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1

STUDY OF A THERMAL AEROSOL OIL BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of a thermal aerosol oil burner, aimed at counteracting the poor atomization and excess burner capacity that are known to reduce seasonal efficiency and contribute to excess emissions in residential oil burners. Generation of a thermal aerosol ...

2

OIL BURNER EMISSIONS: COTTONSEED OIL VERSUS DIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cottonseed oil has been used as a fuel source, either as a blend with diesel in varying proportions, or undiluted (100%), in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in internal combustion engines. However, limited research is available on the use of cottonseed oil as a fuel source in a multi-f...

3

Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R. [and others

1997-12-31

4

Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

Butcher, T.A.

1995-07-01

5

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

2011-07-01

6

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

2010-07-01

7

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

2013-07-01

8

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

2012-07-01

9

SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

2000-03-16

10

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

11

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01

12

Development of an air-atomized oil burner  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

1996-06-01

13

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

14

Blower augmentor for power oil and power gas burners  

SciTech Connect

An oil burner is described in combination: (a) a blower comprising a scroll housing and a driven squirrel cage, the squirrel cage having an interior air space, and having blades disposed around space and constituting an air impeller; (b) the scroll housing having a tangential air outlet, and further comprising a spiral wall encircling the squirrel cage; (c) a stationary barrier wall mounted in the housing and extending into the interior air space of the squirrel cage. The barrier wall extends outward from and with respect to a central axial area of the squirrel cage to a location adjacent the blades; (d) the housing is wider than the squirrel cage in axial dimension, to provide an end space between the squirrel cage and the housing, in which end space air tends to recirculate in the housing; and (e) support and baffle means disposed in the end space between the housing and squirrel cage, for mounting the barrier wall and for redirecting in outward directions a portion of the circularly travelling recirculating air in the housing.

Fisher, L.A.

1987-07-14

15

PERFORMANCE AND AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSION BURNER IN A COMMERCIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents the performance and air pollutant emissions of an experimental water/oil emulsion burner. The burner was fired with two residual oils at selected emulsion water fractions. In addition, various stoichiometric ratios and two load conditions were used to determine...

16

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

17

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

18

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

19

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: DESIGN PHASE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to m...

20

Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments  

SciTech Connect

Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (US))

1992-04-01

21

Numerical Simulation in Combustion Space of an Oil Fired Oxy-Fuel Glass Furnace with Different Burner Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an oil fired oxy-fuel glass furnace was designed, and the numerical simulation in the combustion space of the furnace was carried out. The optimization approach was proposed by comparing two different burner arrangements, opposed and staggered one respectively. The gas phase was expressed with k-¿ two-equation model; the oil drop motion was described with Discrete Phase Model;

Shuxia Mei; Junlin Xie; Da Han

2009-01-01

22

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions. II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation.

Braun, A.G.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Liber, H.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1987-08-01

23

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity.  

PubMed Central

Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation. PMID:3665866

Braun, A G; Busby, W F; Liber, H L; Thilly, W G

1987-01-01

24

Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

1981-01-01

25

Micronized coal burner facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (inventors)

1984-01-01

26

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

27

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

28

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner...manifold and the atomizer head to provide flexibility. All...

2010-10-01

29

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

2004-09-30

30

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

31

DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used with all oil burner installations. The other possible failure mode had been attributed to fuel degradation and this became the main focus of the evaluation. The degradation of fuel usually occurs faster under higher temperature conditions. To preclude this as much as possible controls that provided for a post-purge of combustion airflow after burner shut down were selected. This provided a short period of time where the burner's combustion air blower continues to operate after the flame has gone out. This tends to cool the nozzle and in turn the fuel inside the small flow pathways inside the nozzle components. This study concludes that the use of low capacity nozzles is possible but only when the temperature and thermal mass environment of the combustion chamber result in a relatively ''cool'' condition. This was accomplished in one long-term experiment that essentially operated for a full heating season equivalent with no evidence of nozzle plugging or failure. The nozzle body surface temperature was kept at or below 150 F during the duration of the trial. On the other hand, a second system was studied that ended in a partial nozzle blockage and a system failure. In this ''hot environment'' system the nozzle body temperature reached 210 F. This occurred at close to a full heating season equivalent, yet it still would have resulted in a no-heat complaint by the homeowner.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2007-05-01

32

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...pumps, heaters, etc., where necessary to prevent oil drainage to the bilge. (4) Boilers burning fuel oils of low viscosity need not be equipped with fuel oil heaters, provided acceptable evidence is furnished to indicate that satisfactory...

2014-10-01

33

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

1998-11-03

34

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

1998-01-01

35

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions. I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach smoke numbers and firing cycles  

SciTech Connect

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No.2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No.1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed.

Leary, J.A.; Biemann, K.; Lafleur, A.L.; Kruzel, E.L.; Prado, G.P.; Longwell, J.P.; Peters, W.A.

1987-08-01

36

Fuel burner pump assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one pipe oil burner system is described comprising pump means having an inlet and an outlet, tank means at a lower level than the pump means, supply pipe means between the tank means and the pump inlet, a regulating valve having inlet and outlet ports with nozzle means connected to the outlet port, a pressure operable diaphragm valve having

Knudsen

1987-01-01

37

Burner (Stinger)  

MedlinePLUS

... may feel like an electric shock or lightning bolt down your arm. Most burners are temporary, and ... also examine you for pain, tenderness, and arm strength and check your reflexes and the range of ...

38

Micronized-Coal Burner Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

1986-01-01

39

Fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluent fuel burner is disclosed which is capable of efficiently overcoming high system resistances to combustion gas flow by providing a compact construction which includes a housing that contains at least one combustion air fan whose rotor is straddled by airflow channels extending along its radial sides and discharging through the fan outlet into a bypass which communicates with

Gerwin

1978-01-01

40

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.  

PubMed Central

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low smoke samples (8). Oxygen-containing PAH, typified by phenalene-1-one and its alkyl derivatives, are important mutagens from cyclic firing at high smoke conditions. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors, including the automotive diesel engine, where multiring PAH, typified by fluoranthene and alkylated phenanthrenes, account for a significant portion of the effluent mutagenicity. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed. PMID:3665865

Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

1987-01-01

41

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

42

Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

McDonald, R.J.

1998-04-01

43

Passive and active control of NO x in industrial burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial burners that use either fuel oil or natural gas are considered as candidates for implementing strategies for control of NOx. Two burners, at 20 and 800 kW burning fuel oil are installed in a tunnel furnace and subjected to active control by way of introducing pulses into the air supply. Using optical diagnostics to identify the CH radical, the

O. Delabroy; E. Haile; F. Lacas; S. Candel; A. Pollard; A. Sobiesiak; H. A. Becker

1998-01-01

44

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR STEAM GENERATORS. TEST REPORT: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents preliminary testing of a 16 MW low-NOx burner for retrofit application to thermally enhanced, oil recovery steam generators. The burner is designed to achieve NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while burning heavy fuel oil containing more than 0.6 w...

45

Rotary Burner Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

Paul Flanagan

2003-04-30

46

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention,...

2014-07-01

47

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention,...

2013-07-01

48

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.64 Used oil storage. Used oil burners are subject to all applicable Spill Prevention,...

2012-07-01

49

Rock Pioneers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate organisms that live along the ocean's rocky coast. Learners add bare rocks to an intertidal zone, and over the course of 6-8 weeks observe what plant and animals colonize (come to live) on the new rocks. The intertidal zone, covered by water during high tides and uncovered at low tides, is usually densely covered with marine organisms such as seaweeds, mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, anemones and sea stars. Learners may not only discover pioneer organisms (first colonizers) of their new rocks, but other organisms that replace the first arrivals in the process of succession. This activity calls for multiple, weekly return visits to the intertidal zone.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1981-01-01

50

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for retorting oil shale particles of variable size, including fines, comprising: a substantially vertical cascading burner having a pair of opposing walls; vertically spaced baffles extending from the opposing walls of the burner inwardly and downwardly into the burner in an overlapping relationship, successive baffles extending alternately from opposing walls of the burner the baffles.

A. E. Lewis; R. L. Braun; R. G. Mallon; O. R. Walton

1986-01-01

51

Solid fuel burner  

SciTech Connect

A solid fuel burner comprises a system which permits solid fuel to be injected into a burner chamber and intermixed in an air suspension. The burner includes a cast iron, stepped grate that is self-cleaning, and comprises a series of plates that are substantially horizontal and are vertically spaced apart to form steps. Air is introduced under the stepped plates and the air blows out into the combustion chamber through the spaces between the plates to aid in combustion and cause turbulence in the fuel introduced. The burner further includes a ''pin hole'' grate adjacent the stepped grate on which lighter materials will fall and will be also subject to an air stream for complete combustion, and efficient burning.

Jacobs, C. S.

1985-07-16

52

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

Cheng, R.K.

1998-04-07

53

Burner for pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the combustion of granular fuels in current use the ash causes problems in fusing, in connection with combustion and ash extraction and additionally in the form of fuel lost when it becomes intermingled with the ash. In the burner according to the invention the fuel is continuously fed into the combustion space. The combustion air is fed to the

Orjala

1985-01-01

54

High efficiency gas burner  

DOEpatents

A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

Schuetz, Mark A. (Belmont, MA)

1983-01-01

55

Pioneer Saturn Encounter. [Pioneer 11 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Saturn Spacecraft, which began its journey as Pioneer 11, provided the first close view of the rings of Saturn as well as its system of moons. Its payload of 11 operating instruments obtained or confirmed data about the mass, temperature, composition, radiation belts, and atmosphere of the planet and its larger satellite, Titan. It made photometric and polarization measurements of lapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys, as well as discovered additional rings. Scientific highlights of the mission are summarized. Color imagery provided by the photopolarimeter is included along with illustrations of the planet's magnetic field and radiation belts.

1979-01-01

56

Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner  

E-print Network

was undertaken. The absorbed duty of the heater is 10 HHBtufhr. with optional combustion air preheat up to 500 0 F. The unit is designed for hot oil service at process temperatures between 500 and 700 0 F. The heater will be capable of firing either... years. An advanced process heater is also being developed. These processes take advantage of the uniform radiant heating feature of the burner to produce compact, efficient equipment. In addition, the burner pro vides very low NO x emissions...

Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

57

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert C.

1984-01-01

58

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from

Veljko Dragojlovic; Richard F. Jones

1999-01-01

59

Radial lean direct injection burner  

DOEpatents

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

60

Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

2012-06-29

61

TRAINING THE PIONEERS OF  

E-print Network

ShipSciencegraduatesat McLarenworkedwiththe EnglishInstituteofSportto designTRAINING THE PIONEERS OF THE FUTURE ShipScience UndergraduateCourses2015 #12;SOUTHA 2 #12;Reach-leadingacademicsoncoursesthataredesignedaroundyou. Wegetyoureadyfortheglobaljobsmarket,whilegivingyouagreat studentexperience. Ship

Sóbester, András

62

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

de Diego, Jose A

2008-01-01

63

The Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

Jose A. de Diego; Dario Nunez

2008-07-07

64

Burner ignition system  

DOEpatents

An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

1986-01-21

65

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2010-01-01

66

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2012-01-01

67

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2013-01-01

68

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2014-01-01

69

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2011-01-01

70

Space Pioneers and Where They Are Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the Pioneer Program and its role in exploring the solar system. Sections include: (1) "Pioneers in Space to Understand Our Earth" (describing the background of the program); (2) "First Pioneers"; (3) "The Interplanetary Pioneers"; (4) "Planetary Pioneers"; (5) "Outer Solar System Pioneers"; (6) "The Pioneers Now and In the…

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

71

Radiant tube fired with two bidirectional burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement for a radiant tube heating system having a bi-directional burner at the ends thereof. The bi-directional burners serving as burners for combustion air and discharge openings for products of combustion. The improvement comprising a first eductor, means to connect the first eductor having a jet nozzle and a throat, a second eductor, means to connect

J. E. Watson; T. E. Davies

1989-01-01

72

The New Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2012 National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Digital Principals are pioneers in digital technology and social media in the principalship. In this question and answer session, these principals share their philosophies and practices. Patrick Larkin discusses what else a principal must invest time and resources in for tech…

Farrace, Bob

2012-01-01

73

Pioneer F Plaque Location  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

1972-01-01

74

Pioneer F Plaque Symbology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

1972-01-01

75

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOEpatents

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01

76

Pioneering through chaos.  

PubMed

The 2014 International Nursing Administration Research Conference, "Pioneering Through Chaos: Leadership for a Changing World," was held at the Texas Woman's University in Dallas, Texas, in the fall of 2014. The program drew more than 100 attendees from 4 countries. The conference informed attendees from both academe and practice about the role of nursing administration in navigating the dynamic healthcare climate. This article will report on the insights from the conference presenters. PMID:25689497

Warshawsky, Nora E; Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra L; Edmonson, Cole; Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Kowalski, Karren

2015-03-01

77

Pioneer Venus Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

Jones, Douglas E.

1996-01-01

78

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration, Phase I. Monthly report, October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and design activities have centered around completion of material procurement for installation of the air-atomized Forney Verloop burner system and associated fuel supply systems. Twelve existing burners will be removed from the boiler during a scheduled shutdown to permit the installation of the new burners along with three primary air fans, four fuel oil metering pumps, an ignition oil

Dunn

1977-01-01

79

Latest rotary kiln burner technology possibilities and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of kiln burner are discussed: a one-channel burner, a multichannel burner with a short, divergent flame and a multichannel burner with a nondivergent flame. Factors pertinent to optimum heat economy, clinker quality requirements and reduction of nitrogen oxide formation are discussed. The development of the rotary kiln burners for pulverized fuels is also examined. Three particular types of

Rainer H. Nobis

1990-01-01

80

Flamedoctor™: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor™, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor™ burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor™ is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

2003-08-01

81

Infrared and catalytic burner technology assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the state of the art in infrared and catalytic burner development shows that four basic types of IR burners are currently in use. Eight commercial and/or residential appliances were characterized to assess the applicability of these burners. The refractory monolith tile and the fiber matrix burners appear most applicable for appliance use. Conceptual designs for the eight appliances with IR burners were prepared to evaluate the technical feasibility. These appliances are shown to have significant fuel efficiency increase and NOx and CO emission reduction benefits. Four appliances -- the commercial rangetop, deep fat fryer, commercial water heater, and warm air furnance -- also appear economically competitive, and recommended approaches for further development are presented. Lists of IR burner literature and patents are also presented.

Kesselring, J. P.; Krill, W. V.; Schreiber, R. J.

1981-02-01

82

Radiant tube fired with two bidirectional burners  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement for a radiant tube heating system having a bi-directional burner at the ends thereof. The bi-directional burners serving as burners for combustion air and discharge openings for products of combustion. The improvement comprising a first eductor, means to connect the first eductor having a jet nozzle and a throat, a second eductor, means to connect the second eductor to a second burner. The second eductor having a jet nozzle and a throat, first means to operate the second burner and the jet nozzle of the first eductor pulling combustion air through the throat of the second eductor for firing the second burner while discharging the products of combustion thereof through the first eductor, second means to operate the first burner and the jet nozzle of the second eductor pulling combustion air through the throat of the first eductor for firing the first burner while discharging the products of combustion thereof through the second eductor and means to alternately selectively operate the first means and the second means to heat the radiant tube.

Watson, J.E.; Davies, T.E.

1989-11-07

83

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River. Pioneer River at Mirani Contained in this document is information about: (Last updated April 2014) Flood

Greenslade, Diana

84

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from small (5-mL) glass vials. The vials are filled with a methanol solution of the desired salt and a paper wick is added. Thus, a small amount of solvent (5 mL or less) provides a colored flame, which lasts for several minutes. Vials and paper wicks can be reused. Use of the described alcohol burner in a flame test demonstration has several advantages. It is inexpensive, a number of tests can be run simultaneously, and stock solutions of metal salts can be prepared in advance and stored for future demonstrations.

Dragojlovic, Veljko

1999-07-01

85

Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

Not Available

1993-04-01

86

Steam-enhanced regime for liquid hydrocarbons combustion: velocity distribution in the burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lab-scale burner device with proprietary design was used for combustion of diesel fuel in a steam-enhanced regime. This operation mode ensures drastic intensification of liquid hydrocarbon combustion due to supply of superheated steam jet to the combustion zone. The particle image velocimetry technique was used for study of velocity field in the burner flame. The method of seeding of flow zone with new kind of tracers (micro-sized silica particles produced from silicon oil added to liquid fuel) was tested.

Alekseenko, S. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Vigriyanov, M. S.; Dulin, V. M.; Kopyev, E. P.; Sharypov, O. V.

2014-06-01

87

Burners  

MedlinePLUS

... among people who play contact sports such as football and wrestling. Symptoms How do I know if ... each stretch for 20 seconds. If you play football, wear extra neck protection. Questions to Ask Your ...

88

Development of a wood pellet fired burner for space heating applications in the range 5 kW--300 kW  

SciTech Connect

A compact burner has been developed, fired by wood pellets, which can compete with fossil fuel burners for space heating applications in terms of efficiency, emissions, load following capability, economics, and physical size. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}) are reduced by 80% or more when used to displace fossil fuel fired appliances. This includes consideration of energy use in the pelleting process. The pellet fired burner is a stand-alone hot gas generator that can be externally mounted on an existing hot water boiler, directly replacing an oil or gas fired burner. The boiler thermostat directly controls the burner. Alternatively, the burner can be integrated into a forced air furnace or a dedicated boiler for OEM applications. The burner has been scaled from 20 kW for residential use up to more than 300 kw for commercial applications. The burner incorporates a fuel metering and delivery system, an insulated refractory firebox, an agitated grate system, preheated forced air combustion, and an open loop electronic control. Pellets are delivered from a separate storage bin, and the burner exhausts not gases in excess of 1,000 C from the burner tube. Excess air for combustion is controlled below 30% and emissions, CO and NO, are less than 100 ppm. the burner can be operated at these conditions as low as 30% rated power output. Upon heat demand from the thermostat control, pellets are fed to the grate, they ignite within 2--3 minutes using an electric resistance cartridge heater, and 90% rated power output is reached within 6--8 minutes of ignition. The burner can cycle 2--3 times per hour following the load demand.

Whitfield, J.

1999-07-01

89

Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system  

SciTech Connect

A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

2006-04-25

90

Gas Burner (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Burner: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". A gas burner is used to heat non-flammable objects or solutions. It can be used to heat objects to very high temperatures. Temperatures in the hottest region of the burner exceed 1000°C. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

91

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

92

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Fluxgate Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluxgate magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft is described. Special features include gradiometer operation, on board despinning, a floating point processor and variable Nyquist filters. Initial operations have been entirely successful.

C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare; J. D. Means; R. C. Elphic

1980-01-01

93

Pioneer 11's New Saturn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

Science News, 1979

1979-01-01

94

11. Pioneer venus experiment descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding paper of a special issue of Space Science Reviews, devoted to the exploration of Venus and the Pioneer Venus Program, contains brief engineering descriptions of the experiments to be integrated into the Orbiter and Multiprobe scientific payloads.

L. Colin; D. M. Hunten

1977-01-01

95

James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

Osterbrock, Donald E.

1979-01-01

96

Coal conversion of a multiple burner lime kiln  

SciTech Connect

During 1982 Ash Grove Cement Company contracted with Wagester, Walker, Thornton and Company to convert a Calcimatic rotating hearth kiln at its Portland, Oregon lime plant from gas/oil to coal firing. Increasing costs of natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil made this conversion mandatory if the plant was to remain competitive. Unique features of this project are the distributors of pulverized coal to eighteen small burners around the inner and outer perimeters of the doughnut-shaped kiln, and the attrition-dryer-pulverizer mill. Ash Grove, a century-old lime and cement producer headquartered in Overland Park, Kansas (Kansas City area), looked at various schemes for multiple burner firing before employing Wagester, Walker, Thornton and Company. W.W.T. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was formed in 1980 by acquiring the Solid Fuels Division of the Pullman Swindell Corporation. This division had been active in developing solid fuel firing for brick tunnel kilns, principally in the Southeast. They continue to supply such systems firing wood waste as well as coal to the brick industry and have also converted two Calcimatic lime kilns for Dixie Lime, Sumterville, Florida, a fluid bed calciner for Texas Gulf in Aurora, North Carolina, and a chrome concentrate kiln for Diamond Chemicals at Castle Hayne, North Carolina. Testing and a proposal have been made for INMETCO, Elwood City, Pennsylvania, on an annular hearth furnace for direct reduction of iron ore to metallic iron.

