of pink stem borer resistance is limited to some genotypes. Besides, even among those genotypes, other mechanisms of resistance that do not involve stalk strength could be present. Among the traits considered, the LMA was the most promising as an indicator of resistance to pink stem borer, although further experimentation is necessary. PMID:14650532

  1. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink bollworm in cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, V. B.; Johnson, C. W.; Lewis, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The use of satellite data from the ERTS-1 satellite for mapping the cotton acreage in the southern deserts of California is discussed. The differences between a growing, a defoliated, and a plowed down field can be identified using an optical color combiner. The specific application of the land use maps is to control the spread of the pink bollworms by establishing planting and plowdown dates.

  2. Saponaria vaccaria ‘Pink Beauty’, a new test plant for carnation mottle virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Hakkaart; Marja van Olphen

    1971-01-01

    Saponaria vaccaria Pink Beauty was found to be a test plant for carnation mottle virus. Its value was compared with that ofChenopodium amaranticolor for indexing for the virus, and this bioassay was compared with a serological diagnosis. Serological double-diffusion tests gave the quickest reactions, but proved to be the least sensitive; addition of 1M urea did not increase sensitivity. Local

  3. Spawning and Larval Survival of the Pink Shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, in a Small Culture Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine M. Cripe

    1997-01-01

    Eye-enucleated pink shrimp, Penaeus duorarum, were successfully matured, mated, and spawned in 1.23-m diameter tanks. Broodstock of five to six female shrimp spawned, on average, 50% of days during which expanded ovaries were observed. Average daily spawn of viable eggs ranged from 2,750 (September) to 11,026 (March). In a preliminary experiment, shrimp fed the bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, as well as

  4. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  5. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  6. Mitochondrial proteolytic stress induced by loss of mortalin function is rescued by Parkin and PINK1

    PubMed Central

    Burbulla, L F; Fitzgerald, J C; Stegen, K; Westermeier, J; Thost, A-K; Kato, H; Mokranjac, D; Sauerwald, J; Martins, L M; Woitalla, D; Rapaport, D; Riess, O; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Rasse, T M; Krüger, R

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperone mortalin was implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) because of its reduced levels in the brains of PD patients and disease-associated rare genetic variants that failed to rescue impaired mitochondrial integrity in cellular knockdown models. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying mortalin-related neurodegeneration, we dissected the cellular surveillance mechanisms related to mitochondrial quality control, defined the effects of reduced mortalin function at the molecular and cellular levels and investigated the functional interaction of mortalin with Parkin and PINK1, two PD-related proteins involved in mitochondrial homeostasis. We found that reduced mortalin function leads to: (1) activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), (2) increased susceptibility towards intramitochondrial proteolytic stress, (3) increased autophagic degradation of fragmented mitochondria and (4) reduced mitochondrial mass in human cells in vitro and ex vivo. These alterations caused increased vulnerability toward apoptotic cell death. Proteotoxic perturbations induced by either partial loss of mortalin or chemical induction were rescued by complementation with native mortalin, but not disease-associated mortalin variants, and were independent of the integrity of autophagic pathways. However, Parkin and PINK1 rescued loss of mortalin phenotypes via increased lysosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance and required intact autophagic machinery. Our results on loss of mortalin function reveal a direct link between impaired mitochondrial proteostasis, UPR(mt) and PD and show that effective removal of dysfunctional mitochondria via either genetic (PINK1 and Parkin overexpression) or pharmacological intervention (rapamycin) may compensate mitochondrial phenotypes. PMID:24743735

  7. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500??m. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while ?34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to ?31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  8. Mitophagy of damaged mitochondria occurs locally in distal neuronal axons and requires PINK1 and Parkin.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Ghazaleh; Schlehe, Julia S; LaVoie, Matthew J; Schwarz, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    To minimize oxidative damage to the cell, malfunctioning mitochondria need to be removed by mitophagy. In neuronal axons, mitochondrial damage may occur in distal regions, far from the soma where most lysosomal degradation is thought to occur. In this paper, we report that PINK1 and Parkin, two Parkinson's disease-associated proteins, mediate local mitophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria in neuronal axons. To reduce cytotoxicity and mimic physiological levels of mitochondrial damage, we selectively damaged a subset of mitochondria in hippocampal axons. Parkin was rapidly recruited to damaged mitochondria in axons followed by formation of LC3-positive autophagosomes and LAMP1-positive lysosomes. In PINK1(-/-) axons, damaged mitochondria did not accumulate Parkin and failed to be engulfed in autophagosomes. Similarly, initiation of mitophagy was blocked in Parkin(-/-) axons. Our findings demonstrate that the PINK1-Parkin-mediated pathway is required for local mitophagy in distal axons in response to focal damage. Local mitophagy likely provides rapid neuroprotection against oxidative stress without a requirement for retrograde transport to the soma. PMID:25154397

  9. PINK1 Deficiency Enhances Inflammatory Cytokine Release from Acutely Prepared Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Byun, Ji-Won; Choi, Insup; Kim, Beomsue; Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eunhye

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative motor disease caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Because brain inflammation has been considered a risk factor for PD, we analyzed whether PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), an autosomal recessive familial PD gene, regulates brain inflammation during injury states. Using acutely prepared cortical slices to mimic injury, we analyzed expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 at the mRNA and protein levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of these cytokines was higher at 6-24 h after slicing in PINK1 knockout (KO) slices compared to that in wild-type (WT) slices. In serial experiments to understand the signaling pathways that increase inflammatory responses in KO slices, we found that I?B degradation was enhanced but Akt phosphorylation decreased in KO slices compared to those in WT slices. In further experiments, an inhibitor of PI3K (LY294002) upstream of Akt increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that PINK1 deficiency enhance brain inflammation through reduced Akt activation and enhanced I?B degradation in response to brain injury. PMID:23585721

  10. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh.

    PubMed

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the 'pink berry' consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and (34) S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0-500??m. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while ?(34) S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to -31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate-sulfide isotopic fractionations (15-53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  11. Loss of PINK1 Attenuates HIF-1? Induction by Preventing 4E-BP1-Dependent Switch in Protein Translation under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L.; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1?/? mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1? protein, HIF-1? transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1? pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress. PMID:24553947

  12. Loss of PINK1 attenuates HIF-1? induction by preventing 4E-BP1-dependent switch in protein translation under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R; Kang, Un Jung

    2014-02-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1(-/-) mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1? protein, HIF-1? transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1? pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress. PMID:24553947

  13. PINK1 overexpression protects against C2-ceramide-induced CAD cell death through the PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Ruth Mélida; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2012-07-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. Mutations in several genes, including PINK1, have provided an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this pathology. We analyzed the role of PINK1 overexpression (wild-type PINK1 or PINK1 with G309D or L347P mutations) on neurotoxicity associated with C2-ceramide exposure in CAD cells. CAD cells were transiently transfected with either PINK1 (wild type or mutated) or with empty vector and then treated with 25-?M C2-ceramide for 6 h. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed by flow cytometry, expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was determined by real-time PCR, and AKT phosphorylation was analyzed by western blot. CAD cells overexpressing wild-type PINK1 and treated with C2-ceramide showed lower percentages of depolarized mitochondria, lower expressions of Bax and higher expressions of Bcl-2 than non-transfected cells. In addition, wild-type PINK1 rescued C2-ceramide-induced inhibition of AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of PINK1 G309D mutation caused an increase of depolarized mitochondria, a decrease of Bax and an increase in Bcl-2 expression levels. PINK1 L4347P mutation was associated with a higher drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and increased expression of Bax, with minimal variation in the expression of Bcl-2. PINK1 mutations did not result in variations of AKT phosphorylation. We suggest that by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and reinforcing anti-apoptotic and neuronal survival pathways such as Bcl-2 and PI3K/AKT, PINK1 confers a neuroprotective effect against the neurotoxin C2-ceramide. These effects were abrogated by PINK1 mutations. PMID:22212487

  14. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9?M, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear ?-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing ?-catenin levels. PMID:26026364

  15. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

    2011-11-01

    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. PMID:21839160

  16. Phenolic compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa and influence of organic residues on its antioxidant and antitumoral properties.

    PubMed

    Formagio, A S N; Ramos, D D; Vieira, M C; Ramalho, S R; Silva, M M; Zárate, N A H; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g-1, respectively) and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g-1, respectively) from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 ?g mL-1) and calyces (37.15 ?g mL-1) demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562), with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL-1 (organosuper®) and 1.16 mg mL-1 (poultry litter), with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects. PMID:25945622

  17. Aqueous extracts of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) varieties inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 ?g/mL) exhibited higher ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 ?g/mL), while the white variety (90.5 ?g/mL) exhibited higher ?-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 ?g/mL). However, the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their ?-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent. PMID:23216107

  18. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

  19. Anticonvulsive activity of Albizzia lebbeck, Hibiscus rosa sinesis and Butea monosperma in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Kasture, V S; Chopde, C T; Deshmukh, V K

    2000-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of leaves of Albizzia lebbeck and flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinesis and the petroleum ether extract of flowers of Butea monosperma exhibited anticonvulsant activity. The bioassay guided fractionation indicated that the anticonvulsant activity lies in the methanolic fraction of chloroform soluble part of ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. lebbeck, acetone soluble part of ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinesis flowers and acetone soluble part of petroleum ether extract of B. monosperma flowers. The fractions protected animals from maximum electro shock, electrical kindling and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. The fractions also inhibited convulsions induced by lithium-pilocarpine and electrical kindling. However, they failed to protect animals from strychnine-induced convulsions. The fractions antagonised the behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and potentiated the pentobarbitone-induced sleep. The fractions raised brain contents of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin. These fractions were found to be anxiogenic and general depressant of central nervous system. PMID:10904147

