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1

STUDY OF A THERMAL AEROSOL OIL BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of a thermal aerosol oil burner, aimed at counteracting the poor atomization and excess burner capacity that are known to reduce seasonal efficiency and contribute to excess emissions in residential oil burners. Generation of a thermal aerosol ...

2

Atomizer burner for oil firing plant  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to an atomizer burner assembly for oil burners. The assembly has electric heating apparatus for maintaining a relatively constant temperature for the oil supply over a range of throughputs which may vary for different atomizer nozzles, for example, from 0.5 to 2.5 1/h. The heating apparatus includes a PTC resistor mounted in the supply pipe in series with a near zero temperature coefficient heating element which surrounds the supply pipe at a longitudinal position between the PTC resistor and the atomizer nozzle. The PTC resistor controls the heat generated by the heating element in accordance with the temperature of the throughput oil to maintain a constant temperature for the throughput oil.

Madsen, I. M.; Andersen, N. I.

1985-03-05

3

Guide to efficient burner operation: gas, oil, and dual fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and practice of operating natural gas, fuel oil, and dual-fuel combustion equipment is set forth. Up-to-date information is provided on such topics as characteristics of combustion burners, gas pressure reduction and regulation, oil burner systems, the oil transport system, viscosity control, the combustion process, flue gas analysis, control systems, troubleshooting, and starting and running problems. Oil and gas

E. A. Jr

1981-01-01

4

Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R. [and others

1997-12-31

5

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents... Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents...10,000 Burner fuel oil 10,000 Diesel oil 10,000 Kerosene 10,000...

2012-07-01

6

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

... Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents... Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents...10,000 Burner fuel oil 10,000 Diesel oil 10,000 Kerosene 10,000...

2014-07-01

7

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

8

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, T.A.; Cerniglia, P.

1990-10-23

9

VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

2004-10-01

10

Development of an air-atomized oil burner  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

1996-06-01

11

Burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a burner for combustion of liquid hydrocarbons comprising: a. nozzle assembly means having a longitudinal passageway therethrough for receiving a primary fluid from a source exterior to the burner and spraying the primary fluid from the longitudinal passageway such that combustion occurs outside the passageway; b. a throat means which partially defines the longitudinal passageway; c. chamber means surrounding the longitudinal passageway for receiving atomizing fluid from a source exterior to the burner; d. circumferentially arranged port means spaced radially outward from the throat means for directing the atomizing fluid from the chamber means; e. the port means having their centerlines tapered inwardly and intersecting at a point longitudinally spaced from the outlet end of the throat means to provide a converging spray; f. the spray diverging as it leaves each port means to form a conical pattern which if not interrupted would intersect the center line of the throat means on both sides of the point; and g. openings between the chamber means and the longitudinal passageway which allows mixing of the atomizing fluid and the primary fluid prior to exiting from the throat means.

Bayh, R.I. III

1987-04-07

12

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

13

Water-in-oil emulsifier and oil-burner boiler system incorporating such emulsifier  

SciTech Connect

An oil-water emulsifier comprises a venturi member having an inlet for receiving oil, an oil-water emulsion outlet and an opening extending therethrough from the inlet to the outlet. The opening of the venturi member comprises a diameter-reducing portion which connects to a throat portion having a substantially smaller diameter than the inlet, the throat portion being connected to an expanding portion extending from the throat to the outlet, the diameter of the outlet of the opening being substantially greater than that of the throat portion. A plurality of water injection holes extend from the outer periphery of the venturi member to the throat portion so as to be in communication with the oil flowing through the throat portion, the injection holes being preferably substantially perpendicular to the direction of oil flow through the throat portion. Also disposed is an oil-burner boiler system incorporating the abovedescribed oil-water emulsifier.

Gallagher, J.P.

1982-08-17

14

Apparatus and method to control process to replace natural gas with fuel oil in a natural gas burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method whereby fuel oil is mixed with a gaseous diluent and partially vaporized, liquids separated out, superheated and burned in a natural gas burner without major modification to the burner is disclosed. The control system is: (1) a liquid level controller sensing the liquid level in the separator to automatically control the flow of the fuel oil to the

W. W. Hoehing; J. M. Jackson; E. R. Johnson

1979-01-01

15

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of purchase programs, and the due dates for submission of requirements for motor gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), and kerosene. Motor Gasoline, Fuel Oils (Diesel and Heating), and Kerosene State Delivery period...

2011-07-01

16

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of purchase programs, and the due dates for submission of requirements for motor gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), and kerosene. Motor Gasoline, Fuel Oils (Diesel and Heating), and Kerosene State Delivery period...

2010-07-01

17

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

18

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the fuel oil burner front header manifold and the atomizer head to provide flexibility. All material used must meet the requirements of subpart 56.60 of this part. The use...

2013-10-01

19

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the fuel oil burner front header manifold and the atomizer head to provide flexibility. All material used must meet the requirements of subpart 56.60 of this part. The use...

2011-10-01

20

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the fuel oil burner front header manifold and the atomizer head to provide flexibility. All material used must meet the requirements of subpart 56.60 of this part. The use...

2012-10-01

21

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the fuel oil burner front header manifold and the atomizer head to provide flexibility. All material used must meet the requirements of subpart 56.60 of this part. The use...

2010-10-01

22

Material Response from Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Combustion of a Coal-Oil Mixture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44...

G. J. Santoro, F. D. Calfo, F. J. Kohl

1981-01-01

23

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

24

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: DESIGN PHASE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to m...

25

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

26

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

Butcher, T.A.

1998-01-01

27

Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments  

SciTech Connect

Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (US))

1992-04-01

28

Burner nozzle  

SciTech Connect

A burner nozzle is described comprising, tubular oil conduit means, chamber means attached to the outlet end of the oil conduit means and directing oil from the nozzle, air can means concentric with and larger in diameter than the oil conduit means; the air can means including radially spaced internal and external tubes and a spacer at each end of the tubes extending between the tubes to provide the radial spacing with one space adjacent the chamber means, circumferentially spaced holes in the spacer adjacent the chamber means for directing air into the oil exiting the chamber means; and exterior flange means carried by the oil conduit means.

Johnson, C.H.; Coppedge, C.D.; Mc Casland, C.S.

1987-05-12

29

DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

30

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15

31

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

32

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

33

DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-TUNING RESIDENTIAL OIL/BURNER - OXYGEN SENSOR ASSESSMENT AND EARLY PROTOTYPE SYSTEM OPERATING EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available.

MCDONALD,R.J.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KRAJEWSKI,R.F.

1998-09-01

34

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

2004-09-30

35

DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used with all oil burner installations. The other possible failure mode had been attributed to fuel degradation and this became the main focus of the evaluation. The degradation of fuel usually occurs faster under higher temperature conditions. To preclude this as much as possible controls that provided for a post-purge of combustion airflow after burner shut down were selected. This provided a short period of time where the burner's combustion air blower continues to operate after the flame has gone out. This tends to cool the nozzle and in turn the fuel inside the small flow pathways inside the nozzle components. This study concludes that the use of low capacity nozzles is possible but only when the temperature and thermal mass environment of the combustion chamber result in a relatively ''cool'' condition. This was accomplished in one long-term experiment that essentially operated for a full heating season equivalent with no evidence of nozzle plugging or failure. The nozzle body surface temperature was kept at or below 150 F during the duration of the trial. On the other hand, a second system was studied that ended in a partial nozzle blockage and a system failure. In this ''hot environment'' system the nozzle body temperature reached 210 F. This occurred at close to a full heating season equivalent, yet it still would have resulted in a no-heat complaint by the homeowner.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2007-05-01

36

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

37

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

1998-01-01

38

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

1998-11-03

39

Effect of manganese additives on NO-emissions from a small laboratory oil burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese compounds, particularly manganese naphthenate (MnN) and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), have been used as additives in No. 2 distillate fuel oil and their effect on NO levels in both oil diffusion flame and the exhaust gases has been determined. NO concentrations in the exhaust gas were lowered 15 to 35% over baseline concentrations at equivalence ratios slightly less than

E. R. Altwicker; I. S. Brodsky; T. T. Shen

1974-01-01

40

Method and apparatus to replace natural gas with vaporized fuel oil in a natural gas burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method, in general, includes, is mixing the fuel oil with a diluent, such as steam, vaporizing a portion of the mixed fuel oil in a vaporizer, separating the liquid from the vapor, maintaining the vapor at from about 50° to 300°F above the dew point of the mixed vapor and diluent at about 75 to 150 psig, above the

W. W. Hoehing; E. R. Johnson

1979-01-01

41

Burner safety system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with a fuel burner, this patent describes a pilot light burner disposed adjacent the fuel burner for lighting the fuel burner, and a solenoid-operated valve controlling the supply of fuel to the fuel burner, a thermocouple operable when heated to produce a thermoelectric current placed to be heated by the heat of the pilot light burner, an electromagnetic

1986-01-01

42

Micronized-Coal Burner Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

1986-01-01

43

DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

44

DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

45

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR STEAM GENERATORS. TEST REPORT: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents preliminary testing of a 16 MW low-NOx burner for retrofit application to thermally enhanced, oil recovery steam generators. The burner is designed to achieve NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while burning heavy fuel oil containing more than 0.6 w...

46

Burner safety system  

SciTech Connect

In combination with a fuel burner, this patent describes a pilot light burner disposed adjacent the fuel burner for lighting the fuel burner, and a solenoid-operated valve controlling the supply of fuel to the fuel burner, a thermocouple operable when heated to produce a thermoelectric current placed to be heated by the heat of the pilot light burner, an electromagnetic coil connected across the thermocouple energized by the thermoelectric current of the thermocouple, a reed switch unit including an envelope and switch contacts within the envelope actuated by the application of a magnetic flux thereto, the reed switch being mounted adjacent and in the magnetic field of the coil with energizing of the coil, a magnet, a mounting for the magnet wherein such is spaced from the reed switch unit, and circuit means connected to the reed switch unit and actuated by the unit to control actuation of the solenoid of the solenoid-operated valve.

Simpson, K.N.

1986-09-23

47

Rock Pioneers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate organisms that live along the ocean's rocky coast. Learners add bare rocks to an intertidal zone, and over the course of 6-8 weeks observe what plant and animals colonize (come to live) on the new rocks. The intertidal zone, covered by water during high tides and uncovered at low tides, is usually densely covered with marine organisms such as seaweeds, mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, anemones and sea stars. Learners may not only discover pioneer organisms (first colonizers) of their new rocks, but other organisms that replace the first arrivals in the process of succession. This activity calls for multiple, weekly return visits to the intertidal zone.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

48

Pulverized coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the

Jennifer L. Sivy; Larry W. Rodgers; John V. Koslosy; Albert D. LaRue; Keith C. Kaufman; Hamid Sarv

1998-01-01

49

Energy from true in-situ processing of Antrim shale: methane burner ignition system  

SciTech Connect

A rugged yet simple burner that can be easily ignited and reignited is a necessity if in situ thermal methods of energy extraction are to be feasible. During extraction trials at the Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site at Peck, Michigan such a burner was utilized. The performance of the TOR Development burner and ignitor system proved to be reliable and practical under field conditions. However, some recently discovered measures are crucial in protecting the burner and associated downhole hardware. With such precautions burner life was extended by a factor of 15. In the first trial burner life was two days and in the second trial the burner remained intact at least thirty days. Also described is a system which monitored burner performance by continuously analyzing burner exhaust gases. A slip stream sampling technique utilized the high well pressure to transport, at nearly Mach I, a sample of burner exhaust gas to the analytical trailer. There the sample was analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, unburned hydrocarbons, and O/sub 2/ by a bank of high speed process gas analyzers. Burner flameouts could be detected in less than 2 minutes. Also the system allowed burner (air/fuel) ratios to be determined on a real time basis. These ratios were used for (1) setting the proper air-fuel mixtures for ignition and steady state operation, (2) leak detection, (3) estimation of burner deterioration after extended use, and (4) study of the burner's steady state and transient response characteristics.

VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

1980-08-01

50

FLAT FLAME BURNER ANALYSES  

E-print Network

coupled to the detailed fields in the flame, i oe . the qfflame burner are predicted. An approximate two-dimensional velocity fieldfield around the cooling coil in the sin- tered disk of a Kaskan type flat flame

Pagni, P.J.

2012-01-01

51

The Pioneer Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

52

A forgotten pioneer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edwin F. Northrup should be given reference as an early rocket pioneer and particularly recognized as the pioneer who did the original research behind the application of electromagnetic propulsion to space transport.

1979-01-01

53

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

1998-01-01

54

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

Cheng, R.K.

1998-04-07

55

Pioneer missions to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 mission to Jupiter is described. Included are a discussion of the scientific objectives of the mission and a summary of the scientific findings related to the Asteroid Belt and Jupiter. The spacecraft and instruments are described and the effects of the Jupiter environment on their performance is discussed. The Pioneer 10 trajectory is described as well as the post-Jupiter trajectory for Pioneer 11.

Hall, C. F.

1974-01-01

56

Pioneer missions to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 mission to Jupiter is described. Included are a discussion of the scientific objectives of the mission and a summary of the scientific findings related to the Asteroid Belt and Jupiter. The spacecraft and instruments are described and the effects of the Jupiter environment on their performance is discussed. The Pioneer 10 trajectory is described as well as the post-Jupiter trajectory for Pioneer 11.

Hall, C. F.

1975-01-01

57

Environmentally safe burner for offshore well testing operations  

SciTech Connect

One of the problems that occurs during offshore well testing has been the discharge of unburned hydrocarbon emissions into the air and sea that leave deposits of oily slicks or {open_quotes}sheen{close_quotes} on the water surface. This residue results from inefficient flaring operations and can have adverse effects on marine environment. This paper will discuss a new burner that has been developed to address the environmentally unfriendly fallout conditions that have occurred from crude oil disposal during traditional well testing operations. To support a broad range of applications, the design criteria for this burner included not only the capability to perform fallout free in the wide range of conditions expected during well testing but also to be simple to operate, have a compact lightweight design with a stable pilot and igniter system, provide clean startup, and require low oil pressure. Burner performance is significantly affected by fuel oil properties and its atomization characteristics. The paper will include an overview of these topics and their relationship to the combustion process, how these topics were addressed in the development of the design, and the testing that was performed by an independent Norwegian environmental testing company to verify the burner`s efficiency. The burner designed to these specifications includes an array of atomizers, uniquely placed to improve flame turbulence and air ingestion important to efficient combustion. Engineering tests performed with 18 degree API crude oil were fallout free and smokeless, and tests performed by the independent environmental testing company verified that the new burner design performed with 99.9 percent efficiency as a burning disposal system.

Young, T.M.

1996-11-01

58

Dark Matter Burners  

SciTech Connect

We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wai, Lawrence L.; /SLAC

2007-02-28

59

High efficiency gas burner  

DOEpatents

A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

Schuetz, Mark A. (Belmont, MA)

1983-01-01

60

Matrix mounting means for gas burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slyman Manufacturing Corp.'s modified infrared burner confines the heat to the surface of the burner (in order to protect the burner mounting from combustion) while maintaining infrared generation throughout the entire area of the burner face. The burner face comprises a matrix of fibrous refractory material positioned at the open side of a plenum through which the fuel is supplied

R. S. Bratko; W. Zwipf

1980-01-01

61

Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and burnthrough time was studied. Potential design improvements were also evaluated that could simplify burner set up and operation.

Ochs, Robert Ian

62

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related...burner must include: (i) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a...

2010-01-01

63

Radial lean direct injection burner  

DOEpatents

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

64

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from

Veljko Dragojlovic; Richard F. Jones

1999-01-01

65

Smokeless flare gas burner  

SciTech Connect

A flare gas burner is described for combustible waste gas comprising: a waste gas delivery pipe; deflector means disposed externally about the upper end of the waste gas delivery pipe the deflector means approximating the shape of a half Venturi with the throat uppermost; an annular manifold disposed on the exterior of the lower end of the deflector means; means for supporting the deflector in fixed spaced apart relationship with the upper end of the waste gas delivery pipe; means for supplying high pressure motive fluid to the manifold; and means for discharging the motive fluid from the manifold into the passage defined by the interior of the deflector means and the exterior of the waste gas delivery pipe.

Bozai, M.Z.

1987-02-17

66

Pioneer Venus Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Pioneer Venus Overview is discussed. Pioneer Venus consists of two basic spacecraft: Orbiter and Multiprobe. The latter was separated into five separate vehicles near Venus. These were the probe transporter (called the Bus), a large atmospheric entry probe (dubbed Sounder) and three identical smaller probes (called North , Day, and Night in accordance with their entry locations). At Venus all six spacecraft communicated directly back to the Earth-based Deep Space Network (DSN) and, in the case of the Multiprobe mission, to two special receiving sites near Guam and Santiago (Chile). At the time this Special Issue was submitted for publication the nominal mission was complete and the Orbiter was continuing into an extended mission phase. It appears so that sufficient fuel remains to permit full operation through calendar year 1980, at least. The scientific payload, Principle Investigator, and his affiliation are listed for each Pioneer Venus spacecraft. This special issue is primarily devoted to short descriptions of the instruments listed with the exception of the Orbitor Cloud Photopolarimeter. Detailed instrument descriptions for this experiment have been published. Before proceeding with descriptions of the individual instruments, four special archival-type reports are included. The first deals with spacecraft design and operation. The Pioneer Venus spacecraft were unique and very special design features and operational modes needed to be incorporated. These are summarized therein. It should be noted that neither the scientific objectives nor the scientific results of the Pioneer Venus program are described or discussed in detail. The objectives have been published elsewhere.

Colin, Lawrence (Editor)

1980-01-01

67

Controller for pulverized coal burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning pulverized coal in power boilers causes considerable emission of atmospheric pollution. In order to decrease it the combustion process itself has been modified, however at cost of side effects like: increased level of unburned coal particles in the ashes. There are tens of burners in a single power boiler and emission level measurements are made in flue gas duct, so the control based on such averaged and heavily delayed values often results ineffective. The neural controller of the pulverized coal burner attempts to resolve these problems. The clue is utilization of fiber-optic system for monitoring of chosen zone of flame developed in Department of Electronics of Technical University of Lublin. The article contains description of controlled system and optical fiber measurement system, an idea of the controller as well as some results obtained for experimental burner.