Jones, G.; Thornton, L.W.

1984-02-01

97

Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

1999-01-01

98

Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

NONE

1995-12-01

99

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOEpatents

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-05-26

100

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high efficiency, low nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners with flame and heat transfer characteristics suitable for specific industrial processes was investigated. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) a high excess air burner used in direct air dryers for applications in the food processing industry; (2) a hot air burner with high convective heat transfer for direct fired metal processing furnaces; and (3) a hot air burner with a long, luminous flame for direct fired process furnaces in the steel, aluminum, and glass industries. The high convective, hot air burner achieved NOx emission reduction of up to 50%. NOx emissions from the hot air burner with a long, luminous flame were 45 to 60% lower than the standard burner.

Abbasi, H. A.; Khinkis, M. J.; Waibel, R. T.

1982-05-01

101

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOEpatents

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael (Lakewood, CO); Diener, Michael D. (Denver, CO); Nabity, James (Arvada, CO); Karpuk, Michael (Boulder, CO)

2007-10-09

102

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOEpatents

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

2013-02-05

103

COMPARISON OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM VAPORIZING AND AIR ATOMIZING WASTE OIL HEATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions and vaporizing pot solid residues resulting from the combustion of waste crankcase oil in space heaters. Two types of waste oil burners were tested: a vaporizing oil burner rated at 35.2 kW, and an...

104

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption for used oil. (a) To ensure that used oil managed at a used oil...

2010-07-01

105

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption for used oil. (a) To ensure that used oil managed at a used oil...

2011-07-01

106

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption for used oil. (a) To ensure that used oil managed at a used oil...

2012-07-01

107

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption for used oil. (a) To ensure that used oil managed at a used oil...

2014-07-01

108

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption for used oil. (a) To ensure that used oil managed at a used oil...

2013-07-01

109

Low emissions process and burner  

SciTech Connect

The following specification discloses a process and burner for combusting fossil fuels such as coal to provide low SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/, emissions. The process includes pulverizing the coal together with an alkaline material, such as limestone in an amount calculated to provide an alkaline metal stoichiometric equivalent of one to seven times the stoichiometric equivalent of the sulphur contained in the coal. The resulting pulverized coal-limestone mix is then combusted under fuel rich conditions. For example, 25% of the theoretical air required to combust the coal is preheated and injected into the combustion zone together with the pulverized coal-limestone mixture. The primary or transport air is swirled to increase mixing and to stabilize the flame. Preheated secondary air is introduced to the combustion zone. The amount of the preheated secondary air amounts to approximately 40% to about 100% of the theoretically required air. Finally, balance of the stoichiometric air required to combust the coal along with a 25% to 40% excess is added to the combustion zone.

Carver, G.P.; Heap, M.P.; Martin, G.B.; Pershing, D.W.; Rees, D.P.; Zallen, D.M.

1983-05-03

110

CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

2013-09-30

111

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P ID's for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

112

Sealed, nozzle-mix burners for silica deposition  

DOEpatents

Burners (40) for producing fused silica boules are provided. The burners employ a tube-in-tube (301-306) design with flats (56, 50) on some of the tubes (305, 301) being used to limit the cross-sectional area of certain passages (206, 202) within the burner and/or to atomize a silicon-containing, liquid source material, such as OMCTS. To avoid the possibility of flashback, the burner has separate passages for fuel (205) and oxygen (204, 206), i.e., the burner employs nozzle mixing, rather than premixing, of the fuel and oxygen. The burners are installed in burner holes (26) formed in the crown (20) of a furnace and form a seal with those holes so that ambient air cannot be entrained into the furnace through the holes. An external air cooled jacket (60) can be used to hold the temperature of the burner below a prescribed upper limit, e.g., 400.degree. C.

Adler, Meryle D.; Brown, John T.; Misra, Mahendra K.

2003-07-08

113

Pioneer 11 Encounter. [with Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter is discussed in detail. The scientific experiments carried out on the probe are described along with the instruments used. Tables are included which provide data on the times of experiments, encounters, and the distances from Jupiter. Educational study projects are also given.

1975-01-01

114

Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

1979-01-01

115

Pioneer F mission to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental designs for the Pioneer F mission to Jupiter are described. The spacecraft is designed to make measurements of the planet's atmosphere, radiation belts, heat balance, magnetic fields, moons, and other related phenomena. The mission also characterizes the heliosphere, the interstellar gas, cosmic rays, asteroids, and meteoroids between the earth and 2.4 billion kilometers from the sun.

Allaway, H. G.; Waller, P. W.

1972-01-01

116

OBITUARY Herman Eisen, immunology pioneer,  

E-print Network

OBITUARY Herman Eisen, immunology pioneer, remembered p.38 BIODIVERSITY New pasture plants should in the European Union and a global biodiversity hotspot, show what will be lost. Its labyrinth of channels, lakes in Romania, a global biodiversity hotspot. HELMUTIGNAT/NATLGEOGRAPHICROMANIA 4 D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 4 | V O

Napp, Nils

117

Pioneering Research Powering Clinical Outcomes  

E-print Network

Pioneering Research Powering Clinical Outcomes AnnuAl RepoRt of ContRACts And GRAnts, 2011 #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Letter from Nancy Ridenour, PhD, RN, APRN, BC, FAAN, Dean, College of Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 College of Nursing, Improving Access to Primary Care

New Mexico, University of

118

Foods of the Pioneer Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As fourth and fifth grade students study this unit in conjunction with their Indiana or U.S. history texts, they see how the Indiana pioneers ate and survived. Many of the foods taken for granted today were eaten by Indians in one of the Americas thousands of years ago. Students learn that the Native Americans had developed agricultural…

Shelton, Lois G.

119

Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the…

Harris, Alex H. S.

2009-01-01

120

Low NO.sub.x burner system  

DOEpatents

A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH); Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH); Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH)

1993-01-01

121

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19

122

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 2. PILOT SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

123

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

124

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

125

Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

126

Performance evaluation of porous radiant gas burners  

SciTech Connect

A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of temperature and gas composition measurements as a function of position, as well as spectral and total radiosity measurements. Uncombusted hydrocarbons were detected within the flame support layer for only low flow rates (e.g 7.1 1/min for a reticulated ceramic flame support layer); only combustion products mixed with the atmosphere were detected at higher rates. Radiosity increased with increasing flow rate via increasing surface temperatures, while burner efficiencies decreased because of less effectual heat transfer of combustion product gases to solid surfaces. Stainless steel screen-based flame support layers demonstrated optimum performance as compared to ceramic and metal tube-based, and reticulated ceramic-based flame support layers. Increased turbulent flow and surface area for convective heat transfer between the base surface and the end of the flame support layer were factors attributed to improved burner radiosity and efficiency. The greybody temperatures and emittances of burners were determined using a simplex algorithm fit of spectral radiosity data to Planck`s equation. The significantly higher and more grey emittance (hence radiosity) of CoAl$-(2)$O$-(4)$-coated mullite flame support tubes, as compared to alumina tubes of identical geometry, was demonstrated using this method.

Speyer, R.F.; Lin, Wen-Yi; Agarwal, G. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

127

Pre-vaporizing liquid fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burner is described which consists of: (a) a housing formed with an internal chamber; (b) eductor means mounted to the housing at a forward end of the chamber, the eductor means formed with a passageway having an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of air ducts disposed within the passageway, the air ducts arranged to direct air flowing therein

1986-01-01

128

Redox pioneer: professor Helmut Sies.  

PubMed

Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. PMID:25178739

Jones, Dean P; Radi, Rafael

2014-12-20

129

Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Professor Helmut Sies Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468. The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege! —Prof. Helmut Sies PMID:25178739

Radi, Rafael

2014-01-01

130

Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

1983-01-01

131

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL COMBUSTION SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of emissions from waste crankcase oil heaters. The data provided should be useful to heater manufacturers and to regulators. Burner design and fuel composition affect the level of inorganic elements emitted. The vaporizing pot burner retained a...

132

Horace Smithy: pioneer heart surgeon.  

PubMed

Horace Smithy, a native Virginian, received his surgical education in Charleston, then joined the Medical College of South Carolina faculty. He developed a valvulotome, which was used to perform a successful mitral valvulotomy on a 21-year-old woman on January 30, 1948. Smithy himself suffered from rheumatic aortic stenosis and tried unsuccessfully to convince Alfred Blalock to use his valvulotome and operate on him. Tragically, he died of progressive congestive heart failure at the age of 34 (on October 28, 1948), 270 days after his first operation. Horace Smithy was unquestionably an innovative pioneering cardiac surgeon who performed the first successful mitral valve operation of the "modern" era. PMID:20494095

Crawford, Fred A

2010-06-01

133

Hans Sølling: Danish pioneer neurosurgeon.  

PubMed

Hans Adolf Sølling (1879-1945), working completely on his own in the small town of Horsens, was Denmark's first neurosurgeon. Sølling was an admirable and talented man who performed major intracranial operations on more than 130 patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia, as well as treating epilepsy, craniotrauma, brain tumors, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and myelomeningoceles. Although not in the same league as Harvey Cushing (1869-1939), Vilhelm Magnus in Norway (1871-1929), and Herbert Olivecrona in Sweden (1891-1980), Sølling was a true Danish pioneer. PMID:8057162

Søgaard, I; Ljunggren, B

1994-09-01

134

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâ??s found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâ??s there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâ??s Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâ??s work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

135

Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

2011-10-01

136

Apparatus for oil shale retorting  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for retorting oil shale particles of variable size, including fines, comprising: a substantially vertical cascading burner having a pair of opposing walls; vertically spaced baffles extending from the opposing walls of the burner inwardly and downwardly into the burner in an overlapping relationship, successive baffles extending alternately from opposing walls of the burner the baffles. The baffles comprise a first segment and a second segment connected to and above the first segment and having a slope greater than the first segment. The first segment has a slope, measured from the horizontal, in the range of about 24/sup 0/ -60/sup 0/; a substantially vertical cascading mixer below the burner, the burner being mounted to the mixer and communicating therewith through an opening therebetween, the mixer having a pair of opposing walls; vertically spaced baffles extending from the opposing walls of the mixer inwardly and downwardly into the mixer in an overlapping relationship, successive baffles extending alternately from opposing walls of the mixer; raw shale input means mounted to the top of the mixer adjacent to the burner and communicating with the mixer through an opening therebetween; a substantially vertical moving packed bed pyrolyzer below the mixer, the mixer being mounted to and opening into the pyrolyzer; spent shale removal means connected at the bottom of the pyrolyzer and communicating with the pyrolyzer through an opening therebetween; and product removal means operatively connected to the pyrolyzer.

Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

1986-10-28

137

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15

138

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29

139

Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1988-01-01

140

Industrial burner modeling: Final report for the CIEE  

SciTech Connect

The COYOTE computer program was used as basis for a comprehensive numerical model of industrial burners. This program is based on the full multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations and includes a subgrid-scale turbulence model. The model was used to simulate the flows in a laboratory-scale burner being studied experimentally at UC-Irvine. We summarize what has been learned in the last 3 years from simulations of this burner. This model provides detailed information about the flow field in the furnace, making it a useful tool for studying the physics of burners.

Cloutman, L.D.

1994-12-01

141

KINETIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental studies of subjects related to the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB). The main findings include data on the rate of evolution of H2S from different coals and on the dependence of the rate of evolution on the dist...

142

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

2006-09-30

143

Constant volume flow burner fuel control system  

SciTech Connect

A burner control system is described for insuring constant volume flow of liquid fuel, irrespective of viscosity changes for the fuel. The system includes: a fuel supply tank bearing liquid fuel, a burner nozzle, a burner nozzle fuel supply line connecting the tank to the nozzle, a fuel return line connecting the nozzle back to the tank for returning excess fuel, first and second positive displacement fuel pumps in series and in order within the fuel supply line, branch lines within the fuel supply line downstream of the second fuel pump, separate, identical first and second variable orifices separately positioned within the branch lines, respectively, each variable orifice having an inlet connected to a respective branch line, the first orifice having an outlet connected to the nozzle and the second orifice having an outlet connected to the return line, means responsive to the pressure at the discharge side of the second pump for controlling the discharge pressure of the first pump, means responsive to the discharge pressure of the first variable orifice for controlling the discharge pressure of the second variable orifice, and means for mechanically linking the separate variable orifices for controlling the variable orifices such that as one opens the other closes; and wherein each of the variable orifices includes a control rod for varying the opening size of each orifice, and the means mechanically linking the separate variable orifices comprises a means for mechanically linking the rods to variably position the control rods such that as one orifice opens, the other closes, and vice versa.

Kinsey, J.B.

1986-04-29

144

New book on oilsands pioneer John Allan offers fascinating glimpse of early Alberta  

E-print Network

New book on oilsands pioneer John Allan offers fascinating glimpse of early Alberta November 21 of the Leduc oil field. In their illuminating and visually fascinating new book, The Founding of AlbertaMurray, Wainwright and Peace River, as well as the coal deposits and dinosaur fossils near Drumheller. The book

Machel, Hans

145

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

146

EVALUATION OF THE RILEY STOKER CORPORATION DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the NOx performance and sulfur capture potential of a Riley Stoker Corporation low-NOx distributed mixing burner. The performance of the full-scale single burner was verified over typical boiler operating ranges of load and excess air....

147

Excitation of Thermoacoustic Oscillations by Premixing Domestic Gas Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been performed on fully premixing multiport burners closely representative of those used in modern domestic heating systems to study the ways in which the detail design of the burner head affects the incidence of unwanted thermoacoustic oscillations in practical installations. The effects of changes in the spacing of the flame ports, the velocity profile of the mean flow

C. M. Coats; Z. Chang; P. D. Williams

2007-01-01

148

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

149

Redox Pioneer: Professor Joseph Loscalzo.  

PubMed

Dr. Joseph Loscalzo (M.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published two articles in the field of antioxidant/redox biology that have been cited more than 1,000 times and 22 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Dr. Loscalzo is known for his seminal contributions to our understanding of the vascular biology of nitric oxide. His initial discovery that the antiplatelet effects of organic nitrates are potentiated by thiols through a mechanism that involved metabolism to S-nitrosothiols was followed by the demonstration that S-nitrosothiols are formed endogenously through S-transnitrosation, stabilize nitric oxide, and facilitate the transport and transfer of nitric oxide between and within cells of the vessel wall. These properties led to the development of S-nitrosothiol-containing pharmacotherapies to treat disease states characterized by nitric oxide deficiency. Dr. Loscalzo's other scientific contributions include identifying the vascular functional consequences of genetic deficiencies of antioxidant enzymes that decrease nitric oxide bioavailability, collectively termed the "oxidative enzymopathies," and demonstrating the role of mitochondria in modulating the disulfide subproteome, and in redox signaling in hypoxia. He has received numerous awards and honors for his scientific contributions, including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. PMID:20443733

Leopold, Jane A

2010-10-01

150

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

151

Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located inside the National Air and Space Museum, the Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery highlights the world of aviation in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period, flight technology rapidly advanced, aviation records were made and broken in quick succession, and African Americans gained increasing prominence in the field. Visitors to this site will get a preview of the materials contained in the museum through four sections: "Military Aviation", "Black Wings", "Civilian Aviation", and "Rocket Pioneers". In the "Black Wings" area, visitors will learn about pioneers like Bessie Coleman and then view an interactive feature on the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen. Moving on, the "Rocket Pioneers" section features the work of early innovators such as Robert Goddard, who created the world's first flying, liquid-fuel rocket.

152

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter entry phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In October, 1992 the Pioneer Venus Orbiter entered the atmosphere of Venus, ending nearly 14 years of observations at Venus. Prior to the entry into the atmosphere and subsequent loss of the spacecraft careful management of spacecraft resources had allowed the acquisition of much low altitude data over the nightside of the planet. The long duration of the Pioneer Venus mission has enabled us to study the ionosphere and atmosphere of Venus under different levels of solar activity.

Strangeway, R. J.

1993-01-01

153

Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of the Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO[sub x] Burner'' Program is to develop a novel low NO[sub x], pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000[degrees]F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO[sub x], burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

Not Available

1993-02-10

154

Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

2010-05-01

155

Coal--oil slurry combustion demonstration, phase I. Monthly report, September 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and design activities to date have centered around completion of procurement for installation of the air atomized Forney Verloop burner system into the existing boiler which was designed to burn pulverized coal but converted to residual oil in 1969. Electrical design and procurement including instrumentation to support the January 1978 installation of burners, primary air fans, fuel metering pumps

Dunn

1977-01-01

156

Application of laser-based diagnostics to industrial scale burners  

SciTech Connect

Laser-based diagnostics have proved invaluable in unraveling the mysteries of combustion processes. The successful application of laser-based diagnostics which have been developed for laboratory-scale flames to the larger, more complex geometries found in practical burners is a major challenge with potentially huge payoffs. We will describe work being carried out in the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) where conventional physical probe techniques (thermocouples for temperature and sample extraction probes for gas composition) are being used in conjunction with laser-based diagnostics to characterize the combustion process in industrial burners.

Fornaciari, N.R.; Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, P.M.; Claytor, L.E. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

157

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

1997-06-01

158

Idealized radiation efficiency model for a porous radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

A simple, highly idealized radiation efficiency model has been developed for a porous radiant burner with or without a screen to assess the thermal performance of an ideal porous burner that yields the highest radiation efficiency and against which test results and/or more realistic model predictions could be benchmarked. The model is based on thermodynamics principles (first law of thermodynamics) with idealizations made for some of the physical processes. Empirical information, where necessary, is then used to close the model equations. The maximum radiation efficiency at a given firing rate is predicted. The effects of input parameters such as the firing rate, the equivalence ratio, and the effective emittance of the burner on the radiation efficiency of the porous radiant burner are reported.

Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

1999-07-01

159

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

160

Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems  

E-print Network

This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

Lied, C. R.

1981-01-01

161

Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1991-05-24

162

Application of laser-based diagnostics to industrial scale burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-based diagnostics have proved invaluable in unraveling the mysteries of combustion processes. The successful application of laser-based diagnostics which have been developed for laboratory-scale flames to the larger, more complex geometries found in practical burners is a major challenge with potentially huge payoffs. We will describe work being carried out in the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) where conventional physical

N. R. Fornaciari; R. W. Schefer; P. M. Walsh; L. E. Claytor

1995-01-01

163

Ash removal system and heating mechanism for wood waste burners  

SciTech Connect

Wood waste fuel is piled on a perforated grate within a combustion chamber. The fuel is burned by underfire air passing through the grate up through the pile. Ash forms at the bottom of the pile and is removed about a complete 360 degree perimeter where it falls into an ash pit and is subsequently removed from the burner. Fuel is fed to the burner through an elongated continuously expanding tube by a reciprocating ram feeder.

Kikegawa, E.; Lamb, F.H.