  20. Toxic effects of oral administration of extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Fakeye, Titilayo O; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, D U; Yadav, N P; Khanuja, S P S

    2009-03-01

    The effects of a 90-day oral administration of water and alcohol extracts of dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated in albino rats. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were monitored every 30 days.The death of the animals was preceded by a severe loss in weight, accompanied with diarrhoea in animals on the 2000 mg/kg dose. There was an increase in food intake (g) per kg body weight per day in the aqueous (A) and ethanol (E) 300 mg/kg extract groups. Significant reductions in the erythrocyte count with no difference in total leucocyte count were observed. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was enhanced by the administration of aqueous and 50% ethanol extract with a significant increase in its level at higher doses (p < 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine levels were significantly affected by all the extracts at the different dose levels. However, aqueous extracts exhibited a significant increase in creatinine levels (p < 0.05) at higher doses. The cholesterol levels were generally not significantly affected by the extracts. No significant histopathological changes were observed, although there was a significant reduction in the weight of the spleen of the animals administered with ethanol and water extracts when compared with the control (p < 0.01). Other organs were of the same relative weight. PMID:19003943

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Che; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Wang, San-Fa; Chiang, Huei-Ching; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Ho, Yung-Chyan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2003-08-27

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, is usually used effectively in native medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, and liver disorders. Here, we report an extract, HSE (H. sabdariffa extract), which is designed to exhibit hypolipidemia and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis. New Zealand White rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3%), lard oil (3%) diet (HCD) with or without 0.5 or 1% HSE for 10 weeks. The levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in the serum of rabbits fed HCD plus HSE than in the serum of rabbits fed HCD. Feeding HSE (0.5 and 1% in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Histopathological examination showed that HSE reduced foam cell formation and inhibited smooth muscle cell migration and calcification in the blood vessel of rabbits. These results suggest that HSE inhibits serum lipids and shows an antiatherosclerotic activity. PMID:12926900

  2. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  3. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-? It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-? and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-?. PMID:23569927

  4. [Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-03-01

    A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. PMID:23755502

  5. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

  6. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Tá?a

    2011-01-01

    Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15?min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360??g/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

  7. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  8. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.

    PubMed

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products. PMID:25477650

  9. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa. PMID:25312603

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ? 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum ?-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:24549255

  11. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30?nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38?kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9?kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2?Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5?Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV. PMID:19478438

  12. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. PMID:25924527

  13. A Game-Theoretic Model of Interactions between Hibiscus Latent Singapore Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Niu, Shengniao; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-01-01

    Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature and their interactions affecting host plants would depend mainly on plant species, virus strains, the order of infection and initial amount of inoculum. Hence, the prediction of outcome of virus competition in plants is not easy. In this study, we applied evolutionary game theory to model the interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana benthamiana under co-infection in a plant host. The accumulation of viral RNA was quantified using qPCR at 1, 2 and 8 days post infection (dpi), and two different methods were employed to predict the dominating virus. TMV was predicted to dominate the game in the long run and this prediction was confirmed by both qRT-PCR at 8 dpi and the death of co-infected plants after 15 dpi. In addition, we validated our model by using data reported in the literature. Ten out of fourteen reported co-infection outcomes agreed with our predictions. Explanations were given for the four interactions that did not agree with our model. Hence, it serves as a valuable tool in making long term predictions using short term data obtained in virus co-infections. PMID:22623970

  14. Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf. PMID:25342553

  15. Neuroprotective activity of gossypin from Hibiscus vitifolius against global cerebral ischemia model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Ganapaty, S.; Ramkishan, A.; Narsu, M. Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of gossypin (isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius) against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawlet rats of wither gender were used in the study. Evaluation of cerbroprotective activity of bioflavonoid gossypin (in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg oral doses) isolated from H. vitifolius was carried out by using the global cerebral I/R model by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. The antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic levels were estimated along with histopathological studies. Result: Gossypin showed dose-dependent neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) and increase in the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and total thiol levels in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Cerebral infarction area was markedly reduced in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: Gossypin showed potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral I/R injury-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24347764

  16. Polyphenols of Hibiscus sabdariffa improved diabetic nephropathy via attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Sun; Wang, Chau-Jong; Huang, Chien-Ning; Chen, Mu-Lin; Chen, Ming-Jinn; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported that Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenol extracts (HPE) are beneficial for diabetic nephropathy. Since an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in renal fibrosis, the present study aimed to investigate whether HPE could prevent EMT of tubular cells. Treatment of HPE reduced angiotensin II receptors (AT)-1 and transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) evoked by high glucose and recovered the increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin. HPE decreased fibronectin, thus avoiding EMT and accompanying fibrosis. AT-1 was upstream to TGF-?1, while there were recruitment signals between AT-1 and TGF-?1. Scan electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that the interacting filaments of tubular cells disappeared when treated with high glucose, and type IV collagen of tubulointerstitial decreased in diabetic kidneys. Treatment of HPE recovered morphological changes of cell junction and basement membrane. We suggest that HPE has the potential to be an adjuvant for diabetic nephropathy by regulating AT-1/TGF-?1 and EMT. PMID:23848500

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in-vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Hibiscus leaf.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Kasra; Samavati, Vahid; Shahidi, Seyed-Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and the water-to-raw material ratio on extraction yield of crude polysaccharide from the leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRLP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize HRLP extraction yield by implementing the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of HRLP were: ultrasonic power, 93.59 W; extraction time, 25.71 min; extraction temperature, 93.18°C; and the water to raw material ratio, 24.3 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 9.66±0.18%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 9.526%. The results demonstrated that HRLP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:25150112

  18. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

  19. Downregulation of Pink1 influences mitochondrial fusion-fission machinery and sensitizes to neurotoxins in dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Charry, Liliana; Cookson, Mark R; Niño, Andrea; Arboleda, Humberto; Arboleda, Gonzalo

    2014-09-01

    It is now well established that mitochondria are organelles that, far from being static, are subject to a constant process of change. This process, which has been called mitochondrial dynamics, includes processes of both fusion and fission. Loss of Pink1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) function is associated with early onset recessive Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that mitochondrial dynamics might be affected by loss of the mitochondrial kinase. Here, we report the effects of silencing Pink1 on mitochondrial fusion and fission events in dopaminergic neuron cell lines. Cells lacking Pink1 were more sensitive to cell death induced by C2-Ceramide, which inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In the same cell lines, mitochondrial morphology was fragmented and this was enhanced by application of forskolin, which stimulates the cAMP pathway that phosphorylates Drp1 and thereby inactivates it. Cells lacking Pink1 had lower Drp1 and Mfn2 expression. Based on these data, we propose that Pink1 may exert a neuroprotective role in part by limiting mitochondrial fission. PMID:24792327

  20. Molecular changes in the maize composite EPS12 during selection for resistance to pink stem borer.

    PubMed

    Butrón, A; Tarrío, R; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-04-01

    The pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre) is the most important pest of maize (Zea mays L.) throughout the Mediterranean area. The maize composite EPS12 has been chosen as the base population for a breeding program based on its resistance to pink stem borer, with the main selection criterion being resistance to stem tunneling. Yield was taken as a secondary selection criterion to avoid any unwanted negatively correlated response on this character. The aims of investigation were: (1) to monitor the effects of selection for resistance to pink stem borer on allele frequency at 70 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and their impact on the genetic structure of EPS12 and (2) to identify loci at which allelic frequencies changed significantly due to directional selection. Genetic diversity was reduced during the selection process (as expected since random genetic drift as well as selection could reduce genetic variability), but not significantly so. Although the loss of genetic variation was generally consistent with that expected in a model in which random genetic drift acts alone on neutral alleles, the changes observed in the frequency of five alleles were significantly greater than expected. Further, the linear trend of the departure from the random genetic drift model was significant for some allelic versions of two SSR markers, umc1329 and phi076; directional selection was therefore acting on these loci. The significant effect of directional selection on those markers suggests the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for tunnel length and/or for yield under artificial infestation with Sesamia nonagrioides on the long arm of chromosome 4. PMID:15714327

  1. Antibiosis and Preferences as Factors in the Resistance of Certain Cottons to Pink Bollworm Attack

    E-print Network

    Reed, David Kent

    1960-01-01

    that the resulting cot- ~ wss free cf pink bollwozm 1nfestaticn in the fieM. He attribute4 the resistance to the copious supply af essential oils foun4 in the glands of the plant au4 boils. Since back crosses of G. thuxberi X G. barbsdense with G. barMense vere... and PhotograPhing slides ~ Artificial Wounding of Texas 373 boils . Boll Weevil Tests with Texas 373 . Preference Study Hairiness Test . 23 25 25 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 Color Test . Gland Test . Field Screening . ~ ~ 32 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ 33...

  2. Effect of respiratory exercises on asthma. The Pink City lung exerciser.

    PubMed

    Singh, V

    1987-01-01

    Twelve subjects with mild asthmatic episodes in the form of nocturnal precipitation were studied. A two-week schedule of placebo administration, pranayamic breathing exercises using a Pink City lung exerciser alone, and exercises using the lung exerciser with hot, humid air were performed. Five of the 12 asthmatics showed highly significant increases in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) with the lung exerciser alone, while eight of the 12 cases showed highly significant increases in PEFR with exercise using hot, humid air. The frequency of nocturnal wheezing also declined. It can be inferred that slow breathing alone and in combination with hot, humid air has a nonspecific bronchoprotective or bronchorelaxing effect. PMID:3443597

  3. Antibiosis and Preferences as Factors in the Resistance of Certain Cottons to Pink Bollworm Attack 

    E-print Network

    Reed, David Kent

    1960-01-01

    ANTIBIOSIS AED PREFERENCE AS FACTORS IN THE RESISTANCE QF CERTAIN COTTONS TO PINK BOLD%EM ATTACK A Thesis By Su@ad. tted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... during the early phases of the work. Thanks must also be Thanks axe also due to Dr. R. L. Hanna, Mr. M. A. Price, and Dr. expressed to Dr. J. C. Gaines for his encouxagement during the course of th5. s work; and to the author's wife, Mrs. Shirley D...