Wojcik, Waldemar; Golec, Tomasz; Kotyra, Andrzej; Smolarz, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel; Kalita, Mariusz

2004-09-01

68

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology  

E-print Network

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

69

Modeling of Scrap Heating by Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency and productivity of Electric Arc Furnace steelmaking has improved with a number of new technologies. One of these is the use of oxy-fuel burners to assist the electric heating. Initially burners were just used to melt the scrap at the slag door where arc heating is inefficient. At present virtually all modern EAF use oxy-fuels burners to decrease

Kamalesh Mandal

2010-01-01

70

Dual structure infrared surface combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a surface combustion radiant heat burner comprising an inlet plenum for receiving fuel and oxidant gas mixtures from at least one supply inlet and a burner body secured in communication with the inlet plenum. The burner body having an inlet side facing the plenum and an outlet side defining a radiating surface. It comprises:

J. R. Morris; N. H. Burlingame

1989-01-01

71

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOEpatents

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01

72

Granite flame finishing internal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an internal burner for producing subsonic air-fuel flame jets for the flame finishing of granite and similar stone; a first nozzle within the body of relatively small diameter d at an exit end of the combustion chamber to expand the products to supersonic velocity, a duct of sufficiently large diameter within the body downstream of the first

1992-01-01

73

Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fam powered, infrared, natural gas burners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (PIR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. This project consists of both experimental research and numerical analysis. To conduct the experiments, an experimental setup has been developed and installed in the Combustion Laboratory at Clerk Atlanta University (CAU). This setup consists of a commercial deep fat fryer that has been modified to allow in-situ radiation measurements on the surface of the infrared burner via a view port installed on the side wall of the oil vat. Proper instrumentation including fuel/air flow rate measurement, exhaust gas emission measurement, and radiation measurement has been developed. The project is progressing well. The scheduled tasks for this period of time were conducted smoothly. Specifically: 1. Baseline experimental study at CAU has been completed. The data are now under detailed analysis and will be reported in next quarterly report. 2. Theoretical formulation and analysis of the PIR burner performance model are continuing. Preliminary results have been obtained.

Bai, Tiejun

1996-10-01

74

Simulations of multidimensional burner-stabilized flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed numerical simulations have been performed to study the structure and dynamics of downward propagating burner-stabilized flames in lean hydrogen-air mixtures. These simulations include the effects of fluid convection, detailed hydrogen-oxygen chemistry, multispecies diffusion, thermal conduction, viscosity, and heat losses to the burner. One-dimensional calculations have been carried out to investigate burner boundary conditions. Well known features of a burner-stabilized flame have been reproduced. Two-dimensional calculations show the presence of cellular structures at the burner surface. At low inlet velocities, these cellular structures are suppressed by the increased heat loss to the burner. These simulations have been examined in detail to gain understanding of the similarities and differences in structure and stability of freely propagating and burner-stabilized flames.

Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.

1993-01-01

75

Flamedoctor: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

2003-08-01

76

Pioneering offshore excellence  

SciTech Connect

Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

1996-11-01

77

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Fluxgate Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluxgate magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft is described. Special features include gradiometer operation, on board despinning, a floating point processor and variable Nyquist filters. Initial operations have been entirely successful.

C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare; J. D. Means; R. C. Elphic

1980-01-01

78

James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

Osterbrock, Donald E.

1979-01-01

79

11. Pioneer venus experiment descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding paper of a special issue of Space Science Reviews, devoted to the exploration of Venus and the Pioneer Venus Program, contains brief engineering descriptions of the experiments to be integrated into the Orbiter and Multiprobe scientific payloads.

L. Colin; D. M. Hunten

1977-01-01

80

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

81

Development of a flaring burner disposal system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed to develop a flaring burner system for spilled and recovered oils. The system is capable of flaring 180 gpm of light oil or 90 gpm of oil with a viscosity of up to 1,600 centistokes. Smokeless burning can be achieved in certain cases. The system is designed to be portable, such that the entire system can be broken down into modules and transported in a C-130 aircraft, and each module is light enough to be carried to a remote spill site by a Coast Guard helicopter. The system is self-erecting and is capable of operating safely in hazardous environments and in arctic conditions. The report describes the initial burner selection and the tests that were conducted to determine the burning parameters. The performance test program conducted on the completed prototype system is also described. These tests were successfully completed, with the conclusion that the prototype could be used for operational flaring at this time.

Beach, R.L.; Lewis, W.T.

1983-05-01

82

Criterion for burner design in thermal weed control  

E-print Network

configuration covered infrared burner, and an open-flame burner were studied to evaluate the increase in temperature caused by each burner to a target zone. These evaluations were conducted while the burners were traveling at a given speed (2, 3.5, or 5 km...

Gonzalez, Telca Marisa

2012-06-07

83

Granite flame finishing internal burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an internal burner for producing subsonic air-fuel flame jets for the flame finishing of granite and similar stone; a first nozzle within the body of relatively small diameter d{sub 1} at an exit end of the combustion chamber to expand the products to supersonic velocity, a duct of sufficiently large diameter within the body downstream of the first nozzle and open thereto to convert the jet of hot gases to subsonic velocity by shock action for discharging hot gas product of combustion, and a second nozzle having a larger diameter d{sub 2} than the diameter d{sub 1} of the first nozzle within the body open to the duct and at the end of the duct opposite the first nozzle whereby a subsonic flame jet is produced to be directed against the rock surface.

Browning, J.A.

1992-06-30

84

Power burner for compact furnace  

SciTech Connect

A compact gas power burner is provided which includes a cylindrical mixing tube into which combustion air is discharged tangentially from a centrifugal blower located adjacent the closed end of the mixing tube, and gaseous fuel is admitted into the discharge airstream of the blower upstream from the admission location of the airstream into the mixing tube so that the swirling component of the air in the mixing tube during its passage to the open end of the tube will promote the mixing of the air and gaseous fuel, the mixing tube being provided with a honeycomb ceramic disc at its end to which it is attached to a cylindrical heat exchanger, and ignition means and flame sensors are provided on the downstream side of the ceramic disc.

Dilmore, J.A.

1980-09-23

85

Steam-enhanced regime for liquid hydrocarbons combustion: velocity distribution in the burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lab-scale burner device with proprietary design was used for combustion of diesel fuel in a steam-enhanced regime. This operation mode ensures drastic intensification of liquid hydrocarbon combustion due to supply of superheated steam jet to the combustion zone. The particle image velocimetry technique was used for study of velocity field in the burner flame. The method of seeding of flow zone with new kind of tracers (micro-sized silica particles produced from silicon oil added to liquid fuel) was tested.

Alekseenko, S. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Vigriyanov, M. S.; Dulin, V. M.; Kopyev, E. P.; Sharypov, O. V.

2014-06-01

86

Gas Burner (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Burner: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". A gas burner is used to heat non-flammable objects or solutions. It can be used to heat objects to very high temperatures. Temperatures in the hottest region of the burner exceed 1000°C. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

87

Removal of NOx and CO from a burner system.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development of an emissions-controlling technique for oil burners aimed especially to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Another emission of interest is carbon monoxide (CO). In this research, a liquid fuel burner is used. In the first part, five different radial air swirler blade angles, 30 degrees , 40 degrees , 45 degrees , 50 degrees , and 60 degrees , respectively, have been investigated using a combustor with 163 mm inside diameter and 280 mm length. Tests were conducted using kerosene as fuel. Fuel was injected at the back plate of the swirler outlet. The swirler blade angles and equivalence ratios were varied. A NOx reduction of more than 28% and CO emissions reduction of more than 40% were achieved for blade angle of 60 degrees compared to the 30 degrees blade angle. The second part of this paper presents the insertion of an orifice plate at the exit plane of the air swirler outlet. Three different orifice plate diameters of 35, 40, and 45 mm were used with a 45 degrees radial air swirler vane angle. The fuel flow rates and orifice plate's sizes were varied. NOx reduction of more than 30% and CO emissions reduction of more than 25% were obtained using the 25 mm diameter orifice plate compared to the test configuration without the orifice plate. The last part of this paper presents tests conducted using the air-staging method. An industrial oil burner system was investigated using the air staging method in order to reduce emission, especially NOx. Emissions reduction of 30% and 16.7% were obtained for NOx and CO emissions, respectively, when using air staging compared to the non-air-staging tests. PMID:20345095

Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd; Ishak, Mohd Shaiful Ashrul; Saharin, Sanisah

2010-04-15

88

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

1989-10-01

89

Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

NONE

1995-12-01

90

Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

1979-01-01

91

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM PIONEER RIVER  

E-print Network

FLOOD WARNING SYSTEM for the PIONEER RIVER This brochure describes the flood warning system River. It includes reference information which will be useful for understanding Flood Warnings and River Height Bulletins issued by the Bureau's Flood Warning Centre during periods of high rainfall and flooding

Greenslade, Diana

92

Foods of the Pioneer Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As fourth and fifth grade students study this unit in conjunction with their Indiana or U.S. history texts, they see how the Indiana pioneers ate and survived. Many of the foods taken for granted today were eaten by Indians in one of the Americas thousands of years ago. Students learn that the Native Americans had developed agricultural

Shelton, Lois G.

93

Pioneer Venus Orbiter fluxgate magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluxgate magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft is described. Consideration is given to system design, construction, and initial operation. Emphasis is placed on such features as gradiometer operation, on-board despinning, a floating-point processor, and variable Nyquist filters.

C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare; J. D. Means; R. C. Elphic

1980-01-01

94

Pioneer F mission to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental designs for the Pioneer F mission to Jupiter are described. The spacecraft is designed to make measurements of the planet's atmosphere, radiation belts, heat balance, magnetic fields, moons, and other related phenomena. The mission also characterizes the heliosphere, the interstellar gas, cosmic rays, asteroids, and meteoroids between the earth and 2.4 billion kilometers from the sun.

Allaway, H. G.; Waller, P. W.

1972-01-01

95

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOEpatents

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-05-26

96

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOEpatents

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

2013-02-05

97

Effectiveness of burning boiler oil in a vertical direct-flow vortex  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted on the operation of oil-fired boilers, in which fuel combustion takes place in a horizontal vortex using direct-flow burners installed on one wall of the specially shaped combustion chamber. The boilers in a power plant were modified by installing the new vortex-type burners in the boilers. The advantages of using the new burners are enumerated.

Protopopov, V.S.; Lipov, Yu.M.; Zhdanov, V.I.; Larin, A.K.; Zhvakin, V.T.; Solov'ev, N.I.; Vatorinov, P.N.; Falkin, F.B.; Arkhipov, A.M.; Kovaleva, T.I.

1982-10-01

98

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01

99

CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the projects subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

2013-09-30

100

Application of the controllable pulverized coal rich/lean burners in a 410 t/h boiler  

SciTech Connect

The No. 2 Unit (410 t/h, 100MW) of Jiaozuo Danhe Power Generation Co., Ltd., was put into use in 1975. To stabilize the combustion without oil at low load, eight original designed burners which had been placed in the middle and bottom level on the No. 2 boiler, were replaced with the controllable pulverized coal (PC) rich/lean burners. The practice of operation after the retrofit proves that stable combustion can be achieved at 50% load without support oil, even at 40% load. Boiler efficiency increases to 91.15% from 89.92% at half load (50MW). It is shown the novel burners can make a good performance and combustion can keep stable even when the character parameters of coal change in the large scope. Generally the application is successful and economic benefits will be greatly achieved from now on.

Yang, W.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Weng, W.; Qin, Q.; Yang, J.

2000-07-01

101

Performance test reports and comparison of emission characteristics of prototype liquid multifuel burners developed for US military field cooking applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide data to the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center on the performance of three prototype burners, which have the capability of firing with multiple types of fuels (diesel and JP-8), and the conventional gasoline-fired M-2 burner. The prototype burners are intended to replace the M-2 unit currently used in food cooking appliances in the Army. The burners supplied to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the purpose of testing under this project included one M-2 unit, one M-3 prototype unit designed by Natick, one Babington prototype unit designed by Babington Engineering, and one ITR prototype designed by International Thermal Research Ltd. It should be noted, however, that after the project began, Babington Engineering provided an upgraded prototype unit for testing which replaced the unit initially provided by the Natick Center. The M-3 unit replaced the Karcher unit listed in the contract. The test procedures which were described in a Test Method Report allowed for the measurement of the concentrations of specific compounds emitted from the burners. These compounds included oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde, and particulate emissions. The level of smoke produced was also measured by using a Bacharach Smoke Number system (ASTM Standard D2156). A separate Performance Test Report for each burner was prepared as part of this project, and is attached as part of this report. In those reports details of the measurement techniques, instrumentation, test operating conditions, and data for each burner were included. This paper provides a summary and a comparison of the results for all burners. A brief discussion of emissions from other similar small oil combustion systems is also part of this document to provide perspective on the type of contaminants and levels expected from these systems.

Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.

1994-08-01

102

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19

103

Low NO.sub.x burner system  

DOEpatents

A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH); Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH); Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH)

1993-01-01

104

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P ID's for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

105

PIV Applications to Thermal Performance of LPG Cooking Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increasing trend of energy consumption in domestic (1), about 59% of the total LPG was consumed by a household sector. LPG cooking burner is an important appliance for household living, which provides a good combustion with high safety. However, almost cooking burner manufactures in domestic are manufacturing their burners based on experiences rather than scientific reasons. Therefore, performance

Sumrerng Jugjai; Suvit Tia; Pumyos Vallikul; Bundit Fungtammasan

106

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

107

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 2. PILOT SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

108

Dual structure infrared surface combustion burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a surface combustion radiant heat burner comprising an inlet plenum for receiving fuel and oxidant gas mixtures from at least one supply inlet and a burner body secured in communication with the inlet plenum. The burner body having an inlet side facing the plenum and an outlet side defining a radiating surface. It comprises: the burner body comprising a first layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the inlet side and a second layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the outlet side defining the radiating surface, the first layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.90:01 inch and a fine interconnected porous structure with a mean pore diameter ranging from 0.00004 inch to 0.10 inch, the second layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.05 inch and a coarse interconnected porous structure with a mean diameter ranging from 0.05 to 0.40 inch, and at least the outer surfaces of the first porous layer and substantially all surfaces of the second porous layer being provided with a fully dense ceramic coating.

Morris, J.R.; Burlingame, N.H.

1989-12-26

109

Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our contemporary notion of planetary habitability. This study also shows the convergence of the methodological aspects used to examine the concept of habitability, mainly based on analogy.

Raulin Cerceau, Florence

110

Space Pioneers and where they are now  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the Pioneer project, its history and achievements is given. Major discoveries concerning near and interplanetary space, the planets, and various comets are outlined. Anticipated future observations are considered. A list of Pioneer project launches, 1986 statuses, and project firsts is given.

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1987-01-01

111

Cosmic-ray gradients from Pioneer-10 and Pioneer-11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports Pioneer 10 and 11 observations of the variation with heliocentric distance of the intensity of cosmic-ray protons, alpha particles, and high-Z nuclei with kinetic energies of at least 480 MeV/nucleon as well as cosmic-ray electrons with energies exceeding 6 MeV. The observations were with three-channel Cerenkov counters at distances between 1.02 and 4.66 AU while the spacecraft traveled from earth to Jupiter. During the 4.5-month observation period, all the counting rates rose steadily, except when they were modified by solar events, Forbush decreases, and Jovian electron events. Two methods are employed to determine the cosmic-ray integral intensity gradient for the observation period from simultaneous data obtained by the two spacecraft; effects of solar particles, Forbush decreases, and Jovian electrons are eliminated in various ways. A radial gradient of 0.15 + or - 2.3% per AU is determined, which is considered to be consistent with zero. Theoretical gradients are computed, and the observed values are found to be an order of magnitude below the expected values. Several reasons for the discrepancy are suggested.

Axford, W. I.; Fillius, W.; Ip, W.-H.; Gleeson, L. J.

1976-01-01

112

CFD Simulation of Methane Jet Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane jet flame simulations have been performed in order to evaluate conserved scalar chemistry (CSC) approach in modelling combustion process inside cylindrical burner. Two combustion regimes were included: non-premixed and premixed. For both of them it was necessary to generate look-up tables in pre-processing stage. For non- premixed regime two combustion controlling parameter approaches were used: scalar dissipation rate and

L. Perkovi?; M. Baburi?; P. Priesching; N. Dui?

2009-01-01

113

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15

114

Evaluation of NASA Lean Premixed Hydrogen Burner  

SciTech Connect

The stability characteristics of a prototype premixed, hydrogen-fueled burner were studied. The potential application is the use of hydrogen as a fuel for aircraft gas turbine operation. The burner configuration consisted of nine 6.72 mm (0.265 in) diameter channels through which the reactants entered the burner. Hydrogen was injected radially inward through two 0.906-mm (0.0357 in) diameter holes located on opposite sides of each air channel. In this way the region over which hydrogen and air were premixed was minimized to prevent potential flashback problems. All tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure. Flame stability was studied over a range of fuel-lean operating conditions since lean combustion is currently recognized as an effective approach to NOx emissions reduction. In addition to pure hydrogen and air, mixtures of hydrogen-blended methane and air were studied to evaluate the potential improvements in flame stability as hydrogen replaces methane as the primary fuel component.

Robert W. Schefer

2003-01-01

115

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29

116

Washington State Pioneer Life Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many other parts of the American West, the area that later became the state of Washington in 1889 was a place of great opportunity, both in terms of the existing natural resources, and in a more intangible fashion, a place that represented a new beginning for those persons venturing west from the Midwest and the East Coast. This recently developed online database presented by the University of Washington Library contains writings, diaries, letters, and recollections from those persons who moved to Washington in the 19th century. Visitors can search the collections, or elect to browse through the collection list, which contains over two dozen primary documents available for viewing. Some of the highlights here include the recollections of Lila Hannah Firth who lived on San Juan Island (located in Puget Sound) in the 1860s and an account of the first ascension of Mount Rainier, one Dr. William F. Tolmie. Rounding out the site is an online exhibition titled Northwest of the West: the Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast., which serves as a nice introduction to the overall experience of these first pioneers moving west.

117

Advanced Petrochemical Process Heating with the Pyrocore Burner  

E-print Network

,000 barrel capacity each) are heated by immersed fired tubes. Due to the need to fire the prior flame burners harder to transfer heat through the coked tubes, flame noise also had become an environmental problem. The application sought to utilize... the burner's uniform heat flux when firing natural gas to alleviate fluid coking. A prototype 1.5 million Btufhr prototype burner of 6-inch diameter by 12-foot length was tested in one of the tanks in 1984. The burner was successful in producing uniform...

Krill, W. V.; Minden, A. C.; Donaldson, L. W. Jr.

118

Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

Bejczy, A. K.

1975-01-01

119

Robert H. Goddard: American Rocketry Pioneer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Facts website presents a history of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry. The site describes Goddard's achievements and their relationships to advances in rocketry in Germany. The key site includes a list of his historic "firsts."

2007-07-27

120

Robert H. Goddard: American Rocket Pioneer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration Facts website presents a history of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry. The site describes Goddard's achievements and their relationships to advances in rocketry in Germany.

2009-12-30

121

Pioneer 10/11 mission results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft and its scientific payload are described. The selected mission profiles and a summary of the scientific results are discussed. Results obtained during the traverse of the asteroid belt show that the particle concentration is less than had been theorized and does not present an appreciable hazard to future spacecraft passing through this previously unexplored region. Specific results from the Pioneer 10 mission and a 'first look' at the Pioneer 11 results from the 13 scientific instruments are presented. The particle and field phenomena measured within the Jovian radiation belt present a consistent picture which is, in general, an environment more severe and dynamic than that predicted by earth-based observations. Post-Jupiter trajectories for the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are described.

Nunamaker, R. R.

1975-01-01

122

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, Palmer

1990-01-01

123

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

SciTech Connect

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, P.

1990-02-01

124

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, P.