1983-05-24

164

Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

2008-12-16

165

Gas-particle flow and combustion in the near-burner zone of the swirl-stabilized pulverized coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an air-particle test facility, a three-dimensional particle-dynamics anemometer was used to measure air particle flows in the near-burner region of the radial bias combustion burner. With the increase of nonswirling secondary air (SA) ratio, the air and the particle divergent angles greatly decrease. Both the diameter and the length of the central recirculation zone decrease and the peak value

Zheng Qi Li; Rui Sun; Zhi Xin Wan; Shao Zeng Sun; Shao Hua Wu; Li Zhe Chen

2003-01-01

166

Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam. PMID:25742584

Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Vincent, Maurice Borges; Silva, Marcos Martins da

2015-02-01

167

Comet Halley: The view from Pioneer Venus  

SciTech Connect

The plans to scan Halley's Comet at close range using the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. The composition of comets, their paths through space, and the history of comet encounters are examined. An ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the spacecraft will determine the composition of the gaseous coma and will measure the total gas production during its passage. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter will observe the comet for five weeks before solar interference with communications occurs as Venus passes on the far side of the Sun from Earth. Diagrams of the solar system and the relationship of the comet to the planets and the Sun are provided.

Not Available

1989-01-01

168

Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

2009-08-01

169

Dual-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

1986-08-05

170

Pre-vaporizing liquid fuel burner  

SciTech Connect

A burner is described which consists of: (a) a housing formed with an internal chamber; (b) eductor means mounted to the housing at a forward end of the chamber, the eductor means formed with a passageway having an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of air ducts disposed within the passageway, the air ducts arranged to direct air flowing therein into a path toward the longitudinal axis of the chamber from the forward end of the chamber to a rear end thereof; (c) first means for introducing air into the chamber through the air ducts, recirculated combustion gas being drawn into the eductor means inlet, through the passageway and out the eductor means outlet by air flowing through the ducts, the gas and air entering the chamber in interleaving streams of gas and air, the gas and air mixing in the chamber; (d) second means for introducing fuel into the rear of the chamber in the flow path of the streams of gas and air, the fuel mixing with the mixture of combustion gas and air in the rear portion of the chamber to form a mixture of combustion gas, fuel, and air; and (e) flameholder means for supporting a flame, the flame-holder means positioned at the eductor means inlet, the combustion gas being drawn from the flame on the flame-holder means into the eductor means inlet, and means for delivering the mixture of combustion gas, fuel and air to the flameholder means about the eductor means.

Harvey, A.C.

1986-08-19

171

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30

172

Evaluation of low-emission coal burner technology on industrial boilers. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) is a low-NOx pulverized-coal burner for wall-fired boiler applications. The burner operates under reducing conditions in the primary flame zone to minimize NOx emissions while an overall oxidizing environment is maintained in the furnace to minimize slagging and corrosion. The operation is accomplished by using air ports around the burner throat to provide staged combustion conditions at each individual burner. The report gives results of a field evaluation of the DMB on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler.

Folson, B.A.; Abele, A.R.; Reese, J.L.; Sommer, T.M.

1989-01-01

173

OBITUARY Yoshiki Sasai, stem-cell pioneer,  

E-print Network

OBITUARY Yoshiki Sasai, stem-cell pioneer, remembered p.34 ENERGY Social sciences and humanitiesHBPblendstwostyles.Onecomesfroma historyofsuccessfulinterdisciplinarycollabo- rations in the European Union in brain- and neuron-inspired computation1 . The second originates,000 neurons considered to be a functional unit within the brain. The crisis results mainly from ambigui- ties

Napp, Nils

174

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

SciTech Connect

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2012-01-01

175

Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

176

Pioneer III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the over-all objectives of the Pioneer III and IV experiments is presented. Included is an analysis of the payload design philosophy, a description of the flight hardware, and a synopsis of the results of the experiments.

H. Curtis; D. Schneiderman

1960-01-01

177

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…

Loeng, Svein

2013-01-01

178

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

ScienceCinema

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2013-04-19

179

Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

Brownell, Judi

2014-01-01

180

Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

Waller, Peter

1983-01-01

181

OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

2001-09-04

182

Radiation Emission Characteristics of an Open-Cellular Porous Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation emission characteristics of an open-cellular porous burner, where methane-air premixed combustion occurs, were investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the analysis, we assumed that the chemical kinetics of gas-phase reactions are governed by a single-step Arrhenius rate expression. The energy liberation due to combustion and the effects of radiation were considered in the energy equations for the gas and solid phases. To evaluate the radiative transports in the solid-phase energy equation, the equation of transfer for the radiation field in a porous burner was solved using Barkstrom' s finite difference method and the P1 approximation. Three kinds of Ni-Cr open-cellular porous material with different porosities and pores per inch (PPI) were examined. Radiant output from the porous burner was measured based on a two-color radiometry. Calculated results of the forward radiative heat flux and the burner surface temperature were favorably compared with experimental data: satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment was obtained, and thereby the validity of the present theoretical model for predicting the radiation from a porous burner was confirmed. Moreover, it is found that there is only a little difference between predicted results of Barkstrom' s method and these of the P1 approximation.

Krittacom, Bundit; Kamiuto, Kouichi

183

Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly documents the extensive evaluation which was performed on the anticipated environmental impacts of that plant. This source can be referenced in the open literature and is publicly available. The CRBRP design was also of a commercial demonstration plant size - 975 MWth - which falls in the middle of the range of ABR plant sizes being considered (250 MWth to 2000 MWth). At the time the project was cancelled, the CRBRP had progressed to the point of having completed the licensing application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and was in the process of receiving NRC approval. Therefore, it was felt that [CRBRP, 1977] provides some of the best available data and information as input to the GNEP PEIS work. CRBRP was not the source of all the information in this document. It is also expected that the CRBRP data will be bounding from the standpoint of commodity usage because fast reactor vendors will develop designs which will focus on commodity and footprint reduction to reduce the overall cost per kilowatt electric compared with the CRBR plant. Other sources used for this datacall information package are explained throughout this document and in Appendix A. In particular, see Table A.1 for a summary of the data sources used to generate the datacall information.

Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-10-15

184

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30

185

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P&ID`s for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

186

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2010-01-01

187

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2013-01-01

188

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2011-01-01

189

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2012-01-01

190

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2014-01-01

191

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

192

Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center  

SciTech Connect

If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

2007-04-16

193

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

194

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

195

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 3. GUIDELINE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

196

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

197

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

198

Pollutant Emission Rates from a Radiant Fiber-Matrix Gas Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have quantified the emissions of trace constituents from unvented gas and kerosene space heaters, including CO, NO, NO[sub 2], formaldehyde, and respirable particles. The emission rates of these vary with heater technology such as burner design and operating conditions. Recent advances in infrared radiant gas burner technology have led to the development of a radiant fiber-matrix gas burner

Michael G. Apte; Gregory W. Traynor

1993-01-01

199

"She Had Never Humbled Herself": Alexandra Bergson and Marie Shabata as the "Real" Pioneers of "O Pioneers!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If we consider "O Pioneers!" in relation to the gender role redefinitions of Willa Cather's adult life, we discover a work that is not primarily about homesteading pioneers, but rather about two women who are pioneers in crossing socially constructed gender barriers.

Werden, Douglas W.

2002-01-01

200

Chevalier Jackson: pioneer and protector of children.  

PubMed

Chevalier Jackson was one of the greatest pioneers of otolaryngology. He was a pioneer of oesophagoscopy, bronchoscopy and the removal of foreign bodies. He changed the mortality rate for an airway foreign body from 98 per cent to a survival rate of 98 per cent. He became distressed by the number of preventable injuries in children from the ingestion of caustic substances, most commonly household lye. His experiences of children with oesophageal stricturing secondary to caustic ingestion moved him to start a campaign to force manufacturers to label all poisonous substances as such. This took him from the American Senate to the House of Representatives and back again; the Federal Caustic Poisons Act (1927) is still enforced today. In a career with over 400 publications, written during exacerbations of his pulmonary tuberculosis, his life story is a remarkable one, only part of which is widely known. PMID:23701734

Giddings, C E B; Rimmer, J; Weir, N

2013-07-01

201

Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

1950-01-01

202

Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

Hoffman, J.

1982-01-01

203

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma analyzer experiment on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to determine the basic characteristics of the plasma environment of Venus and the nature of the solar wind interaction at Venus. The plasma analyzer experiment is an electrostatic energy-per-unit charge (E\\/Q) spectrometer which measures ions and electrons. There is a curved plate electrostatic analyzer system with multiple collectors. The

D. S. Intriligator; J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov

1980-01-01

204

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma wave investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus plasma wave instrument has a self-contained balanced electric dipole (effective length = 0.75 m) and a 4-channel spectrum analyzer (30% bandwidth filters with center frequencies at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, and 30 kHz). The channels are continuously active and the highest Orbiter telemetry rate (2048 bits\\/sec) yields 4 spectral scans\\/sec. The total mass of 0.55 kg includes

F. L. Scarf; W. W. L. Taylor; P. F. Virobik

1980-01-01

205

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Wave Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus plasma wave instrument has a selfcontained balanced electric dipole (effective length = 0.75 m) and a 4-channel spectrum analyzer (30-percent bandwidth filters with center frequencies at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz). The channels are continuously active and the highest Orbiter telemetry rate (2048 bps) yields 4 spectral scans\\/s. The total mass of 0.55

F. L. Scarf; W. W. L. Taylor; P. F. Virobik

1980-01-01

206

Effects of elliptical burner geometry on partially premixed gas jet flames in quiescent surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is the investigation of the effect of elliptical nozzle burner geometry and partial premixing, both 'passive control' methods, on a hydrogen/hydrocarbon flame. Both laminar and turbulent flames for circular, 3:1, and 4:1 aspect ratio (AR) elliptical burners are considered. The amount of air mixed with the fuel is varied from fuel-lean premixed flames to fuel-rich partially premixed flames. The work includes measurements of flame stability, global pollutant emissions, flame radiation, and flame structure for the differing burner types and fuel conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the near-burner region. Experimentally, both conventional (IR absorption, chemiluminecent, and polarographic emission analysis,) and advanced (laser induced fluorescence, planar laser induced fluorescence, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Rayleigh scattering) diagnostic techniques are used. Numerically, simulations of 3-dimensional laminar and turbulent reacting flow are conducted. These simulations are run with reduced chemical kinetics and with a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) for the turbulence modeling. It was found that the laminar flames were similar in appearance and overall flame length for the 3:1 AR elliptical and the circular burner. The laminar 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame split into two sub-flames along the burner major axis. This splitting had the effect of greatly shortening the 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame to have an overall flame length about half of that of the circular and 3:1 AR elliptical burner flames. The length of all three burners flames increased with increasing burner exit equivalence ratio. The blowout velocity for the three burners increased with increase in hydrogen mass fraction of the hydrogen/propane fuel mixture. For the rich premixed flames, the circular burner was the most stable, the 3:1 AR elliptical burner, was the least stable, and the 4:1 AR elliptical burner was intermediate to the two other burners. This order of stability was due to two reasons. The elliptical burners have enhanced turbulence generation that lowers their stability when compared to the circular burner. The 4:1 AR elliptical burner had greater stability due to a greater velocity decay rate and wider OH reaction zones particularly in the region between the two jets. The 3:1 AR elliptical and circular burners produced similar carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emission indexes over the range of equivalence ratios of 0.55 to 4.0, for laminar flames. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Baird, Benjamin

207

Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

2014-01-01

208

Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

Stetson, K. A.

1984-01-01

209

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

210

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

211

EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

212

DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

213

SOX OUT ON A LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, covering results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and of calcium-lignosulfonate-mo...

214

Biomass burner with grate therefor and method of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bio-mass burner having a continuous feed on demand to a first combustion chamber that contains a hollow grate structure. The novel method of operation includes the use of at least one venturi tube which is in fluid communication with the hollow grate structure to establish an air flow into a second combustion chamber. Primary air to support combustion in

C. H. Jr. Hand; J. A. Careatti; D. J. Hand

1984-01-01

215

Ash removal system and heating mechanism for wood waste burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood waste fuel is piled on a perforated grate within a combustion chamber. The fuel is burned by underfire air passing through the grate up through the pile. Ash forms at the bottom of the pile and is removed about a complete 360 degree perimeter where it falls into an ash pit and is subsequently removed from the burner. Fuel

E. Kikegawa; F. H. Lamb

1983-01-01

216

Combustion control system for burning installation with calcining burner  

SciTech Connect

A combustion control system is disclosed for a rotary kiln with a suspension preheater including a calcining burner wherein slurries of portland cement raw materials, lime slurries, alumina, magnesia or the like are filtered into a cake, the cake is then burned in the kiln with the suspension preheater.

Kawata, T.; Nakamura, N.; Tominaga, S.

1981-11-10

217

Low NOx rotary kiln burner technology: design principles & case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming years, numerous cement plants in USA could be forced to comply with tightening air emission regulations especially with regard to nitrogen oxides (NOx). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is currently considering low NO x rotary kiln burners as a cost effective and efficient choice for NOx reduction in cement kilns. This paper discusses the principles

M. H. Vaccaro

2002-01-01

218

How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

Jansen, Michael P.

1997-01-01

219

Conditions of operation of a tunnel kiln with injection burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions The injection burners ensure jet combustion of the gas with the generation of an oxidizing atmosphere in the tunnel kiln. The firing of dense ladle brick and brick for blast furnaces in such kilns must last for 50–60 h.

A. B. Kel'man; Yu. D. Levitskii; M. L. Sheinber; A. I. Kulik; G. S. Kvasha; A. I. Zolotarev

1969-01-01

220

NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1996-01-01

221

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

222

Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

Clark Atlanta University

2002-12-02

223

FIELD EVALUJATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

224

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. INFLUENCE OF BURNER VARIABLES ON NOX IN PULVERIZED COAL FLAMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first phase of an investigation to specify burner design criteria to control NOx in natural gas and pulverized coal flames. The two parameters found to have major influence on NO formation were the method of fuel injection and the degree of swirl. ...

225

BJ Spitler: geriatric care management pioneer.  

PubMed

The late BJ Curry Spitler pioneered a new geriatric care management business model that combined care management with home health services and emphasized high levels of training and professionalism for all members of the caregiving team. After working with BJ to write a marketing plan emphasizing quality, I learned to appreciate what she did when my mother needed "assisted living at home" services from the firm. Thanks to BJ Curry Spitler and her vision of helping seniors age in place, more elders are able to remain independent in their own homes with dignity and safety, and peace of mind for their families. PMID:18510195

Frates, Janice

2008-01-01

226

The Pioneer Jupiter magnetic control program.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Jupiter spacecraft was required to have a sufficiently small magnetic field that accurate interplanetary-magnetic field measurements would not be compromised. In order to control the magnetic field throughout the program a running account of spacecraft magnetic fields was maintained by means of a periodically updated magnetic model. This model was used to make economic tradeoffs in subsystem magnetic moments within the allowed magnetic budget. The program was culminated with a measurement of the magnetic field of the spacecraft. A description of the magnetic tests and a comparison with estimates made with the magnetic model are also presented.

Sanders, N. L.; Broce, R. D.; Inouye, G. T.

1972-01-01

227

Feast day service honoring pioneers in medicine.  

PubMed

The Standing Liturgical Commission of the Anglican Church in the United States has identified persons whom they consider Holy men or Holy women, and who are celebrated in Lesser Feast and Fast day services. In 2009, the triennial General Convention of the Anglican Church, USA, ratified the recommendation of the Commission that Dr. William W. Mayo and Dr. Charles Menninger and their sons, as pioneers in medicine, were worthy of such a designation. The author was approached to deliver the following homily at a service at the Palmer Memorial Episcopal Church in Houston, Texas, March 6, 2013. PMID:24020606

Menninger, W Walter

2013-01-01

228

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Machian Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss astronomical and astrophysical evidence, which we relate to the principle of zero-total energy of the Universe, that imply several relations among the mass M, the radius R and the angular momentum L of a "large" sphere representing a Machian Universe. By calculating the angular speed, we find a peculiar centripetal acceleration for the Universe. This is an ubiquituous property that relates one observer to any observable. It turns out that this is exactly the anomalous acceleration observed on the Pioneers spaceships. We have thus, shown that this anomaly is to be considered a property of the Machian Universe. We discuss several possible arguments against our proposal.

Marcelo Samuel Berman

2008-08-06

229

NASA's Fortieth Anniversary: Pioneering The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its inception on October 1, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a forerunner in many areas of advanced scientific research, especially in the fields of space exploration and aeronautics. NASA celebrates forty years of "Pioneering the Future" with a site that chronicles its illustrious history by providing access to numerous publications, including detailed biographies of influential people and declassified government documents. Together, the texts detail the scientific origins, objectives, and achievements of NASA. Audio and video clips of the Apollo missions and archived photographs from the dawn of the space age complement the rich textual history offered at the site.

230

Jupiter's radiation belts - Can Pioneer 10 survive  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent calculations suggest that three of the Galilean satellites are very effective in limiting the fluxes of energetic electrons and protons diffusing inward from Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. Electron and proton densities with and without lunar effects are plotted as functions of the distance from the center of the planet in units of Jupiter radii. Both electrons and protons in the model come from the solar wind. The trajectory of Pioneer 10 in magnetic coordinates is examined and the period of greatest danger to the spacecraft is discussed.

Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

1973-01-01

231

The Pioneer 8 Earth-Moon encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the May 7, 1991, Eos, F. M. Neubauer and K.-H. Glassmeier took up the cause of “historical correctness” in a comment on the conarticle by F. Fanale (Eos, November 20, 1990, p. 1803) about the Galileo encounter with the Earth-Moon system in December 1990. The 1991 article pointed out that Fanale was incorrect in claiming that Galileo was to perform the first “encounter by a spacecraft from deep space with the Earth-Moon system,” since Giotto encountered the Earth in July 1990.While this event certainly invalidates the claim of primacy for the Galileo spacecraft, it does not award it to Giotto. The October 1987 Journal of Geophysical Research contains a paper by the late Fredrick L. Scarf describing results from the Pioneer 8 encounter with the geomagnetic tail in April and May 1985. At that time, the Pioneer 8 solar arrays' long exposure to space had so degraded the power levels of the spacecraft that Scarfs plasma wave instrument was the only one that could be operated.

Moses, Stewart L.

232

Pioneers of Influence Propagation in Social Networks  

E-print Network

With the growing importance of corporate viral marketing campaigns on online social networks, the interest in studies of influence propagation through networks is higher than ever. In a viral marketing campaign, a firm initially targets a small set of pioneers and hopes that they would influence a sizeable fraction of the population by diffusion of influence through the network. In general, any marketing campaign might fail to go viral in the first try. As such, it would be useful to have some guide to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign and judge whether it is worthy of further resources, and in case the campaign has potential, how to hit upon a good pioneer who can make the campaign go viral. In this paper, we present a diffusion model developed by enriching the generalized random graph (a.k.a. configuration model) to provide insight into these questions. We offer the intuition behind the results on this model, rigorously proved in Blaszczyszyn & Gaurav(2013), and illustrate them here by taking e...

Gaurav, Kumar; Keeler, Holger Paul

2013-01-01

233

The zero age main sequence of WIMP burners  

SciTech Connect

We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly-interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMP) burners look much like proto-stars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically hot, young stars found at the galactic center with WIMP burners.

Fairbairn, Malcolm; Scott, Pat; Edsjoe, Joakim [PH-TH, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland and King's College London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cosmology, Particle Astrophysics and String Theory, Physics, Stockholm University and High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology Centre (HEAC), AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2008-02-15

234

Effectivenessof bioremediationfor the Exxon Valdez oil spill  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Effectivenessof bioremediationfor the Exxon Valdez oil spill James R. Brag",Roger C/olle. spill ot approximalely.rl nillion Iitresof AlaskanNo.ih Slopectude oil in Prince-emedintionprojc!ro date. Pioneering.snall-$ale field t.i!ls' ', molt completedbelore the Esan l/alde:spill

Short, Daniel

235

Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

Farmayan, Walter Farman (Houston, TX); Giles, Steven Paul (Damon, TX); Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip (Katy, TX); Munshi, Abdul Wahid (Houston, TX); Abbasi, Faraz (Sugarland, TX); Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony (Houston, TX); Anderson, Karl Gregory (Missouri City, TX); Tsai, Kuochen (Katy, TX); Siddoway, Mark Alan (Katy, TX)

2011-05-31

236

Thermal analysis of a shower-head burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat transfer coefficients and convective temperatures around the spray bar of the shower-head burner in the NASA Langley Research Center High Temperature Tunnel are determined. The use of the FLUENT computer code and empirical equations in this effort is described. It is concluded that using the FLUENT code allows higher convective temperatures to be predicted than using experimental data at shutdown conditions. Empirical equations are acceptable for calculation heat-transfer coefficients.