  4. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Hyperthermophilic Pink Filament Community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pace, Norman R.

    This journal article reports the molecular phylogenetic approach used to analyze a microbial community associated with the 84 to 88 degrees C outflow from Octopus Spring. The authors perform techniques such as microscopy, DNA extraction and amplification, cloning and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, phylogenetic analysis, and in situ hybridization to determine the limited phylogenetic diversity of the pink filaments including hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Located in PubMed, this article contains a link to a printable PDF version.

  5. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Kuriyan; Divya R Kumar; Rajendran R; Anura V Kurpad

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. METHODS: The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg\\/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract

  6. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Herrera-Arellano; S. Flores-Romero; M. A Chávez-Soto; J Tortoriello

    2004-01-01

    In order to compare the antihypertensive effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa with captopril, a controlled and randomized clinical trial was done. Patients from 30 to 80 years old with diagnosed hypertension and without antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before were included. The experimental procedure consisted of the administration of an infusion prepared with

  7. Effects of an aqueous extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus, Dicliptera verticillata on some physiological and biochemical parameters of reproduction in immature female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B Telefo; P. F Moundipa; A. N Tchana; C Tchouanguep Dzickotze; F. T Mbiapo

    1998-01-01

    Different doses of aqueous extracts from the leaves of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Hibiscus macranthus and Dicliptera verticillata, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or infertility in women, were given daily to 22 day old rats for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days by gastric intubation. At the end of each experimental period, the

  8. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  9. Effect of potassium on drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. Leprechaun: Plant growth, leaf macro- and micronutrient content and root longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan N. Egilla; Fred T. Davies; Malcolm C. Drew

    2001-01-01

    As competition for the limited water supply available for irrigation of horticultural crops increases, research into crop management practices that enhance drought resistance, plant water-use efficiency and plant growth when water supply is limited has become increasingly essential. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of potassium (K) nutritional status on the drought resistance of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cv.

  10. PINK1 protects against cell death induced by mitochondrial depolarization, by phosphorylating Bcl-xL and impairing its pro-apoptotic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Arena, G; Gelmetti, V; Torosantucci, L; Vignone, D; Lamorte, G; De Rosa, P; Cilia, E; Jonas, E A; Valente, E M

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the PINK1 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). PINK1 encodes a mitochondrial kinase with neuroprotective activity, implicated in maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis and function. In concurrence with Parkin, PINK1 regulates mitochondrial trafficking and degradation of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy. Moreover, PINK1 can activate autophagy by interacting with the pro-autophagic protein Beclin-1. Here, we report that, upon mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic protein also known to inhibit autophagy through its binding to Beclin-1. PINK1–Bcl-xL interaction does not interfere either with Beclin-1 release from Bcl-xL or the mitophagy pathway; rather it protects against cell death by hindering the pro-apoptotic cleavage of Bcl-xL. Our data provide a functional link between PINK1, Bcl-xL and apoptosis, suggesting a novel mechanism through which PINK1 regulates cell survival. This pathway could be relevant for the pathogenesis of PD as well as other diseases including cancer. PMID:23519076

  11. Composition of the essential oil of pink chablis bluebeard (Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Durio') and its biological activity against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caryopteris ×clandonensis A. Simmonds ex C. H. Curtis 'Durio' Pink Chablis™, (Lamiaceae) a pink-flowered cultivar distinctive among the typically blue-flowered cultivars of bluebeard, is valued as a small, deciduous shrub in the landscape for its mounded growth habit, showy flower display in summer,...

  12. Effects of EDTA on solubility of cadmium, zinc, and lead and their uptake by rainbow pink and vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2004-04-01

    Rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis), a potential phytoextraction plant, can accumulate high concentrations of Cd from contaminated soils. Vetiver grass (Vetiver zizanioides) has strong and long root tissues and is a potential phytostabilization plant since it can tolerate and grow well in soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals. Soil was moderately artificially contaminated by cadmium (20 mg/kg), zinc (500 mg/kg), and lead (1000 mg/kg) in pot experiments. Three concentrations of Na2-EDTA solution (0, 5, and 10 mmol/kg soil) were added to the contaminated soils to study the influence of EDTA solution on phytoextraction by rainbow pink or phytostabilization by vetiver grass. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in a soil solution of rainbow pink significantly increased following the addition of EDTA (p < 0.05). The concentrations of Cd and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink also significantly increased after EDTA solution was applied (p < 0.05), but the increase for Zn was insignificant. EDTA treatment significantly increased the total uptake of Pb in the shoot, over that obtained with the control treatment (p < 0.001), but it did not significantly increase the total uptake of Cd and Zn. The concentrations of Zn and Pb in the shoots of rainbow pink are significantly correlated with those in the soil solution, but no relationship exists with concentrations in vetiver grass. The toxicity of highly contaminating metals did not affect the growth of vetiver grass, which was found to grow very well in this study. Results of this study indicate that rainbow pink can be considered to be a potential phytoextraction plant for removing Cd or Zn from metal-contaminated soils, and that vetiver grass can be regarded as a potential phytostabilization plant that can be grown in a site contaminated with multiple heavy metals. PMID:14987941

  13. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  14. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

  15. Effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba in mature rat testis function.

    PubMed

    Moundipa, F P; Kamtchouing, P; Koueta, N; Tantchou, J; Foyang, N P; Mbiapo, F T

    1999-05-01

    Mature male albino Wistar rats (180-220 g) were given by gastric intubation Hibiscus macranthus Hochst A ex Rich (Malvaceae) and Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) aqueous extract from both fresh and dry leaves, at a dose equivalent to 0.720 or 0.108 g of plant, respectively per kg body weight. This was to evaluate their effects on male reproductive function. Control groups were treated equally, but given water instead of the extract. After the treatment periods, animals were killed, their blood collected, the testes and some annex glands removed for histological and biochemical analysis. Results showed that the extract from fresh leaves significantly increased the body weight of rats by 17% from day 7 as compared to controls, whereas the increase was less pronounced (4%) when the rats were given dry leaf extract. The weight of seminal vesicles of rats given the extracts also increased after 15 days. The histological analysis of testis showed abundant spermatozoa in the lumen of the seminiferous tubulus from day 7 in rats fed with the extract when compared to the controls. The serum level of testosterone was significantly increased on the 15th day by 80% in rats given both types of extracts compared to the controls. Testis of treated rats showed high testosterone production in vitro (136 and 62%, respectively for treated and control after 15 days, compared to those of 3 days). Activity of prostatic acid phosphatase was high in prostate, testis and serum of treated rats in all experimental period. From these findings and observation, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of H. macranthus and B. alba had anabolizing and virilizing effects. PMID:10465653

  16. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300??g/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75??g/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300??g/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16?g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5?mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5?mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5?mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000?mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3?mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

  17. Water deficit and heat affect the tolerance to high illumination in hibiscus plants.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Romualdo; Quiles, María José

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the effects of water deficit and heat, as well as the involvement of chlororespiration and the ferredoxin-mediated cyclic pathway, on the tolerance of photosynthesis to high light intensity in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis plants. Drought and heat resulted in the down-regulation of photosynthetic linear electron transport in the leaves, although only a slight decrease in variable fluorescence (Fv)/maximal fluorescence (Fm) was observed, indicating that the chloroplast was protected by mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation energy to prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The incubation of leaves from unstressed plants under high light intensity resulted in an increase of the activity of electron donation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and ferredoxin to plastoquinone, but no increase was observed in plants exposed to water deficit, suggesting that cyclic electron transport was stimulated by high light only in control plants. In contrast, the activities of the chlororespiration enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase (NDH) complex and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX)) increased after incubation under high light intensity in leaves of the water deficit plants, but not in control plants, suggesting that chlororespiration was stimulated in stressed plants. The results indicate that the relative importance of chlororespiration and the cyclic electron pathway in the tolerance of photosynthesis to high illumination differs under stress conditions. When plants were not subjected to stress, the contribution of chlororespiration to photosynthetic electron flow regulation was not relevant, and another pathway, such as the ferredoxin-mediated cyclic pathway, was more important. However, when plants were subjected to water deficit and heat, chlororespiration was probably essential. PMID:23470922

  18. Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Arullappan, Sangeetha; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. rosa sinesis extract using a disc diffusion method. Crude petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract from the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant were prepared using a cold extraction technique. These extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 4 mg/disc to 0.017 mg/disc against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The petroleum ether extract from the leaves, stems and flowers and methanol extract from the leaves showed inhibition zones with diameters > 12 mm against MRSA. Overall, the petroleum ether extract from flowers at concentrations of 4 mg/disc and 2 mg/disc displayed the strongest inhibition zones of 18.6 ± 2.85 mm and 18.5 ± 0.29 mm, respectively, as compared to vancomycin (30 ?g/ml), which did not differ significantly from the 18.0 ± 0.10 mm size of the vancomycin (30 ?g/ml) inhibition zone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. rosa sinensis extract is a potential antibacterial agent for treating MRSA infection. PMID:24575183