1990-01-01

125

Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

1979-01-01

126

The influence of near burner region aerodynamics on the formation and emission of nitrogen oxides in a pulverized coal-fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that detailed measurements have been performed for two distinct pulverized-coal-fired burners in a large-scale laboratory furnace. Comparative in-flame data are archived and include gas temperature, O[sub 2], CO concentration, and an inventory of stable fuel nitrogen species and solids (HCN, NH[sub 3], N[sub 2]O, NO, nitrogen release, mass flux, and particle burnout). A significant decrease in the NO concentration in the near burner region and a substantial decrease in the furnace exit values are observed when the central tube from a single annular orifice burner jet (normally the location of a gas or oil burner for light-up purposes) is replaced with a single central orifice burner jet of same cross-sectional area. The latter burner exhibits the delayed combustion phenomena normally associated with a tangentially fired system. The particle burnout remains unaffected due to the longer particles' residence time in the all-important oxygen lean internal recirculation zone.

Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Lockwood, F.C. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

127

KINETIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental studies of subjects related to the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB). The main findings include data on the rate of evolution of H2S from different coals and on the dependence of the rate of evolution on the dist...

128

Furnace for oil refineries and petrochemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a furnace for use in oil refineries and petrochemical plants. It comprises: burner means for heating a hydrocarbon feedstock; stack means positioned above the burner for discharging combustion gases emitted from the burner means; wall means peripherally enclosing and annularly surrounding the burning means; substantially uniform heat distribution including a set of substantially horizontal radiant furnace tubes extending along the wall means for passage of the hydrocarbon feedstock about the burner means; and a composite floor under the burner means having refractory bricks, temperature and strain resistant ceramic fiber boards beneath the bricks, high density ceramic fiber modules beneath the boards, and a carbon steel plate beneath the molecules with an underside having a corrosion resistant coating.

Pickell, F.W.; Varesic, J.Z.; Melton, M.S.; Melton, S.H.

1990-01-22

129

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

130

FAST INFRARED IMAGING TO STUDY INDUSTRIAL BURNER COMBUSTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new diagnostic tool is presented to spatially characterize combustion fluctuations. This tool based on FAst IR Imaging of the flames was applied on two different types of gas turbine burners varying the Air Fuel Ration (AFR). Both burners evidenced oscillation at low frequencies around 25 Hz, 100 Hz and at higher frequencies up to several kHz.

131

One layer porous radiant burners : experimental and numerical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous radiant burners show numerous advantages over traditional systems such as improved efficiency and low pollutants emissions. Combustion is stabilized within a solid matrix but depending on operating conditions, can move outside. The results depend on the solid matrix characteristics. In order to inquire into the solid matrix properties effects, experimental tests have been performed on an opened burner made

S. Gauthier; E. Lebas; D. Baillis

2007-01-01

132

EVALUATION OF THE RILEY STOKER CORPORATION DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the NOx performance and sulfur capture potential of a Riley Stoker Corporation low-NOx distributed mixing burner. The performance of the full-scale single burner was verified over typical boiler operating ranges of load and excess air....

133

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

134

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279.64 Protection...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2013-07-01

135

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279.64 Protection...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2010-07-01

136

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279.64 Protection...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2012-07-01

137

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279.64 Protection...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2011-07-01

138

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

...2014-07-01 false Rebuttable presumption for used oil. 279.63 Section 279.63 Protection of Environment...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2014-07-01

139

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

...27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Used oil storage. 279.64 Section 279.64 Protection...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2014-07-01

140

Pioneer Robot Testing Program and Status  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Ukraine established a joint program in 1997 to address the need for remotely operated systems for unstructured environments in Ukraine such as the highly hazardous conditions inside the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4, or Shelter Object. The environment inside Shelter Object is extremely hazardous due to ionizing radiation fields, high airborne contamination, and major industrial safety issues. Although Ukrainian workers have explored and mapped much of the internals of Unit 4 in the time since the accident during the morning hours of April 26, 1986, there remain areas where humans have not entered to this date. Based on the agreement between USDOE and Ukraine, the USDOE, in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), developed the Pioneer Robot and has provided it to the ChNPP within the framework of international technical assistance. Pioneer is capable of mobile platform movement and manipulation under teleoperated control, 3-dimensional mapping, and environmental data collection. The Pioneer is radiation hardened for conditions like those of Shelter Object. Pioneer has been evaluated on site in Ukraine for use in both the Shelter Object environment and the more general conditions of ChNPP decommissioning. This paper summarizes the results of these testing activities and describes the status and near-term activities in support of the Pioneer Robot integration into Ukraine.

Herndon, J.N.

2001-02-02

141

Modelling the Pioneer anomaly as modified inertia  

E-print Network

This paper proposes an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly: an unexplained Sunward acceleration of 8.74 +/- 1.33 x 10^-10 m s^-2 seen in the behaviour of the Pioneer probes. Two hypotheses are made: (1) Inertia is a reaction to Unruh radiation and (2) this reaction is weaker for low accelerations because some wavelengths in the Unruh spectrum do not fit within a limiting scale (twice the Hubble distance) and are disallowed: a process similar to the Casimir effect. When these ideas are used to model the Pioneer crafts' trajectories there is a slight reduction in their inertial mass, causing an anomalous Sunward acceleration of 6.9 +/- 3.5 x 10^-10 m s^-2 which agrees within error bars with the observed Pioneer anomaly beyond 10 AU from the Sun. This new scheme is appealingly simple and does not require adjustable parameters. However, it also predicts an anomaly within 10 AU of the Sun, which has not been observed. Various observational tests for the idea are proposed.

M. E. McCulloch

2006-12-20

142

Lasker?Koshland to genetics pioneer.  

PubMed

The 2014 Lasker?Koshland Special Achievement Award will be presented to Mary-Claire King, apioneer and visionary who revolutionized the use of genetics to identify disease genes, provide insights into human evolution, and champion human rights causes. PMID:25215481

Botstein, David

2014-09-11

143

Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

Waller, Peter

1983-01-01

144

Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills

Brownell, Judi

2014-01-01

145

Pioneer Venus and Galileo entry probe heritage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in the late 1960s, NASA began planning for its first program to explore Venus. Although planetary entry probes had been flown to Venus by the Soviets beginning in 1967, NASA had not previously flown this type of mission. The Space and Communications Group of Hughes Aircraft Company, now owned by Boeing and called Boeing Satellite Systems, worked with NASA to perform initial studies that culminated with a contract for the Pioneer Venus program in early 1974. Pioneer Venus was an ambitious program that included four planetary entry probes, transported to Venus by a Multiprobe Bus, and a Venus Orbiter. This paper focuses on the engineering aspects of the probes and the challenges overcome in accommodating the various scientific instruments. The second NASA planetary entry program was the Galileo Mission that began with initial studies in the early 1970s. This mission to Jupiter included both an Orbiter and a Probe. Although the Galileo Probe planetary entry program was begun as the Pioneer Venus probes were heading towards Venus, there were significant engineering differences between the Pioneer Venus probe designs and the Galileo Probe. These differences, dictated by a number of factors, are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned by Boeing and NASA in designing, manufacturing and ultimately flying the Venus and Jupiter planetary entry probes.

Bienstock, Bernard J.

2004-02-01

146

On the Interplanetary Magnetic Storm: Pioneer V  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a period of intense solar activity between March 26 and April 6, 1960, meas- urements of the magnetic fields in interplanetary space were obtained with the space probe, Pioneer V. The measured component of the fields, associated with the solar plasma ejected during this period, attained strengths of 40 or more gammas (compared to an average value of 2.7

P. J. Coleman; C. P. Sonett; Leverett Davis

1961-01-01

147

Pioneer mission support. [Deep Space Network activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities within the Deep Space Network in support of the Pioneer Project's in-flight spacecraft during the period December 1976 through March 1977 are reported. The amount of tracking coverage provided by the network and a summary of operational testing ot the Mark III Data Subsystems are presented.

Adamski, T. P.

1977-01-01

148

Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

149

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy--An Andragogical Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his

Loeng, Svein

2013-01-01

150

Pioneer F and G mission to Juipter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer missions to Jupiter in 1972 and 1973 are described along with the planet Jupiter. The spacecraft, navigation, attitude control, and propulsion are discussed along with the communications and data handling. The objectives of the missions are to map magnetic fields, solar wind, radiation belts and asteroids.

1973-01-01

151

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

SciTech Connect

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2012-01-01

152

Pioneer game in collective actions: Experimental evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective actions are typical social and economic behavior, in which free riders exist objectively. Successful execution of collective actions is related to pioneer game, the value expectation and the follow-up sequence of followers. Through localized experiments, this paper verifies that: (i) collective actions are realizable, (ii) free riders can be weakened or relieved, and (iii) the realization probability of collective

Yichuan Wang

2011-01-01

153

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

1997-06-01

154

Idealized radiation efficiency model for a porous radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

A simple, highly idealized radiation efficiency model has been developed for a porous radiant burner with or without a screen to assess the thermal performance of an ideal porous burner that yields the highest radiation efficiency and against which test results and/or more realistic model predictions could be benchmarked. The model is based on thermodynamics principles (first law of thermodynamics) with idealizations made for some of the physical processes. Empirical information, where necessary, is then used to close the model equations. The maximum radiation efficiency at a given firing rate is predicted. The effects of input parameters such as the firing rate, the equivalence ratio, and the effective emittance of the burner on the radiation efficiency of the porous radiant burner are reported.

Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

1999-07-01

155

Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1991-05-24

156

Development of a catalytic infrared cooking gas burner  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic oxidation of natural gas was investigated for application to an infrared stove-top burner. Project goals were to demonstrate stable catalytic combustion of natural gas in a burner, suitable for use in a stove top, that would have a thermal cooking efficiency of 70%, produce less than 10 ppm NOx and 50 ppm CO concentrations in the flue gas, and have a turndown ratio of five. Calculations were performed to estimate the length of the catalytic coating and burner dimensions; the fluid dynamics of flow through the burner was analyzed in order to size the venturi, and a test rig with two prototypes was constructed. The second prototype exhibited stable catalytic combustion, achieved a peak thermal efficiency of 59%, and satisfied the project goals for NOx and CO emissions.

Tonon, T.

1987-09-22

157

Evaluating the efficacy of a minor actinide burner  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of a minor actinide burner can be evaluated by comparing safety and economic parameters to the support ratio. Minor actinide mass produced per unit time in this number of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) can be burned during the same time period in one burner system. The larger the support ratio for a given set of safety and economic parameters, the better. To illustrate this concept, the support ratio for selected Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) burner core designs was compared with corresponding coolant void worths, a fundamental safety concern following the Chernobyl accident. Results can be used to evaluate the cost in reduced burning of minor actinides caused by LMR sodium void reduction efforts or to compare with other minor actinide burner systems.

Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Nelson, J.V.; Omberg, R.P.; Wootan, D.W.

1993-06-01

158

Monitoring Runoff and Sediment at the Platteville Pioneer Farm  

E-print Network

measurements: environmental & farm management 2. Water quality: soil conservation practices, erosion & sediment researchers and educators Non-governmental organizations #12;Pioneer Farm Research Priorities 1. BaselineMonitoring Runoff and Sediment at the Platteville Pioneer Farm Christopher A. Baxter Assistant

Balser, Teri C.

159

Development of a methane premixed catalytic burner for household applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A catalytic premixed burner prototype for domestic-boiler applications was developed on the basis of a perovskite-type catalyst (LaMnO) deposited over a FeCrAlloy fiber panel. An economic and simple catalyst-deposition route, based on in situ pyrolysis of suitable precursors, was conceived and optimized on purpose. Finally, a catalytic burner and a reference noncatalytic one were comparatively tested in a pilot plant

Isotta Cerri; Guido Saracco; Francesco Geobaldo; Vito Specchia

2000-01-01

160

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CUP-BURNER FLAME EXTINGUISHMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extinguishing limits of laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flames in a cup-burner apparatus in normal earth gravity have been determined experimentally and computationally. A gaseous fire-extinguishing agent (Ar, He, N2, CO2, CF3H, CF3Br, or Br2) was added gradually into the coflowing oxidizer until the flame extinguished. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in

Fumiaki Takahashi; Gregory T. Linteris; Viswanath R. Katta

161

Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

2008-12-16

162

Development of Low-NOx DME Multi-Port Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion, aiming at the development of low-NOx multi-port burner suitable for the tube-nested combustor. In the tube-nested combustion, the water tubes are moved into the furnace closely to the burner to cool the burning flame directly in the field of burning reaction leading to NOx reduction. To prevent the unburned combustibles emission, the diffusion burner used in the tube-nested combustor needs a high performance of the fuel-air mixing. Multi-port burner consists of a fuel-port and surrounding multi-air-ports, which induce a strong re-circulation flow. Thus the fuel-air mixing is enhanced so that the thermal NOx and CO emissions are significantly reduced. The NOx emission of the DME from the co-axial diffusion burner was over 130ppm at 0% O2. On the other hand, NOx emission of DME from the multi-port burner was reduced to 60ppm at 0% O2. With the help of the tube-nested combustion, NOx emission of DME was further reduced to 20ppm at 0% O2.

Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishihara, Isao; Sasaki, Shingo; Takaichi, Masahiro

163

Chameleon effect and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

The possibility that the apparent anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft may be due, at least in part, to a chameleon field effect is examined. A small spacecraft, with no thin shell, can have a more pronounced anomalous acceleration than a large compact body, such as a planet, having a thin shell. The chameleon effect seems to present a natural way to explain the differences seen in deviations from pure Newtonian gravity for a spacecraft and for a planet, and appears to be compatible with the basic features of the Pioneer anomaly, including the appearance of a jerk term. However, estimates of the size of the chameleon effect indicate that its contribution to the anomalous acceleration is negligible. We conclude that any inverse-square component in the anomalous acceleration is more likely caused by an unmodelled reaction force from solar-radiation pressure, rather than a chameleon field effect.

John D. Anderson; J. R. Morris

2012-04-12

164

Dual-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

1986-08-05

165

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma analyzer experiment on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to determine the basic characteristics of the plasma environment of Venus and the nature of the solar wind interaction at Venus. The plasma analyzer experiment is an electrostatic energy-per-unit charge (E\\/Q) spectrometer which measures ions and electrons. There is a curved plate electrostatic analyzer system with multiple collectors. The

D. S. Intriligator; J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov

1980-01-01

166

Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at least 0.3% of a terrestrial ocean and possibly more.

Hoffman, J.

1982-01-01

167

Pioneer 11 meteoroid detection experiment: preliminary results.  

PubMed

The concentration of meteoroids of mass ~ 10(-8) gram in interplanetary space, in the asteroid belt, and near Jupiter has been measured. The data confirm the Pioneer 10 observation that the asteroid belt is not highly populated with small meteoroids, suggest that the high concentration of small particles around Jupiter is the result of gravitational focusing, and provide an indication of the mass distribution of meteoroids in interplanetary space. PMID:17734366

Humes, D H; Alvarez, J M; Kinard, W H; O'neal, R L

1975-05-01

168

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Wave Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus plasma wave instrument has a selfcontained balanced electric dipole (effective length = 0.75 m) and a 4-channel spectrum analyzer (30-percent bandwidth filters with center frequencies at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz). The channels are continuously active and the highest Orbiter telemetry rate (2048 bps) yields 4 spectral scans\\/s. The total mass of 0.55

F. L. Scarf; W. W. L. Taylor; P. F. Virobik

1980-01-01

169

Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly documents the extensive evaluation which was performed on the anticipated environmental impacts of that plant. This source can be referenced in the open literature and is publicly available. The CRBRP design was also of a commercial demonstration plant size - 975 MWth - which falls in the middle of the range of ABR plant sizes being considered (250 MWth to 2000 MWth). At the time the project was cancelled, the CRBRP had progressed to the point of having completed the licensing application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and was in the process of receiving NRC approval. Therefore, it was felt that [CRBRP, 1977] provides some of the best available data and information as input to the GNEP PEIS work. CRBRP was not the source of all the information in this document. It is also expected that the CRBRP data will be bounding from the standpoint of commodity usage because fast reactor vendors will develop designs which will focus on commodity and footprint reduction to reduce the overall cost per kilowatt electric compared with the CRBR plant. Other sources used for this datacall information package are explained throughout this document and in Appendix A. In particular, see Table A.1 for a summary of the data sources used to generate the datacall information.

Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-10-15

170

Method and burner apparatus for flaring inert vitiated waste gases  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses burner apparatus for flaring waste gases. It comprises a first tubular member for discharging waste gases into the atmosphere having an inlet end and a discharge end; a second tubular member positioned around at least the discharge end portion of the first tubular member whereby a discharge space is provided between the first and second tubular members around the adjacent the discharge end of the first tubular member; burner means disposed within the discharge space around and adjacent the discharge end of the first tubular member for discharging and igniting fuel gas therein; fuel gas conduit means sealingly connected to the burner means for connecting the burner means to a source of fuel gas; and combustion air conduit means sealingly connected to the discharge space for connecting the space to a source of combustion air whereby combustion air supplied to the discharge space. It is mixed with fuel gas supplied to and discharged from the burner means. The mixture is ignited, discharged from the discharge space and burned in a stable envelope around waste gases discharged from the first tubular member, and a portion of the waste gases is heated to the ignition temperature thereof, ignited and burned thereby providing heat and ignition to the remaining waste gases.

Schwartz, R.E.; Noble, R.K.

1990-12-04

171

User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Lubeck, C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

1994-11-01

172

Materials evaluations with the pulsed black liquor burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

A pulsed burner was designed to provide sufficient heat to convert a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor into combustible gas which would be used to produce process steam. The pulsed burner design provides a significant increase in the heat transfer capability and consequently significantly increases the efficiency of the conversion process. High temperature corrosion tests were performed in a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor using a pulsed burner process to determine the optimum materials for use in a commercial application. The materials tested included three different austenitic stainless steels, Type 446 martensitic stainless steel, a high temperature carbon steel, 153MA, and four nickel base alloys. All materials performed well with no corrosion attributed to the environment created by the decomposition of a black Kraft liquor. This behavior was contrary to what was expected due to the high concentration of H{sub 2}S present in the high temperature, 562 C, atmosphere.

Stein, A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Co., Boston, MA (United States)

1997-08-01

173

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

174

Seeking a solution of the Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

The 1972 and 1973 launched Pioneer 10 and 11 were the first missions to explore the outer solar system. They achieved stunning breakthroughs in deep-space exploration. But around 1980 an unmodeled force of \\sim 8 \\times 10^{-8} cm/s^2, directed approximately towards the Sun, appeared in the tracking data. It later was unambiguously verified as not being an artifact. The origin remains unknown (although radiant heat remains a likely cause). Increasing effort has gone into understanding this anomaly. We review the situation and describe programs to resolve the issue.

Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2007-09-12

175

The imaging photopolarimeter experiment on pioneer 11.  

PubMed

For 2 weeks continuous imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations were made of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites in red and blue light from Pioneer 11. Measurements of Jupiter's north and south polar regions were possible because the spacecraft trajectory was highly inclined to the planet's equatorial plane. One of the highest resolution images obtained is presented here along with a comparison of a sample of our photometric and polarimetric data with a simple model. The data seem consistent with increased molecular scattering at high latitudes. PMID:17734364

Baker, A L; Baker, L R; Beshore, E; Blenman, C; Castillo, N D; Chen, Y P; Doose, L R; Elston, J P; Fountain, J W; Gehrels, T; Kendall, J H; Kenknight, C E; Norden, R A; Swindell, W; Tomasko, M G; Coffeen, D L

1975-05-01

176

Jacob Henle--a pioneer of dermatopathology.  