Egoavil, Marco A.

1992-01-01

237

ICF Hybrid Burner Using Tritium-Lean Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near-term ICF driven actinide burner has gained much interest.. However, the D-T ICF approach with tritium breeding gives a low support ratio. We propose here using fast ignition of tritium-lean targets to obtain a higher fraction of useful neutrons by reducing tritium-breeding requirements while lowering neutron-induced material damage [1]. This approach appears feasible as simulations show fast ignited tritium-lean targets use only a modest added input-energy over DT targets [2, 3]. Further, discovery of the ``block ignition'' concept is even more encouraging [3]. Thus we suggest the added time to go directly to tritium lean ICF burners (vs. D-T) is minimal. The presentation reviews physics and technology issues for development of a competitive actinide burner.[4pt] [1] M. Ragheb, et al., ``Alternate approach to ICF with low tritium inventories and high power densities'', J. Fus. Energy 4, 339-351 (1985).[0pt] [2] G. N. Miley, ``Tritium-Lean Fusion Reactors Revisited'', ANS TOFE Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008.[0pt] [3] G.H. Miley, et al., ``Reduction of Threshold for Laser Fusion Ignition at Nonlinear Force Driven Block Acceleration'', ANS TOFE Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008

Miley, George; Yang, Xiaoling; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hora, Heinrich

2009-11-01

238

Flame characteristics in a novel petal swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional (360 deg) body-fitted coordinate mathematical model to simulate pulverized coal particle combustion in a petal swirl burner (PSB) is first set up to analyze the flame stability and its characteristics. The studies on the flow pattern, the temperature distribution, and the flue gas composition of the flame, the ignition location, and the combustion efficiency of the pulverized coal particle are conducted. The results show that owing to the special geometric design of the PSB, some of the pulverized coal particles leaving the burner can directly enter the radial recirculation zone (RRZ) behind the petal flame stabilizer (PFS) and are immediately ignited and burned in the RRZ, producing a sort of flame that is always on duty behind each petal, which is called the permanent flame. The flame pattern, which is a combination of the main flame and several permanent flames, provides a sufficient heat source for reliable ignition and steady combustion even for the low-volatile coal-firing and turndown capacity operation, and is advantageous to lower NO{sub x} emission. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the special flame pattern of PSB can be existed are analyzed. A PSB test was undertaken in a 210-MW power plant boiler to investigate the performance of the PSB with firing of low-volatile pulverized coal. The temperature measurement value along the burner axis is given, in which the temperature distribution and the ignition location are clearly shown. (author)

Zhao, Lingling; Zhou, Qiangtai; Zhao, Changsui [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210-096 (China)

2008-10-15

239

Freeman Allen: Boston's pioneering physician anesthetist.  

PubMed

On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death. PMID:25329027

Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

2014-11-01

240

Diagnostics for Pioneer I imploding plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Pioneer I series of imploding plasma experiments are aimed at collapsing a thin aluminum foil with a multimegampere, submicrosecond electrical pulse produced by an explosive flux compression generator and fast plasma compression opening switch. Anticipated experimental conditions are bounded by implosion velocities of 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/s and maximum plasma temperatures of 100 eV. A comprehensive array of diagnostics have been deployed to measure implosion symmetry (gated microchannel plate array and other time-resolved imaging), temperature of the imploding plasma (visible/uv spectroscopy), stagnation geometry (x-ray pinhole imaging), radiation emission characteristics at pinch (XRD's, fast bolometry), and electrical drive history (Rogowski loops, Faraday rotation current detectors, and capacitive voltage probes). Diagnostic performance is discussed and preliminary results are presented.

Lee, P.H.Y.; Benjamin, R.F.; Brownell, J.H.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; McGurn, J.S.; Pecos, J.F.; Price, R.H.; Oona, H.

1985-01-01

241

Marie Stopes: pioneer of family planning.  

PubMed

Marie Charlotte Carmichael Jones was a truly remarkable woman. In the face of enormous opposition and difficulties, she pioneered safe and effective birth control for women. She wrote the first popular book on this subject, which first appeared 90 years ago and which became an instant best seller. Marie was born in Edinburgh in 1880. Her father was a wealthy architect who also had a deep knowledge of palaeobotany--the study of fossilised plants. Her mother, Charlotte Carmichael, was a fervent feminist; a keen promoter of education for women, when this subject was held in scorn by most of the (male!) population. Marie inherited the interests and support of both her parents. PMID:19266879

Ellis, Harold

2009-02-01

242

The Pioneer's acceleration anomaly and Hubble's constant  

E-print Network

The reported anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneers spacecrafts could be seen as a consequence of the existence of some local curvature in light geodesics when using the coordinate speed of light in an expanding space-time. The effect is related with the non synchronous character of the underlying metric and therefore, planets closed orbits can not reveal it. It is shown that the cosmic expansion rate -the Hubble parameter H- has been indeed detected. Additionally, a relation for an existing annual term is obtained which depends on the cosine of the ecliptic latitude of the spacecraft, suggestingan heuristic analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment - light rays playing a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. This statement could be seen as a benchmark for future experiments.

J. L. Rosales

2002-12-10

243

Pioneer probe mission with orbiter option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spacecraft is described which is based on Pioneer 10 and 11, and existing propulsion technology; it can transport and release a probe for entry into Jupiter's atmosphere, and subsequently maneuver to place the spacecraft in orbit about Jupiter. Orbital operations last 3 years and include maneuvers to provide multiple close satellite encounters which allow the orbit to be significantly changed to explore different parts of the magnetosphere. A mission summary, a guide to related documents, and background information about Jupiter are presented along with mission analysis over the complete mission profile. Other topics discussed include the launch, interplanetary flight, probe release and orbit deflection, probe entry, orbit selection, orbit insertion, periapsis raising, spacecraft description, and the effects of Jupiter's radiation belt on both orbiter and the probe.

1975-01-01

244

Pioneer Venus probe models instrumented prop tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of both the small and large Pioneer Venus probes were dropped from a helicopter to simulate the conditions of Mach and Reynolds numbers to be encountered by the probes upon entry into the Venus atmosphere. The models were dropped at an average Mach number of .10 and at an average Reynolds number of 2.84 million for the small probe and 2.90 million for the large probe. After the large amplitude launching oscillations were damped, the small probe oscillations in angle of attack and in sideslip were generally less than 2 degrees. The large probe oscillations were generally less than 10 degrees. Both exhibited distinct frequencies. The motion of the small probe in a place perpendicular to the z axis was random while the large probe rotated (corkscrewed) at 1.1 cycles per second about the z axis. The average drag coefficients of the probe models were .714 for the small probe and .663 for the large probe.

Muirhead, V. U.

1978-01-01

245

A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

Slanger, Tom G.

1993-01-01

246

The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

1975-01-01

247

Pioneer Venus polarimetry and haze optical thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus mission provided us with high-resolution measurements at four wavelengths of the linear polarization of sunlight reflected by the Venus atmosphere. These measurements span the complete phase angle range and cover a period of more than a decade. A first analysis of these data by Kawabata et al. confirmed earlier suggestions of a haze layer above and partially mixed with the cloud layer. They found that the haze exhibits large spatial and temporal variations. The haze optical thickness at a wavelength of 365 nm was about 0.06 at low latitudes, but approximately 0.8 at latitudes from 55 deg poleward. Differences between morning and evening terminator have also been reported by the same authors. Using an existing cloud/haze model of Venus, we study the relationship between the haze optical thickness and the degree of linear polarization. Variations over the visible disk and phase angle dependence are investigated. For that purpose, exact multiple scattering computations are compared with Pioneer Venus measurements. To get an impression of the variations over the visible disk, we have first studied scans of the polarization parallel to the intensity equator. After investigating a small subset of the available data we have the following results. Adopting the haze particle characteristics given by Kawabata et al., we find a thickening of the haze at increasing latitudes. Further, we see a difference in haze optical thickness between the northern and southern hemispheres that is of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal variation of haze thickness along a scan line. These effects are most pronounced at a wavelength of 935 nm. We must emphasize the tentative nature of the results, because there is still an enormous amount of data to be analyzed. We intend to combine further polarimetric research of Venus with constraints on the haze parameters imposed by physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere.

Knibbe, W. J. J.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Travis, L. D.; Hovenier, J. W.

1992-01-01

248

Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton  

PubMed Central

Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

2013-01-01

249

Design of “model-friendly” turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have

Jiayao Zhang; Christopher R. Shaddix; Robert W. Schefer

2011-01-01

250

Design of ``model-friendly'' turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have

Jiayao Zhang; Christopher R. Shaddix; Robert W. Schefer

2011-01-01

251

Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner  

E-print Network

measurements, showing that the important trends of NOx and CO are captured in general. The model was extended to high pressure conditions, similar to those in the actual off-gas burner, with the emissions predictions within design limits. The outcome... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 C.3 Off-gas burner input conditions for H2 ? CO ratio sweep. . . . . . . . . . . 168 C.4 High temperature off-gas burner input conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 C.5 CO and NO emissions for equivalence ratio sweep...

Collins, William Tristan

2008-10-14

252

Experimental Characterization of Premixed Flame Instabilities of a Model Gas Turbine Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the NO\\u000a x\\u000a emissions of heavy duty gas turbine burners have been significantly reduced by introducing premixed combustion. These highly\\u000a premixed burners are known to be prone to combustion oscillations. In this paper, investigations of a single model gas turbine\\u000a burner are reported focusing on thermo-acoustic instabilities and their interaction with the periodic fluctuations of the\\u000a velocity

Kai-Uwe Schildmacher; Rainer Koch; Hans-Jörg Bauer

2006-01-01

253

Towards pioneering through capabilities in dense and cohesive social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine how dense and cohesive social networks can lead to pioneering. In this sense, the specific aim of this study is to analyse the mediating role placed by marketing and technological capabilities to explain the link among the structural social capital and the pioneering. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Focusing on a sample of 224 companies from

Gloria Parra-Requena; María José Ruiz-Ortega; Pedro Manuel García-Villaverde

2012-01-01

254

Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

255

PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE SPACE PROBE PIONEER V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results obtained by Pioneer V are discussed. On March 31, ; 1960, a sudden galactic cosmic-ray intensity decrease occurred at the earth and ; at Pioneer V (5 x 10⁶ km from the earth) of about the same magnitude. The ; direct detection of particles accelerated in solar flares was observed. Evidence ; was found for the solar production

C. Y. Fan; P. Meyer; J. A. Simpson

1960-01-01

256

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Gödel Universe  

E-print Network

Based upon a simple cosmological model with no expansion, we find that the rotational terms appearing in the G/"odel universe are too small to explain the Pioneer anomaly. Although it contributes, universal rotation is not the cause of the Pioneer effect.

Thomas L. Wilson; Hans-Joachim Blome

2009-08-27

257

Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

1974-01-01

258

The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

Corliss, W. R.

1972-01-01

259

Forensic determination of burner serial number placed on DVD-R(W) optical disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility of forensic determination of DVD-R(W) disks regarding the serial number of the used DVD burner. As it was already shown that the burner identication (serial number and type of burner) works for CD ROMs, it was largely unknown that this burner identication works for DVD-R(W) as well when special drives and special software is used. A detailed analysis is given in this paper. Furthermore, a case study for a forensics training program for investigators is developed.

Irmler, Frank; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-06-01

260

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

261

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

2013-01-01

262

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

2010-01-01

263

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

2014-01-01

264

Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces   

E-print Network

Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has been proven inadequate...

Cvoro, Valentina

265

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

266

Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe Solar Flux Radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Flux Radiometer aboard the Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe operated successfully during its descent through the atmosphere of Venus. The instrument measured atmospheric radiance over the spectral range from 400 to 1800 nm as a function of altitude. Elevation and azimuthal measurements on the radiation field were made with five optical channels. Twelve filtered Si and Ge photovoltaic detectors were maintained near 30 C with a phase-change material. The detector output currents were processed with logarithmic transimpedance converters and digitized with an 11-bit A/D converter. Atmospheric sampling in both elevation and azimuth was done according to a Gaussian integration scheme. The serial output data averaged 20 bits/sec, including housekeeping (sync, spin period, sample timing and mode). The data were used to determine the deposition of solar energy in the atmosphere of Venus between 67 km and the surface along with upward and downward fluxes and radiances with an altitude resolution of several hundred meters. The results allow for more accurate modeling of the radiation balance of the atmosphere than previously possible.

Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.; Palmer, J. M.; Holmes, A.; Wolfe, W. L.; Debell, A. G.; Brod, L. G.; Sholes, R. R.

1980-01-01

267

[Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].  

PubMed

At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

2003-06-01

268

Pioneer Venus spacecraft design and operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multiprobe spacecraft design and operation enabled both remote and in-situ measurements of the Venusian environment from the outermost fringes of the atmosphere all the way to the surface. Both spacecraft were spin-stabilized and solar-cell powered from launch to Venus. Since orbit insertion, the Orbiter has been transmitting measurements from a highly elliptical 24-h orbit with periapsis altitudes down to about 150 km. Data rates up to 2048 bits/s have been utilized through a despun high-gain antenna transmitting at S-band frequency. Spacecraft attitudes, orbit periods, and periapsis altitudes are being maintained as required with a hydrazine propulsion system. The Multiprobe spacecraft (Bus with all four Probes attached) performed the necessary Probe checkouts and deployed the Probes to achieve the desired Probe and Bus targeting. Silver-zinc batteries provided the necessary power on each of the four Probes from separation from the Bus through the entry/descent sequence. Data rates of 256 and 128 bits/s on the Large Probe were maintained with 40-W radiated power, and 64 and 16 bits/s on the Small Probes were maintained with 10-W radiated power, through omni antennas directly to Earth-based stations. Each Probe's entry/descent sequence was controlled with a hardwired entry sequence programmer to achieve the desired scientific and spacecraft operations.

Nothwang, G. J.

1980-01-01

269

REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and controlled and as a result increase durability and efficiency of the gasifier. To accomplish goals set for Task 2 GTI will utilize the CANMET Coal Gasification Research facility. The Entrained Coal Gasifier Burner Test Stand has been designed and is currently under construction in the CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC), the research and technology arm of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). This Gasifier Burner Stand (GBS) is a scaled-down mock-up of a working gasifier combustion system that can provide the flexible platform needed in the second year of the project to test the flame sensor. The GBS will be capable of simulating combustion and gasification processes occurring in commercial gasifiers, such as Texaco, Shell, and Wabash River.

James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

2003-10-01

270

Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed conditions. However, the results also indicate that element-to-element fuel maldistribution of the array remains significant such that additional efforts to resolve manufacturing difficulties should be made in future applications. Elimination of maldistribution will reduce NO emissions even further as well as improve stability characteristics of the array.

Lee, Sunyoup

271

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

272

Stabilization Mechanisms and Burning Rates of Cylindrical Burner Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is conducted of the structure and response of curved (but unstretched), cylindrically-symmetric 1D premixed flames from a cylindrical porous burner. The study has employed (1) activation-energy asymptotics with one-step reaction constant and constant properties; (2) a numerical computation which encompassed detailed chemistry and transport behavior, and (3) drop-tower microgravity tests. Attention was given to the relative importance of heat loss vs. flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization; the results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence.

Eng, J. A.; Law, C. K.; Zhu, D. L.

1994-01-01

273

75 FR 2580 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-Line in Peoria County, IL...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Sub-No. 1X)] Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance...December 29, 2009, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) and...Heights, Keller, and Pioneer Park...operate the line in Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Lease...

2010-01-15

274

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner  

E-print Network

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner J. B of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric

Bell, John B.

275

EMISSIONS FROM REFINERY PROCESS HEATERS EQUIPPED WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes an investigation of the performance of commercial low-NOx burners in refinery process heaters. Refineries in Southern and Central California were surveyed to determine the number of existing or planned low-NOx burners. Tests on 10 process heaters equipped wi...

276

EVALUATION OF A PROTOTYPE BURNER FOR COMBINED NOX/SO2 CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes results of EPA-sponsored large pilot-scale combustion tests on a Riley Stoker second-generation low-NOx burner. Parametric tests were conducted on a single 29 MWt (100 million Btu/hr) prototype burner to determine conditions required for low-NOx operation and...

277

PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NO BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR CAPTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale combustion tests of a Riley Stoker second-generation low-NOx burner combined with dry sorbent injection for SO2 control. The burner design is based on the distributed mixing concept. Combustion tests were conducted at 100 million Btu/hr in ...

278

Industrial pulverized coal low-NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, including those which may require preheated air or oxygen enrichment. The design of the burner specifically addresses the critical performance requirements of industrial systems, namely: high heat release rates, short flames, even heat flux distribution, and high combustion efficiency. The design is applicable to furnaces, industrial boilers, and cement kilns. The development program for this burner includes a feasibility analysis, performance modelling, development of the burner prototype design, and assessment of the economic viability of the burner. The Phase 1 activities covered by this report consisted of three principal tasks: preliminary burner design; fluid flow/combustion modelling and analyses; and market evaluation. The preliminary design activities included the selection of a design coal for the Phase 1 design, preliminary design layout, and preliminary sizing of the burner components. Modelling and analysis were conducted for the coal pyrolysis zone, the rich combustion zone and the lean bumout zone. Both chemical kinetics and one-dimensional coal combustion modelling were performed. The market evaluation included a review of existing industrial coal use, identification of potential near- and long-term markets and an assessment of the optimum burner sizes.

Not Available

1993-12-01

279

Impact of tangential burner firing angle on combustion characteristics of large scale coal-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion characteristics in large scale boilers are influenced by a number of factors such as coal properties and burner operating conditions. Burner firing angle for example, will affect the fireball size and locations of heat release which affect the formation of ash slagging in a tangentially fired furnace. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of coal combustion

N. M. Razali; M. H. Boosroh; H. Hasini; N. H. Shuaib

2009-01-01

280

Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.

1983-01-01

281

Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

1977-01-01

282

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

1999-12-01

283

Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

Hoult, D. P.

1979-01-01

284

Industrial burner and process efficiency program. Final report Jan 79-Oct 82  

SciTech Connect

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

Huebner, S.R.; Prakash, S.N.; Hersh, D.B.

1982-10-01

285

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2011-07-01

286

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2010-07-01

287

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing REAR VIEW OF MISSION About 1870 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

288

Nitrogen fixation by Cercocarpus ledifolius (Rosaceae) in pioneer habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil properties of pioneer Pinus flexilis stands with similar topography and climate were investigated. Soils supporting this tree in association with Cercocarpus ledifolius were found to have higher percentages of total nitrogen than soils beneath similar stands lacking Cercocarpus.

Merry G. Lepper; Michael Fleschner

1977-01-01

289

Less Mundane Explanation of Pioneer Anomaly from Q-Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been various explanations of Pioneer blueshift anomaly in the past few years; nonetheless no explanation has been offered from the viewpoint of Q-relativity physics. In the present paper it is argued that Pioneer anomalous blueshift may be caused by Pioneer spacecraft experiencing angular shift induced by similar Qrelativity effect which may also affect Jupiter satellites. By taking into consideration ``aether drift'' effect, the proposed method as described herein could explain Pioneer blueshift anomaly within 0.26% error range, which speaks for itself. Another new proposition of redshift quantization is also proposed from gravitational Bohr-radius which is consistent with Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, Vic

2009-10-01

290

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Photo ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Photo Album on Fire Houses Before 1906 BRODERICH ENGINE NO. 1 - Broderick Engine Company No. 1, Historic View, Sacramento & Kearny Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

291

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

292

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, artist, c. 1870) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF MISSION AND CONVENTO, C. 1870 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

293

Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

1980-01-01

294

Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

295

Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

2012-01-01

296

Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia)

2009-02-15

297

Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2006-07-01

298

Pioneers of high-speed photography and motion analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many ways this paper continues from the one presented at the 25th ICHSPP held in Beaune, France in 2002. That paper was on Etienne-Jules Marey, a true pioneer of high speed photographic techniques and cinematography, who was born in Beaune. Whilst researching for that paper the author became fascinated by the efforts and results of many pioneers in the field at the turn of the 19th century.