  19. Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus (Malvaceae), curcumin and resveratrol as alternative medicinal agents against metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Baños, Guadalupe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an obesity-associated collection of disorders, each of which contributes to cardiovascular risk. For patients with MS, it is difficult to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms. Therefore, the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. Numerous experimental studies have confirmed the important role of medicinal plants or their active components in the prevention and treatment, and in lowering risk factors of MS. As oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the association between obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant components like polyphenols might be useful as a treatment for MS. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L (HSE), rich in several polyphenols, is commonly and effectively used in native medicines against hypertension, diabetes and liver disorders. HSE has also shown therapeutic promise in the prevention of MS in patients, probably due to its polyphenol content. Curcumins, derived from the spice turmeric, and resveratrol, polyphenols found in grapes and red wine respectively, in addition to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, inhibit preadipocyte proliferation, de novo lipogenesis and fat accumulation in liver. Thus, due to their efficacy in the regulation of multiple targets, polyphenols have received considerable interest as potential therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of MS. This review discusses the therapeutic use of HSE, as well as curcumin and resveratrol, in the context of obesity as an initiator of insulin resistance and hypertension, the two main features of MS, together with the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:22721439

  20. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra S; Abozed, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes' residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker's formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  1. Water Deficit and Heat Affect the Tolerance to High Illumination in Hibiscus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Romualdo; Quiles, María José

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the effects of water deficit and heat, as well as the involvement of chlororespiration and the ferredoxin-mediated cyclic pathway, on the tolerance of photosynthesis to high light intensity in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis plants. Drought and heat resulted in the down–regulation of photosynthetic linear electron transport in the leaves, although only a slight decrease in variable fluorescence (Fv)/maximal fluorescence (Fm) was observed, indicating that the chloroplast was protected by mechanisms that dissipate excess excitation energy to prevent damage to the photosynthetic apparatus. The incubation of leaves from unstressed plants under high light intensity resulted in an increase of the activity of electron donation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and ferredoxin to plastoquinone, but no increase was observed in plants exposed to water deficit, suggesting that cyclic electron transport was stimulated by high light only in control plants. In contrast, the activities of the chlororespiration enzymes (NADH dehydrogenase (NDH) complex and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX)) increased after incubation under high light intensity in leaves of the water deficit plants, but not in control plants, suggesting that chlororespiration was stimulated in stressed plants. The results indicate that the relative importance of chlororespiration and the cyclic electron pathway in the tolerance of photosynthesis to high illumination differs under stress conditions. When plants were not subjected to stress, the contribution of chlororespiration to photosynthetic electron flow regulation was not relevant, and another pathway, such as the ferredoxin-mediated cyclic pathway, was more important. However, when plants were subjected to water deficit and heat, chlororespiration was probably essential. PMID:23470922

  2. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to ECMWF analysis. The mesoscale model performs significantly better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The improvement provided by the mesoscale model for water vapour comes mainly from (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS (250 m for BRAMS and ~1 km for ECMWF model) and (ii) the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour in the UTLS. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, ECMWF analysis gives good results partly thanks to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that in undersaturated layers, the water vapour profile depends mainly on the dynamics. In saturated/supersaturated layers, microphysical processes play an important role and have to be taken into account on top of the dynamical processes to understand the water vapour profiles. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly dryer than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

  3. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250. Conclusion: These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Herb-drug interaction between the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and hydrochlorothiazide in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ndu, Okechukwu O; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Ehiemere, Chinwendu O; Ndukwe, Nichola C; Ochiogu, Izuchukwu S

    2011-06-01

    Decoctions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Family Malvaceae) are very popular for the preparation of homemade refreshing drinks and are also used medicinally for a variety of ailments. Particularly remarkable are the various scientific reports supporting diuretic and antihypertensive potentials. It is therefore not unusual for patients who are on orthodox antihypertensive medications to use medicinal H. sabdariffa drinks concomitantly without regard to the possibility of herb-drug interactions. This possibility necessitated this study in which the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), a commonly prescribed diuretic drug, were examined. The effects of concomitant administration of HSE on urine volume, urine pH, and urinary concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions, as well as on the pharmacokinetic parameters of HCT, were determined in experimental rats and rabbits. Co-administration of HSE with HCT caused a significant increase in the volume of urine excreted and resulted in a decrease in the pH of urine and the concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride ions. Co-administration of HSE (20-40?mg/kg) with HCT (10?mg/kg) increased and prolonged the plasma concentration, the mean area under the concentration-time curve, and the volume of distribution of HCT achieved over the 24-hour sampling period. The plasma clearance and the elimination rate constant of HCT decreased with increasing dose of HSE co-administered with the HCT. The results of this study reveal a possible herb-drug interaction involving HCT and HSE, used as an ingredient in medicinal or refreshing drinks in many countries. PMID:21480802

  5. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity. PMID:24730725

  6. Dose-dependent changes in some haematological parameters during short-term administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx aqueous extract (Zobo) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adigun, M O; Ogundipe, O D; Anetor, J I; Odetunde, A O

    2006-03-01

    The extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (MALVACEAE) is popularly consumed and assumed to have haematological benefits, but no scientific investigations are known in the literature to have been conducted to corroborate this claim. The present study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Calyx extract on some haematological parameters (Haemoglobin, haematocrit, total white blood cells and differentials) in rats, with a view to determining its medicinal usefulness in the treatment of anaemia. Proximate analysis on dry matter basis, and mineral clement analysis were carried out on dried calyx of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Different doses of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L calyx extract (200 - 1000 mg/ kg body wt.) were administered orally by intra Ocsophageal cannulation to four groups of six animals (rats) per group for 14 days. Venous blood samples were collected from each animal in all the groups including the control group on days 0 and 14 of the experiment for haematological investigations. Paired stat analysis of day 0 and day 14 results was done for each group using student's T-test. Proximate and mineral analysis of dry calyx confirmed the presence of some nutrients, e.g. protein, mineral elements (potassium) and Vitamin C in the calyx. After 14 days of the extract administration, significant elevations were observed in haematocrit (P = 0.03) and haemoglobin (P = 0.004) in the groups of animals given doses of 200 mg and 400 mg per kg (P < 0.05) while the groups given high doses revealed significant reductions (P 0.031) in the haematocrit but not in haemoglobin. This study suggests that, aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. calyx used in this experiment had beneficial effects on the red cells at low doses (200 mg-400 mg/kg) which may not be sustained at higher doses. However, the long-term effects and the possible mechanism (s) of action of the extract should be studied before a recommendation could be made. PMID:17209331

  7. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-08-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and ?-carotene contents increased (P?pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration. PMID:25114339

  8. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  9. Genetic association study of PINK1 coding polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Groen, Justus L; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Toulina, Anna; Rivoiro, Chiara; Salehi-Rad, Shabnam; Sato, Christine; Morgan, Angharad; Liang, Yan; Postuma, Ronald B; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Lang, Anthony E; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2004-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder with a substantial genetic component (which is more pronounced in earlier onset cases). In addition to three well-confirmed PD genes (SNCA, parkin and DJ-1), mutations in the PTEN Induced Kinase (PINK1) gene have recently been identified in families with recessive early onset PD. We tested the hypothesis that three common coding variations (Leu63Leu, Ala340Thr and Asn521Thr) could increase the risk of PD. We performed a case control association study in a series of 91 PD cases (Caucasian of Canadian origin) and 182 normal controls. The patients were largely pre-selected for having an early age of onset (<50 years) and/or a positive family history. Our results did not reveal any evidence of association between PD and any of the three SNPs at the allelic or genotypic levels (p > 0.25). Furthermore, we did not detect a modifying effect for any genotype upon the age of onset in the PD group (p > 0.19). Nevertheless, it remains to be evaluated whether PINK1 variations contribute to the risk of common late onset sporadic PD. PMID:15542245

  10. Effect of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the pink heelsplitter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to selectively kill sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) in the tributaries of the Great Lakes. Over the years, TFM was tested most often on nontarget fishes and only occasionally on invertebrates, including freshwater mussels. We exposed pink heelsplitters (Potamilus alatus ) to TFM concentrations and exposure times similar to those in lampricide treatments. Tests were conducted in water similar in quality to the Poultney River, New York, a stream that contains pink heelsplitters and is scheduled for lampricide treatment in 1991. Mussels were exposed to TFM for either 12 or 24 h and observed daily in well water for 14 days. Ninety percent of the mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L of TFM for 12 h survived, however, only 50% of the mussels exposed to that concentration for 24 h survived. TFM seems to narcotize or anesthetize mussels. Mortality of mussels exposed to 3.5 mg/L TFM for 12 h seemed to be 60% immediately after treatment, but the actual mortality was only 10% after a 14-day recovery period.

  11. Analysis of resistance to Cry1Ac in field-collected pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae), populations.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Abhishek; Sree, K Sowjanya; Sachdev, Bindiya; Rashmi, M A; Ravi, K C; Suresh, P J; Mohan, Komarlingam S; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2014-01-01

    High survivorship of pink bollworrm, Pectinophora gossypiella in bolls of Bollgard® cotton hybrids and resistance to Cry1Ac protein, expressed in Bollgard cotton were reported in field-populations collected from the state of Gujarat (western India) in 2010. We have found Cry1Ac-resistance in pink bollworm populations sourced from Bollgard and non-Bt cotton fields in the adjoining states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh in Central India. Further, we observed reduced binding of labeled Cry1Ac protein to receptors localized on the brush-border membrane of pink bollworm larval strains with high tolerance to Cry1Ac. These strains were sourced from Bollgard and conventional cotton fields. A pooled Cry1Ac-resistant strain, further selected on Cry1Ac diet also showed significantly reduced binding to Cry1Ac protein. The reduced binding of Cry1Ac to receptors could be an underlying mechanism for the observed resistance in pink bollworm populations feeding on Bollgard hybrids. PMID:25523173

  12. Hit-size effectiveness theory applied to high doses of low LET radiation for pink mutations in Tradescantia

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, M.N.; Bond, V.P.; Matthews, G.