PubMed

Jacob Henle was one of the most important anatomists of all times. He was the founder of modern histology and discovered numerous anatomic structures, such as Henle's loop in the kidneys and Henle's gland in the conjunctiva of the eyelids. Dermatologists know him chiefly for his description of Henle's layer of the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Only few, however, are aware of other contributions of Henle to dermatology, such as the first description of Demodex folliculorum and, more importantly, the first book devoted to the histopathology of the skin. Henle's contributions were significant enough to qualify him as one of the foremost pioneers of dermatopathology. PMID:19155718

Weyers, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

177

Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described, along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

Townsend, W. L.

1977-01-01

178

Magnetometer deployment mechanism for Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three segment, 15-foot boom mechanism was developed to deploy magnetometers from the Pioneer Venus orbiter spinning shelf. The stowage mechanism is designed to contain the magnetometers during launch and to deploy these instruments by centrifugal force upon pyrotechnic release. Unique graphite-epoxy boom segments are used for a lightweight design with sufficient strength to withstand a 7.5 g orbit insertion force while extended. The detailed design is described along with the test methods developed for qualification in a one-g field.

Townsend, W. L.

1977-01-01

179

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30

180

Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center  

SciTech Connect

If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

2007-04-16

181

46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automatic combustion control; (ii) Programing control; (iii) Automatic feedwater...setpoints. (5) All requirements for programing control subsystems and safety control...Where light oil pilots are used, the programing control and burner safety trip...

2010-10-01

182

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P&ID`s for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

183

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

184

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

185

The Pioneer 8 Earth-Moon encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the May 7, 1991, Eos, F. M. Neubauer and K.-H. Glassmeier took up the cause of historical correctness in a comment on the conarticle by F. Fanale (Eos, November 20, 1990, p. 1803) about the Galileo encounter with the Earth-Moon system in December 1990. The 1991 article pointed out that Fanale was incorrect in claiming that Galileo was to perform the first encounter by a spacecraft from deep space with the Earth-Moon system, since Giotto encountered the Earth in July 1990.While this event certainly invalidates the claim of primacy for the Galileo spacecraft, it does not award it to Giotto. The October 1987 Journal of Geophysical Research contains a paper by the late Fredrick L. Scarf describing results from the Pioneer 8 encounter with the geomagnetic tail in April and May 1985. At that time, the Pioneer 8 solar arrays' long exposure to space had so degraded the power levels of the spacecraft that Scarfs plasma wave instrument was the only one that could be operated.

Moses, Stewart L.

186

PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

Catalan, Michael A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thompson, Bruce R. (VISITORS); Dan G. Cacuci

2001-06-30

187

System and method for controlling the operation of a primary burner  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is an electronic control system for controlling the operation of an oil burner heating system. The control system comprises a relay circuit having first and second relays. When the relays are closed, an external power source is connected to an igniter and motor. The control system also comprises a relay contact monitor configured to detect whether the relays contacts are welded. The control system also comprises a relay control circuit adapted to energize the relays in response to the call for heat from the thermostat and a signal from the relay contact monitor indicative that the relay contacts are not welded. The relays are configured such that only one relay will open or close with power across its contacts. The control system further comprises an improved flame sense monitor adapted to quickly output signals indicative of flame or no flame when such conditions are present with sensitivity hysteresis and a feature to adjust such hysteresis. 9 figs.

Newberry, R.D.

1994-01-11

188

Combustion control system for burning installation with calcining burner  

SciTech Connect

A combustion control system is disclosed for a rotary kiln with a suspension preheater including a calcining burner wherein slurries of portland cement raw materials, lime slurries, alumina, magnesia or the like are filtered into a cake, the cake is then burned in the kiln with the suspension preheater.

Kawata, T.; Nakamura, N.; Tominaga, S.

1981-11-10

189

Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible

Neel, Bastien; Crespo, Gaston A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

2014-01-01

190

Flame extinguishing in the cup-burner by inert gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international standards on gaseous fire extinguishing systems specify the minimum design concentrations of gaseous agents for flammable liquid hazards based on extinguishing concentrations determined by the cup-burner method. Extinguishing concentration values, XG, reported in standards documents do not correlate as well as expected with heat capacity, the underlying figure of merit for inert gas agents, a result that

Joseph A. Senecal

2005-01-01

191

DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

192

SOX OUT ON A LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, covering results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and of calcium-lignosulfonate-mo...

193

Turbine Burners: Flameholding in Accelerating Flow W. A. Sirignano1  

E-print Network

on the turbine blades, and the character of the turbulent flow. Combustion in high-acceleration flows of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. #12;2 Background Literature Thermal Cycle Analysis. Gas-turbine1 Turbine Burners: Flameholding in Accelerating Flow W. A. Sirignano1 , D. Dunn-Rankin2 , F. Liu3 B

Liu, Feng

194

Turbojet and Turbofan Engine Performance Increases Through Turbine Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional turbojet and turbofan engine, fuel is burned in the main combustor before the heated high- pressure gas expands through the turbine. A turbine-burner concept was proposed in a previous paper in which combustion is continued inside the turbine to increase the ef ciency and specic thrust of the turbojet engine. This concept is extended to include not

F. Liu; W. A. Sirignano

2001-01-01

195

NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1996-01-01

196

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

197

How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and

Jansen, Michael P.

1997-01-01

198

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

199

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-08-01

200

Effects of elliptical burner geometry on partially premixed gas jet flames in quiescent surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is the investigation of the effect of elliptical nozzle burner geometry and partial premixing, both 'passive control' methods, on a hydrogen/hydrocarbon flame. Both laminar and turbulent flames for circular, 3:1, and 4:1 aspect ratio (AR) elliptical burners are considered. The amount of air mixed with the fuel is varied from fuel-lean premixed flames to fuel-rich partially premixed flames. The work includes measurements of flame stability, global pollutant emissions, flame radiation, and flame structure for the differing burner types and fuel conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the near-burner region. Experimentally, both conventional (IR absorption, chemiluminecent, and polarographic emission analysis,) and advanced (laser induced fluorescence, planar laser induced fluorescence, Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), Rayleigh scattering) diagnostic techniques are used. Numerically, simulations of 3-dimensional laminar and turbulent reacting flow are conducted. These simulations are run with reduced chemical kinetics and with a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) for the turbulence modeling. It was found that the laminar flames were similar in appearance and overall flame length for the 3:1 AR elliptical and the circular burner. The laminar 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame split into two sub-flames along the burner major axis. This splitting had the effect of greatly shortening the 4:1 AR elliptical burner flame to have an overall flame length about half of that of the circular and 3:1 AR elliptical burner flames. The length of all three burners flames increased with increasing burner exit equivalence ratio. The blowout velocity for the three burners increased with increase in hydrogen mass fraction of the hydrogen/propane fuel mixture. For the rich premixed flames, the circular burner was the most stable, the 3:1 AR elliptical burner, was the least stable, and the 4:1 AR elliptical burner was intermediate to the two other burners. This order of stability was due to two reasons. The elliptical burners have enhanced turbulence generation that lowers their stability when compared to the circular burner. The 4:1 AR elliptical burner had greater stability due to a greater velocity decay rate and wider OH reaction zones particularly in the region between the two jets. The 3:1 AR elliptical and circular burners produced similar carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emission indexes over the range of equivalence ratios of 0.55 to 4.0, for laminar flames. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Baird, Benjamin

201

Surface reflections of Pioneer Venus probe signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the four Pioneer Venus probes fell within the atmosphere toward the surface of Venus, each of them transmitted a radio signal directly to earth. Because of the relatively broad antenna beamwidth of these small probes, some of the transmitted power went down to the surface of Venus. This paper reports the discovery that the radio signals scattered off the surface are not only detectable but that their characteristics can be determined with a surprising degree of certainty. From these characteristics one can determine parameters of the Venusian atmospheric winds and of the surface that promise to be useful. Most of the scattered energy is that which originally radiated from the probes in a near-horizontal direction; the downward-directed radiation is detectable but much weaker. Refraction in the atmosphere of Venus clearly plays a significant role in establishing both the strength of scatter and its Doppler shift.

Croft, T. A.

1980-01-01

202

The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

1975-01-01

203

A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

Slanger, Tom G.

1993-01-01

204

Freeman Allen: Boston's Pioneering Physician Anesthetist.  

PubMed

On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death. PMID:25329027

Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

2014-11-01

205

Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

Clark Atlanta University

2002-12-02

206

Pioneer Venus polarimetry and haze optical thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus mission provided us with high-resolution measurements at four wavelengths of the linear polarization of sunlight reflected by the Venus atmosphere. These measurements span the complete phase angle range and cover a period of more than a decade. A first analysis of these data by Kawabata et al. confirmed earlier suggestions of a haze layer above and partially mixed with the cloud layer. They found that the haze exhibits large spatial and temporal variations. The haze optical thickness at a wavelength of 365 nm was about 0.06 at low latitudes, but approximately 0.8 at latitudes from 55 deg poleward. Differences between morning and evening terminator have also been reported by the same authors. Using an existing cloud/haze model of Venus, we study the relationship between the haze optical thickness and the degree of linear polarization. Variations over the visible disk and phase angle dependence are investigated. For that purpose, exact multiple scattering computations are compared with Pioneer Venus measurements. To get an impression of the variations over the visible disk, we have first studied scans of the polarization parallel to the intensity equator. After investigating a small subset of the available data we have the following results. Adopting the haze particle characteristics given by Kawabata et al., we find a thickening of the haze at increasing latitudes. Further, we see a difference in haze optical thickness between the northern and southern hemispheres that is of the same order of magnitude as the longitudinal variation of haze thickness along a scan line. These effects are most pronounced at a wavelength of 935 nm. We must emphasize the tentative nature of the results, because there is still an enormous amount of data to be analyzed. We intend to combine further polarimetric research of Venus with constraints on the haze parameters imposed by physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere.

Knibbe, W. J. J.; Wauben, W. M. F.; Travis, L. D.; Hovenier, J. W.

1992-01-01

207

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. INFLUENCE OF BURNER VARIABLES ON NOX IN PULVERIZED COAL FLAMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first phase of an investigation to specify burner design criteria to control NOx in natural gas and pulverized coal flames. The two parameters found to have major influence on NO formation were the method of fuel injection and the degree of swirl. ...

208

Options for a nondedicated mission to test the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler-tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft show an unmodelled constant acceleration in the direction of the inner Solar System. Serious efforts have been undertaken to find a conventional explanation for this effect, all without success at the time of writing. Hence the effect, commonly dubbed the Pioneer anomaly, is attracting considerable attention. Unfortunately, no other space

Dario Izzo; Andreas Rathke

2005-01-01

209

The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

Corliss, W. R.

1972-01-01

210

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Gdel Universe  

E-print Network

Based upon a simple cosmological model with no expansion, we find that the rotational terms appearing in the G/"odel universe are too small to explain the Pioneer anomaly. Although it contributes, universal rotation is not the cause of the Pioneer effect.

Thomas L. Wilson; Hans-Joachim Blome

2009-08-27

211

Preliminary model studies of the magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of the Jovian magnetic field and its interaction with the solar wind plasma were made while the Pioneer 10 spacecraft was within about 100 R sub j of the planet. The magnetosphere was found to be severely stretched due to the presence of an intense current sheet, which was particularly evident during the outbound passage of Pioneer 10 near the dawn terminator. Plots of the angle between the orientation of the outbound field and the radius vector from the planet to the spacecraft showed a strong tendency for the field to become radial at large distances from the planet. A similar trend has also been seen in both the inbound and outbound Pioneer 11 data. Preliminary work on a mathematical model of the magnetosphere of Jupiter is given, based upon the Pioneer 10 outbound data. Some of the implications of the radial field configuration inferred from the Pioneer 10 and 11 data are also discussed.

Jones, D. E.; Melville, J. G.

1975-01-01

212

Alyeska pioneers new pipe line technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trans-Alaska pipeline system is being built for one purpose--to make the almost 10-billion-barrel crude oil reserve at Prudhoe Bay available to U. S. industry and consumers. When completed, the pipeline will traverse some of the most rugged terrain in North America. The 1,287-km (800-mi.) long system will transport crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Arctic Ocean coast, generally

McPhail

1976-01-01

213

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

214

Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner  

SciTech Connect

We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

Cloutman, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brookshaw, L. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-09-01

215

Pioneer Venus spacecraft design and operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multiprobe spacecraft design and operation enabled both remote and in-situ measurements of the Venusian environment from the outermost fringes of the atmosphere all the way to the surface. Both spacecraft were spin-stabilized and solar-cell powered from launch to Venus. Since orbit insertion, the Orbiter has been transmitting measurements from a highly elliptical 24-h orbit with periapsis altitudes down to about 150 km. Data rates up to 2048 bits/s have been utilized through a despun high-gain antenna transmitting at S-band frequency. Spacecraft attitudes, orbit periods, and periapsis altitudes are being maintained as required with a hydrazine propulsion system. The Multiprobe spacecraft (Bus with all four Probes attached) performed the necessary Probe checkouts and deployed the Probes to achieve the desired Probe and Bus targeting. Silver-zinc batteries provided the necessary power on each of the four Probes from separation from the Bus through the entry/descent sequence. Data rates of 256 and 128 bits/s on the Large Probe were maintained with 40-W radiated power, and 64 and 16 bits/s on the Small Probes were maintained with 10-W radiated power, through omni antennas directly to Earth-based stations. Each Probe's entry/descent sequence was controlled with a hardwired entry sequence programmer to achieve the desired scientific and spacecraft operations.

Nothwang, G. J.

216

[Auguste Lumire, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].  

PubMed

At the "Grand Caf" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Par, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumire was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Brard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumire were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

2003-06-01

217

Confined spaced infrared burner system and method of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas-fired infrared heating device is described comprising: a burner plenum; an air-gas mixer means for introducing a combustible air\\/gas mixture into the plenum at a pressure P1 which is greater than ambient pressure, the mixer means comprising first means for controlling gas flow, second means for providing air flow at above ambient pressure and third means for controlling air

1987-01-01

218

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing

Dennis G. Nodd; Richard J. Walker

1987-01-01

219

Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

Farmayan, Walter Farman (Houston, TX); Giles, Steven Paul (Damon, TX); Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip (Katy, TX); Munshi, Abdul Wahid (Houston, TX); Abbasi, Faraz (Sugarland, TX); Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony (Houston, TX); Anderson, Karl Gregory (Missouri City, TX); Tsai, Kuochen (Katy, TX); Siddoway, Mark Alan (Katy, TX)

2011-05-31

220

Modelling of turbulent flow in a gas burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When multi-species, non-premixed flows combine with chemical reactions, common situation in industrial devices, the mixing or diffusive phenomena become the key factors to understand the whole process. Turbulence is conducive to mixing of species and consequently may increase the reaction efficiency [1]. That motivates us to study in details the mixing of fuel with air, in a complex geometry industrial gas burner, without ignition and chemical reactions.

Kwiatkowski, K.; Bajer, K.

221

Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate  

SciTech Connect

A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

Garcia, Eugenio [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, c/ Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gancedo, J. Ramon [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gracia, Mercedes, E-mail: rocgracia@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-11-15

222

Pioneer spacecraft operation at low and high spin rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of executing major changes upward or downward from the nominal spin rate for which the Pioneer F&G spacecraft was designed was investigated along with the extent of system and subsystem modifications required to implement these mode changes in future spacecraft evolving from the baseline Pioneer F and G. Results of a previous study are re-examined and updated for an extended range of spin rate variations for missions that include outer planet orbiters, outer planet flyby and outer planet probe delivery. However, in the interest of design simplicity and cost economy, major modifications of the baseline Pioneer system and subsystem concept were avoided.

1973-01-01

223

Acoustic Pressure Oscillations Induced in I-Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iwama et al. invented the I-burner to investigate acoustic combustion instability in solid-propellant rockets (Proceedings of ICT Conference, 1994, pp. 26-1 26-14). Longitudinal pressure oscillations were induced in the combustion chamber of a thick-walled rocket by combustion of a stepped-perforation grain (I-burner). These oscillations were studied here experimentally. Two I-burners with an internal diameter of 80 mm and a length of 1208 mm or 2240 mm were made. The grain had stepped perforations (20 and 42 mm in diameter and 657 and 160 mm in length, respectively). Longitudinal pressure oscillations always occur in two stages when an HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/AP (ammonium perchlorate)/aluminum-powder propellant burns (54 tests; the highest average pressure in the combustion chamber was 9.5 29 MPa), but no oscillations occur when an HTPB/AP propellant burns (29 tests). The pressure oscillations are essentially linear, but dissipation adds a nonlinear nature to them. In the first stage, the amplitudes are small and the first wave group predominates. In the next stage, the amplitudes are large and many wave groups are present. The change in the grain form accompanying the combustion affects the pressure oscillations.

Matsui, Kiyoshi

224

Infrared and catalytic burner technology assessment. Final report, 21 February 1980-20 February 1981  

SciTech Connect

The results of a review of the state of the art in infrared and catalytic burner development are presented. Four basic types of IR burners are currently is use. Eight commercial and/or residential appliances were characterized to assess the applicability of these burners. The refractory monolith tile and the fiber matrix burners appear most applicable for appliance use. Conceptual designs for the eight appliances with IR burners were prepared to evaluate the technical feasibility. These appliances are shown to have significant fuel efficiency increase and NOx and CO emission reduction benefits. Four appliances -- the commercial rangetop, deep fat fryer, commercial water heater, and warm air furnace -- also appear economically competitive, and recommended approaches for further development are presented. Lists of IR burner literature and patents are also included.

Kesselring, J.P.; Krill, W.V.; Schreiber, R.J.

1981-02-01

225

Large-Eddy Simulation of Lean Premixed Flames in a Model Swirl Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lean premixed flames in an un-confined model swirl burner are studied numerically by means of large eddy simulation. In the\\u000a burner considered, swirling flow and a richer pilot flame are used to stabilize the flame. The paper investigates the occurrence\\u000a of the central recirculation zone (CRZ) and the precessing vortex core (PVC) for two variants of the burner, as well

Ping Wang; Jochen Frhlich; Ulrich Maas

226

A discontinuity of the background explains the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

The Pioneer anomaly is explained very simply if we assume that somewhere between us and the aircraft, the scale factor has undergone a discrete jump from an expansion a(t) regime to a contraction 1/a(t) regime

Frederic Henry-Couannier

2007-03-02

227

111. White House Dept. store and Mills Building, 127 Pioneer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

111. White House Dept. store and Mills Building, 127 Pioneer Plaza and 393 North Oregon St., looking north - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

228

WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE AND MILLS BUILDING, 127 PIONEER PLAZA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WHITE HOUSE DEPARTMENT STORE AND MILLS BUILDING, 127 PIONEER PLAZA AND 393 N. OREGON ST., LOOKING NORTH - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

229

Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the \\

B. P. Besser

2002-01-01

230

Six Internet Pioneers Teach English to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six English-as-a-Second-or-Other-Language (ESOL) practitioners who are also Internet pioneers talk about their Internet work, share insights, and provide advice to teachers on creating online materials. (Author/VWL)

Oliver, Dennis; Davis, Randall; Hoter, Elaine; Kelly, Charles; Sperling, Dave; Vilmi, Ruth

2001-01-01

231

Options for a Nondedicated Mission to Test the Pioneer Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler-tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft show an\\u000aunmodelled constant acceleration in the direction of the inner Solar System.\\u000aSerious efforts have been undertaken to find a conventional explanation for\\u000athis effect, all without success at the time of writing. Hence the effect,\\u000acommonly dubbed the Pioneer anomaly, is attracting considerable attention.\\u000aUnfortunately, no other space

Andreas Rathkeand; Dario Izzo

2006-01-01

232

Testing for the Pioneer anomaly on a Pluto exploration mission  

E-print Network

The Doppler-tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft show an unmodelled constant acceleration in the direction of the inner Solar System. An overview of the phenomenon, commonly dubbed the Pioneer anomaly, is given and the possibility for an experimental test of the anomaly as a secondary goal of an upcoming space mission is discussed using a putative Pluto orbiter probe as a paradigm.