Haddleton, Graham P.

2005-03-01

299

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?  

SciTech Connect

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance.

Tangen, Kjell [DNV, 1322 Hoevik (Norway)

2007-08-15

300

First-mover advantages from pioneering new markets: A survey of empirical evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market pioneers can develop first-mover advantages that span decades. The most general first-mover advantage that helps explain higher pioneer market share levels is a broad product line or brand proliferation. In markets for experience goods, pioneers tend to shape consumer tastes and preferences in favor of the pioneering brand. While the preliminary results vary by industry, they indicate that market

William T. Robinson; Gurumurthy Kalyanaram; Glen L. Urban

1994-01-01

301

Pioneer 10 and 11 Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report finishes the work of NASA Grant NAS2-153, which supported data analysis for the UCSD instruments on Pioneers 10 and 11. The data analyzed under this grant span 22 years of interplanetary measurements in the inner and outer heliosphere. The UCSD instruments made their mark in cosmic ray research based upon their high energy thresholds, directional responses, and reliable data streams. one of their primary scientific objectives concerns the size, configuration, and time behavior of the heliosphere. The size scale is inferred from the radial intensity gradient, which is measured between the two spacecraft and extrapolated to interstellar intensity levels at the cosmic ray modulation boundary. This boundary still eludes us, and its position, motion, and the best method of extrapolation are ongoing problems. Current projections place the boundary beyond 100 AU, which may be beyond the termination shock, and raises the question of possible modulation in the heliosheath. Probably our only hope of seeing this region in the immediate future rides on the possibility that the boundary will move inward. Our instruments have recorded many Forbush, or transient, decreases in the outer heliosphere. These observations led us to a model that attributes many of the decreases to solar wind stream-stream interactions, and relates the cosmic ray variations to the locally observed magnetic field magnitude. As the cosmic ray variations in this model result only from topological changes in the modulation integral, the model is a tool for studying the possibility that the 11 year cosmic ray modulation cycle can be accounted for by a superposition of Forbush decreases. The cosmic ray angular distribution function is measurable, given a good telemetry rate, by the UCSD Cerenkov detector which counts particles of energy greater than 500 MeV/n. We obtained statistically significant samples from 1 to 9 AU, at 13 AU, and at 34 AU. The anisotropy tends to be a few tenths of a per cent at all radial distances. A quasiperiodic variation in the east-west anisotropy with period of about 50 days remains unexplained.

Fillius, Walker

1997-01-01

302

Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere  

DOEpatents

According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

Coolidge, Dennis W. (Katy, TX); Rinker, Franklin G. (Perrysburg, OH)

1994-01-01

303

A quantitative study of acoustic growth rates in a characterized Rijke burner with particle combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic growth rate, frequency, and limiting amplitude of a characterized Rijke burner were quantitatively measured during the combustion of aluminum and zirconium carbide particles, which are common solid propellant additives. Extremely narrow size distributions of aluminum particles with mean diameters of 9.2, 19.0, 35.6, and 68.7 ?m were tested at mass loadings up to 3% for frequencies of 800 and 1200 Hz. Large aluminum particles were ignited in the C3H8/O2 flame of a welding nozzle, mounted flush with the burner's flat, C3H8/O 2/N2 flame. Testing provided no conclusive evidence of distributed particle combustion affecting the acoustic driving in the Rijke burner. In solid propellant rockets, the distributed combustion of aluminum particles far from the propellant surface may contribute to pressure oscillations caused by acoustic combustion instability. The Rijke burner was developed as an experimental platform to investigate the phenomenon. Research into the transient acoustic response of Rijke burners is almost nonexistent; consequently, the current burner's acoustic response was quantified as a function of gas flow rate, gas composition, geometry, and burner orientation for two frequencies. Acoustic growth rate trends were explained in terms of the pulsing flame's heat release and the flame's position relative to the optimal acoustic driving point. Variations in gas flow rate, flame temperature, geometry, and exhaust temperature profile could affect a 300 s-1 change in acoustic growth rate for the conditions tested. Frequency remained approximately constant, except for acoustic mode shifts which occurred due to geometry alterations or changing gas temperatures in the burner's hot section. The Rijke burner's acoustic response was not significantly altered by the installation of the welding nozzle with its gas mixture operated near stoichiometric or fuel rich. The radial and axial temperature profiles of the gas temperatures in the burner's hot section were also measured during burner characterization. Gas temperatures would often drop 800 K from the centerline to the burner wall (37 mm diameter). Transient acoustic results were modeled utilizing the temperature measurements-reduced to the axial dimension. The model predicts the experimental trends and approximate magnitude for acoustic growth rate; agreement between the model and measured frequency is excellent.

Newbold, Brian Russell

2000-12-01

304

A Study of Scrap Heating By Burners. Part I: Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A furnace, approximately 1 m3 in capacity, was built to measure the efficiency of heat transfer from a propane-oxygen burner to different types of industrial steel scrap. Supplementary measurements were undertaken to measure the scrap density, size, and void fraction to insure complete combustion of the propane and to measure the extent of scrap oxidation. Local values of temperature in the scrap bed were measured along with the exit temperature of the off gas. The off gas temperature was a direct measurement of the overall efficiency of heating. It was found that smaller and denser scrap was heated more effectively. Configurations that increased the path length of the gas also increased the efficiency of heating. In Part II, a mathematical model is developed to compare with the measured temperatures.

Mandal, Kamalesh; Irons, Gordon A.

2013-02-01

305

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

306

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

307

The Pioneer anomaly: seeking an explanation in newly recovered data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft yielded very accurate navigation in deep space that was, however, limited by a small, anomalous frequency drift of their carrier signals received by the radio-tracking stations of the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). This drift signifies a discrepancy between the frequency of the Doppler signals observed by the DSN and that frequency modeled using modern-day deep space navigational codes. This discrepancy, evident in the data for both spacecraft, was interpreted as an approximately constant acceleration. This acceleration has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The origin of this anomaly is yet unknown. Recent efforts to explain the effect included a search for independent confirmation, analyses of conventional mechanisms, even ideas rooted in new physics, and proposals for a dedicated mission. We assert that to determine the origin of the Pioneer anomaly, and especially before any discussion of new physics and (or) a dedicated mission can take place, one must analyze the entire set of radiometric Doppler data received from Pioneer 10 and 11. In this paper, we report on our efforts to recover and utilize the complete set of radio Doppler and telemetry records of the Pioneer 10 and I I spacecraft. The collection of radio Doppler data for both missions is now complete; we are ready to begin its evaluation. We also make progress utilizing the recently recovered Pioneer telemetry data in the development of a complete engineering profile of the spacecraft. We present a strategy for studying the effect of on-board-generated small forces with this newly recovered information on the performance of thermal, electrical, power, communication, and other subsystems, in conjunction with the analysis of the entire set of the Pioneer Doppler data. We report on the preparation, for the upcoming analysis of the newly recovered data with the ultimate goal of determining the origin of the Pioneer anomaly. Finally, we discuss implications Of Our ongoing research of the Pioneer anomaly for other missions, most notably for New Horizons, NASA's recently launched mission to Pluto.

Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

2006-12-01

308

Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands  

PubMed Central

Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

2014-01-01

309

Depositional environments and oil shale genesis in Eocene Green River formation: retrospect and prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologic studies of oil shale were pioneered by W.H. Bradley in 1929. His basic model for the genesis of oil shale called for a deep stratified lake in which anaerobic conditions in the hypolimnion insured the preservation of organics and accounted for the finely laminated character of the oil shale. Until recently, studies involving the depositional environment and genesis of

H. Paul Buchheim

1984-01-01

310

Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters  

SciTech Connect

The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R. [and others

1995-07-01

311

Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

1995-01-01

312

ANALYSIS OF UTILITY CONTROL STRATEGIES USING THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the impact of proposed acid rain legislation on the potential application of limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) technology incorporating recent research and development findings. Several regulatory strategies and emission red...

313

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15

314

Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating with the thermosyphon heat exchanger located outside the furnace cabinet. A 100,000 -Btu/hr modulating burner has also been developed. Comprehensive study of the burner's operating characteristics has produced guidelines for the design and application of the device. Finally, the modulating burner has been incorporated into a zone-controlled heating system. In parallel with the development of the preceding heating system components, the performance of thermosyphons over a wide range of operating conditions is being explored with the objective of improving design procedures for incorporating these devices into heat exchangers.

Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Spatz, M.; Smith, E.

1986-03-01

315

Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

Mahan, J. R.

1983-01-01

316

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

317

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

Not Available

1991-01-01

318

On the vacuum fluctuations, Pioneer Anomaly and Modified Newtonian Dynamics  

E-print Network

We argue that the so-called "Pioneer Anomaly" is related to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Our approach is based on the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter, what allows considering, the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the physical vacuum, as gravitational dipoles. Our simplified calculations indicate that the anomalous deceleration of the Pioneer spacecrafts could be a consequence of the vacuum polarization in the gravitational field of the Sun. At the large distances, the vacuum polarization by baryonic matter could mimic dark matter what opens possibility that dark matter do not exist, as advocated by the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).

Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

2011-02-08

319

Effects of elliptical burner geometry on partially premixed gas jet flames in quiescent surroundings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the investigation of the effect of elliptical nozzle burner geometry and partial premixing, both 'passive control' methods, on a hydrogen\\/hydrocarbon flame. Both laminar and turbulent flames for circular, 3:1, and 4:1 aspect ratio (AR) elliptical burners are considered. The amount of air mixed with the fuel is varied from fuel-lean premixed flames to fuel-rich partially premixed flames.

Benjamin Baird

2005-01-01

320

Principles and rationale of the Fusion-Fission Hybrid burner reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential advantages of Fusion-Fission Hybrid (FFH) reactors (relative to critical fast reactors) for closing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. The choices of fission and fusion technologies for FFH burner reactors that would fission the transuranics remaining in spent fuel discharged from nuclear power reactors are summarized. The conceptual design and fuel cycle performance of the SABR FFH burner reactor are presented, and a fusion power development schedule with a symbiotic dual FFH path is outlined.

Stacey, Weston M.

2012-06-01

321

Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF HEATING OF PAPER WITH GAS-FIRED INFRARED BURNER A Thesis by ABDULLAH NADIR HUSAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF HEATING OF PAPER WITH GAS-FIRED INFRARED BURNER A Thesis by ABDULLAH. NADIR HUSAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AJbM University...

Husain, Abdullah Nadir

2000-01-01

322

Numerical simulation of turbulent mixing and combustion near the inlet of a burner  

SciTech Connect

The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner that was proposed for experimental study at the Combustion Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine. Four cases are presented, with and without chemical reactions, with two different outflow boundary conditions, and with two different swirl numbers. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of COYOTE to simulate burners, and they illustrate some limitations and requirements of such modeling.

Cloutman, L.D.

1993-02-01

323

VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and the future European Extremely Large Telescope," says Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Director General. At the heart of VISTA is a 3-tonne camera containing 16 special detectors sensitive to infrared light, with a combined total of 67 million pixels. Observing at wavelengths longer than those visible with the human eye allows VISTA to study objects that are otherwise impossible to see in visible light because they are either too cool, obscured by dust clouds or because they are so far away that their light has been stretched beyond the visible range by the expansion of the Universe. To avoid swamping the faint infrared radiation coming from space, the camera has to be cooled to -200 degrees Celsius and is sealed with the largest infrared-transparent window ever made. The VISTA camera was designed and built by a consortium including the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the UK ATC and the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. Because VISTA is a large telescope that also has a large field of view it can both detect faint sources and also cover wide areas of sky quickly. Each VISTA image captures a section of sky covering about ten times the area of the full Moon and it will be able to detect and catalogue objects over the whole southern sky with a sensitivity that is forty times greater than that achieved with earlier infrared sky surveys such as the highly successful Two Micron All-Sky Survey. This jump in observational power - comparable to the step in sensitivity from the unaided eye to Galileo's first telescope - will reveal vast numbers of new objects and allow the creation of far more complete inventories of rare and exotic objects in the southern sky. "We're delighted to have been able to provide the astronomical community with the VISTA telescope. The exceptional quality of the scientific data is a tribute to all the scientists and engineers who were involved in this exciting and challenging project," adds Ian Robson, Head of the UK ATC. The first released image shows the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), a spectacular star-forming cloud of gas and du

2009-12-01

324

Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

1991-05-01

325

Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

2011-01-01

326

Lessons learned from the Pioneers 10/11 for a mission to test the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate ˜6 · 10-9 Hz/s. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33) × 10-8 cm/s2 directed towards the Sun. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to the effect, none has been found. As a result, the nature of this anomaly has become of growing interest. Here, we discuss the details of our recent investigation focusing on the effects both external to and internal to the spacecraft, as well as those due to modeling and computational techniques. We review some of the mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and show their inability to account for the observed behavior of the anomaly. We also present lessons learned from this investigation for a potential deep-space experiment that will reveal the origin of the discovered anomaly and also will characterize its properties with an accuracy of at least two orders of magnitude below the anomaly’s size. A number of critical requirements and design considerations for such a mission are outlined and addressed.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D.

327

Coal conversion of a multiple burner lime kiln  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1982 Ash Grove Cement Company contracted with Wagester, Walker, Thornton and Company to convert a Calcimatic rotating hearth kiln at its Portland, Oregon lime plant from gas\\/oil to coal firing. Increasing costs of natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil made this conversion mandatory if the plant was to remain competitive. Unique features of this project are the distributors

G. Jones; L. W. Thornton

1984-01-01

328

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOEpatents

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01

329

The Pioneer 10 anomalous acceleration and Oort cloud comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson et al. [Phys. Rev. D 65 (2002) 082004] recently reported new evidence that both Pioneer 10 and 11 are experiencing nearly the same unmodeled anomalous acceleration directed toward the Sun. Numerous mechanisms, both internal and external to the spacecraft, have been proposed to explain this unmodeled acceleration. If we assume that the cause of the anomalous acceleration is (1)

Daniel P. Whitmire; John J. Matese

2003-01-01

330

1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1790 Re- photo: January 1940 (From old drawing by Sukes, showing first church at left, second church being built near center - about 1790) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

331

Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind interaction with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of the Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby in late November and early December 1973 has been performed. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found

J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov; H. R. Collard; D. D. McKibbin; L. A. Frank; D. S. Intriligator

1974-01-01

332

Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations at Jupiter encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-channel extreme ultraviolet photometer on Pioneer 10 was used to investigate hydrogen and helium emissions from the atmosphere of Jupiter and emissions associated with the Galilean satellites. The hydrogen Lyman a signal observed from Jupiter corresponded to 400 R in brightness. By using the results of Wallace and Hunten, the eddy diffusion coefficient is found to be K =

R. W. Carlson; D. L. Judge

1974-01-01

333

Pioneer Women in Manitoba: Evidence of Servant-Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership was characterized as patriarchal and hierarchical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Pioneer women were often not credited with leadership qualities although many, including school teachers, journalists, suffragettes, healthcare workers, and social activists played an important role in the development of Manitoba communities.…

Crippen, Carolyn L.

2004-01-01

334

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

Dyer, J. W.

1975-01-01

335

Pioneer 10 studies of interplanetary shocks at large heliocentric distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer 10 Ames plasma analyzer data collected in the 6.1 to 12.6 AU range of heliocentric distances (November 1974 to April 1977) have been examined for interplanetary shock waves. Eighteen shock signatures have been identified, with four of these being of the reverse type and the remainder the forward type. Sonic Mach numbers in the range from 3 to 10

J. D. Mihalov; J. H. Wolfe

1979-01-01

336

Combinatorial Approach to Pioneered by the pharmaceutical indus-  

E-print Network

Combinatorial Approach to Materials Pioneered by the pharmaceutical indus- try, the combinatorial-parameter­property relationships, validate physical models, and so on. Data Management and Data Mining Until recently, mining of specialized laboratory in- formation management systems (LIMS).3 On the other hand, very few tools exist

Rubloff, Gary W.

337

Reconstruction of the Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer, northeast Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer was closed temperate rainforest dominated by Nothofagus johnstonii Hill, which probably produced N. menziesii-type pollen. However, other angiosperms (Quintinia, Cupaniae, Ilex, Cunoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Winteraceae) were also present, as well as several conifers (Athrotaxis, Phyllocladus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Dacrycarpus and Araucariaceae). This rainforest was floristically more complex that the modern Tasmanian Nothofagus cunninghamii rainforests but

Robert S. Hill; Michael K. Macphail

1983-01-01

338

"Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone…

Kenney, Keith

339

Oral History of Postsecondary Access: Martha Maxwell, a Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truly a pioneer in the field of learning assistance and developmental education, Martha Maxwell has mentored hundreds, if not thousands, of professionals and students as well as authored a variety of reference shelf publications. Her career spanned 50 years. In her classic, Improving Student Learning Skills, she says there are seven persons named…

Casazza, Martha E.; Bauer, Laura

2004-01-01

340

Barren Soil, Pioneer Species, and the Work of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental concerns did not penetrate the adult education field until the late 1990s resulting in underdeveloped research and theory in North America. Through a literature review, I trace the rise of environmental themes, analyze the historical barriers, introduce pioneer and successor theorists, and explore how the K- 12 and adult education fields can inform each other about \\

Elizabeth A. Lange

341

Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

1972-01-01

342

Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park…

Simpson, Jean

2012-01-01

343

The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1973-01-01

344

Emissions from refinery process heaters equipped with low-Nox burners. Final report Oct 80Jan 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes an investigation of the performance of commercial low-NOx burners in refinery process heaters. Refineries in Southern and Central California were surveyed to determine the number of existing or planned low-NOx burners. Tests on 10 process heaters equipped with low NOx burners measured gaseous emissions, particulates, and efficiencies at normal operating conditions. As-found NOx emissions increased from 58

R. J. Todona; H. J. Buening; J. R. Hart

1981-01-01

345

Thermal barrier coatings - Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na- and V-contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in wt %) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 vol % MgO-50 vol % Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

Hodge, P.E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M.A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S.R.

1980-01-01

346

Methanol as a soot reducer in a turbulent swirling burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combined effect of using methanol as a fuel additive together with a prototype multifuel injector has been evaluated with regard to soot formation in a tubular laboratory burner with a turbulent swirl stabilized diffusion flame. Kerosene, ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with approximately 14,12.8 and 10.3 wt pct of hydrogen respectively were characterized in terms of soot loading at the axial positions Z/D = 2.5 and 4.0 and normalized radius r/R = + or 0.67. Mixtures of ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol were also characterized in the same way. Measurements with the plain fuels showed a drastic reduction in soot formation, in the order of one hundred and fifty fold decrease, due to the new injector design. Further reductions by a factor of 2 and 1.5 were accomplished with the mixtures of 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol respectively.

Izquierdo, A. J.; Hoult, D. P.

1984-01-01

347

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

1975-01-01

348

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

2002-01-01

349

Reproductive traits of pioneer gastropod species colonizing deep-see hydrothermal vents after an eruption  

E-print Network

The colonization dynamics and life histories of pioneer species are vital components in understanding the early succession of nascent hydrothermal vents. The reproductive ecology of pioneer species at deep-sea hydrothermal ...

Bayer, Skylar (Skylar Rae)

2011-01-01

350

33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading...147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading...Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading...

2014-07-01

351

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H2, CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20 000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

2011-07-01

352

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES AND COMPARISON WITH WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. A number of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total extractable organics, and mutagenicity. r...