    1985-01-01

    A hit-size effectiveness function which represents the probability of inducing a pink mutation in Tradescantia as a function of lineal energy density has been obtained (1) using observed pink mutation data for seven different radiation qualities and their respective single event microdosimetric spectra. In obtaining this function only the linear portions of dose-response curves were used. A significant improvement of the concepts embodied in the proposed hit-size effectiveness theory would be the demonstration of its applicability at high doses (where multiple hits are produced) and high dose rates (at which no significant biological repair takes place). In this article details are given on preliminary calculations of the pink mutation frequency in Tradescantia at 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 rads for 250 kVp x rays, using the multi-hit spectra and the hit-size effectiveness function obtained on the basis of single hit microdosimetric spectra as outline in (1). A comparison of the calculated and observed pink mutation frequencies indicate excellent agreement and suggests the possibility of obtaining the hit-size effectiveness function from high dose biological-effect data obtained using low-LET radiations. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Calcium carbonate crystallization in the ?-chitin matrix of the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mikkelsen; S. B. Engelsen; H. C. B. Hansen; O. Larsen; L. H. Skibsted

    1997-01-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitates in the shell of pink shrimp, Pandalus borealis, during frozen storage (investigated for temperatures above ? 30°C), and as a result white spots appear in the shell. During continued frozen storage the white spots grow in size and eventually cover the entire, originally transparent, shell. Material isolated from shrimp shells was dried and subjected to infrared and

  14. From Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity

    E-print Network

    Development and Gender Bias May Ling Halim, Diane N. Ruble, and David M. Amodio* New York University AbstractFrom Pink Frilly Dresses to `One of the Boys': A Social-Cognitive Analysis of Gender Identity but not boys, signifies a critical development in children's socio- cognitive functioning, with implications

  15. E3 ligase subunit Fbxo15 and PINK1 kinase regulate cardiolipin synthase 1 stability and mitochondrial function in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bill B; Coon, Tiffany A; Glasser, Jennifer R; Zou, Chunbin; Ellis, Bryon; Das, Tuhin; McKelvey, Alison C; Rajbhandari, Shristi; Lear, Travis; Kamga, Christelle; Shiva, Sruti; Li, Chenjian; Pilewski, Joseph M; Callio, Jason; Chu, Charleen T; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Kagan, Valerian E; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2014-04-24

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is linked to mitochondrial injury, resulting in impaired cellular oxygen utilization; however, it is unknown how these events are linked on the molecular level. Cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific lipid, is generated by cardiolipin synthase (CLS1). Here, we show that S. aureus activates a ubiquitin E3 ligase component, Fbxo15, that is sufficient to mediate proteasomal degradation of CLS1 in epithelia, resulting in decreased cardiolipin availability and disrupted mitochondrial function. CLS1 is destabilized by the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which binds CLS1 to phosphorylate and regulates CLS1 disposal. Like Fbxo15, PINK1 interacts with and regulates levels of CLS1 through a mechanism dependent upon Thr219. S. aureus infection upregulates this Fbxo15-PINK1 pathway to impair mitochondrial integrity, and Pink1 knockout mice are less prone to S. aureus-induced ALI. Thus, ALI-associated disruption of cellular bioenergetics involves bioeffectors that utilize a phosphodegron to elicit ubiquitin-mediated disposal of a key mitochondrial enzyme. PMID:24703837

  16. WHITE Co-Op Office YELLOW Advisor PINK Employer GOLD Student coop: 02-2011 WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    that will supplement and challenge the student as well as enhance their educational development. 2. Provide diversifiedWHITE ­ Co-Op Office YELLOW ­ Advisor PINK ­ Employer GOLD ­ Student coop: 02-2011 WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND MINERAL RESOURCES COOPERATIVE EDUCATION AGREEMENT Employer

  17. A novel PGC-1? isoform in brain localizes to mitochondria and associates with PINK1 and VDAC

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joungil, E-mail: jochoi@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Batchu, Vera Venkatanaresh Kumar [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Schubert, Manfred [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Castellani, Rudolph J. [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Russell, James W. [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States) [Department of Neurology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •Novel 35 kDa PGC-1? localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on VDAC protein. •Mitochondrial localization of 35 kDa PGC-1? depends on membrane potential. •The 35 kDa PGC-1? associates and colocalizes with PINK in brain mitochondria. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1? (PGC-1?) and PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are powerful regulators of mitochondrial function. Here, we report that a previously unrecognized, novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and matrix in brain as determined by protease protection and carbonate extraction assays, as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy and import experiments in vitro revealed that 35 kDa PGC-1? colocalizes and interacts with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and that its import depends on VDAC. Valinomycin treatment which depolarizes the membrane potential, abolished mitochondrial localization of the 35 kDa PGC-1?. Using blue native-PAGE, co-immunoprecipitation, and immunoelectron microscopy analyses, we found that the 35 kDa PGC-1? binds and colocalizes with PINK1 in brain mitochondria. This is the first report regarding mitochondrial localization of a novel 35 kDa PGC-1? isoform and its association with PINK1, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the brain.

  18. Novel Pink Bollworm Resistance to the Bt Toxin:Cryl Ac: Effects on Mating, Oviposition, Larval Development, and Survival.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt cotton plants are genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium and target key lepidopteran pests. At least four strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), have been selected in the laboratory for resistance to insecticid...

  19. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. Ruggerone; Jennifer L. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    page 371 Abstract Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world's oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and

  20. Evidence for competitive dominance of Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha ) over other Salmonids in the North Pacific Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. Ruggerone; Jennifer L. Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little is known about fish species interactions in offshore areas of the world’s oceans because adequate experimental controls are typically unavailable in such vast areas. However, pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) are numerous and have an alternating-year pattern of abundance that provides a natural experimental control to test for interspecific competition in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. Since

  1. VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Chul; Tresse, Emilie; Kolaitis, Regina M.; Molliex, Amandine; Thomas, Ruth E.; Alami, Nael H.; Wang, Bo; Joshi, Aashish; Smith, Rebecca B.; Ritson, Gillian P.; Winborn, Brett J.; Moore, Jennifer; Lee, Joo-Yong; Yao, Tso-Pang; Pallanck, Leo; Kundu, Mondira; Taylor, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in VCP cause multisystem degeneration impacting the nervous system, muscle, and/or bone. Patients may present with ALS, Parkinsonism, frontotemporal dementia, myopathy, Paget’s disease or a combination of these. The disease mechanism is unknown. We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect. Indeed, VCP interacts genetically with the PINK1/parkin pathway in vivo. Paradoxically, VCP complements PINK1 deficiency but not parkin deficiency. The basis of this paradox is resolved by mechanistic studies in vitro showing that VCP recruitment to damaged mitochondria requires Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial targets. VCP recruitment coincides temporally with mitochondrial fission, and VCP is required for proteasome-dependent degradation of Mitofusins in vitro and in vivo. Further, VCP and its adaptor Npl4/Ufd1 are required for clearance of damaged mitochondria via the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and this is impaired by pathogenic mutations in VCP. PMID:23498974

  2. [Genetic differentiation of pink salmon oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum in the Asian part of the range].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A; Gordeeva, N V; Omel'chenko, V T; Altukhov, Iu P; Afanas'ev, K I; Rubtsova, G A; Vasil'eva, Iu V

    2006-10-01

    Genetic variation at 19 allozyme (including 11 polymorphic) and 10 microsatellite loci was examined in the population samples of odd- and even-broodline pink salmon from the southern part of Sakhalin Island, Southern Kuril Islands, and the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. The estimates of relative interpopulation component of genetic variation over the allozyme loci, per broodline, were on average 0.43% (GST), while over the microsatellite loci it was 0.26% (the theta(ST) coefficient, F-statistics based on the allele frequency variance), and 0.90% (the rho(ST) coefficient, R-statistics based on the allele size variance). The values of interlinear component constituted 2.34, 0.31, and 1.05% of the total variation, respectively. Using the allozyme loci, statistically significant intralinear heterogeneity was demonstrated among the regions, as well as among the populations of Southern Sakhalin Island. Multivariate scaling based on the allozyme data demonstrated regional clustering of the sample groups, representing certain populations during the spawning run or in different years. Most of the microsatellite loci examined were found to be highly polymorphic (mean heterozygosity > 0.880). The estimates of interlinear, interregional, and interpopulation variation over these loci in terms of theta(ST) values were substantially lower than in terms of rho(ST) values. Regional genetic differentiation, mostly expressed at the allozyme loci among the populations from the northern and southern parts of the Sea of Okhotsk (i.e., between the Sakhalin and Kuril populations), was less expressed at the microsatellite loci. The differentiation between these regions observed can be considered as the evidence in favor of a large-scale isolation by distance characterizing Asian pink salmon. It is suggested that in pink salmon, low genetic differentiation at neutral microsatellite loci can be explained by extremely high heterozygosity,of the loci themselves, as well as by the migration gene exchange among the populations (the estimate of the genetic migration coefficient inferred from the "private" allele data constituted 2.6 to 3.4%), specifically, by the ancient migration exchange, which occurred during postglacial colonization and colonization of the range. PMID:17152707

  3. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii) to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly drier than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale process acts in the stratosphere leading to no modification of the BRAMS results with respect to ECMWF analysis.