Andreas Rathke

2004-09-15

233

Background starlight observed from Pioneer 10. [beyond asteroid belt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of background starlight observations are reviewed that were obtained by the Pioneer 10 asteroid-Jupiter probe when, after passage beyond the asteroid belt, its imaging photopolarimeter observed integrated starlight and diffuse galactic light for the first time in the absence of zodiacal light. Brightnesses in the blue are presented with and without individually resolved stars for regions of the sky observed when Pioneer 10 was 4.64 astronomical units from the sun.

Weinberg, J. L.; Hanner, M. S.; Beeson, D. E.; Deshields, L. M., II; Green, B. A.

1974-01-01

234

Oil emulsifier said to prevent carbon buildup  

SciTech Connect

A Philadelphia hospital trimmed 40% off its fuel oil bills after designing and installing a fuel oil emulsifier that increased combustion efficiency and prevented carbon buildup in the boilers. Carbon byproducts of combustion had been accumulating on heat exchange surfaces, reducing heating efficiency. The ultrasonic emulsifier burns oil 4% more efficiently than conventional burners alone by creating turbulence in a 7% solution of water and preheated oil. The magnitude of the improvement reflects the poor condition of the boilers before installation of the emulsifier.

Ladd, C.

1985-10-21

235

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

236

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2010-01-01

237

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2013-01-01

238

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2014-01-01

239

Experimental investigation of the Helmholtz resonator burner: Three months at China Lake, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Weapons Center, its aerothermochemistry division, and the propulsion research laboratory are described. Experiments that were carried out with Helmholtz resonator burners are recounted. Results show that Helmholtz resonator burners can be used to determine the response function of solid rocket propellants. Evidence was also obtained of high sensitivity for oscillatory combustion at low frequencies.

H. F. R. Schoeyer

1982-01-01

240

Experimental investigation of the Helmholtz resonator burner: Three months at China Lake, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Naval Weapons Center, its aerothermochemistry division, and the propulsion research laboratory are described. Experiments that were carried out with Helmholtz resonator burners are recounted. Results show that Helmholtz resonator burners can be used to determine the response function of solid rocket propellants. Evidence was also obtained of high sensitivity for oscillatory combustion at low frequencies.

Schoeyer, H. F. R.

1982-03-01

241

Apparatus and method to add kinetic energy to a low pressure waste gas flare burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a flare apparatus for inducing kinetic energy to low pressure waste gas which is to be burned substantially smokelessly, comprising: an array of burners, each of the burners defined by a tip and a central internally unobstructed, conduit which terminates at an axial discharge opening at the tip; means to supply the flow pressure waste gas to

R. E. Schwartz; M. R. Keller

1987-01-01

242

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner  

E-print Network

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner J. B of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric

Bell, John B.

243

Numerical simulations of burner-stabilized hydrogen-air flames in microgravity  

SciTech Connect

Detailed two-dimensional, time-dependent numerical simulations have been performed to gain understanding of the similarities and differences in the structure and stability of burner-stabilized flames in zero and earth gravity. These simulations include the effects of fluid convection, detailed hydrogen-oxygen chemistry, multispecies diffusion, thermal conduction, viscosity, and heat losses to the burner. A series of simulations for a range of mixtures and inlet velocities have been performed. These simulations show the presence of cellular structures at the burner surface in both zero and earth gravity at high inlet velocities. As the inlet velocity is reduced, the flames move closer to the burner and the heat loss to the burner increases. At low inlet velocities, these cellular structures are suppressed in both zero gravity and earth gravity, indicating that increased heat loss to the burner is the primary mechanism stabilizing these flames. Downward propagating burner-stabilized flames become smoother more quickly than zero-gravity flames, indicating that gravity still plays a small part in stabilizing the flame. The simulations described here clarify the relative importance of gravity and heat losses to the burner on the stability of lean hydrogen-air flames.

Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K. (Naval Research lab., Washington, DC (United States) Berkeley Research Associates, Springfield, VA (United States))

1994-11-01

244

On the Similitude Between Lifted and Burner-Stabilized Triple Flames: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation  

E-print Network

flow field. However, both the lifted and burner-stabilized flames exhibit remarkable similarity. In the lifted flame, the velocity field diverges upstream of the flame, causing the velocity to reach a minimumOn the Similitude Between Lifted and Burner-Stabilized Triple Flames: A Numerical and Experimental

Aggarwal, Suresh K.

245

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 ...Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2013-01-01

246

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

... 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 ...Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2014-01-01

247

EMISSIONS FROM REFINERY PROCESS HEATERS EQUIPPED WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes an investigation of the performance of commercial low-NOx burners in refinery process heaters. Refineries in Southern and Central California were surveyed to determine the number of existing or planned low-NOx burners. Tests on 10 process heaters equipped wi...

248

Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.  

PubMed

Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

2013-10-01

249

Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

1977-01-01

250

Confined spaced infrared burner system and method of operation  

SciTech Connect

A gas-fired infrared heating device is described comprising: a burner plenum; an air-gas mixer means for introducing a combustible air/gas mixture into the plenum at a pressure P1 which is greater than ambient pressure, the mixer means comprising first means for controlling gas flow, second means for providing air flow at above ambient pressure and third means for controlling air flow into the mixer means; an enclosed but remote vented combustion chamber in which a back pressure P2 prevails, where P1 is greater than P2; a thick, ceramic burner tile having a sufficient thickness to produce both a pressure and a temperature gradient, forming a sealed boundary between the plenum and the combustion chamber and having opposite faces thereof addressing the chamber and plenum respectively. The tile forms therein small diameter parallel channels extending between the faces and possessing a sufficient thickness to produce both pressure and temperature gradients between the faces thereof; the first and third means being set such that the difference between P1 and P2 results in ignition and stoichiometric combustion of the air/gas mixture flowing from the plenum to the chamber via the channels substantially at the face of the tile which addresses the chamber; whereby heating the tile to infrared emitting temperature occurs.

Simpson, T.W.

1987-01-27

251

Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

2012-01-01

252

Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

253

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart...Air Pollutants for Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart... Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart... No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are...

2013-07-01

254

Pioneer 10. [observations of Jupiter environment and asteroid belt hazards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Dec. 4, 1973, after 21 months in flight, Pioneer 10 passed by Jupiter at a distance within 130,000 km of its cloud tops. During the month before and after, instrumentation on the spacecraft made a number of scientific measurements of the Jupiter environment, thus completing one of three scientific objectives of the mission. Previously, Pioneer 10 had explored the asteroid belt and had completed the second scientific objective by determining that the belt did not present a hazard to spacecraft passing through it. The third objective, the exploration of interplanetary phenomena, started with the launch of Pioneer 10 and will not be completed until 1977 when the spacecraft nears the orbit of Uranus and the signal from the spacecraft becomes too weak to be heard at ground receivers.

Hall, C. F.

1974-01-01

255

Brans-Dicke theory and the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar-tensor theory offers the possibility of a modification of Newtonian gravity due to the presence of a 4d scalar dilaton field. The prototypical version of such a theory, massless Brans-Dicke theory, is considered here in the Einstein frame representation. The acceleration of a test mass is obtained from the exact 4d Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions with spherical symmetry. The deviation of this acceleration from the pure Newtonian gravitational acceleration is examined to see if it can account for the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, while satisfying solar system constraints. Theoretical considerations, along with limits inferred from Pioneer 10 data, suggest that Brans-Dicke gravity could account for no more than a small fraction of the Pioneer anomaly, so that a complete explanation of the anomaly must lie elsewhere.

Anderson, John D.; Morris, J. R.

2012-09-01

256

Pioneer spacecraft for atmospheric entry missions to the outer planets.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of the atmospheres of the Jovian planets is probably representative of the composition of the original matter from which the solar system was formed. An entry probe would be required for obtaining quantitative data about the atmosphere as a function of altitude. A mission involving the detachment of an atmospheric entry probe from a Pioneer spacecraft is being considered. Instruments in the probe are to measure pressure, temperature, and composition of the atmosphere during descent. The Pioneer spacecraft is to serve as a communications relay for the data transmitted from the probe.

Dixon, W. J.

1973-01-01

257

Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G. [Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9H5 (Canada); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

2009-02-15

258

Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

Viktor T. Toth; Slava G. Turyshev

2009-01-29

259

Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

Toth, Viktor T

2009-01-01

260

Development of a Pioneer Venus expert scheduling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Expert System has been developed to perform a substantial part of the science planning for NASA's Pioneer Venus spacecraft. The program performs functions that have been traditionally performed by operations personnel ('orbit builders'), and attempts to directly duplicate their methods and techniques. Output from the program is formatted to correspond to the previously hand-generated worksheets, in order to ease program validation as well as operator acceptance. Pioneer Venus mission operations are described in detail followed by a description of the expert system implementation.

Rosenthal, Donald A.; Jackson, Robert W.

1988-01-01

261

Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft and missions to Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft and scientific instruments are described. The Pioneer 10/11 trajectories are described, mission objectives are discussed, and a summary of scientific findings is presented. Results obtained during the traverse of the Asteroid Belt show that the particle concentration is less than had been expected and does not present an appreciable hazard to spacecraft passing through the Belt. The results from six scientific instruments that measured the particle and field phenomena within the Jupiter radiation belt present a consistent picture which, in general, is an environment more severe than normal previous predictions based on earth observations.

Hall, C. F.

1974-01-01

262

Pioneer F and G spacecraft. [design and mission objectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two spacecraft, Pioneers F and G, each with a launch weight of approximately 256 kg, were launched in March 1972 and April 1973 on trajectories which will result in close Jupiter encounters in late 1973 and 1974, respectively. The Pioneer mission objectives are to investigate the interplanetary medium beyond Mars, to determine the nature of the asteroid belt, and to explore Jupiter and its environment. A review is given of the system and subsystem design with emphasis on the simplicity of design, the selective use of redundancy for reliability enhancement, and the environmental protection provided.

Obrien, B. J.

1973-01-01

263

Characterization of lean premixed gas turbine burners as acoustic multi-ports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoacoustic combustion instabilities, involving a feedback cycle between fluctuations of velocity, pressure and heat release rate, are a cause for concern in many combustion applications. To model thermoacoustic oscillations, a combustion system can be described as a network of acoustic elements, representing for example fuel and air supply, burner and flame, combustor, cooling channels, suitable terminations, etc. For most of these elements, simple analytical models provide an adequate description of their (thermo-) acoustic properties. However, the complex response of burner and flame to acoustic perturbations has - at least in a first step - to be determined by experiment. In our approach, we describe the burner as an active acoustical two port, where the state variables pressure and velocity at the inlet and the outlet are coupled via a four element transfer matrix. To determine all four coefficients, two independent test states have to be created. This is achieved by using acoustic sources upstream and downstream of the burner, respectively. In application to a full size gas turbine burner, the method's accuracy was tested in a first step without combustion and the results were compared to an analytical model for the burner's acoustic properties. Then the method was used to determine the burner transfer matrix with combustion and to investigate the influence of various parameters such as acoustic amplitude and equivalence ratio.

Paschereit, C. O.; Polifke, W.

1997-11-01

264

Pioneer transcription factors: establishing competence for gene expression  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors are adaptor molecules that detect regulatory sequences in the DNA and target the assembly of protein complexes that control gene expression. Yet much of the DNA in the eukaryotic cell is in nucleosomes and thereby occluded by histones, and can be further occluded by higher-order chromatin structures and repressor complexes. Indeed, genome-wide location analyses have revealed that, for all transcription factors tested, the vast majority of potential DNA-binding sites are unoccupied, demonstrating the inaccessibility of most of the nuclear DNA. This raises the question of how target sites at silent genes become bound de novo by transcription factors, thereby initiating regulatory events in chromatin. Binding cooperativity can be sufficient for many kinds of factors to simultaneously engage a target site in chromatin and activate gene expression. However, in cases in which the binding of a series of factors is sequential in time and thus not initially cooperative, special pioneer transcription factors can be the first to engage target sites in chromatin. Such initial binding can passively enhance transcription by reducing the number of additional factors that are needed to bind the DNA, culminating in activation. In addition, pioneer factor binding can actively open up the local chromatin and directly make it competent for other factors to bind. Passive and active roles for the pioneer factor FoxA occur in embryonic development, steroid hormone induction, and human cancers. Herein we review the field and describe how pioneer factors may enable cellular reprogramming. PMID:22056668

Zaret, Kenneth S.; Carroll, Jason S.

2011-01-01

265

Pioneer Venus mechanical roots pump test and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical pump for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system was obtained, and a limited performance testing program, including ultimate/compression ratio tests and throughput tests at three different pump speeds, was performed. Considerable operating experience with the pump was obtained over approximately 200 hours of running. The test results show general agreement with pump specifications.

Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.

1973-01-01

266

Voyager and Pioneer Missions to the boundaries of the heliosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium is expected to result in a complex, probably dynamic outer heliospheric boundary region. In increasing distance from the sun the boundary region includes the solar wind termination shock, the heliopause, and perhaps a heliobowshock. The continuing missions of Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 10 and 11 provide a unique

M. E. Pesses; W. V. Jones; M. Forman

1993-01-01

267

Anatoly Kitov -pioneer of Russian informatics Vladimir A. Kitov1  

E-print Network

generation of scientists who had created Russian cybernetics, computer engineering and informatics. DueAnatoly Kitov - pioneer of Russian informatics Vladimir A. Kitov1 , Valery V. Shilov2 1 Fujitsu "MATI" � Russian State Technological University, Orshanskaja 3, 121522 Moscow, Russia shilov

Boyer, Edmond

268

Reconstruction of the Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer, northeast Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer was closed temperate rainforest dominated by Nothofagus johnstonii Hill, which probably produced N. menziesii-type pollen. However, other angiosperms (Quintinia, Cupaniae, Ilex, Cunoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Winteraceae) were also present, as well as several conifers (Athrotaxis, Phyllocladus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Dacrycarpus and Araucariaceae). This rainforest was floristically more complex that the modern Tasmanian Nothofagus cunninghamii rainforests but

Robert S. Hill; Michael K. Macphail

1983-01-01

269

Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind interaction with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of the Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby in late November and early December 1973 has been performed. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found

J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov; H. R. Collard; D. D. McKibbin; L. A. Frank; D. S. Intriligator

1974-01-01

270

Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations at Jupiter encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-channel extreme ultraviolet photometer on Pioneer 10 was used to investigate hydrogen and helium emissions from the atmosphere of Jupiter and emissions associated with the Galilean satellites. The hydrogen Lyman a signal observed from Jupiter corresponded to 400 R in brightness. By using the results of Wallace and Hunten, the eddy diffusion coefficient is found to be K =

R. W. Carlson; D. L. Judge

1974-01-01

271

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA  

E-print Network

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA Web:www.pvta.com Mobile:m.pvta.com 35, 37 B43, M40 & 35B43, M40 & 35 Downtown Post Office Route GOLD 30 Limited Service Connecting Route Bus Stop FRTA 30 for students and employees of the Five Colleges: Smith College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

272

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA  

E-print Network

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA Web:www.pvta.com Mobile:m.pvta.com No service at the Fearing Street bus stop after 10:00 PM on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday nights during full service operate on a proof-of-payment system for students and employees of the Five Colleges: Smith College

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

273

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA  

E-print Network

PioneerValleyTransitAuthority Phone:413781-PVTA Web:www.pvta.com Mobile:m.pvta.com Squire Village on a proof-of-payment system for students and employees of the Five Colleges: Smith College, Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount Holyoke College and UMass Amherst. These schools pay fares for their students

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

274

Oral History of Postsecondary Access: Martha Maxwell, a Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Truly a pioneer in the field of learning assistance and developmental education, Martha Maxwell has mentored hundreds, if not thousands, of professionals and students as well as authored a variety of reference shelf publications. Her career spanned 50 years. In her classic, Improving Student Learning Skills, she says there are seven persons named

Casazza, Martha E.; Bauer, Laura

2004-01-01

275

August 2011 Volume VI, Issue 1 THE PIONEER NEWSLETTER is  

E-print Network

of depth electives can be found on the BME website (www.bme.gatech.edu). Economics and Ethics are no longer required to fulfill social science electives. The caveat to all of these new changes is that no one course Dharani Jenna Fair Shalv Madhani Ayesha Patel Elina Sarmah PHOTOGRAPHERS The Pioneer welcomes students

Weitz, Joshua S.

276

Governing Economic Globalization: The Pioneering Experience of the OECD  

E-print Network

that coped with trade liberalization' (Elsig, 2007, 76). A World Trade Organization (WTO) embrace * The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has pioneered global governance in three areas importance to the governance of the global economy. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and WTO

Levinson, David M.

277

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

Dyer, J. W.

1975-01-01

278

Venus Plasma Environment and Lessons Learned from Pioneer Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter PVO obtained a great wealth of information on the solar wind interaction with Venus in part because of its comprehensive plasmas and fields instrumentation and in part because of the design and duration of the mission Our general understanding of the physics of the solar wind interaction with a weakly magnetized planet s upper atmosphere and

J. G. Luhmann; C. T. Russell; A. F. Nagy; T. E. Cravens

2006-01-01

279

Optical spectroscopy by Hantaro Nagaoka Pioneer nuclear structure study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hantaro Nagaoka is a Japanese physicist who made an experimental pioneer work on optical spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies in 1920s. Today much attention should be paid to this work rather than to his famous atomic model that died away long time ago along with Thomson's model.

Inamura, Takashi T.

2000-08-01

280

Optical spectroscopy by Hantaro Nagaoka Pioneer nuclear structure study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hantaro Nagaoka is a Japanese physicist who made an experimental pioneer work on optical spectroscopy for nuclear structure\\u000a studies in 1920s. Today much attention should be paid to this work rather than to his famous atomic model that died away long\\u000a time ago along with Thomson's model.