353

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS AND ORGANIC FINGERPRINTS FROM COMBUSTION OF OIL AND WOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents data from an Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) pilot study on the total carbon, organics, and particulate emissions from oil furnaces with both gun-type and retention head burners. hese data are compared to results of a similar IACP study on woodstoves condu...

354

Pioneer and voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and lattitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer 10, 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft are well suited for exploring spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Between 1984 and 1986 Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 were located at nearly the same heliocentric distance (approx. =20 AU) and longitude but were widely separated in latitude; Pioneer 11 was at a heliographic latitude of greater than or equal

P. R. Gazis; J. D. Mihalov; A. Barnes; A. J. Lazarus; E. J. Smith

1989-01-01

355

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

356

75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, designated as transformation...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International in its petition...

2010-06-08

357

78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0031] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a...Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., of...

2013-05-29

358

A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

Mahan, J. R.

1984-01-01

359

Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

1984-05-01

360

Are heating-system retrofit and tune-up programs really increasing the efficiency of oil-fired systems?  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a two-year field test involving over 300 homes to evaluate the US Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program for low-income fuel-oil-heated houses. One conclusion was that houses receiving oil-burner clean and tune-ups did not increase in system steady-state efficiency any more than a similar group of weatherized and control houses not receiving clean and tune-ups. A set of oil-burner performance goals proposed by the Alliance to Save Energy were not attained by most of the tuned-up oil systems, thereby not achieving a major benefit of heating-system programs from current implementation methods. Whole-system replacements produced higher-than-average savings and systems with flame-retention burners had higher steady-state efficiencies and used less fuel than normal burners. Other space-heating-system measures including setback thermostats were not statistically significant in reducing fuel-oil consumption. Secondary benefits of improved safety (such as lowering carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gases and inside houses) and reliability were present in weatherized houses, although not in as high a quantity as is often espoused.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-07-01

361

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

362

Long range gravity tests and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

Experimental tests of gravity performed in the solar system show a good agreement with general relativity. The latter is however challenged by the Pioneer anomaly which might be pointing at some modification of gravity law at ranges of the order of the size of the solar system. As this question could be related to the puzzles of ``dark matter'' or ``dark energy'', it is important to test it with care. There exist metric extensions of general relativity which preserve the well verified equivalence principle while possibly changing the metric solution in the solar system. Such extensions have the capability to preserve compatibility with existing gravity tests while opening free space for the Pioneer anomaly. They constitute arguments for new mission designs and new space technologies as well as for having a new look at data of already performed experiments.

Serge Reynaud; Marc-Thierry Jaekel

2006-10-31

363

Identifying pioneer bacterial species responsible for biofouling membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

More effective control of membrane biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) lies in the fundamental understanding of the pioneer microorganisms responsible for surface colonization that leads to biofilm formation. In this study, the composition of the planktonic and sessile microbial communities inhabiting four laboratory-scale MBR systems were compared using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The ARDRA results suggest that the microbial communities on membrane surfaces could be very different from the ones in the suspended biomass. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences provided a list of bacteria that might be the pioneers of surface colonization on microfiltration membranes. The results further suggested that research on the mechanisms of cell attachment in such an engineering environment could be critical for future development of appropriate biofouling control strategies. PMID:16478450

Zhang, Kai; Choi, Heyok; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Sorial, George A; Oerther, Daniel B

2006-03-01

364

Long-range communications with Pioneer 10 at Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The longest two-way telecommunications link ever established connected Pioneer 10 with its controllers and experimenters on earth during the first Jovian encounter. This radio link, operating in the 2.1 and 2.3 gigahertz frequency bands, maintained high-quality communications over a distance of 5-1/2 astronomical units. The data collected by eleven on-board advanced scientific instruments were transmitted to the investigators, providing a new wealth of information about the largest planet of the solar system. A descriptive review is presented of the spacecraft design and the ground data system configuration with an analysis of the telecommunications downlink. Pioneer 10, aided by Jupiter's gravitational field, is the first spacecraft to leave the solar system. A plaque attached to the spacecraft represents man's first attempt to send a message to another intelligence within our galaxy.

Dickerson, L. W.; Siegmeth, A. J.

1975-01-01

365

Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1976-01-01

366

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

2011-01-01

367

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

2012-01-01

368

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of JupiteL and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Rj, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 'y, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived

E. J. Smith; L. Davis Jr.; D. E. Jones; P. J. Coleman Jr.; D. S. Colburn; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett; A. M. A. Frandsen

1974-01-01

369

Gravity tests in the solar system and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

We build up a new phenomenological framework associated with a minimal generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory. When linearity, stationarity and isotropy are assumed, tests in the solar system are characterized by two potentials which generalize respectively the Newton potential and the parameter $\\gamma $ of parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. The new framework seems to have the capability to account for the Pioneer anomaly besides other gravity tests.

Marc-Thierry Jaekel; Serge Reynaud

2005-04-05

370

Craniofacial surgery, from past pioneers to future promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  As a surgical subspecialty devoted to restoration of normal facial and calvarial anatomy, craniofacial surgeons must navigate\\u000a the balance between pathologic states of bone excess and bone deficit. While current techniques employed take root in lessons\\u000a learned from the success and failure of early pioneers, craniofacial surgery continues to evolve, and novel modalities will\\u000a undoubtedly arise integrating past and present

Derrick C. Wan; Matthew D. Kwan; Anand Kumar; James P. Bradley; Michael T. Longaker

2009-01-01

371

Planetary magnetism. [Mariner, Venera and Pioneer probe results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent data on planetary magnetism are reviewed, with attention given to information obtained by Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10 orbiting Venus, and Pioneer spacecraft flying past Jupiter. In addition, less recent magnetic measurements of Mars are reconsidered. Doubts about whether Mars has an active dynamo at present are mentioned, and further planetary magnetic assessments are suggested. In particular, the need to refine knowledge of multipole moments is stressed.

Russell, C. T.

1979-01-01

372

System expectations for Pioneer I foil implosion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Prior to the beginning of the Pioneer I shot of the Los Alamos National Laboratory TRAIL-MASTER project, numerous computational simulations were run to provide ball-park estimates for the electrical currents and voltages in the circuit, the timing of the implosion, the kinetic energy, temperature, and radiation output of the load. The purpose of these calculations was to provide guidance in setting the timings of the various switches within the circuit and to establish operating ranges for the various diagnostics.

Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

1985-01-01

373

Pioneer Venus radar results - Geology from images and altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unimodal distribution of relief for Venus was obtained from the Pioneer Venus altimetry measurements. The 'upland' rolling plains constituting 65% of the surface show dark circular lava-filled impact basins; highlands in the 8% of the area comprise Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra; and the lowlands consist of crudely circular surfaces with low relief within the highlands. The complex ridge-and-trough

Harold Masursky; Eric Eliason; P. G. Ford; G. E. McGill; G. H. Pettengill; Gerald G. Schaber; Gerald Schubert

1980-01-01

374

System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

Acheson, L. K.

1973-01-01

375

Redox pioneer: Professor Joe M. McCord.  

PubMed

Dr. Joe McCord (Ph.D. 1970) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least three articles on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that have been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 37 articles each cited over 100 times. Dr. McCord is known for the monumental discovery of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) while a graduate student under fellow redox pioneer Irwin Fridovich and demonstrating its necessity to aerobic life. Beyond this, McCord's career is distinguished for bridging the gap from basic science to clinical relevance by showing the application of SOD and superoxide to human physiology, and characterizing the physiological functions of superoxide in inflammation, immunological chemotaxis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury, among other disease conditions. Work by McCord serves as the foundation upon which our understanding of how superoxide functions in a variety of physiological systems is built and demonstrates how superoxide is essential to aerobic life, yet, if left unchecked by SOD, toxic to a multitude of systems. These discoveries have substantial significance in a wide range of studies with applications in cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurology, and medicine, as well as general health and longevity. Dr. McCord's contributions to free radical biology have been recognized through many prestigious achievement awards, honorary titles, and conferences around the world; each serving as a testament to his status as a redox pioneer. PMID:24117164

Schnell, David M; St Clair, Daret

2014-01-01

376

Independent Confirmation of the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I perform an independent analysis of radio Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft for the time period 1987-1994. All of the tracking data were taken from public archive sources, and the analysis tools were developed independently by myself. I confirm that an apparent anomalous acceleration is acting on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is not accounted for by present physical models of spacecraft navigation. My best fit value for the acceleration, including corrections for systematic biases and uncertainties, is (8.60 plus or minus 1.34) x 10(exp -8) centimeters per second, directed towards the Sun. This value compares favorably to previous results. I examine the robustness of my result to various perturbations of the analysis method, and find agreement to within plus or minus 5%. The anomalous acceleration is reasonably constant with time, with a characteristic variation time scale of greater than 70 yr. Such a variation timescale is still too short to rule out on-board thermal radiation effects, based on this particular Pioneer 10 data set.

Markwardt, Craig B.

2002-01-01

377

Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

Knudsen, William C.

1993-01-01

378

Redox Pioneer: Professor Joe M. McCord  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dr. Joe McCord (Ph.D. 1970) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least three articles on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that have been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 37 articles each cited over 100 times. Dr. McCord is known for the monumental discovery of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) while a graduate student under fellow redox pioneer Irwin Fridovich and demonstrating its necessity to aerobic life. Beyond this, McCord's career is distinguished for bridging the gap from basic science to clinical relevance by showing the application of SOD and superoxide to human physiology, and characterizing the physiological functions of superoxide in inflammation, immunological chemotaxis, and ischemia–reperfusion injury, among other disease conditions. Work by McCord serves as the foundation upon which our understanding of how superoxide functions in a variety of physiological systems is built and demonstrates how superoxide is essential to aerobic life, yet, if left unchecked by SOD, toxic to a multitude of systems. These discoveries have substantial significance in a wide range of studies with applications in cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurology, and medicine, as well as general health and longevity. Dr. McCord's contributions to free radical biology have been recognized through many prestigious achievement awards, honorary titles, and conferences around the world; each serving as a testament to his status as a redox pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 183–188. PMID:24117164

Schnell, David M.

2014-01-01

379

Reconsideration of natural-gas immersion burners to melt recycled aluminum  

SciTech Connect

The best open flame reverberatory aluminum melting furnaces are approximately 45% efficient. Furnace efficiency can be increased by using immersed tube burners. Currently, recuperated tube burners with capacities to remelt aluminum are available. Tube burners would allow remelt furnaces to operate at lower temperatures, reduce dross formation, reduce particulate emissions, and provide clean flue gas to other energy intensive processes. Babcock and Wilcox, under GRI (now GTI – Gas Technology Institute) contract in the late-1980’s, demonstrated the technically feasibility of immersion melting of aluminum. However, tube reliability was problematic due to metal penetration, dross build-up, thermal shock, and mechanical failure. Also, the concept of “cold start” melting was not addressed. The Albany Research Center (U.S. DOE) is cooperating with Secat, E3M Inc., the University of Kentucky, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an ITP-sponsored program to combine emerging technologies in a retrofitable furnace package targeting improved remelt efficiency ranging from 55% to 75%.

Clark, John A., III; Thekdi, Arvind (E3M, Inc., North Potomac, MD); Ningileri, S. (Secat Inc, Lexington KY); Han, Q. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2005-09-01

380

Effect of fuel volatility on performance of tail-pipe burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuels having Reid vapor pressures of 6.3 and 1.0 pounds per square inch were investigated in a tail-pipe burner on an axial-flow-type turbojet engine at a simulated flight Mach number of 0.6 and altitudes from 20,000 to 45,000 feet. With the burner configuration used in this investigation, having a mixing length of only 8 inches between the fuel manifold and the flame holder, the low-vapor-pressure fuel gave lower combustion efficiency at a given tail-pipe fuel-air ratio. Because the exhaust-nozzle area was fixed, the lower efficiency resulted in lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption. The maximum altitude at which the burner would operate was practically unaffected by the change in fuel volatility.

Barson, Zelmar; Sargent, Arthur F , Jr

1951-01-01

381

Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

1999-07-07

382

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2006-07-15

383

effect of hydrogen addition and burner diameter on the stability and structure of lean, premixed flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low swirl burners (LSBs) have gained popularity in heating and gas power generation industries, in part due to their proven capacity for reducing the production of NOx, which in addition to reacting to form smog and acid rain, plays a central role in the formation of the tropospheric ozone layer. With lean operating conditions, LSBs are susceptible to combustion instability, which can result in flame extinction or equipment failure. Extensive work has been performed to understand the nature of LSB combustion, but scaling trends between laboratory- and industrial-sized burners have not been established. Using hydrogen addition as the primary method of flame stabilization, the current work presents results for a 2.54 cm LSB to investigate potential effects of burner outlet diameter on the nature of flame stability, with focus on flashback and lean blowout conditions. In the lean regime, the onset of instability and flame extinction have been shown to occur at similar equivalence ratios for both the 2.54 cm and a 3.81 cm LSB and depend on the resolution of equivalence ratios incremented. Investigations into flame structures are also performed. Discussion begins with a derivation for properties in a multicomponent gas mixture used to determine the Reynolds number (Re) to develop a condition for turbulent intensity similarity in differently-sized LSBs. Based on this requirement, operating conditions are chosen such that the global Reynolds number for the 2.54 cm LSB is within 2% of the Re for the 3.81 cm burner. With similarity obtained, flame structure investigations focus on flame front curvature and flame surface density (FSD). As flame structure results of the current 2.54 cm LSB work are compared to results for the 3.81 cm LSB, no apparent relationship is shown to exist between burner diameter and the distribution of flame surface density. However, burner diameter is shown to have a definite effect on the flame front curvature. In corresponding flow conditions, a decrease in burner diameter results a broader distribution of curvature and an increased average curvature, signifying that compared to the larger 3.81 cm LSB, the flame front of the smaller burner contains tighter, smaller scale wrinkling.

Kaufman, Kelsey Leigh

384

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

2003-07-01

385

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2011-07-01

386

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2010-07-01

387

Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D. Ronney  

E-print Network

1 Gas-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood title: Extinction limits in excess enthalpy burners To be published in Proceedings of the Combustion-phase and catalytic combustion in heat-recirculating burners Jeongmin Ahn, Craig Eastwood, Lars Sitzki* and Paul D

388

78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., (Pioneer...Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.,...

2013-02-27

389

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2012-07-18

390

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION WITH MULTISTAGE BURNERS) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissionscontrol technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides ...

391

Establishing criteria for the design of a combination parallel and cross-flaming covered burner  

E-print Network

A burner was designed and constructed to combine weed control practices of parallel and cross-flaming with the technology of covers and insulation. It involved two covers designed to be placed on the sides of a crop row. The flame under the covers...

Stark, Christopher Charles

2003-01-01

392

Eco-friendly Regenerative Burner Heating System Technology Application and Its Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental friendly, ceramic honeycomb regenerative burner system is worth noting as innovative technol- ogy, for its effect of low energy consumption and NOx emission. It is recognized as one of concrete measures to prevent global warming and to solve environmental problems. NKK and Nippon Furnace Kogyo have jointly devel- oped the system and succeeded in starting its practical operation.

Shinichiro Fukushima; Yutaka Suzukawa

393

ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

2013-04-02

394

INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

395

DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW-EMISSION, HIGH-EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third year's efforts in a program to develop criteria for extending the applicability of low-emission, high-efficiency coal burners. For the small-scale fuel studies, 28 coals covering all ranks were tested under a wide variety of conditions to ascertain ...

396

GUIDELINES FOR ADJUSTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC GAS BURNERS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SPACE HEATING AND WATER HEATING  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidelines contain recommended procedures for adjusting residential and commercial atmospheric gas burners used for space heating and water heating to minimize air pollution and for efficient use of fuel. They are intended for use by skilled service technicians in adjusting b...

397

Prediction of central recirculation zone size for a complete burner-quarl-furnace system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the swirl flow burning process of fuels, the central recirculation zone plays an important role in flame stabilization by providing a hot flow of recirculated combustion products, which reduce both the length of flame and the stabilized flame distance from the burner mouth. In this paper, a new modified swirl number, S exp xx, related to the characteristic size of the burner quarl, is introduced to correlate the isothermal and burning flows. Using a well-known two-dimensional computational model, the isothermal flow pattern in a complete burner-quarl-furnace system is computed. On this basis, the theoretical swirl number S exp xx is calculated and used as a correlation parameter for predicting the central recirculation zone size in burning flow conditions. Experimental tests for both nonreacting and reacting flows on the same complete burner-quarl-furnace system, for comparing the theoretical and experimental swirl number s exp xx, have been conducted, and the validity of this new correlation parameter has been proved.

Cristea, Eugen-Dan B.

1987-03-01

398

A Novel Integrated TPV Power Generation System Based on a Cascaded Radiant Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cascaded radiant burner has been developed and based on this burner, a novel integrated TPV system has been built. In this system, low bandgap GaSb cells and silicon concentrator solar cells are employed integratedly. The unique cascaded radiant burner consists of two different radiators which cascade-emit two streams of radiation with different spectra. The two different radiators are arranged in tandem, with their surface temperatures being different as well. Two streams of radiation output are matched, respectively, to the bandgaps of silicon cells and GaSb cells. Thus, one stream of radiation output illuminates silicon concentrator solar cells while the other drives low bandgap GaSb cells in the integrated system. In this work, the combustion performance of the cascaded radiant burner was investigated at varying degrees of exhaust heat recuperation. The electrical output characteristics of both silicon concentrator solar cells and GaSb cells in the gas combustion-driven TPV system were measured under various operating conditions. It is shown that this innovative design considerably increases the TPV system efficiency, due to the cascaded utilization of heat released during natural gas combustion and the optimized thermal management.

Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.

2004-11-01

399

WALL-FIRED BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report assesses the impact of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on wall-fired utility boilers for both new and retrofit designs. Recent attention has focused on dry sorbent sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology which, in conjunction with low-nitrogen-o...

400

EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. THIRD ANNUAL REPORT (1981)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the third year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct a field evaluation of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on an industrial size boiler. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion a...

401

LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

402

Unsteady flame and flow field interaction of a premixed model gas turbine burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOx emissions of heavy duty gas turbines have been significantly reduced by introducing lean premixed combustion. These flames are known to be prone to combustion instabilities. In this paper, investigations of a single model gas turbine burner are presented with focus on thermo-acoustic eigenmodes of the combustor and the resulting interaction between periodic flow field oscillations and flame front

K.-U. Schildmacher; A. Hoffmann; L. Selle; R. Koch; C. Schulz; H.-J. Bauer; T. Poinsot; W. Krebs; B. Prade

2007-01-01

403

EVALUATION OF SULFUR CAPTURE CAPABILITY OF A PROTOTYPE SCALE CONTROLLED-FLOW/SPLIT-FLAME BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the sulfur capture potential during combustion of limestone copulverized with a high sulfur eastern bituminous coal, using Foster Wheeler's commercial Controlled-Flow/Split-Flame (CF/SF) low NOx, internally staged burner. Sulfur capture was optimized by using...

404

Social Studies (Still) on the Back Burner: Perceptions and Practices of K-5 Social Studies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, Neil Houser concluded that social studies in Delaware was "on the back burner." Some ten years later, the same can be said concerning social studies in South Carolina. With a continued emphasis being placed on the more "pressing" fields such as math and language arts, coupled with the inclusion of social studies on South Carolina's…

Lintner, Timothy

2006-01-01

405

Confronting the "Bra-Burners": Teaching Radical Feminism with a Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many of the U.S. History courses the author has taught, she has encountered students who refer to the second-wave feminists of the 1960s and 1970s as "bra-burners." Unsurprisingly, these students know very little about the origin of this epithet, and frequently, they know even less about the women's movement generally. Second-wave feminism, and…

Kreydatus, Beth

2008-01-01

406

A burner management system for utility boilers-a DCS solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of burner management system (BMS) based on distributed digital control (DDC) for large utility boilers. The BMS system is responsible for the safety of the furnace and boiler. The system protects personnel and machinery from unsafe condition in furnace, and it helps the operator in safe operation, startup, and shutdown of the boiler. DDC for

Shailesh Vidyarthi

1995-01-01

407

CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS IN THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA research on dry sorbent injection, which began in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and which will be demonstrated as the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process at Ohio Edison's Edgewater plant in 1987. The effect and interrelationship of funda...