  4. Phosphorylation by PINK1 Releases the UBL Domain and Initializes the Conformational Opening of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Parkin

    PubMed Central

    Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Dourado, Daniel F. A. R.; Flores, Samuel C.; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 or PARKIN are the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease. Both gene products, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Parkin, functionally cooperate in a mitochondrial quality control pathway. Upon stress, PINK1 activates Parkin and enables its translocation to and ubiquitination of damaged mitochondria to facilitate their clearance from the cell. Though PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of Ser65 is an important initial step, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of Parkin's enzymatic functions remain unclear. Using molecular modeling, we generated a complete structural model of human Parkin at all atom resolution. At steady state, the Ub ligase is maintained inactive in a closed, auto-inhibited conformation that results from intra-molecular interactions. Evidently, Parkin has to undergo major structural rearrangements in order to unleash its catalytic activity. As a spark, we have modeled PINK1-dependent Ser65 phosphorylation in silico and provide the first molecular dynamics simulation of Parkin conformations along a sequential unfolding pathway that could release its intertwined domains and enable its catalytic activity. We combined free (unbiased) molecular dynamics simulation, Monte Carlo algorithms, and minimal-biasing methods with cell-based high content imaging and biochemical assays. Phosphorylation of Ser65 results in widening of a newly defined cleft and dissociation of the regulatory N-terminal UBL domain. This motion propagates through further opening conformations that allow binding of an Ub-loaded E2 co-enzyme. Subsequent spatial reorientation of the catalytic centers of both enzymes might facilitate the transfer of the Ub moiety to charge Parkin. Our structure-function study provides the basis to elucidate regulatory mechanisms and activity of the neuroprotective Parkin. This may open up new avenues for the development of small molecule Parkin activators through targeted drug design. PMID:25375667

  5. Iodine-xenon studies of Allende inclusions - Eggs and the Pink Angel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, T. D.; Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    The I-Xe systems of six Allende inclusions (five Eggs and the Pink Angel) appear to have been altered by nonnebular secondary processes. Evidence for this includes temperature-ordered variations in the initial I isotopic composition within several objects (with older apparent I-Xe ages associated with higher extraction temperatures) and the absence of primitive I-Xe ages. The span of apparent ages seen in Allende objects (10 Myr or more) is probably too long to reflect any nebular process, so at least some alteration probably occurred ont the parent body. The range in initial (Pu-244)/(U-238) ratios for the Eggs (0.003-0.014) includes the current best estimates of the bulk solar system value (0.004-0.007). For Egg 3, the Pu/U ratio varies by a factor of two between extractions, probably the result of fractionation of Pu from U among different phases.

  6. Genome sequence of the dark pink pigmented Listia bainesii microsymbiont Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Strains of a pink-pigmented Methylobacterium sp. are effective nitrogen- (N2) fixing microsymbionts of species of the African crotalarioid genus Listia. Strain WSM2598 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod isolated in 2002 from a Listia bainesii root nodule collected at Estcourt Research Station in South Africa. Here we describe the features of Methylobacterium sp. WSM2598, together with information and annotation of a high-quality draft genome sequence. The 7,669,765 bp draft genome is arranged in 5 scaffolds of 83 contigs, contains 7,236 protein-coding genes and 18 RNA-only encoding genes. This rhizobial genome is one of 100 sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 G enomic E ncyclopedia for B acteria and A rchaea- R oot N odule B acteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25780498

  7. Pink plaque on the arm of a man after a trip to Mexico: cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Saavedra, Arturo P; Sax, Paul E; Lipworth, Adam D

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus that presents as asymptomatic pink papules that may ulcerate. There are several species of Leishmania found in 98 endemic countries and whereas all are associated with cutaneous disease, only specific species can cause mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Although the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis can be confirmed with Giemsa staining of a biopsy or "touch prep" specimen, only speciation at specialized centers such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) can determine the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis is varied and depends on the extent of cutaneous disease and the risk of mucocutaneous or visceral disease. PMID:26158361

  8. Carcinogens induce reversion of the mouse pink-eyed unstable?mutation

    PubMed Central

    Schiestl, Robert H.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Khogali, Fathia; Carls, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and other genome rearrangements are associated with carcinogenesis and inheritable diseases. The pink-eyed unstable (pun) mutation in the mouse is caused by duplication of a 70-kb internal fragment of the p gene. Spontaneous reversion events in homozygous pun/pun mice occur through deletion of a duplicated sequence. Reversion events in premelanocytes in the mouse embryo detected as black spots on the gray fur of the offspring were inducible by the carcinogen x-rays, ethyl methanesulfonate, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, trichloroethylene, benzene, and sodium arsenate. The latter three carcinogens are not detectable with several in vitro or in vivo mutagenesis assays. We studied the molecular mechanism of the carcinogen-induced reversion events by cDNA analysis using reverse transcriptase–PCR method and identified the induced reversion events as deletions. DNA deletion assays may be sensitive indicators for carcinogen exposure. PMID:9114032

  9. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  10. The length of an internal poly(A) tract of hibiscus latent Singapore virus is crucial for its replication.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shengniao; Cao, Shishu; Huang, Li-Jing; Tan, Kelvin Chee-Leong; Wong, Sek-Man

    2015-01-01

    Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) mutants were constructed to study roles of its internal poly(A) tract (IPAT) in viral replication and coat protein (CP) expression. Shortening of the IPAT resulted in reduced HLSV RNA accumulation and its minimal length required for HLSV CP expression in plants was 24 nt. Disruption of a putative long range RNA-RNA interacting structure between 5' and 3' untranslated regions of HLSV-22A and -24A resulted in reduced viral RNA and undetectable CP accumulation in inoculated leaves. Replacement of the IPAT in HLSV with an upstream pseudoknot domain (UPD) of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or insertion of the UPD to the immediate downstream of a 24 nt IPAT in HLSV resulted in drastically reduced viral RNA replication. Plants infected with a TMV mutant by replacement of the UPD with 43 nt IPAT exhibited milder mosaic symptoms without necrosis. We have proposed a model for HLSV replication. PMID:25463604

  11. Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, T H; Kao, E S; Chu, C Y; Chou, F P; Lin Wu, H W; Wang, C J

    1997-12-01

    Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were evaluated by their capacity of quenching 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. HS-E showed the greatest capacity of scavenging free radical (EC50=0.017mg/ml), and HS-C showed the strongest inhibitory effect on XO activity (EC5o=0.742 mg/ml). Furthermore, antioxidant bioactivities of these crude extracts were investigated using a model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in rat primary hepatocytes. All fractions were found to inhibit significantly the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by t-BHP at a concentration of 0.20 mg/ml. HS-C and HS-E also decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by t-BHP (1.5 mM) considerably at a concentration of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml in the rat primary hepatocyte cultures. These results indicated that the dried flower extracts (HS-C and HS-E) of H. sabdariffa L. protect rat hepatocytes from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by different mechanisms. PMID:9449221

  12. Long-term ingestion of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract enhances myocardial capillarization in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Inuwa, Ibrahim; Ali, Badreldin H; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Beegam, Sumaya; Ziada, Amal; Blunden, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    The effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in lowering blood pressure in human and animal hypertension have been documented. This study investigated the effect of the water extract of the dried calyx of HS and Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) on left ventricular myocardial capillary length and surface area in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Twelve-week-old male SHRs were divided into eight groups (six rats in each group). Three groups were given three doses; 10%, 15% and 20% of the water extract of HS in lieu of drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks (HS10, HS15 and HS20) with one group kept as control (C). Another three groups were given three doses of the HAs orally at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for five consecutive days with one group kept as a control (C). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, as well as heart rate (HR), were measured weekly. After the experimental protocols, the left ventricles (LV) of all rats were obtained. Capillary surface area density and length density were determined by unbiased sterological methods on 3 ?m LV tissue samples from perfusion-fixed hearts. HS ingestion significantly reduced SBP, DBP and LV mass in a dose-dependent fashion but did not affect the HR. HS significantly increased surface area and length density of myocardial capillaries by 59%, 65% and 86%, and length density by 57%, 77% and 57%, respectively. Myocyte nuclear volume was significantly decreased in HS-treated rats. There was a decrease (although insignificant) in SBP and DBP with HA ingestion compared with controls. These changes suggest that the observed beneficial effect of HS on high BP in SHRs could be mediated through a reduction in the diffusion distance between capillaries and myocytes, as well as new vessel formation. It is proposed that these effects might be beneficial in restoring myocyte normal nutritional status compromised by the hypertrophic state of hypertension. PMID:22678012

  13. An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Chang; Huang, Hui-Pei; Chang, Yun-Ching; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-02-19

    A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo. PMID:24471438

  14. Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1?mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500?nl l?1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1?mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9?h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1?h and 6?h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6?h and 9?h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

  15. Comparison of classical and ultrasound-assisted isolation procedures of cellulose from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rodustrus Sm.).