Takashi T. Inamura

2000-01-01

281

"Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone

Kenney, Keith

282

Conventional forces can explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anderson et al. find the measured trajectories of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts deviate from the trajectories computed from known forces acting on them. This unmodeled acceleration (and the less well known, but similar, unmodeled torque) can be accounted for by non-isotropic radiation of spacecraft heat. Various forms of non-isotropic radiation were proposed by Katz, Murphy, and Scheffer, but Anderson et al. felt that none of these could explain the observed effect. This paper calculates the known effects in more detail and considers new sources of radiation, all based on spacecraft construction. These effects are then modeled over the duration of the experiment. The model reproduces the acceleration from its appearance at a heliocentric distance of 5 AU to the last measurement at 71 AU to within 10%. However, it predicts a larger decrease in acceleration between intervals I and III of the Pioneer 10 observations than is observed. This is a 2? discrepancy from the average of the three analyses (SIGMA, CHASMP, and Markwardt). A more complex (but more speculative) model provides a somewhat better fit. Radiation forces can also plausibly explain the previously unmodeled torques, including the spindown of Pioneer 10 that is directly proportional to spacecraft bus heat, and the slow but constant spin-up of Pioneer 11. In any case, by accounting for the bulk of the acceleration, the proposed mechanism makes it much more likely that the entire effect can be explained without the need for new physics.

Scheffer, Louis K.

2003-04-01

283

Scalar Field Models: From the Pioneer Anomaly to Astrophysical Constraints  

E-print Network

In this work we study how scalar fields may affect solar observables, and use the constraint on the Sun's central temperature to extract bounds on the parameters of relevant models. Also, a scalar field driven by a suitable potential is shown to produce an anomalous acceleration similar to the one found in the Pioneer anomaly.

J. Paramos

2005-05-17

284

Particle concentration in the asteroid belt from Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial concentration and size distribution for particles measured by the asteroid/meteoroid detector on Pioneer 10 between 2 and 3.5 AU are presented. The size distribution is from about 35 micrometers to 10 centimeters. The exponent of the size dependence varies from approximately -1.7 for the smallest to approximately -3.0 for the largest size measured.

Soberman, R. K.; Neste, S. L.; Lichtenfeld, K.

1974-01-01

285

Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation  

SciTech Connect

The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons.

Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

2007-10-12

286

Destruction of halogenated VOCs using premixed radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

Alzeta Corporation has developed a natural-gas-fired thermal oxidizer to provide emission control for industrial exhaust streams where stringent emission limits of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are required. Measurements made with assistance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, show destruction efficiencies (DEs) between 99.9766 and 99.9999 percent for eight common halogenated compounds. This thermal oxidizer technology utilizes an inward-fired premixed radiant burner that operates at high levels of excess air (typically 80 to 100 percent) to achieve nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 10 ppm{sub v}, corrected to 3 percent oxygen (O{sub 2}). A brief discussion of pertinent regulations and emissions of concern is presented. The EPA test program is presented with results. A description of three similarly designed commercial thermal oxidizers is presented including emission test results. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Bartz, D.F.; Marshall, B.N. [Alzeta Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Bruce, K. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

287

Optimum compositions for thermal insulation of burners and regenerators  

SciTech Connect

The thermal and mechanical properties of thermal insulation compositions applied by spraying were evaluated to determine the optimum composition for the parameters posed by the burners and regenerators of glass-melting furnaces. The effects of varying spray parameters on these properties were also assessed. Changes were made in the binder density while leaving the amount of filler unaltered. With an increase in binder density there was an increase in the apparent density of the insulation. Kaolin wool with an aluminoborophosphate concentrate binder was tested for thermal conductivity, apparent density, and bending, shear, and compression strength against asbestos with water glass as a binder. For walls of the regenerators and a single-layer heat insulation, insulation made from an asbestos-perlite mixture with water glass was recommended.

Zasypkin, V.I.; Popov, O.N.

1988-07-01

288

Demonstration of laser speckle system on burner liner cyclic rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration test was conducted to apply speckle photogrammetry to the measurement of strains on a sample of combustor liner material in a cyclic fatigue rig. A system for recording specklegrams was assembled and shipped to the NASA Lewis Research Center, where it was set up and operated during rig tests. Data in the form of recorded specklegrams were sent back to United Technologies Research Center for processing to extract strains. Difficulties were found in the form of warping and bowing of the sample during the tests which degraded the data. Steps were taken by NASA personnel to correct this problem and further tests were run. Final data processing indicated erratic patterns of strain on the burner liner sample.

Stetson, K. A.

1986-01-01

289

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

290

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

291

A quantitative study of acoustic growth rates in a characterized Rijke burner with particle combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic growth rate, frequency, and limiting amplitude of a characterized Rijke burner were quantitatively measured during the combustion of aluminum and zirconium carbide particles, which are common solid propellant additives. Extremely narrow size distributions of aluminum particles with mean diameters of 9.2, 19.0, 35.6, and 68.7 ?m were tested at mass loadings up to 3% for frequencies of 800 and 1200 Hz. Large aluminum particles were ignited in the C3H8/O2 flame of a welding nozzle, mounted flush with the burner's flat, C3H8/O 2/N2 flame. Testing provided no conclusive evidence of distributed particle combustion affecting the acoustic driving in the Rijke burner. In solid propellant rockets, the distributed combustion of aluminum particles far from the propellant surface may contribute to pressure oscillations caused by acoustic combustion instability. The Rijke burner was developed as an experimental platform to investigate the phenomenon. Research into the transient acoustic response of Rijke burners is almost nonexistent; consequently, the current burner's acoustic response was quantified as a function of gas flow rate, gas composition, geometry, and burner orientation for two frequencies. Acoustic growth rate trends were explained in terms of the pulsing flame's heat release and the flame's position relative to the optimal acoustic driving point. Variations in gas flow rate, flame temperature, geometry, and exhaust temperature profile could affect a 300 s-1 change in acoustic growth rate for the conditions tested. Frequency remained approximately constant, except for acoustic mode shifts which occurred due to geometry alterations or changing gas temperatures in the burner's hot section. The Rijke burner's acoustic response was not significantly altered by the installation of the welding nozzle with its gas mixture operated near stoichiometric or fuel rich. The radial and axial temperature profiles of the gas temperatures in the burner's hot section were also measured during burner characterization. Gas temperatures would often drop 800 K from the centerline to the burner wall (37 mm diameter). Transient acoustic results were modeled utilizing the temperature measurements-reduced to the axial dimension. The model predicts the experimental trends and approximate magnitude for acoustic growth rate; agreement between the model and measured frequency is excellent.

Newbold, Brian Russell

2000-12-01

292

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

1975-01-01

293

Reproductive traits of pioneer gastropod species colonizing deep-see hydrothermal vents after an eruption  

E-print Network

The colonization dynamics and life histories of pioneer species are vital components in understanding the early succession of nascent hydrothermal vents. The reproductive ecology of pioneer species at deep-sea hydrothermal ...

Bayer, Skylar (Skylar Rae)

2011-01-01

294

Grant Title: PIONEER HI-BRED FOUNDATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A  

E-print Network

Grant Title: PIONEER HI-BRED FOUNDATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A Agency/Department: Pioneer Hi-Bred Foundation Community Investment Programs. Area of Research: Community projects to support: Pioneer Hi-Bred makes a difference in the communities where its customers and employees live and work

Farritor, Shane

295

SO2 on Venus: A final cross-calibration with Pioneer Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present reporting period we have met with the Pioneer Venus PI to collaborate on the recalibration of the UV spectrometer of Pioneer Venus. The associated data reduction and analysis activities have been completed. The sensitivity of the UV spectrometer has been steadily declining since orbit insertion of Pioneer Venus in 1978 due to aging of the detector tubes.

S. Alan Stern

1993-01-01

296

78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0031] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a...Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., of...

2013-05-29

297

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

298

75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, designated as transformation...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International in its petition...

2010-06-08

299

76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a...Petition Number 08-338-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc....

2011-01-03

300

FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

Not Available

2004-07-01

301

Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

1995-01-01

302

ANALYSIS OF UTILITY CONTROL STRATEGIES USING THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the impact of proposed acid rain legislation on the potential application of limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) technology incorporating recent research and development findings. Several regulatory strategies and emission red...

303

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15

304

Experiments on Stability of Bunsen-Burner Flames for Turbulent Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air-ratio range. (author)

Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

1948-01-01

305

Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

Not Available

1991-08-09

306

Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

Not Available

1991-08-09

307

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2014-01-01

308

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2010-01-01

309

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2014-01-01

310

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2011-01-01

311

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2012-01-01

312

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2012-01-01

313

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633Details of Burner Stand-off...

2010-01-01

314

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2010-01-01

315

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2012-01-01

316

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633Details of Burner Stand-off...

2011-01-01

317

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2010-01-01

318

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2013-01-01

319

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633Details of Burner Stand-off...

2012-01-01

320

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2014-01-01

321

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2013-01-01

322

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2013-01-01

323

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2011-01-01

324

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2011-01-01

325

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633Details of Burner Stand-off...

2013-01-01

326

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633Details of Burner Stand-off...

2014-01-01

327

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2012-01-01

328

SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

329

THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the American Combustion PyretronTM oxygen-enhanced burner ws conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas....

330

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

331

Flow Field Results of the Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner Using Laser Doppler Anemometer  

E-print Network

Flow Field Results of the Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner Using Laser Doppler Anemometer Technical Report CUED/A-TURBO/TR.134 R. Zhou*, M.S. Sweeney, S. Hochgreb Cambridge Combustion... Research Centre Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge *rz242@cam.ac.uk Abstract A series of flow fields generated by a turbulent methane/air stratified swirl burner are investigated using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) to obtain...

Zhou, Ruigang; Sweeney, Mark; Hochgreb, Simone

2012-06-08

332

High Efficiency Burners by Retrofit - A Simple Inexpensive Way to Improve Combustion Efficiency  

E-print Network

90 f---+--f------,,.+:;;...L~ aICH EFFICIENCY BURNERS BY RETROFIT - A SIMPLE INEXPENSIVE WAY TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY will T. Rogers Coppus Engineering Corporation Worcester, Mass. Existing direct fired process heaters and steam...90 f---+--f------,,.+:;;...L~ aICH EFFICIENCY BURNERS BY RETROFIT - A SIMPLE INEXPENSIVE WAY TO IMPROVE COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY will T. Rogers Coppus Engineering Corporation Worcester, Mass. Existing direct fired process heaters and steam...

Rogers, W. T.

1980-01-01

333

Measurement and analysis of heating of paper with gas-fired infrared burner  

E-print Network

MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF HEATING OF PAPER WITH GAS-FIRED INFRARED BURNER A Thesis by ABDULLAH NADIR HUSAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AgrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2000 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF HEATING OF PAPER WITH GAS-FIRED INFRARED BURNER A Thesis by ABDULLAH. NADIR HUSAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AJbM University...

Husain, Abdullah Nadir

2012-06-07

334

Numerical simulations of burner-stabilized hydrogen-air flames in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed two-dimensional, time-dependent numerical simulations have been performed to gain understanding of the similarities and differences in the structure and stability of burner-stabilized flames in zero and earth gravity. These simulations include the effects of fluid convection, detailed hydrogen-oxygen chemistry, multispecies diffusion, thermal conduction, viscosity, and heat losses to the burner. A series of simulations for a range of mixtures

G. Patnaik; K. Kailasanath

1994-01-01

335

Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

2011-01-01

336

Hermann Lebert (1813-1878): a pioneer of diagnostic pathology.  

PubMed

Hermann Lebert (1813-1879) was a pioneer of diagnostic pathology and medical iconography. He was born in Breslau, then Prussia, and died in Nice (France). He lived in Switzerland as a general physician, in France as a pathologist, and eventually became the chairman for internal medicine in Zurich and Breslau, respectively. The significance of Hermann Lebert for medical posterity has three aspects: firstly, scientific linking of the French (Parisian) school and its distinctive clinical/practical orientation to the later clinical/pathological German school of Johann Lukas Schnlein, Johannes Mller, and Rudolf Virchow; secondly, his pioneering of the diagnostic use of the microscope in pathological anatomy; and finally, his remarkable book, Trait d'anatomie pathologique gnrale et spciale, which has almost fallen into oblivion, being unknown to most contemporary workers. PMID:19688221

Pickel, Hellmuth; Reich, Olaf; Winter, Raimund; Young, Robert H

2009-09-01

337

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

338

Gravitational solution to the Pioneer 10/11 anomaly  

E-print Network

A fully relativistic modified gravitational theory including a fifth force skew symmetric field is fitted to the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. The theory allows for a variation with distance scales of the gravitational constant G, the fifth force skew symmetric field coupling strength omega and the mass of the skew symmetric field mu=1/lambda. A fit to the available anomalous acceleration data for the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft is obtained for a phenomenological representation of the "running" constants and values of the associated parameters are shown to exist that are consistent with fifth force experimental bounds. The fit to the acceleration data is consistent with all current satellite, laser ranging and observations for the inner planets.

J. R. Brownstein; J. W. Moffat

2005-11-06

339

Gravitational solution to the Pioneer 10/11 anomaly  

E-print Network

A fully relativistic modified gravitational theory including a fifth force skew symmetric field is fitted to the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration. The theory allows for a variation with distance scales of the gravitational constant G, the fifth force skew symmetric field coupling strength omega and the mass of the skew symmetric field mu=1/lambda. A fit to the available anomalous acceleration data for the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft is obtained for a phenomenological representation of the "running" constants and values of the associated parameters are shown to exist that are consistent with fifth force experimental bounds. The fit to the acceleration data is consistent with all current satellite, laser ranging and observations for the inner planets.

Brownstein, J R

2006-01-01

340

Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1976-01-01

341

PIONEER VENUS 2 MULTI PROBE IS ENCAPSULATED IN PROTECTIVE SHROUD  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Encapsulation of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe in its protective nose fairing is closely monitored by technicians in Hangar AO. The 2,000-pound spacecraft is one of two being launched toward the planet Venus. The Multiprobe is scheduled for launch aboard an Atlas Centaur rocket on August 7. Flying a direct path to the cloud-shrouded planet, the Multiprobe will reach Venus five days after the arrival of its sister spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, which was launched May 20, 1978. Three weeks before the Multiprobe reaches Venus, its four heavily instrumented scientific probes (seen on top of the spacecraft's main body or ''bus'') will be released and will impact at various points on the planet's surface. Together, the two spacecraft will conduct a thorough scientific exploration of the planet Venus.

1978-01-01

342

Pioneer 10 Doppler data analysis: disentangling periodic and secular anomalies  

E-print Network

This paper reports the results of an analysis of the Doppler tracking data of Pioneer probes which did show an anomalous behaviour. A software has been developed for the sake of performing a data analysis as independent as possible from that of J. Anderson et al. \\citep{anderson}, using the same data set. A first output of this new analysis is a confirmation of the existence of a secular anomaly with an amplitude about 0.8 nms$^{-2}$ compatible with that reported by Anderson et al. A second output is the study of periodic variations of the anomaly, which we characterize as functions of the azimuthal angle $\\varphi$ defined by the directions Sun-Earth Antenna and Sun-Pioneer. An improved fit is obtained with periodic variations written as the sum of a secular acceleration and two sinusoids of the angles $\\varphi$ and $2\\varphi$. The tests which have been performed for assessing the robustness of these results are presented.

A. Levy; B. Christophe; P. Berio; G. Metris; J-M. Courty; S. Reynaud

2008-09-16

343

System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

Acheson, L. K.

1973-01-01

344

Cloud and Haze Properties from Pioneer Venus Polarimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of linear polarization data obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter experiment indicates that the visible clouds at low and mid-latitudes are composed predominantly of 1 \\/tm radius H2SO 4 droplets, an identification made previously by using earth-based observations. Mixed within and extending above this main visible cloud is an extensive haze of submicron-sized particles. These haze particles

K. Kawabata; D. L. Coffeen; J. E. Hansen; Makoto Sato; L. D. Travis

1980-01-01

345

Search for a solution of the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1972 and 1973 the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions were launched. They were the first to explore the outer solar system and achieved stunning breakthroughs in deep-space exploration. But beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of \\\\sim 8 \\\\times 10^{-8} cm\\/s^2, directed approximately towards the Sun, appeared in the tracking data. It later was unambiguously verified as being

Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2007-01-01

346

Pioneer Venus radar results - Geology from images and altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unimodal distribution of relief for Venus was obtained from the Pioneer Venus altimetry measurements. The 'upland' rolling plains constituting 65% of the surface show dark circular lava-filled impact basins; highlands in the 8% of the area comprise Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra; and the lowlands consist of crudely circular surfaces with low relief within the highlands. The complex ridge-and-trough

Harold Masursky; Eric Eliason; P. G. Ford; G. E. McGill; G. H. Pettengill; Gerald G. Schaber; Gerald Schubert

1980-01-01

347

Shock evolution in the outer heliosphere - Voyager and Pioneer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations are reported of 35 interplanetary shocks detected at heliocentric distances between 6.5 and 9.4 AU in mid-1980 by the Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 11 spacecraft. These shocks were all evidently generated by the interaction of corotating streams. Measurements of the pre- and postshock plasma parameters are used to determine the shock normals and speeds for each shock.

P. R. Gazis; A. J. Lazarus; K. Hester

1985-01-01

348

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of JupiteL and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Rj, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 'y, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived

E. J. Smith; L. Davis Jr.; D. E. Jones; P. J. Coleman Jr.; D. S. Colburn; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett; A. M. A. Frandsen

1974-01-01

349

Planetary magnetism. [Mariner, Venera and Pioneer probe results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent data on planetary magnetism are reviewed, with attention given to information obtained by Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10 orbiting Venus, and Pioneer spacecraft flying past Jupiter. In addition, less recent magnetic measurements of Mars are reconsidered. Doubts about whether Mars has an active dynamo at present are mentioned, and further planetary magnetic assessments are suggested. In particular, the need to refine knowledge of multipole moments is stressed.

Russell, C. T.

1979-01-01

350

Particle concentration in the asteroid belt from pioneer 10.  

PubMed

The spatial concentration and size distribution for particles measured by the asteroid/meteoroid detector on Pioneer 10 between 2 and 3.5 astronomical units are presented. The size distribution is from about 35 micrometers to 10 centimeters. The exponent of the size dependence varies from approximately -1.7 for the smallest to approximately -3.0 for the largest size measured. PMID:17821096

Soberman, R K; Neste, S L; Lichtenfeld, K

1974-01-25

351

Niches, rather than neutrality, structure a grassland pioneer guild  

PubMed Central

Pioneer species are fast-growing, short-lived gap exploiters. They are prime candidates for neutral dynamics because they contain ecologically similar species whose low adult density is likely to cause widespread recruitment limitation, which slows competitive dynamics. However, many pioneer guilds appear to be differentiated according to seed size. In this paper, we compare predictions from a neutral model of community structure with three niche-based models in which trade-offs involving seed size form the basis of niche differentiation. We test these predictions using sowing experiments with a guild of seven pioneer species from chalk grassland. We find strong evidence for niche structure based on seed size: specifically large-seeded species produce fewer seeds but have a greater chance of establishing on a per-seed basis. Their advantage in establishment arises because there are more microsites suitable for their germination and early establishment and not directly through competition with other seedlings. In fact, seedling densities of all species were equally suppressed by the addition of competitors' seeds. By the adult stage, despite using very high sowing densities, there were no detectable effects of interspecific competition on any species. The lack of interspecific effects indicates that niche differentiation, rather than neutrality, prevails. PMID:16006328

Turnbull, Lindsay A; Manley, Liz; Rees, Mark

2005-01-01

352

Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

Jones, D. E.