408

Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System  

E-print Network

"The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high...

Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

409

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner  

E-print Network

of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric of burning lean hydrogen or hydrogen-enriched lean hydrocar- bon fuels (e.g., [2­5]). For these fuels

Bell, John B.

410

PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE CAPTURE POTENTIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests on two large-scale staged-mixing (SM) burners developed by L and L Steinmuller of West Germany. One objective was to optimize their performance for low-NOx emissions, high efficiency, and combined NOx/SO2 control with sorbent injection. The exper...

411

Control of flames by tangential jet actuators in oxy-fuel burners  

SciTech Connect

The active control of oxy-fuel flames from burners with separated jets is investigated. The control system consists of four small jet actuators, placed tangential to the exit of the main jets to generate a swirling flow. These actuators are able to modify the flow structure and to act on mixing between the reactants and consequently on the flame behavior. The burner (25 kW) is composed of separated jets, one jet of natural gas and one or two jets of pure oxygen. Experiments are conducted with three burner configurations, according to the number of jets, the jet exit velocities, and the separation distance between the jets. OH chemiluminescence measurements, particle image velocimetry, and measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are used to characterize the flow and the flame structure. Results show that the small jet actuators have a significant influence on the behavior of jets and the flame characteristics, particularly in the stabilization zone. It is shown that the control leads to a decrease in lift-off heights and to better stability of the flame. The use of jet actuators induces high jet spreading and an increase in turbulence intensity, which improves the mixing between the reactants and the surrounding fluid. Pollutant measurements show important results in terms of NO{sub x} reductions (up to 60%), in particular for low swirl intensity. The burner parameters, such as the number of jets and the spacing between the jets, also impact the flame behavior and NO{sub x} formation. (author)

Boushaki, Toufik [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Universite de Toulouse-INPT-UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, Cedex (France); Sautet, Jean-Charles [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Labegorre, Bernard [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Les Loges-en-Josas, B.P. 126 78354 Jouy-en-Josas, Cedex (France)

2009-11-15

412

Reducing NO\\/sub x\\/ emissions at the burner, in the furnace, and after combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strict federal and state regulations on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are requiring new control technologies. The production of NOx, and current emission regulations at both state and federal levels are reviewed. Modifying combustion-process conditions is currently the most cost-effective and widely used practice for achieving moderate reduction in NOx emissions. Analyzed are control methods in burners and furnaces, the impact

Pruce

1981-01-01

413

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. The full-scale demonstrat...

414

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O, SO2, and CO2 were measured, and upper limits set for H2, COS, H2S, CH4, Kr, N2O, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H8. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid-like droplets and support the possibility of water vapor at altitudes of 42 and 24 km. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the origin, evolution, and present state of Venus' atmosphere.

Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.; Craig, R. A.

1980-12-01

415

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O, SO2, and CO2 were measured, and upper limits set for H2, COS, H2S, CH4, Kr, N2O, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H8. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid-like droplets and support the possibility of water vapor at altitudes of 42 and 24 km. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the origin, evolution, and present state of Venus' atmosphere.

Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.; Craig, R. A.

1980-01-01

416

Health Coaching Education: A Conversation With Pioneers in the Field  

PubMed Central

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success. PMID:24416669

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-01-01

417

Health coaching education: a conversation with pioneers in the field.  

PubMed

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success. PMID:24416669

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-05-01

418

How American dentists helped pioneer oxygenation of general anesthetics worldwide.  

PubMed

Dentists Horace Wells and later William Morton introduced the world to general anesthesia with nitrous oxide and ether, respectively. During the latter half of the 1800s, some of their colleagues actually redefined anesthetic gas mixtures as ones including either room air or oxygen as a carrier gas. American dentists pioneered America's first series of bubble-through anesthetic vaporizers as well as early efforts in anesthesia literature and education. By the end of the 19th Century, America's leading dental supplier, S.S. White, was mass-producing an anesthesia apparatus which combined oxygen with nitrous oxide--a template or catalyst for the design of anesthesia machines worldwide. PMID:20222218

Bause, George S

2009-01-01

419

Outer planet Pioneer imaging communications system study. [data compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of different types of imaging data compression on the elements of the Pioneer end-to-end data system were studied for three imaging transmission methods. These were: no data compression, moderate data compression, and the advanced imaging communications system. It is concluded that: (1) the value of data compression is inversely related to the downlink telemetry bit rate; (2) the rolling characteristics of the spacecraft limit the selection of data compression ratios; and (3) data compression might be used to perform acceptable outer planet mission at reduced downlink telemetry bit rates.

1974-01-01

420

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30

421

Geophysical Research Letters. Selected Papers on Pioneer Venus Orbiter: Entry Phase. Volume 20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following papers which are comprised of subject matter related to the The Pioneer Venus Orbiter's Entry Phase: The Pioneer Venus entry phase; solar cycle variations of electron density and temperature in the Venusian nightside ionosphere; the magnetic state of the lower ionosphere during Pioneer Venus entry phase; the nightside ionosphere of Venus under varying levels of solar EUV flux; observation of the nightside Venus ionosphere; final encounter of the Pioneer Venus orbiter ion mass spectrometer; ion measurement during Pioneer Venus reentry; implications for solar cycle variation of ion composition and dynamics; evidence for day-to-night ion transport at low solar activity in the Venus pre-dawn ionosphere; model calculations of the dayside ionosphere of Venus at solar minimum; natural composition measurements by the Pioneer Venus neutral mass spectrometer during orbiter reentry; the Venus atmospheric response to solar cycle variations; and plasma waves observed at low altitudes in the tenuous Venus nightside ionosphere.

1993-01-01

422

Three-dimensional numerical study of flames supported by a rotating burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study non-uniform methane diffusion flames, formed from a porous plug burner spinning in quiescent air are investigated numerically in a three-dimensional context. Flames are simulated for Damkohler numbers on the upper branch of the S-response curve close to the extinction point. Multi-dimensional instabilities appear at these near extinction Damkohler numbers, as observed in experimental studies of flames sustained by a rotating fuel disk or by a rotating porous burner. Simulation results from the constant density and constant viscosity model suggest that the non-uniform flames are a result of thermodiffusional instabilities and are a function of the Damkohler number. Non-uniform flames simulated in this study include flame holes, single armed spirals and double armed spirals. The flame holes have stationary edges and the radius of these holes is found to increase as the Damkohler number is lowered. The single and double spirals have edges that rotate about the axis of the burner. It is found that the velocity of the single spiral relative to the flow is considerably higher than that of the double spiral. It is also found that the shapes of the spirals are affected by the velocity vectors and by interactions between distinct spiral arms. Analyses of the scalar dissipation and cross-scalar dissipation rates of these flames show that the flames are primarily diffusion flames with some premixing near the edges. Factors, other than the Damkohler number, that are found to significantly affect the stability of the spinning porous plug burner included the mixture strength and the exit velocity at the burner surface. The range of Damkohler number within which the system exhibits non-uniform behaviour is larger at higher values of exit velocity and lower values of mixture strength.

Hossain, Kishwar N.

423

Absorbers seen near the Venus cloud tops from Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus Orbiter measurements of planetary contrast at the Venus cloud tops are discussed. Images of the cloud tops at wavelengths between 1990 and 3400 A were obtained by the Pioneer UV Spectrometer together with broadband imagery and polarimetry at 2700 and 3650 A from the Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter at Venus phase angles of 33 to 130 deg. The planet is found to be darkest at the point where the UV Spectrometer line of sight penetrates perpendicular to the cloud tops, indicating that the absorbing material must be deep in the atmosphere. The contrast observed at wavelengths shortward of 3200 A is explained by SO2 absorption in the dark regions, while the persistence of the contrast at longer wavelengths requires the presence of an additional absorber or absorbers closely associated with the SO2, and a haze of submicron particles overlying the cloud tops in the bright regions. The correlations found between contrast and polarization indicate that no single constituent or change in vertical structure can account for the UV contrast. The origin of the markings is instead explained by a model in which absorbers subject to photochemical destruction are mixed upward into the cloud top region.

Esposito, L. W.

1981-01-01

424

Chung Park, pioneer of magnetosphere ionosphere coupling research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chung Park (1938 2003) was a true pioneer of magnetosphere ionosphere coupling research. During a short career at Stanford University that began in 1970 and ended in 1981, he wrote seminal papers on several topics. Using ground-based whistler data, he was the first to demonstrate experimentally that day-side upward ion flow from the mid-latitude ionosphere was sufficient to maintain the night-time ionosphere. He made the only measurements to date of longitudinally localized drainage of significant quantities of plasmaspheric plasma into the underlying ionosphere during a period of enhanced convection activity. He pioneered in demonstrating the presence at ionospheric heights of geophysically important electric fields that originate in the troposphere in thunderstorm centers. He cooperated in a unique study of the guidance of whistler-mode waves by field-aligned density irregularities (ducts) in the magnetosphere. Park provided unique observational data on nonlinear wave particle interaction processes such as: (i) the development of sidebands during the injection of whistler-mode waves from Siple, Antarctica, and (ii) the mysterious whistler precursor phenomenon. Today, in spite of the several decades that have elapsed since his work, Park's early findings remain cornerstones of our understanding of magnetosphere ionosphere coupling processes. Some of his later studies of non-linear magnetospheric wave particle interaction phenomena have stirred lively debate, and today remain relevant to a number of topics in space plasma wave research.

Carpenter, D. L.

2007-03-01

425

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01

426

Optimization of the Number of Burner Nozzles in a Hot Blast Stove by the Way of Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the burner nozzles in a blast furnace hot stove including their number, location, and angle has a vital effect on the flow field, temperature distribution, combustion efficiency, etc. In this article, simulation models were established for the hot stove located at Shougang Qianan. The model, eddy dissipation model, and P-1 model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiative heat transfer, respectively. The effect of different number of burner nozzles on the flow field and temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was investigated. The results indicated that 19 or 21 burner nozzles were preferred to obtain the optimum flow field and temperature distribution.

Guo, Hongwei; Yan, Bingji; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Feng; Pei, Yi

2014-07-01

427

SNAP 19 TAGS 85/2N Viking and Pioneer application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SNAP 19 radioisotope thermoelectric generator module for Viking Lander and Pioneer applications, discussing design requirements, environmental and mission constraints, life, performance and reliability characteristics, etc

Linkous, G. F.; Smith, R. D.; Wilbur, A. C.

1970-01-01

428

Combustion testing of coal-water and coal-methanol-water mixtures in oil-designed boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of coal-water mixtures (CWM) and coal-methanol-water (CMW) mixtures have been evaluated using an oil-designed 100-hp (0.98-MW) firetube boiler and an oil-designed 700-hp (6.87-MW) watertube boiler. Combustion tests were conducted in the 700-hp boiler using CMW mixtures prepared with a high-volatile A bituminous coal and a high-volatile C bituminous coal. Atomizing air with pressure at the burner of

Y. C. Fu; G. T. Bellas; J. I. Joubert

1984-01-01

429

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Lisa Cartwright

2010-01-01

430

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01

431

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

Cygan, David

2006-12-28

432

Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a methanol spray in a vitiated coflow. As a proof of concept, an ensemble light diffraction (ELD) optical instrument was used to conduct preliminary measurements of droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.

Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.

2000-01-01

433

Evaluation of low-emission coal burner technology on industrial boilers. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report, October 1978-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

This report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98-kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming-capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under routine operation, the DMBs reduced NOx emissions by about 50%-from the baseline condition of about 0.96 to about 0.46 lb/million Btu (418 to 200 ng/J). Under carefully controlled, optimized conditions, NOx emissions were further reduced about another 20%-to about 0.3 lb/million Btu (131 ng/J). The DMB is a low-NOx pulverized-coal burner for wall-fired boiler applications. It operates under reducing conditions in the primary flame zone to minimize NOx emissions while an overall oxidizing environment is maintained in the furnace to minimize slagging and corrosion.

Folsom, B.A.; Abele, A.R.; Reese, J.L.; Sommer, T.M.

1988-08-01

434

Mission Planning for Pioneer Saturn/Uranus Atmospheric Probe Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission planning for a series of atmospheric probe missions to Saturn and Uranus using a modified Pioneer spacecraft launched in 1979 and 1980 was examined. The operational options and the associated systems requirements consistent with the major scientific goals and spacecraft constraints of the missions is summarized. It is feasible to obtain in-situ atmospheric measurements in the atmosphere of Saturn and Uranus down to a pressure level of 10 bars using a common probe and spacecraft design. Spacecraft can be launched to both objectives with an adequate launch window in 1979 and 1980 using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle with a TE-364-4 upper stage. Other scientific objectives can be accomplished by the flyby spacecraft. Encounters with the satellite Titan and RF occultations of Saturn, the ring system of Saturn, and Uranus can be obtained.

Swenson, B. L.; Tindle, E. L.; Manning, L. A.

1973-01-01

435

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Operations and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ultraviolet Spectrometer investigation on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter mission was extremely successful. The instrument was designed, built and tested at CU/LASP and delivered on time and within budget. The spacecraft and its instruments were required to operate for 243 days in Venus orbit. OUVS operated successfully for a further 13 years with only minor problems. The major scientific results listed above that deal with Venus were all unexpected and significant discoveries. The Comet Halley observations came about because of a favorable alignment of Halley, the Sun, and Venus, and were an important contribution to the international study of this comet. The scientific results of the OUVS investigation are to be found in the 41 papers listed in section 4 below. OUVS data provided material for 6 PhD and one MS dissertations, listed in section 5 below.

Stewart, A. I. F.

1997-01-01

436

Future exploration of Venus (post-Pioneer Venus 1978)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study was performed to determine the major scientific unknowns about the planet Venus to be expected in the post-Pioneer Venus 1978 time frame. Based on those results the desirability of future orbiters, atmospheric entry probes, balloons, and landers as vehicles to address the remaining scientific questions were studied. The recommended mission scenario includes a high resolution surface mapping radar orbiter mission for the 1981 launch opportunity, a multiple-lander mission for 1985 and either an atmospheric entry probe or balloon mission in 1988. All the proposed missions can be performed using proposed space shuttle upper stage boosters. Significant amounts of long-lead time supporting research and technology developments are required to be initiated in the near future to permit the recommended launch dates.

Colin, L.; Evans, L. C.; Greeley, R.; Quaide, W. L.; Schaupp, R. W.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.

1976-01-01

437

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:21609369

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

438

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2013-03-01

439

A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1994-02-01

440

The curse of discovery: pioneers of dental and medical anesthesia.  

PubMed

The current practice of dental local anesthesia remains founded upon drugs and techniques that were developed over 100 years ago. 2009 marks the 125th anniversary of the pioneering use of cocaine as a topical anesthetic and the introduction of nerve block injections in the oral cavity and facial region. Four famous clinicians are recognized in this article, each for their unique contributions to "modern" local anesthesia (Carl Köller, Sigmund Freud and William Halsted) and general anesthesia (Horace Wells), with the recognition of the adverse impact of drug dependence on their personal lives, which fortunately did not preclude their positively revolutionizing the practices of dentists and physicians and their patients every since. PMID:19911617

Jeske, Arthur H

2009-10-01

441

Cloud morphology and motions from Pioneer Venus images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The horizontal and vertical cloud structures, atmospheric waves, and wind velocities at the cloud top level were determined by the Pioneer Venus photopolarimeter images in the UV from January through March 1979. The images indicate long-term evolution of cloud characteristics, the atmospheric dynamics, and rapid small changes in cloud morphology. The clouds show a globally coordinated oscillation relative to latitude circles; retrograde zonal winds of 100 m/s near the equator are determined from the tracking of small-scale cloud properties, but two hemispheres show important variations. The zonal wind velocity in the southern hemisphere is reduced toward the poles at a rate similar to solid body rotation; the midlatitude jet stream noted by Mariner 10 is not observed.

Rossow, W. B.; Del Genio, A. D.; Limaye, S. S.; Travis, L. D.; Stone, P. H.

1980-01-01

442

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

443

Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale. Phase II. Quarterly progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The major activities at OOSI's Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7 and 8; blasthole drilling; tracer testing MR4; conducting the start-up and burner tests on MR3; continuing the surface facility construction; and conducting Retorts 7 and 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests. Environmental monitoring continued during the quarter, and the data and analyses are discussed. Sandia National Laboratory and Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) personnel were active in the DOE support of the MR3 burner and start-up tests. In the last section of this report the final oil inventory for Retort 6 production is detailed. The total oil produced by Retort 6 was 55,696 barrels.

Not Available

1981-01-01

444

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul [Morningstar Applied Physics Inc., LLC, Vienna, VA 22182 (Austria)

2010-01-28

445

Radiation Instrumentation Electronics for the Pioneers III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the devices carried aboard lunar payloads, Pioneer III and Pioneer IV, was a radiation measurement instrument. Its purpose was to detect and process information on particle flux rates encountered along the nominal cis-lunar trajectory to be followed by those payloads. Radiation data were collected by two different Geiger-Mueller tubes. One tube registered particle counts and the resultant accumulation

Conrad Josias

1960-01-01

446

Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3. Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus spacecraft performance requirements are presented. The specifications include: (1) Design criteria and performance requirements for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft systems and subsystems for a 1978 multiprobe mission and a 1978 orbiter mission, spacecraft system interface, and scientific instrument integration.

1973-01-01

447

Results of Pioneer 10 and 11 Meteoroid Experiments: Interplanetary and Near-Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 10 (channel 0) recorded 95 penetrations through the 25-tm stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 18 AU. The spatial density of 10-9g meteoroids is found to be essentially constant between 1 and 18 AU. The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 11 recorded 87 penetrations (55 on channel 0 and

D. H. Humes

1980-01-01

448

Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new…

Metzler, Mike

2007-01-01

449

The Quilt-Block History of Pioneer Days: With Projects Kids Can Make.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses and techniques of quilt making are presented in this book which focuses on the quilt patterns as allegory for pioneer history. Pioneer experiences are described and linked visually with appropriate quilt patterns. An activity accompanies each pattern presentation. The work is organized into 10 chapters: (1) "Quilts and History: A Simple…

Cobb, Mary

450

Heat transfer efficiency evaluation for outward and inward multi-flame-hole gas burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to understand the factor that influence the heating efficiency of the outward and inward multi-hole gas burner. The flame-hole angle and the distance from flame hole to heating object are chosen as the experimental parameters. The measurement of the flame temperature distribution is carried out on each experimental condition. The observation of combustion flame, by the Schlieren method, is done from the purpose to understand the combustion phenomenon on the heating efficiency. LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) is used for the test fuel gas. The compositions of LPG are propane 97.5vol%, butane 0.2vol% and methane + ethylene 2.3vol%. The optimum ranges of the flame-hole angle and the distance from flame hole to heating object are clarified. The experimental correlation equations for the outward and inward multi-flame-hole gas burner are proposed.

Morita, Shin-ichi; Hayamizu, Yasutaka; Katayama, Takashi; Inaba, Hideo

2012-04-01

451

Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

Zaplatynsky, I.