    PubMed

    Pappas, C; Tarantilis, P A; Daliani, I; Mavromoustakos, T; Polissiou, M

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of cellulose from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus rodustrus Sm.), has been conducted. The isolated cellulose samples were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy and the crystallinity was also determined. The use of ultrasound decreased the total time of treatment, in addition the purity of the obtained cellulose was very high. PMID:11602991

  16. Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Properties of Sour Tea ( Hibiscus sabdariffa, calyx) and Green Tea ( Camellia sinensis ) on some Pro-oxidant-induced Lipid Peroxidation in Brain in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Oboh; J. B. T. Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s\\u000a disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants\\u000a (dietary means). This present study sought to compare the ability of aqueous extract of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa, calyx) and green tea (Camellia sinensis)

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed oil: A potential solvent-free and high antioxidative edible oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Wei Chan; Maznah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) trends and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus cannabinus seed oils were studied. SFE results indicate that extraction pressure is the major factor determining the oil yield. In comparison, classic Soxhlet extraction (SOX\\/L) yielded higher oil content than SFE (P<0.05). However, no significant differences in oil content were observed in SFE at 600 bars\\/80°C, rapid Soxhlet extraction

  18. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. P. Odigie; R. R. Ettarh; S. A. Adigun

    2003-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of petals of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the established stages of 2-Kidney, 1-Clip renovascular hypertension was investigated in Sprague–Dawley rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced by subjecting the animals to left renal artery clamping using a 0.2mm silver clip under ether anesthesia. Sham-operated (Sh-Op) rats served as controls.Six weeks after renal artery clamping, one group of

  19. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies).

    PubMed

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  20. Covariation in the Capsid Protein of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Induced by Serial Passaging in a Host That Restricts Movement Leads to Avirulence in Its Systemic Host

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao-Zhen; Lee, Bernett T. K.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2002-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) from naturally infected Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. loses virulence in its experimental systemic host Hibiscus cannabinus L. (kenaf) after serial passages in a local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa. Here we report the genetic changes responsible for the loss of virulence at the molecular level. A remarkable covariation of eight site-specific amino acids was found in the HCRSV capsid protein (CP) after serial passages in C. quinoa: Val49?Ile, Ile95?Val, Lys270?Arg, Gly272?Asp, Tyr274?His, Ala311?Asp, Asp334?Ala, and Ala335?Thr. Covariation of at least three of the eight amino acids, Val49, Ile95, and Lys270, caused the virus to become avirulent in kenaf. Interestingly, the nature of the covariation was consistent and reproducible at each serial passage. These data indicate that the nonsynonymous substitutions of amino acids in the HCRSV CP after serial passages in C. quinoa are not likely to be random events but may be due to host-associated positive selection or accelerated genetic drift. The observed interdependence among the three amino acids leading to avirulence in kenaf may have implications for structural or functional relationships in this virus-host interaction. PMID:12414972

  1. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies)

    PubMed Central

    Anwar Ibrahim, Doa'a; Noman Albadani, Rowida

    2014-01-01

    Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) were isolated from hospitalized patients' different sources (pus and wound) and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33?mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00?mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin) 18.00 ± 0.00?mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective. PMID:24949007

  2. Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) Rescues Motor, Olfactory, Mitochondrial and Synaptic Impairment in PINK1B9 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruffilli, Roberta; Fanti, Maura; Secci, Pietro Paolo; Mostallino, Maria Cristina; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Zuncheddu, Maria Antonietta; Collu, Ignazio; Solla, Paolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Kasture, Sanjay; Acquas, Elio; Liscia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) mutant for PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) gene is a powerful tool to investigate physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Using PINK1B9 mutant Dm we sought to explore the effects of Mucuna pruriens methanolic extract (Mpe), a L-Dopa-containing herbal remedy of PD. The effects of Mpe on PINK1B9 mutants, supplied with standard diet to larvae and adults, were assayed on 3–6 (I), 10–15 (II) and 20–25 (III) days old flies. Mpe 0.1% significantly extended lifespan of PINK1B9 and fully rescued olfactory response to 1-hexanol and improved climbing behavior of PINK1B9 of all ages; in contrast, L-Dopa (0.01%, percentage at which it is present in Mpe 0.1%) ameliorated climbing of only PINK1B9 flies of age step II. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of antennal lobes and thoracic ganglia of PINK1B9 revealed that Mpe restored to wild type (WT) levels both T-bars and damaged mitochondria. Western blot analysis of whole brain showed that Mpe, but not L-Dopa on its own, restored bruchpilot (BRP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to age-matched WT control levels. These results highlight multiple sites of action of Mpe, suggesting that its effects cannot only depend upon its L-Dopa content and support the clinical observation of Mpe as an effective medication with intrinsic ability of delaying the onset of chronic L-Dopa-induced long-term motor complications. Overall, this study strengthens the relevance of using PINK1B9 Dm as a translational model to study the properties of Mucuna pruriens for PD treatment. PMID:25340511

  3. Certain factors involved in the larval diapause and its termination in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders 

    E-print Network

    Wellso, Stanley Gordon

    1962-01-01

    , and cise of the testes of diapause and non-diapause pink bollwora larvae. Criterion lfuaber of Diapause and Ion-Diapause Larvae Diapauss Non-D iapause %eight in ag. s Hales l"susie s 33. 4 + 6. 5 38. 6 t 2. 5 @. 5 + gejs 29. 0 + g, g" Eat oontent...CERT4IN F4CTORS INVOLVED IN THE L4RV4L 914F4USE 4NB ITS TERNIN4TIOM IN THE PINK BOLLMORN, tgjggQ+gglk QQRRIK4hi (S4UMRERSi 4 Thesis ST4MLEI G. MELLSO Subaitted to ths Graduate School of the 4gricultural and Mechanical College of Texas...

  4. The Pore Structure of Indiana Limestone and Pink Dolomite for the Modeling of Carbon Dioxide in Geologic Carbonate Rock Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Gormaly, Marina

    The primary objective was to predict the relative storage capacity of carbonate rocks relevant for carbon dioxide sequestration. To achieve this, a detailed pore scale characterization of model carbonate rocks, Indiana Limestone and Pink Dolomite, was conducted utilizing micro-computed tomography (microCT) data using pore network modeling and invasion percolation simulations. For the first time in literature, Pink Dolomite's pore space characteristics were analyzed. A secondary objective was to compare thresholding techniques as applied to carbonates which exhibit dual porosity (porosity at multiple length scales). The analysis showed the sensitivity of existing methods to the thresholding technique, imaging method and material. Overall, the contributions of this work provide an assessment of two carbonates relevant for carbon capture and storage at the pore scale; and a preliminary assessment into thresholding dual porosity carbonates.

  5. Phytophthora erythroseptica (Pink Rot) Development in Russet Norkotah Potato Grown in Buffered Hydroponic Solutions I. Calcium Nutrition Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared H. Benson; Brad Geary; Jeffrey S. Miller; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Mikel R. Stevens

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethyb. causes a disease known as pink rot in potatoes, which is responsible for substantial pre and post harvest tuber loss.\\u000a Disease outbreaks are associated with excessive soil moisture, moderate temperature, late season development, and a lack of\\u000a potato cultivar resistance. Because disease resistance is becoming less effective, understanding other potential solutions\\u000a is critical. Mineral nutrition of plants

  6. Last Name: ___________________________________ White Copy to Career Services (UC 305) Yellow Copy to Faculty Coordinator Pink Copy to Student

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    to Faculty Coordinator Pink Copy to Student K:Career Services/Co-op/Co-op Forms/Learning Objectives 10/12 CO for the faculty coordinator and the student for use in evaluating the co-op at the end. 1. 2. 3. (Additional faculty coordinator to visit on-the-job with the co-op student, to communicate with the Career Services

  7. Lycopene fortification on the quality characteristics of beverage formulations developed from pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L.).

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Vijayanand; Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao

    2014-12-01

    Pink flesh guava (Psidium guajava L) is an important tropical fruit widely cultivated in different parts of India. The fruit apart from its characteristic pink flesh color is a good source of ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and pectin. Pink color of guava pulp is attributed to the presence of carotenoid pigment lycopene. Incorporation of lycopene in the form of tomato puree to the guava pulp resulted in changes in the quality characteristics of the guava beverage formulations. Lycopene in guava beverage improved the color and appearance and also the nutritional quality of the beverage. Guava beverage having 6 % tomato puree had acceptable color, flavor and overall quality. Increasing levels of tomato puree in the beverage affected the flavor and decreased the sensory acceptability. Beverage formulations showed increase in lycopene concentration from 760 ?g/100 g to 2010 ?g/100 g with increase in concentration of tomato puree. Ascorbic acid and lycopene decreased by 25.7 % and 12.23 % respectively in beverage stored at room temperature. Guava beverage fortified with lycopene was stable with acceptable sensory quality during the storage of 6 months at room temperature. PMID:25477692

  8. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy alleviates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Deng, Yuanying; Zhang, Jie; Han, Hailong; Zhao, Mingyi; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chen; Tian, Jing; Bing, Guoying; Zhao, Lingling

    2015-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most widely used organophosphorous insecticides. There are links between CPF exposure and neurological disorders. Mitochondrial damage has been implicated to play a key role in CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic elimination of mitochondria, is an important mitochondrial quality control mechanism. However, the role of mitophagy in CPF-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, CPF-caused mitochondrial damage, role and mechanism of mitophagy on CPF-induced neuroapoptosis were extensively studied by using SH-SY5Y cells. We showed that CPF treatment caused mitochondrial fragmentation, excessive ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization, thus led to cell apoptosis. Moreover, CPF treatment also resulted in increased colocalizaton of mitochondria with LC3, decreased levels of mitochondrial proteins, PINK1 stabilization and mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin. These data suggested that CPF treatment induced PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Parkin dramatically increased CPF-induced neuroapoptosis. On the other hand, overexpression of Parkin markedly alleviated CPF-induced SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis. Together, these findings implicate a protective role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy against neuroapoptosis and that enhancing mitophagy provides a potential therapeutic strategy for CPF-induced neurological disorders. PMID:26070385

  9. Drosophila ref(2)P is required for the parkin-mediated suppression of mitochondrial dysfunction in pink1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, I P; Costa, A C; Celardo, I; Tufi, R; Dinsdale, D; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a critical regulator of organellar homeostasis, particularly of mitochondria. Upon the loss of membrane potential, dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy through recruitment of the E3 ligase Parkin by the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and subsequent ubiquitination of mitochondrial membrane proteins. Mammalian sequestrome-1 (p62/SQSTM1) is an autophagy adaptor, which has been proposed to shuttle ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation downstream of Parkin. Here, we show that loss of ref(2)P, the Drosophila orthologue of mammalian P62, results in abnormalities, including mitochondrial defects and an accumulation of mitochondrial DNA with heteroplasmic mutations, correlated with locomotor defects. Furthermore, we show that expression of Ref(2)P is able to ameliorate the defects caused by loss of Pink1 and that this depends on the presence of functional Parkin. Finally, we show that both the PB1 and UBA domains of Ref(2)P are crucial for mitochondrial clustering. We conclude that Ref(2)P is a crucial downstream effector of a pathway involving Pink1 and Parkin and is responsible for the maintenance of a viable pool of cellular mitochondria by promoting their aggregation and autophagic clearance. PMID:24157867

  10. Biotechnological and Agronomic Potential of Endophytic Pink-Pigmented Methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Aparecida Camargo Neves, Aline; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  11. Complementation analyses for 45 mutations encompassing the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.; Johnson, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare {open_quotes}escapers{close_quotes} from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1= Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p{sup m} and p{sup x}, respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. 43 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Biotechnological and agronomic potential of endophytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic Methylobacterium spp.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Camargo Neves, Aline Aparecida; Santos, Daiene Souza; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic (PPFM) bacteria, which are able to synthesize carotenoids and grow on reduced organic compounds containing one carbon (C1), such as methanol and methylamine. Due to their high phenotypic plasticity, these bacteria are able to colonize different habitats, such as soil, water, and sediment, and different host plants as both endophytes and epiphytes. In plant colonization, the frequency and distribution may be influenced by plant genotype or by interactions with other associated microorganisms, which may result in increasing plant fitness. In this review, different aspects of interactions with the host plant are discussed, including their capacity to fix nitrogen, nodule the host plant, produce cytokinins, auxin and enzymes involved in the induction of systemic resistance, such as pectinase and cellulase, and therefore plant growth promotion. In addition, bacteria belonging to this group can be used to reduce environmental contamination because they are able to degrade toxic compounds, tolerate high heavy metal concentrations, and increase plant tolerance to these compounds. Moreover, genome sequencing and omics approaches have revealed genes related to plant-bacteria interactions that may be important for developing strains able to promote plant growth and protection against phytopathogens. PMID:25861650

  13. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored. PMID:25102635

  14. Complementation Analyses for 45 Mutations Encompassing the Pink-Eyed Dilution (P) Locus of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Russell, L. B.; Montgomery, C. S.; Cacheiro, NLA.; Johnson, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    The homozygous and heterozygous phenotypes are described and characterized for 45 new pink-eyed dilution (p) locus mutations, most of them radiation-induced, that affect survival at various stages of mouse development. Cytogenetically detectable aberrations were found in three of the new p mutations (large deletion, inversion, translocation), with band 7C involved in each case. The complementation map developed from the study of 810 types of compound heterozygotes identifies five functional units: jls and jlm (two distinct juvenile-fitness functions, the latter associated with neuromuscular defects), pl-1 and pl-2 (associated with early-postimplantation and preimplantation death, respectively), and nl [neonatal lethality associated with cleft palate (the frequency of rare ``escapers'' from this defect varied with the genotype)]. Orientation of these units relative to genetic markers is as follows: centromere, Gas-2, pl-1, jls, jlm p, nl (equatable to cp1 = Gabrb3); pl-2 probably resides in the c-deletion complex. pl-1 does not mask preimplantation lethals between Gas2 and p; and no genes affecting survival are located between p and cp1. The alleles specifying mottling or darker pigment (generically, p(m) and p(x), respectively) probably do not represent deletions of p-coding sequences but could be small rearrangements involving proximal regulatory elements. PMID:8601493

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison L.; Lamm, Marnie G.; Funk, Janet; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000 mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hypolipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Allison L; Lamm, Marnie G; Funk, Janet L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2013-03-01

    The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in the treatment of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease is assessed in this review by taking a comprehensive approach to interpreting the randomized clinical trial (RCT) results in the context of the available ethnomedical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and safety and toxicity information. HS decoctions and infusions of calyxes, and on occasion leaves, are used in at least 10 countries worldwide in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia with no reported adverse events or side effects. HS extracts have a low degree of toxicity with a LD50 ranging from 2,000 to over 5,000mg/kg/day. There is no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity as the result of HS extract consumption, except for possible adverse hepatic effects at high doses. There is evidence that HS acts as a diuretic, however in most cases the extract did not significantly influence electrolyte levels. Animal studies have consistently shown that consumption of HS extract reduces blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. In RCTs, the daily consumption of a tea or extract produced from HS calyxes significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults with pre to moderate essential hypertension and type 2 diabetes. In addition, HS tea was as effective at lowering blood pressure as the commonly used blood pressure medication Captropril, but less effective than Lisinopril. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were lowered in the majority of normolipidemic, hyperlipidemic, and diabetic animal models, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was generally not affected by the consumption of HS extract. Over half of the RCTs showed that daily consumption of HS tea or extracts had favorable influence on lipid profiles including reduced total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, as well as increased HDL-C. Anthocyanins found in abundance in HS calyxes are generally considered the phytochemicals responsible for the antihypertensive and hypocholesterolemic effects, however evidence has also been provided for the role of polyphenols and hibiscus acid. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the hypotensive and anticholesterol effects, but the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impedes atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. This comprehensive body of evidence suggests that extracts of HS are promising as a treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, however more high quality animal and human studies informed by actual therapeutic practices are needed to provide recommendations for use that have the potential for widespread public health benefit. PMID:23333908

  17. The Organization of Mitochondrial Quality Control and Life Cycle in the Nervous System In Vivo in the Absence of PINK1.

    PubMed

    Devireddy, Swathi; Liu, Alex; Lampe, Taylor; Hollenbeck, Peter J

    2015-06-24

    Maintenance of healthy mitochondria is crucial in cells, such as neurons, with high metabolic demands, and dysfunctional mitochondria are thought to be selectively degraded. Studies of chemically uncoupled cells have implicated PINK1 mitochondrial kinase, and Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase in targeting depolarized mitochondria for degradation. However, the role of the PINK1/Parkin pathway in mitochondrial turnover is unclear in the nervous system under normal physiological conditions, and we understand little about the changes that occur in the mitochondrial life cycle when turnover is disrupted. Here, we evaluated the nature, location, and regulation of quality control in vivo using quantitative measurements of mitochondria in Drosophila nervous system, with deletion and overexpression of genes in the PINK1/Parkin pathway. We tested the hypotheses that impairment of mitochondrial quality control via suppression of PINK1 function should produce failures of turnover, accumulation of senescent mitochondria in the axon, defects in mitochondrial traffic, and a significant shift in the mitochondrial fission-fusion steady state. Although mitochondrial membrane potential was diminished by PINK1 deletion, we did not observe the predicted increases in mitochondrial density or length in axons. Loss of PINK1 also produced specific, directionally balanced defects in mitochondrial transport, without altering the balance between stationary and moving mitochondria. Somatic mitochondrial morphology was also compromised. These results strongly circumscribe the possible mechanisms of PINK1 action in the mitochondrial life cycle and also raise the possibility that mitochondrial turnover events that occur in cultured embryonic axons might be restricted to the cell body in vivo, in the intact nervous system. PMID:26109662

  18. Adsorption and desorption properties of macroporous resins for anthocyanins from the calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiu-Lian; Wang, Dong; Chen, Bi-Yun; Feng, Yong-Mei; Wen, Shao-Hong; Zhan, Peng-Yuan

    2012-03-01

    Adsorption of roselle anthocynins, a natural pigment, onto various macroporous resins was optimized to develop a simple and efficient process for industrial separation and purification of roselle anthocyanins. Nine different macroporous resins (AB-8, X-5, HPD-100, SP-207, XAD-4, LS-305A, DM-21, LS-610B, and LS-305) were evaluated for the adsorption properties of the anthocyanins extracted from the calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial anthocyanin concentration, and ethanol concentration with different citric acid amounts were studied by the static adsorption/desorption method. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, LS-610B and LS-305 exhibited the highest monolayer sorption capacities of 31.95 and 38.16 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data were modeled using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of LS-305 during operation. The overall yield of pigment product was 49.6 mg/g dried calyces. The content of roselle anthocynins in the pigment product was 4.85%. PMID:22329796

  19. Assessment of Pb uptake, translocation and immobilization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of sand tailings.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wai Mun; Ang, Lai Hoe; Lee, Don Koo

    2008-01-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of lead (Pb) on sand tailings was investigated. A pot experiment employing factorial design with two main effects of fertilizer and lead was conducted in a nursery using sand tailings from an ex-tin mine as the growing medium. Results showed that Pb was found in the root, stem, and seed capsule of kenaf but not in the leaf. Application of organic fertilizer promoted greater biomass yield as well as higher accumulation capacity of Pb. In Pb-spiked treatments, roots accumulated more than 85% of total plant Pb which implies that kenaf root can be an important sink for bioavailable Pb. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) X-ray microanalysis confirmed that electron-dense deposits located along cell walls of kenaf roots were Pb precipitates. The ability of kenaf to tolerate Pb and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the immobilization of Pb in the roots and hence the restriction of upward movement (translocation factor < 1). With the application of fertilizer, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated site. PMID:19202874

  20. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13?:?2?w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582