1982-01-01

452

Demonstration of a burner for the investigation of partially premixed low-temperature flames  

SciTech Connect

A burner, which stabilizes near-one-dimensional low-temperature flames at atmospheric pressure, was designed to access the combustion regime near 1500 K for quantitative species diagnostics. Combustion temperatures between 1300 and 1800 K in argon-diluted methane-oxygen flames were achieved by preheating the burner and adapting the inert gas flow. Mass spectrometry with electron ionization was used to determine mole fractions profiles of reactants, products, and intermediates. Combustion parameters were varied including stoichiometry, diluent mole fraction and preheat temperature. Mole fraction profiles resemble those taken in regular premixed flat flames. A number of C{sub 1}- and C{sub 2}-intermediates as well as some oxygenated species were identified. Higher-mass species (m/z > 42) were not detected in the low-temperature methane-oxygen flames which contain 90% argon in the cold gases. (author)

Struckmeier, U.; Lucassen, A.; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, K. [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hansen, N. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wada, T.; Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Verbrennung, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 64, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-10-15

453

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

Not Available

1991-09-01

454

Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

Cliff B. Davis

2007-09-01

455

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOEpatents

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15

456

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

SciTech Connect

This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were defined in order to accommodate sensitivity analyses of the results. The sensitivity analyses provide a strategy for quantifying the rate of change of NOx or unburned carbon in the fly ash to a rate of change in secondary air or fuel or stoichiometric ratio for individual burners or groups of burners in order to assess the value associated with individual burner flow control. In addition, the sensitivity coefficients that were produced provide a basis for quantifying the differences in sensitivities for the different boiler types. In a ranking of the sensitivity of NOx emissions to variations in secondary air flow between the burners at a fixed lower furnace stoichiometric ratio in order of least sensitive to most sensitive, the results were: (1) 600 MW T-Fired Unit; (2) 500 MW Opposed Wall-Fired Unit; (3) 150 MW Wall-Fired Unit; (4) 100 MW T-Fired Unit; and (5) 330 MW Cyclone-Fired Unit.

Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

2005-07-01

457

TPV Power Source Using Infrared-Sensitive Cells with Commercially Available Radiant Tube Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last several years, JX Crystals has invented and systematically developed the key components for thermophotovoltaic systems. These key components include GaSb infrared sensitive cells, high power density shingle circuits, dielectric filters, and hydrocarbon-fueled radiant tube burners. Most recently, we invented and demonstrated an antireflection (AR)-coated tungsten IR emitter which when integrated with the other key components should make TPV systems with efficiencies over 10% practical. However, the use of the AR tungsten emitter requires an oxygen-free hermetic seal enclosure. During a 2003 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I contract, we integrated a tungsten emitter foil and a commercial SiC radiant tube burner within an emitter thermos and successfully demonstrated its operation at high temperature. We also designed a complete stand alone 500 W TPV generator. During the upcoming SBIR Phase II, we plan to implement this design in hardware.

Fraas, Lewis; Minkin, Leonid; Hui, She; Avery, James; Howells, Christopher

2004-11-01

458

Passive Flow Control Applied to a Gas Turbine Burner: Reduction of Emission and Pulsations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive flow control techniques were applied to a a low-emission swirl stabilized experimental burner which exhibited thermoacoustic instability modes. Several axisymmetric and helical unstable modes were identified for fully premixed and diffusion type combustion. These unstable modes were associated with flow instabilities related to the wake-like region on the combustor axis due to the inner recirculation zone and shear layer instabilities at the sudden expansion (dump plane). Microphones were utilized to monitor the pressure oscillations during the combustion process. The different geometrical changes yielded suppression levels of over 20 dB in the pressure oscillations. In all cases the effect was achieved by modifying the shear layer evolution of the inner and outer recirculation zone, thus affecting the combustion process. The significant reduction in the fluctuating heat release of the flame and the improved mixing due to the passive control methods reduced also the NOx and CO emissions of the burner.

Gutmark, E.; Paschereit, C. O.; Weisenstein, W.

1999-11-01

459

Interaction of turblence and chemistry in a low-swirl burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New combustion systems based on ultra-lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat, and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities, making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low-swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next-generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simlations of a laboratory-scale low-swirl burner using detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. We consider two fuels, methane and hydrogen, each at two turbulent intensities. Here we examine some of the basic properties of the flow field and the flame structure. We focus on the differences in flame behavior for the two fuels, particularly on the hydrogen flame, which burns with a cellular structures.

Bell, J. B.; Cheng, R. K.; Day, M. S.; Beckner, V. E.; Lijewski, M. J.

2008-07-01

460

Industrial burner and process efficiency program. Annual report Jan-Dec 81  

SciTech Connect

A high velocity, multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion scheme, pulse firing burner has been developed together with a digital control scheme using the frequency modulation (FM) method of regulating the number of duration of pulse firing of the burner for process temperature control. Proof of concept test in a batch hardening furnace is planned next to evaluate this FM combustion system under furnace operating conditions. Laboratory test data has indicated gains in heating rate and improvements in product temperature uniformity. Present methods of operation usually involve the use of excess air operations. Compared to the present systems, the FM combustion system is economically feasible with payback periods of 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 years.

Huebner, S.R.; Prakash, S.N.

1982-03-01

461

Pioneer 10 and 11 Jovian encounters: radiation dose and biological lethality.  

PubMed

In their recent Jupiter flybys Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 passed through a belt of intense particulate radiation. For Pioneer 10 the radiation dose on the craft's outer surface was at least 5 x 10(5) rads from electrons plus 1.0 x 10(6) rads from protons; the radiation dose inside the craft (0.3 cm aluminum) was approximately 4.5 x 10(5) rads. For Pioneer 11 the surface dose was at least 1.3 x 10(5) rads from electrons plus 3 x 10(5) rads from protons; the interior radiation dose was approximately 1.2 x 10(5) rads. Significant survival of microbial spores would be possible at these calculated doses; however, even the interior dose of Pioneer 11 would be lethal to man and most multicellular biological organisms. PMID:12678105

Miller, M W; Kaufman, G E; Maillie, H D

1976-01-01

462

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

SciTech Connect

Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2014-06-01

463

Characterization of ceramic ornaments of a theatre-like incense burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen Teotihuacan-style ornaments of an incense burner were studied. Ceramic pastes, pigments and mica were analyzed by\\u000a neutron activation, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Elemental (Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm,\\u000a Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U) and statistical analyses of ceramic-body data showed that these pieces were made from the same\\u000a raw

R. López-Valenzuela; J. A. López-Palacios; M. Jiménez-Reyes; G. Cataño; D. Tenorio

2010-01-01

464

Coal Particle Flow Patterns for O2 Enriched, Low NOx Burners  

SciTech Connect

This project involved a systematic investigation examining the effect of near-flame burner aerodynamics on standoff distance and stability of turbulent diffusion flames and the resultant NO{sub x} emissions from actual pulverized coal diffusion flames. Specifically, the scope of the project was to understand how changes in near-flame aerodynamics and transport air oxygen partial pressure can influence flame attachment and coal ignition, two properties essential to proper operation of low NO{sub x} burners. Results from this investigation utilized a new 2M tall, 0.5m in diameter combustor designed to evaluate near-flame combustion aerodynamics in terms of transport air oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}), coal fines content, primary fuel and secondary air velocities, and furnace wall temperature furnish insight into fundamental processes that occur during combustion of pulverized coal in practical systems. Complementary cold flow studies were conducted in a geometrically similar chamber to analyze the detailed motion of the gas and particles using laser Doppler velocimetry. This final technical report summarizes the key findings from our investigation into coal particle flow patterns in burners. Specifically, we focused on the effects of oxygen enrichment, the effect of fines, and the effect of the nozzle velocity ratio on the resulting flow patterns. In the cold flow studies, detailed measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were made to determine the details of the flow. In the hot flow studies, observations of flame stability and measurements of NO{sub x} were made to determine the effects of the flow patterns on burner operation.

Jennifer Sinclair Curtis

2005-08-01

465

A theoretical study on soot inception in spherical burner-stabilized diffusion flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soot inception processes in nonpremixed flames have been studied in a spherical flame stabilized by a spherical porous burner to understand the effects of flame structure (stoichiometric mixture fraction) and hydrodynamics (flow direction). A simplified three-step model with high activation energies is employed to describe the fuel oxidation, soot\\/precursor formation, and soot\\/precursor consumption reactions, respectively. The fuel oxidation reaction

S. Liu; B. H. Chao; R. L. Axelbaum

2005-01-01

466

Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

1952-01-01

467

Calcium-based sorbents in the LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses EPA research on dry-sorbent injection, which began in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and which will be demonstrated as the limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) process at Ohio Edison's Edgewater plant in 1987. The effect and interrelationship of fundamental sorbent properties are now fairly well understood. These considerations, along with pilot-scale furnace testing, suggest that commercial calcium

D. A. Kirchgessner; R. V. Hendriks; N. Kaplan

1987-01-01

468

Inertial-confinement ion-beam wet-wood-burner fusion neutron source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific feasibility of a wet-wood-burner (WWB) concept of a fusion neutron source that is based on direct interaction between a deuterium ion beam and a tritium target is investigated. Simple one- and two-dimensional analytic models are developed and used for estimating the range of neutron yields and fusion energy gains, Q, attainable from the inertial confinement ion beam WWB

A. Birnboim; E. Greenspan; D. Shvarts

1979-01-01

469

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The

Cygan

2006-01-01

470

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

2000-04-01

471

Numerical simulation of cold flow patterns and turbulent mixing in a simplified burner  

SciTech Connect

The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner. The authors report the results of four cold flow calculations that illustrate several interesting phenomena in addition to demonstrating the capabilities of the basic hydrodynamics model and the turbulence model. They also demonstrate some interesting facets of the hydrodynamics of burners. They summarize their findings as follows: (1) two different grids gave vastly different answers, underscoring the importance of assuring grid-independence in numerical solutions; (2) cold flow patterns are much different than reactive flow fields, making it unwise to apply conclusions from the former to the latter; (3) the problem is elliptic, and it is necessary to include the whole furnace in the calculations; (4) the flow patterns exhibited weakly unstable, almost metastable, modes that make it difficult to ascertain when steady conditions have been obtained. The long range goals of this study are to identify parameters that affect the production of NO{sub x} and to discover methods of reducing emissions while maintaining or improving burner efficiency.

Cloutman, L.D.

1994-10-01

472

Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

2015-03-01

473

Evaluation of gas-reburning and low NO sub x burners on a wall fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

Low NO{sub x} burners operate on the principle of delayed mixing between the coal fuel and burner air, so that less NO{sub x} is formed. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel corresponding to the total heat release in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at the lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} emission reductions of 75 percent or more as a result of combing Low NO{sub x} Burners and Gas Reburning on a utility boiler having the design characteristics mentioned above. A Host Site Agreement has been signed by EER and a utility company in the State of Colorado: Public Service Company of Colorado (Cherokee Unit No. 3, 172 MW{sub e}) front wall fired boiler near Denver.

Not Available

1992-01-15

474

Measurements of non-reacting and reacting flow fields of a liquid swirl flame burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

Chong, Cheng Tung; Hochgreb, Simone

2015-02-01

475

Design and evaluation of a low nitrogen oxides natural gas-fired conical wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel low NOx conical wire-mesh duct burner was designed, built and tested in the present research. This thesis documents the design process and the in-depth evaluation of this novel duct burner for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. This duct burner provides the thermal energy necessary to raise the microturbine exhaust gases temperature to increase the heat recovery capability. The duct burner implements both lean-premixed and surface combustion techniques to achieve low NOx and CO emissions. The design of the duct burner was supported by a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to provide insight into the premixer flow field (mixing process). Different premixer geometries were used to control the homogeneity of the fuel-oxidant mixture at the exit of the duct burner premixer. Laser sheet illumination (LSI) technique was used to capture images of the mixing process, for each configuration studied. A quasi-quantitative analysis technique was developed to rank the different premixer geometries in terms of mixing effectiveness. The premixer geometries that provided better mixing were selected and used for the combustion tests. The full-scale gas-fired duct burner was installed in the exhaust duct of a micro-cogeneration unit for the evaluation. Three wire-mesh burners with different pressure drops were used. Each burner has a conical shape made from FeCrAL alloy mat and was designed based on a heat release per unit area of 2500 kW/m2 and a total heat release of 240kW at 100 percent excess air. The local momentum of the gaseous mixture introduced through the wire-mesh was adjusted so that the flame stabilized outside the burner mesh (surface combustion). Cold flow tests (i.e., the duct burner was off, but the microturbine was running) were conducted to measure the effect of different duct burner geometrical parameters on flow split between the combustion zone and the bypass channel, and on pressure drop across the duct burner. A considerable amount of detailed parametric experimental data was collected to investigate the performance characteristics of the duct burner. The variables studied (firing rate, mass flow ratio, conical burner pressure drop, blockage ratio, conical burner shield length, premixer geometry and inlet conditions) were all found to play an important role on emissions (NOx and CO), overall duct burner pressure drop and flame stability. The range of firing rates at which surface combustion was maintained for the duct burner was defined by direct observation of the burner surface and monitoring of the temperature in the combustion zone. Flame images were captured for qualitative assessment. The combustion tests results presented in this thesis proved that the design procedures that were implemented to design this novel microturbine conical wire-mesh duct burner were successful. During the course of the combustion tests, the duct burner displayed stable, low emissions operation throughout the surface firing rate range of 148 kW to 328 kW (1574 kW/m 2 to 3489 kW/m2). Emissions of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15 percent 02) for NOx and CO emissions were recorded, while the duct burner successfully raised the microturbine exhaust gases temperature from about 227°C to as high as 700°C. The overall duct burner pressure drop throughout was consistently below the design limit of 249 Pa.

Ramadan, Omar Barka Ab

476

Design and evaluation of a low nitrogen oxides natural gas-fired conical wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel low NOx conical wire-mesh duct burner was designed, built and tested in the present research. This thesis documents the design process and the in-depth evaluation of this novel duct burner for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. This duct burner provides the thermal energy necessary to raise the microturbine exhaust gases temperature to increase the heat

Omar Barka Ab Ramadan

2008-01-01

477

The effect of jet velocity ratio on aerodynamics of a rectangular slot-burner in the presence of cross-flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical coal-fired power station boiler the ignition and the combustion of the fuel is largely controlled by burner aerodynamics. An experimental and numerical study of the rectangular slot-burners widely used on power stations in Victoria, Australia has been conducted to improve understanding of jet development within the boiler. The 1:15 scale model burner consisted of a central (primary)

S. Ahmed; J. Hart; J. Naser; J. Nikolov; C. Solnordal; W. Yang

2007-01-01

478

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} emissions. At issue are the NO{sub x} contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO{sub x} control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT (SNCR) and NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO{sub x} reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO{sub x} removal efficiency plus projected NO{sub x} reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO{sub x} burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu or less. At burner NO{sub x} emission level of 0.20 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO{sub x} removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost.

Hamid Farzan

2001-07-01

479

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

PubMed Central

Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards. Citation: Logue JM, Klepeis NE, Lobscheid AB, Singer BC. 2014. Pollutant exposures from natural gas cooking burners: a simulation-based assessment for Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 122:43–50;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306673 PMID:24192135

Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2013-01-01

480

Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

None

1998-07-01

481

Scaling characteristics of the aerodynamics and low-NOx properties of industrial natural gas burners: The scaling 400 study. Part 3. The 30kw test results  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the SCALING 400 study is to assist in the development of new ultra-low NOx natural gas burners for industrial and utility operations so as to maintain and expand future demand for natural gas as the fuel of choice for clean combustion applications. The study is determining the scaling characteristics of near-burner aerodynamics and low-NOx properties of industrial natural gas burners, thereby yielding valuable new engineering information on the scaling of natural gas burners to contribute to the development of new low-NOx designs.

Driscoll, J.F.; Dahm, W.J.A.; Wu, M.S.

1993-08-15

482

Ira Maximilian Altshuler: psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the life of Ira Maximilian Altshuler, psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist. In 1938, Dr. Altshuler initiated one of the first large-scale music therapy programs for mentally ill persons in the country at Detroit's Eloise Hospital. His innovative programs combined psychoanalytic techniques and music therapy methods specifically designed for use with large groups of clients. He later trained some of the first music therapy interns in the country, including Carol Collins, who served for many years as Professor of Music Therapy at Wayne State University, and Esther Goetz Gilliland, who later became President of NAMT. Dr. Altshuler promoted the practice and profession tirelessly, speaking to numerous audiences over the years and writing 19 articles about music therapy. Altshuler participated in the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) organizational meeting held in New York City in 1950. An active member of the organization for many years, he served on the Research Committee and hosted the 1955 national NAMT conference in Detroit. Even after Altshuler's retirement from Eloise Hospital in 1963, he remained active in numerous civic, music, and music therapy activities until his death 5 year later. Ira Altshuler should be remembered along with other music therapists from the time-Willem Van de Wall, Harriet Ayer Seymour and others-who vigorously embraced and advanced the status of the profession. PMID:14567731

Davis, William B

2003-01-01

483

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.  

PubMed

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:24354350

Ng, Chin Ting Justin

2014-06-01

484

Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics?  

PubMed

Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics. PMID:16180199

Liu, Yongsheng

2005-01-01

485

Analysis of magnetic field data from Pioneer Venus orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject grant (NAG 2-501) supported the analysis of magnetic field data from the Pioneer Venus orbiter for the period 10/1/87 to 9/30/94. During that period, 188 papers were contributed to scientific meetings that either analyzed the magnetometer data or used the data as part of the analysis of a scientific problem. Further, 107 papers were published in research journals and books. The magnetic moment of Venus was described. Venus was found to be essentially devoid of any intrinsic magnetic field. There was evidence though for the presence of lightning in the Venus atmosphere. The altitude distribution of impulsive signals in the night atmosphere was mapped and geographic clusters were found, most probably associated with local time ordering. A new means to create flux ropes in the ionosphere was postulated. On the nightside, ionospheric holes, ionospheric clouds, and tail rays were studied. The subsolar ionopause and the magnetic barrier were examined as was the altitude asymmetry of the ionopause, properties of the magnetosheath, and location of the bow shock upstream waves.

Russell, Christopher T.

1994-01-01

486

A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion of fluoride during early childhood leading to the formation of defective enamel. The increased fluoride content is thought to result in a metabolic alteration of ameloblasts, which results in defective matrix, and improper calcification of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 6244 patients between the ages of 6yrs to 60yrs, who presented to our outpatient clinic from October 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped according to their age into the following groups- 6-14 yrs, 15-25 yrs, 26-40 yrs, and 40-60yrs. Only permanent dentition was taken into consideration in this study. Results: The overall prevalence of fluorosis in this study was 63.34% (3955 of 6244 patients). Men had a slightly higher prevalence of 64.27% compared to 62.28% among women. Conclusion: Prevention of fluorosis would require efforts at raising awareness among the people about the harmful effects of their dietary choices on their teeth. They also need to be educated about adequate and proper oral hygiene, such as brushing their teeth at least two times daily. How to cite this article: Sunil T K L, Shetty S, Annapoorna B M, Pujari S C, Reddy P S, Nandlal B. A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):67-72. PMID:24155605

L, Sunil Tejaswi K; Shetty, Suneeth; M, Annapoorna B; Pujari, Sudarshan C; P, Sarveshwar Reddy; Nandlal, B

2013-01-01

487

Pioneer 10 observation of the solar wind proton temperature heliocentric gradient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar wind isotropic proton temperatures as measured out to 12.2 AU heliocentric distance by the Ames plasma analyzer aboard Pioneer 10 are presented as consecutive averages over three Carrington solar rotations and discussed. The weighted least-squares fit of average temperature to heliocentric radial distance, R, yields the power law R sup -.52. These average proton temperatures are not correlated as well with Pioneer 10's heliocentric radial distance (-.85) as are the corresponding average Zurich sunspot numbers R sub z (-.95). Consequently, it is difficult to isolate the spatial gradient in the Pioneer 10 solar wind proton temperatures using that data alone.

Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.

1978-01-01

488

Oil Spill!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

2005-01-01

489

Oil Types  

MedlinePLUS

... About one-third will evaporate within 24 hours. Oil contamination of intertidal areas can be severe and long- ... Heavy Oils (Heavy Crude Oils, No. 6 Fuel Oil, Bunker C) Little or no evaporation or dissolution. Heavy contamination of intertidal areas likely. Severe impacts to waterfowl ...

490

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None; )

2007-02-11

491