1986-01-01

353

Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

Knudsen, William C.

1993-01-01

354

George Feher: a pioneer in reaction center research.  

PubMed

Our understanding of photosynthesis has been greatly advanced by the elucidation of the structure and function of the reaction center (RC), the membrane protein responsible for the initial light-induced charge separation in photosynthetic bacteria and green plants. Although today we know a great deal about the details of the primary processes in photosynthesis, little was known in the early days. George Feher made pioneering contributions to photosynthesis research in characterizing RCs from photosynthetic bacteria following the ground-breaking work of Lou Duysens and Rod Clayton (see articles in this issue by van Gorkom and Wraight). The work in his laboratory at the University of California, San Diego, started in the late 1960s and continued for over 30 years. He isolated a pure RC protein and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the primary reactants. Following this pioneering work, Feher studied the detailed structure of the RC and the basic electron and proton transfer functions that it performs using a wide variety of biophysical and biochemical techniques. These studies, together with work from many other researchers, have led to our present detailed understanding of these proteins and their function in photosynthesis. The present article is a brief historical account of his pioneering contributions to photosynthesis research. A more detailed description of his work can be found in an earlier biographical paper (Feher in Photosynth Res 55:1-40, 1998a). PMID:24104959

Okamura, Melvin

2014-05-01

355

Specification of technical requirements for low NO burner modifications: Elektrenai-boilers Nos. 6A and 6B, Mazeikiai-boilers Nos. 3 and 4. Lithuania State Power System, Vilnius, Lithuania. Final tender copy. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the purpose of replacing the existing oil/gas fired burners and modifying the boiler components at the Elektrenai Power Station Boiler Nos. 6A and 6B and the Mazeidiai Combined Steam and Power Station Boiler Nos. 3 and 4 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The report assesses the condition of the existing equipment as well as the technical and commercial data related to the project. This is the first of six volumes. It contains the Specification of Technical Requirements for Low NOx Burner Modifications and is divided into the following sections: (1) Scope; (2) General Requirements; (3) Project Technical Requirements; (4) Drawings and Documents; (5) Project Schdule; (6) Quality Assurance; (7) Preshipping, Shipping and Storage Requirements; (8) Supplemental Provisions; (9) Attachments 1-7.

NONE

1994-12-01

356

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

1978-01-01

357

Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends  

E-print Network

Page Figure 1 Comparison of Conventional JET-Burner with Fortum?s Rapid Ignition (RI) JET-Burner for Tangentially Fired Boilers Developed by Enprima ....................................................................................... 2... on a mass basis and cofired in a small scale 100,000 BTU/hr LNB furnace located at CBEL in TAMU. ____________ This thesis follows the style of Combustion Science and Technology. 2 Figure 1. Comparison of conventional JET-burner with Fortum?s...

Gomez, Patsky O.

2010-01-16

358

Effect of the fuel bias distribution in the primary air nozzle on the slagging near a swirl coal burner throat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of slagging characteristics near the burner throat region were carried out for swirl coal combustion burners used in a 1025 tons\\/h boiler. The gas\\/particle two-phase numerical simulation results and the data measured by a particle-dynamics anemometer (PDA) show that the numeration model was reasonable. For the centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner, the coal particles move in

Lingyan Zeng; Zhengqi Li; Hong Cui; Fucheng Zhang; Zhichao Chen; Guangbo Zhao

2009-01-01

359

Telecommunications and data acquisition support for the Pioneer Venus Project: Pioneers 12 and 13, prelaunch through March 1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The support provided by the Telecommunications and Data Acquisition organization of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to the Pioneer Venus missions is described. The missions were the responsibility of the Ames Research Center (ARC). The Pioneer 13 mission and its spacecraft design presented one of the greatest challenges to the Deep Space Network (DSN) in the implementation and operation of new capabilities. The four probes that were to enter the atmosphere of Venus were turned on shortly before arrival at Venus, and the DSN had to acquire each of these probes in order to recover the telemetry being transmitted. Furthermore, a science experiment involving these probes descending through the atmosphere required a completed new data type to be generated at the ground stations. This new data type is known as the differential very long baseline interferometry. Discussions between ARC and JPL of the implementation requirements involved trade-offs in spacecraft design and led to a very successful return of science data. Specific implementation and operational techniques are discussed, not only for the prime mission, but also for the extended support to the Pioneer 12 spacecraft (in orbit around Venus) with its science instruments including that for radar observations of the planet.

Miller, R. B.; Ryan, R. E.; Renzetti, N. A.; Traxler, M. R.

1984-01-01

360

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet. PMID:21806201

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

2011-07-01

361

78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., (Pioneer...Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.,...

2013-02-27

362

Outer planet Pioneer imaging communications system study. [data compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of different types of imaging data compression on the elements of the Pioneer end-to-end data system were studied for three imaging transmission methods. These were: no data compression, moderate data compression, and the advanced imaging communications system. It is concluded that: (1) the value of data compression is inversely related to the downlink telemetry bit rate; (2) the rolling characteristics of the spacecraft limit the selection of data compression ratios; and (3) data compression might be used to perform acceptable outer planet mission at reduced downlink telemetry bit rates.

1974-01-01

363

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O, SO2, and CO2 were measured, and upper limits set for H2, COS, H2S, CH4, Kr, N2O, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H8. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid-like droplets and support the possibility of water vapor at altitudes of 42 and 24 km. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the origin, evolution, and present state of Venus' atmosphere.

Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.; Craig, R. A.

1980-01-01

364

Health Coaching Education: A Conversation With Pioneers in the Field  

PubMed Central

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success. PMID:24416669

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-01-01

365

Health coaching education: a conversation with pioneers in the field.  

PubMed

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success. PMID:24416669

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-05-01

366

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Operations and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus spacecraft orbited Venus 5,055 times between 4th December 1978 and 6th October 1992, before entering Venus' atmosphere and burning up on the latter date. On 255 of these orbits, science operations were suspended because of superior conjunction (Venus' proximity to the Sun as seen from Earth). Of the remaining 4800 orbits, about 85% yielded good-quality OUVS science data; 15% were lost to various problems, including loss of uplink (commands) to and downlink (data) from the spacecraft, errors in commanding OUVS, and one or other of the two instrument anomalies mentioned below.

Stewart, A. I. F.

1997-01-01

367

Exploring beyond the planets - The Pioneer 10 and 11 missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are surveyed and illustrated with drawings, maps, graphs, and diagrams, with an emphasis on their present exploration of the outer heliosphere. The main goals of this exploration are examined (search for the heliospheric boundary, measurement of galactic cosmic radiation, and search for a trans-Neptunian planet); the ten scientific instruments carried by each spacecraft are characterized; and the results obtained so far with regard to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, cosmic rays, and asteroid belt, Jupiter, and Saturn are summarized.

Dyal, P.; Fimmel, R. O.

1984-01-01

368

Role of pioneer species in revegetation of disturbed desert areas  

SciTech Connect

The northern Mojave Desert, as are many deserts, is characterized in part by small fertile islands in which exist individual shrub clumps each containing two or more plants. These fertile sites promote characteristic organization of both plant and animal activity in the desert. Destruction of these fertile sites make revegetation extremely difficult because most seedlings germinate in these sites. Some pioneer species do, however, germinate and survive in the bare areas between the fertile sites. Four such species in the northern Mojave Desert are Acamptopappus shockleyi Gray, Lepidium fremontii Wats., Sphaeralcea ambigua Gray, and Atriplex confertifolia (Torr. and Frem.) Wats. These four-species may have a role in starting new fertile islands.

Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

1980-01-01

369

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2012-01-01

370

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2011-01-01

371

Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

1999-07-07

372

Voyager and Pioneer Missions to the boundaries of the heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interaction of the solar wind with the interstellar medium is expected to result in a complex, probably dynamic outer heliospheric boundary region. In increasing distance from the sun the boundary region includes the solar wind termination shock, the heliopause, and perhaps a heliobowshock. The continuing missions of Voyager 1 and 2 and Pioneer 10 and 11 provide a unique opportunity to make in situ particle and field observations of the boundaries of the heliosphere and associated phenomena. Observations already made by these spacecraft suggest that the termination shock may be located 60-100 AU from the sun. Voyager 1 will reach 60 AU in 1995 and 100 AU in 2006. NASA's Space Physics Division is planning with the Voyager and Pioneer Projects to ensure timely and maximum scientific return from spacecraft encounters with the solar wind termination region. Initial emphasis is on being able to reliably determine when an encounter is imminent, so that spacecraft tracking and spacecraft and instrument configurations can be changed to encounter modes. It is anticipated that multiple encounters with heliospheric boundaries will occur due to motion of the boundaries in response to large variations in the solar wind pressure.

Pesses, M. E.; Jones, W. V.; Forman, M.

1993-01-01

373

Pioneers in metamaterials: John Pendry and Victor Veselago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is a tribute designed to praise two great scientists who have set the world alight by stimulating boundless curiosity about metamaterials. It is stated early on that it is not intended to be a technical review but one from which it is possible to understand what the excitement is about. To achieve this outcome some simple discussions of refractive index are used as a means of getting to the now famous concept of negative index. After some selective, quasi-historical, development, the article moves on to a specific section about the pioneers themselves. It presents some impressions of their backgrounds, including the fact that John Pendry is now known now as Sir John Pendry. This flows from the recognition of his work by Queen Elizabeth. It is acknowledged that Victor Veselago truly guided the world along the track of negative refraction with a remarkable display of prescience. It is asserted that metamaterials have a brilliant future and that very important work is progressing towards the production of loss-free and active negative index and other forms of metamaterials. It pointed out that the control of light paths through the distortion of space is currently a major outcome from the groundbreaking work of the pioneers and that, in fact, light concentrators and optical black holes may well be life-transforming consequences. Indeed, in the conclusion, it is stated, unreservedly, that the whole world is indebted to John Pendry and Victor Veselago.

Boardman, Allan

2011-02-01

374

A neo-Newtonian explanation of the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 20 years NASA has struggled to find an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (? 8.510^{-10} m s^{-2}), observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999). No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was first announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by Cspedes-Cur (2002) that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density ?_{*}^{} due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational influence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n' < 1), implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.

Greaves, E. D.

2009-05-01

375

Influence of Burner Geometry on Heat Transfer Characteristics of Methane\\/Air Flame Impinging on Flat Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study has been conducted to find the heat transfer characteristics of methane\\/air flames impinging normally to a flat surface using different burner geometries. The burners used were of nozzle, tube, and orifice type each with a diameter of 10 mm. Due to different exit velocity profiles, the flame structures were different in each case. Because of nearly flat

Subhash Chander; Anjan Ray

2006-01-01

376

Scaling the weak-swirl burner from 15 kW to 1 MW  

SciTech Connect

With the passage of SCAQMD 1146.2, low NO{sub x} regulations will be enforced for new water heaters and boilers from 22 to 585 kW starting January 1, 2000; less than two years away. This has given an added impetus to develop a burner capable of producing NO{sub x} < 30 ppm and CO < 400 ppm without substantial manufacturing costs or complexity. Developed at the Berkeley Lab, the Weak-Swirl Burner (WSB) operates in the lean premixed combustion mode over a wide firing and equivalence ratio range. This work investigated scaling issues (e.g. swirl rates and stability limits) of the WSB when fired at higher rates useful to industry. Three test configurations which varied the ratio of furnace area to burner area were utilized to understand the effects of burner chamber coupling on emissions and stability. Preliminary tests from 12 to 18 kW of a WSB in a commercial heat exchanger were undertaken at LBNL, with further testing from 18 to 105 kW completed at UCI Combustion Laboratory in an octagonal enclosure. After scaling the small (5 cm diameter) to a 10 cm WSB, the larger burner was fired from 150 to 600 kW within a 1.2 MW furnace simulator at UCICL. Test results demonstrate that NO{sub x} emissions (15 ppm at 3% O{sub 2} at equivalence ratio {phi} = 0.80) were invariant with firing rate and chamber/burner ratio. However, the data indicates that CO and UHC are dependent on system parameters, such that a minimum firing rate exists below which CO and UHC rise from lower limits of 25 ppm and 0 ppm respectively.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Hack, R.L.; Miyasato, M.M.; Chang, A.; Samuelsen, G.S. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). UCI Combustion Lab.

1998-03-01

377

Performance control strategies for oil-fired domestic heating systems: Fiscal year 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of oil-fired domestic heating systems in homes is lower than can be achieved with the same equipment under ideal conditions. Two factors are responsible. First, when burners are serviced excess air is set high to avoid possible future soot problems. The second factor is fouling of heat exchanger surfaces over time. The goal of the work described in

Butcher

1987-01-01

378

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

379

Establishing criteria for the design of a combination parallel and cross-flaming covered burner  

E-print Network

burner at 2 km/h and 345 kPa in row showing double peak (IR=In the Row; 0 = Center, L = Left, R = Right; Heights = 7, 150, 300-mm) . 43 17 Temperature versus time curve with appropriate boundary conditions (exposure time is 2. 84 seconds). The curve... burner at 2 km/h and 345 kPa in row showing double peak (IR=In the Row; 0 = Center, L = Left, R = Right; Heights = 7, 150, 300-mm) . 43 17 Temperature versus time curve with appropriate boundary conditions (exposure time is 2. 84 seconds). The curve...

Stark, Christopher Charles

2012-06-07

380

Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study. Third quarterly technical progress report, April-June, 1983  

SciTech Connect

The specific tasks of this study are to mathematically model the thermionic cogeneration burner, experimentally confirm the projected energy flows in a thermal mock-up, make a cost estimate of the burner, including manufacturing, installation and maintenance, review industries in general and determine what groups of industries would be able to use the electrical power generated in the process, select one or more industries out of those for an in-depth study, including determination of the performance required for a thermionic cogeneration system to be competitive in that industry. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Not Available

1983-01-01

381

effect of hydrogen addition and burner diameter on the stability and structure of lean, premixed flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low swirl burners (LSBs) have gained popularity in heating and gas power generation industries, in part due to their proven capacity for reducing the production of NOx, which in addition to reacting to form smog and acid rain, plays a central role in the formation of the tropospheric ozone layer. With lean operating conditions, LSBs are susceptible to combustion instability, which can result in flame extinction or equipment failure. Extensive work has been performed to understand the nature of LSB combustion, but scaling trends between laboratory- and industrial-sized burners have not been established. Using hydrogen addition as the primary method of flame stabilization, the current work presents results for a 2.54 cm LSB to investigate potential effects of burner outlet diameter on the nature of flame stability, with focus on flashback and lean blowout conditions. In the lean regime, the onset of instability and flame extinction have been shown to occur at similar equivalence ratios for both the 2.54 cm and a 3.81 cm LSB and depend on the resolution of equivalence ratios incremented. Investigations into flame structures are also performed. Discussion begins with a derivation for properties in a multicomponent gas mixture used to determine the Reynolds number (Re) to develop a condition for turbulent intensity similarity in differently-sized LSBs. Based on this requirement, operating conditions are chosen such that the global Reynolds number for the 2.54 cm LSB is within 2% of the Re for the 3.81 cm burner. With similarity obtained, flame structure investigations focus on flame front curvature and flame surface density (FSD). As flame structure results of the current 2.54 cm LSB work are compared to results for the 3.81 cm LSB, no apparent relationship is shown to exist between burner diameter and the distribution of flame surface density. However, burner diameter is shown to have a definite effect on the flame front curvature. In corresponding flow conditions, a decrease in burner diameter results a broader distribution of curvature and an increased average curvature, signifying that compared to the larger 3.81 cm LSB, the flame front of the smaller burner contains tighter, smaller scale wrinkling.

Kaufman, Kelsey Leigh

382

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

2003-07-01

383

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2010-07-01

384

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2014-07-01

385

Are heating-system retrofit and tune-up programs really increasing the efficiency of oil-fired systems?  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a two-year field test involving over 300 homes to evaluate the US Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program for low-income fuel-oil-heated houses. One conclusion was that houses receiving oil-burner clean and tune-ups did not increase in system steady-state efficiency any more than a similar group of weatherized and control houses not receiving clean and tune-ups. A set of oil-burner performance goals proposed by the Alliance to Save Energy were not attained by most of the tuned-up oil systems, thereby not achieving a major benefit of heating-system programs from current implementation methods. Whole-system replacements produced higher-than-average savings and systems with flame-retention burners had higher steady-state efficiencies and used less fuel than normal burners. Other space-heating-system measures including setback thermostats were not statistically significant in reducing fuel-oil consumption. Secondary benefits of improved safety (such as lowering carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gases and inside houses) and reliability were present in weatherized houses, although not in as high a quantity as is often espoused.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-07-01

386

Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

2002-09-01

387

Cloud morphology and motions from Pioneer Venus images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The horizontal and vertical cloud structures, atmospheric waves, and wind velocities at the cloud top level were determined by the Pioneer Venus photopolarimeter images in the UV from January through March 1979. The images indicate long-term evolution of cloud characteristics, the atmospheric dynamics, and rapid small changes in cloud morphology. The clouds show a globally coordinated oscillation relative to latitude circles; retrograde zonal winds of 100 m/s near the equator are determined from the tracking of small-scale cloud properties, but two hemispheres show important variations. The zonal wind velocity in the southern hemisphere is reduced toward the poles at a rate similar to solid body rotation; the midlatitude jet stream noted by Mariner 10 is not observed.

Rossow, W. B.; Del Genio, A. D.; Limaye, S. S.; Travis, L. D.; Stone, P. H.

1980-01-01

388

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer: Operations and Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ultraviolet Spectrometer investigation on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter mission was extremely successful. The instrument was designed, built and tested at CU/LASP and delivered on time and within budget. The spacecraft and its instruments were required to operate for 243 days in Venus orbit. OUVS operated successfully for a further 13 years with only minor problems. The major scientific results listed above that deal with Venus were all unexpected and significant discoveries. The Comet Halley observations came about because of a favorable alignment of Halley, the Sun, and Venus, and were an important contribution to the international study of this comet. The scientific results of the OUVS investigation are to be found in the 41 papers listed in section 4 below. OUVS data provided material for 6 PhD and one MS dissertations, listed in section 5 below.

Stewart, A. I. F.

1997-01-01

389

Search for a Solution of the Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

In 1972 and 1973 the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions were launched. They were the first to explore the outer solar system and achieved stunning breakthroughs in deep-space exploration. But beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of \\sim 8 \\times 10^{-8} cm/s^2, directed approximately towards the Sun, appeared in the tracking data. It later was unambiguously verified as being in the data and not an artifact. The cause remains unknown (although radiant heat remains a likely origin). With time more and more effort has gone into understanding this anomaly (and also possibly related effects). We review the situation and describe ongoing programs to resolve the issue.

Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2007-09-25

390

Future exploration of Venus (post-Pioneer Venus 1978)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study was performed to determine the major scientific unknowns about the planet Venus to be expected in the post-Pioneer Venus 1978 time frame. Based on those results the desirability of future orbiters, atmospheric entry probes, balloons, and landers as vehicles to address the remaining scientific questions were studied. The recommended mission scenario includes a high resolution surface mapping radar orbiter mission for the 1981 launch opportunity, a multiple-lander mission for 1985 and either an atmospheric entry probe or balloon mission in 1988. All the proposed missions can be performed using proposed space shuttle upper stage boosters. Significant amounts of long-lead time supporting research and technology developments are required to be initiated in the near future to permit the recommended launch dates.

Colin, L.; Evans, L. C.; Greeley, R.; Quaide, W. L.; Schaupp, R. W.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.

1976-01-01

391

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:21609369

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

392

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut fr Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2013-03-01

393

Laboratory corroboration of the Pioneer Venus gas chromatograph analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory simulation and tests of the inlet sampling system and columns of the Pioneer Venus gas chromatograph show that the sensitivity to argon is not diminished after the column regeneration step, that argon isotopes are not separated, that oxygen and sulfur dioxide are not produced in the inlet sampling system from sulfur trioxide, and that sulfur trioxide is not formed from sulfur dioxide and oxygen. Comparisons of the volatile inventory of Venus and earth imply similar efficiencies of early outgassing but a lower efficiency for later outgassing in the case of Venus. The high oxidation state of the Venus atmosphere in the region of cloud formation may prohibit the generation of elemental sulfur particles.

Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.

1979-01-01

394

Chile: pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.

Rudnick, H. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

1994-06-01

395

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

396

A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1994-02-01

397

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul [Morningstar Applied Physics Inc., LLC, Vienna, VA 22182 (Austria)

2010-01-28

398

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a `young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the `dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies. The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul

2010-01-01

399

BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of boiler design criteria for application of dry sorbent control technology with low-NOx burners on tangentially fired pulverized-coal-burning boilers. A comprehensive review of past and current research in the area of sorbent SOx control prov...

400

LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILERS IN JAPAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement by low-NOx burners (LNBs) and combustion modification (CM) for dry-bottom pulverized-coal-fired boilers in Japan. LNBs have been widely used in Japan as a simple way to reduce NOx emissions by 20-50%. NOx abatement by a LNB and C...

401

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Novel Low NOx CGRI Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experimental and numerical investigation of the near field and combustion zone of a burner that realizes a FODI (Fuel\\/Oxidant Direct Injection) strategy for furnace firing. FODI is an non-premixed method of reactants delivery and employs a direct discharge of fuel and oxidant jets into the furnace chamber. The jets entrain significant quantities of furnace gases

B. A. FLECK; A. SOBIESIAK; H. A. BECKER

2000-01-01

402

Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

1985-01-01

403

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION WITH MULTISTAGE BURNERS) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissionscontrol technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides ...

404

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale studies of sulfur capture in the EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process and the effect of LIMB on particulate properties and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. The sulfur capture studies showed that hydrated l...

405

Numerical simulation of nitric oxide destruction by gaseous fuel reburning in a single-burner furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical study on nitric oxide (NO) reduction during pulverized coal combustion with reburning technology was presented in this paper. The NO model, including reburning mechanism, was incorporated into a comprehensive coal combustion model for predicting NO reduction in a laboratory-scale single-burner furnace with gaseous fuel reburning. The reburning NO submodel in this study requires the solution of only two

Sheng Su; Jun Xiang; Lushi Sun; Zhongxiao Zhang; Xuexin Sun; Chuguang Zheng

2007-01-01

406

PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE CAPTURE POTENTIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests on two large-scale staged-mixing (SM) burners developed by L and L Steinmuller of West Germany. One objective was to optimize their performance for low-NOx emissions, high efficiency, and combined NOx/SO2 control with sorbent injection. The exper...

407

Alternative solutions for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cell burner boilers  

SciTech Connect

Standard, tightly-spaced cell burners were developed by Babcock & Wilcox during the 1960s in response to economic demands for highly efficient burner designs. However, the downside of this 1960s design is the production of elevated levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions which negatively impact the environment. Cell-fired units have been designated as Phase II, Group II boilers under Title IV, Acid Rain Control, of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for NO{sub x} control. This paper will discuss one technology developed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program for pulverized coal, cell-fired units - namely, the Low NO{sub x} Cell burner (LNCB{reg_sign}) technology. The body of this paper will describe the development of Low NO{sub x} Cell burner technology and examine six follow-on commercial contracts. The purpose of the paper is to identify similarities and differences in design, fuels, costs and performance results when compared against the Clean Coal Technology prototype.

Mali, E.; Laursen, T.; Piepho, J. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States)

1996-01-01

408

EVALUATION OF SULFUR CAPTURE CAPABILITY OF A PROTOTYPE SCALE CONTROLLED-FLOW/SPLIT-FLAME BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the sulfur capture potential during combustion of limestone copulverized with a high sulfur eastern bituminous coal, using Foster Wheeler's commercial Controlled-Flow/Split-Flame (CF/SF) low NOx, internally staged burner. Sulfur capture was optimized by using...

409

Control of flames by tangential jet actuators in oxy-fuel burners  

SciTech Connect

The active control of oxy-fuel flames from burners with separated jets is investigated. The control system consists of four small jet actuators, placed tangential to the exit of the main jets to generate a swirling flow. These actuators are able to modify the flow structure and to act on mixing between the reactants and consequently on the flame behavior. The burner (25 kW) is composed of separated jets, one jet of natural gas and one or two jets of pure oxygen. Experiments are conducted with three burner configurations, according to the number of jets, the jet exit velocities, and the separation distance between the jets. OH chemiluminescence measurements, particle image velocimetry, and measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are used to characterize the flow and the flame structure. Results show that the small jet actuators have a significant influence on the behavior of jets and the flame characteristics, particularly in the stabilization zone. It is shown that the control leads to a decrease in lift-off heights and to better stability of the flame. The use of jet actuators induces high jet spreading and an increase in turbulence intensity, which improves the mixing between the reactants and the surrounding fluid. Pollutant measurements show important results in terms of NO{sub x} reductions (up to 60%), in particular for low swirl intensity. The burner parameters, such as the number of jets and the spacing between the jets, also impact the flame behavior and NO{sub x} formation. (author)

Boushaki, Toufik [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Universite de Toulouse-INPT-UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse, Cedex (France); Sautet, Jean-Charles [CORIA UMR 6614 CNRS-Universite et INSA de ROUEN, Site Universitaire du Madrillet, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray, Cedex (France); Labegorre, Bernard [Air Liquide, Centre de Recherche Claude-Delorme, Les Loges-en-Josas, B.P. 126 78354 Jouy-en-Josas, Cedex (France)

2009-11-15

410

Unsteady flame and flow field interaction of a premixed model gas turbine burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOx emissions of heavy duty gas turbines have been significantly reduced by introducing lean premixed combustion. These flames are known to be prone to combustion instabilities. In this paper, investigations of a single model gas turbine burner are presented with focus on thermo-acoustic eigenmodes of the combustor and the resulting interaction between periodic flow field oscillations and flame front

K.-U. Schildmacher; A. Hoffmann; L. Selle; R. Koch; C. Schulz; H.-J. Bauer; T. Poinsot; W. Krebs; B. Prade

2007-01-01

411

Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

Khesin, M. [MK Engineering, N. Andover, MA (United States); Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D. [NYSEG, Barker, NY (United States); Girvan, R. [Forney Corp., Carrollton, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

412

CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS IN THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses EPA research on dry sorbent injection, which began in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and which will be demonstrated as the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) process at Ohio Edison's Edgewater plant in 1987. The effect and interrelationship of funda...

413

EVALUATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PERFORMANCE AT EDGEWATER UNIT 4 LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNERS (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory- and pilot-scale studies of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) process as well as preliminary on-site tests at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. The effects of LIMB on electrostatic precipitation (ESP) performance are reported in term...

414

Image-Based Flame Control of a Premixed Gas Burner Using Fuzzy Logics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an application of fuzzy logics for controlling the combustion flame of a premixed gas burner. The control objective is to achieve a good characteristic of combustion flame by visualizing the colors of the flame while maintaining its size as desired. The fuzzy logic controller adjusts the flow rates of gas and air independently through two stepper-driven needle

Apichart Tuntrakoon; Suwat Kuntanapreeda

2003-01-01

415

SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

A demonstration of the American Combustion Pyretron TM oxygen-enhanced burner was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. n eight wee...

416

Design and Evaluation of a High Temperature Burner Duct Recuperator System  

E-print Network

"The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high...

Parks, W. P.; DeBellis, C. L.; Kneidel, K.

417

ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

2013-04-02

418

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. The full-scale demonstrat...

419

Investigation of the Vertical Bunsen Burner Test for Flammability of Plastics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vertical Bunsen burner test for flammability of plastics (UL-94V) was studied in an attempt to relate the upward burning of plastics to their material fire properties. It was shown that the heat release parameter, the critical heat flux for piloted igni...

B. P. Downey, J. G. Quintiere, R. E. Lyon

2012-01-01

420

INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

421

Dynamic MHD modeling of solar corotating stream interaction regions observed by Pioneer 10 and 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunity to test an MHD one-dimensional time-dependent model of corotating solar wind streams presented itself during the period from September 30 to November 25, 1973, when Pioneer II and Pioneer 10 were near radial alignment with the sun. This observational period was characterized by five or six corotating interaction regions which streamed past the two spacecraft. Conditions were well

M. Dryer; Z. K. Smith; E. J. Smith; J. D. Mihalov; J. H. Wolfe; R. S. Steinolfson; S. T. Wu

1978-01-01

422

Spatial and temporal variations of Venus haze properties obtained from Pioneer Venus Orbiter polarimetry  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal variations of Venus haze properties obtained from Pioneer Venus Orbiter. [1] The spatial and temporal variations of the polarization of light scattered by Venus, as observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter between 1978 and 1990, is analyzed in terms of spatial and temporal variations

423

Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3. Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus spacecraft performance requirements are presented. The specifications include: (1) Design criteria and performance requirements for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft systems and subsystems for a 1978 multiprobe mission and a 1978 orbiter mission, spacecraft system interface, and scientific instrument integration.

1973-01-01

424

Controversy in Video Game Invention: The Infallible Pioneer Patents Graham Morgan, Jeffrey K. Lee, Esq  

E-print Network

COMPUTING SCIENCE Controversy in Video Game Invention: The Infallible Pioneer Patents Graham Morgan-TR-1173 October, 2009 Controversy in Video Game Invention: The Infallible Pioneer Patents G. Morgan, J. K Patents" associated with the Magnavox Odyssey ­ the first video game console -- have resulted in arguably

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

425

Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new

Metzler, Mike

2007-01-01

426

CONTROL OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS IN NATURAL GAS DIFFUSION FLAMES BY USING CASCADE BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this exploratory research project is to control the pollutant emissions of diffusion flames by modifying the air infusion rate into the flame. The modification was achieved by installing a cascade of venturis around the burning gas jet. The basic idea behind this technique is controlling the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. A natural gas jet diffusion flame at burner-exit Reynolds number of 5100 was examined with a set of venturis of specific sizes and spacing arrangement. The thermal and composition fields of the baseline and venturi-cascaded flames were numerically simulated using CFD-ACE+, an advanced computational environment software package. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The concentration of NO was determined through CFD-POST, a post processing utility program for CFD-ACE+. The numerical results showed that, in the near-burner, midflame and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame had lower temperature by an average of 13%, 19% and 17%, respectively, and lower CO{sub 2} concentration by 35%, 37% and 32%, respectively, than the baseline flame. An opposite trend was noticed for O{sub 2} concentration; the cascaded flame has higher O{sub 2} concentration by 7%, 26% and 44%, in average values, in the near-burner, mid-flame and far-burner regions, respectively, than in the baseline case. The results also showed that, in the near-burner, mid-flame, and far-burner regions, the venturi-cascaded flame has lower NO concentrations by 89%, 70% and 70%, in average values, respectively, compared to the baseline case. The numerical results substantiate that venturi-cascading is a feasible method for controlling the pollutant emissions of a burning gas jet. In addition, the numerical results were useful to understand the thermo-chemical processes involved. The results showed that the prompt-NO mechanism plays an important role besides the conventional thermal-NO mechanism. The computational results of the present study need to be validated experimentally.

Dr. Ala Qubbaj

2001-12-30

427

Utilization of computational fluid dynamics technique in low NOx burner/furnace retrofits  

SciTech Connect

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique has been utilized to provide design guidance for retrofitting low NOx combustion systems and incorporating associated furnace modifications into existing utility boilers. The CFD program utilized is FW-FIRES (Fossil fuel, Water-walled Furnace Integrated Reaction and Emission Simulation) which simulates furnace combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation based on fundamental principals of mass, momentum and energy conservations. The program models the gas flow field as a three-dimensional turbulent reacting continuum and the particle flow as a series of discrete particle trajectories through the gas continuum. Chemical reaction, heat transfer, and pollutant formation mechanisms are incorporated in the program. FW-FIRES furnace simulation of low NOx combustion system retrofits has been performed for various furnace configurations including front wall-fired, front and real wall-fired, and tangentially-fired furnaces, to determine the effects of burner/furnace modifications on the NOx emission, furnace exit gas temperature, furnace heat absorption, unburned carbon, and furnace wall corrosion. For front wall-fired, and front and real wall-fired furnaces, the NOx emission requirement is met by the use of Foster Wheeler lox NOx burners and overfire air (OFA) staging. Studies of burner and OFA quantify and spacing are conducted to limit NOx emission and unburned carbon to acceptable levels. A major concern in once-through supercritical units with OFA is furnace wall corrosion which is caused by high furnace wall metal temperature and corrosive hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) created in a reducing atmosphere from part of coal sulfur. The FW-FIRES code is used to minimize this corrosion potential by selecting the proper location and quantity of boundary air. A simulation of tangentially-fired unit, which has been retrofitted with low NOx burners, is used to study the effect of the burner tilt on the furnace exit gas temperature. This paper details the basis and results of several CFD analyses conducted for potential retrofit programs.

Cho, S.M.; Seltzer, A.H.; Ma, J.; Steitz, T.H.; Grusha, J.; Cole, R.W.

1999-07-01

428

Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

2009-04-01

429

A high-pressure premixed flat-flame burner for chemical process studies. [of pollutant formation in hydrocarbon flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A premixed flat-flame burner was designed and tested with methane-air mixtures at pressures from 1.1 to 20 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.7 to 1.1. Reactant velocity in the burner mixing chamber was used to characterize the range of stable flames at each pressure-equivalence-ratio condition. Color photographs of the flames were used to determine flame zone thickness and flame height. The results show that this burner can be used for chemical process studies in premixed high pressure methane-air flames up to 20 atm.

Miller, I. M.

1978-01-01

430

Optimization of the Number of Burner Nozzles in a Hot Blast Stove by the Way of Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the burner nozzles in a blast furnace hot stove including their number, location, and angle has a vital effect on the flow field, temperature distribution, combustion efficiency, etc. In this article, simulation models were established for the hot stove located at Shougang Qianan. The model, eddy dissipation model, and P-1 model were used for the modeling of turbulence, combustion, and radiative heat transfer, respectively. The effect of different number of burner nozzles on the flow field and temperature distribution in the combustion chamber was investigated. The results indicated that 19 or 21 burner nozzles were preferred to obtain the optimum flow field and temperature distribution.

Guo, Hongwei; Yan, Bingji; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Feng; Pei, Yi

2014-07-01

431

[Axel Strm--pioneer of social medicine and administrator].  

PubMed

Dr Axel Strm (1901-85), professor in the University of Oslo from 1940 to 1970, was a leader in Norwegian medicine in the latter half of the 20th century. He qualified in 1926 and in 1936 gained a doctorate with a dissertation on the toxin production of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. His first appointment as a professor was in hygiene. In 1951 he moved on to public health, a field that he pioneered in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. As a professor during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, he joined the university's resistance against the Nazi authorities' attempts at taking control. When the war was over he became deeply involved in research on the impact of war on health. At a time when the study of the impact of lifestyle factors was still in its infancy, he suggested that the war-induced reduction in dietary fat consumption might be the cause of observed lower cardiovascular mortality. Of more practical importance were the studies he initiated of the mainly psychological late-onset effects of traumas suffered by prisoners in German camps, seamen, soldiers and other exposed groups. In this area, too, he was an early explorer, of what has come to be known as post-traumatic stress disorder. His efforts led to improved war pension entitlements for the victims. Over the years, exposed groups became his major professional interest as a public health specialist. In his academic work, dr Strm also pioneered medical ethics, care for the elderly, legislation on abortion, and the rapidly expanding field of the medical basis for social security benefits. As a practising physician he was in the vanguard of occupational medicine and other kinds of preventive medicine. What brought him most recognition was, however, his leading role over many years in the Norwegian Medical Association and in the University of Oslo. He served as chairman of the Junior Hospital Doctors Association, president of the Norwegian Medical Association and chairman of the Federation of Norwegian Professional Associations. He was elected dean of the Faculty of Medicine and vice-rector of the University of Oslo, in addition to a host of other expert assignments and official roles: He was renowned for his hard work and exerted great influence in many quarters. PMID:11851299

Sundby, Per

2002-01-10

432

SO2 on Venus: A final cross-calibration with Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present reporting period we have met with the Pioneer Venus PI to collaborate on the recalibration of the UV spectrometer of Pioneer Venus. The associated data reduction and analysis activities have been completed. The sensitivity of the UV spectrometer has been steadily declining since orbit insertion of Pioneer Venus in 1978 due to aging of the detector tubes. The sensitivity decline is a strong function of wavelength and the rate of decline is also a function of time. Measures were taken to reduce the light dose received by the instrument to slow down the sensitivity decline. The stellar calibration using the bright UV star Hadar in 1990 indicates that the sensitivity decline may have slowed down more than have been previously estimated. The derived amount of SO2 from Pioneer Venus depends on the accuracy of the absolute sensitivity of the UV spectrometer. The previous cross calibration between IUE and Pioneer Venus led to the use of the same solar flux data for reducing and modelling data from both IUE and Pioneer Venus. The comparison between the 1991 IUE results and the Pioneer Venus stellar calibration carried out in 1990 will allow a more accurate determination of sensitivity decline of the PV UV spectrometer. The result of this comparison will be crucial in determining the trend of SO2 in the Venus atmosphere.

Stern, S. Alan

1993-01-01

433

Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a methanol spray in a vitiated coflow. As a proof of concept, an ensemble light diffraction (ELD) optical instrument was used to conduct preliminary measurements of droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.

Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.

2000-01-01

434

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

435

Using Early Data to Illuminate the Pioneer Anomaly  

E-print Network

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20 - 70 AU from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an unmodeled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift drift of order 6 \\times 10^{-9} Hz/s. After accounting for systematics, this drift can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of a_P= (8.74 \\pm 1.33) \\times 10^{-8} cm/s^2 directed towards the Sun, or perhaps as a time acceleration of a_t = (2.92 \\pm 0.44)\\times 10^{-18} s/s^2. Although it is suspected that there is a systematic origin to this anomaly, none has been unambiguously demonstrated. We review the current status of the anomaly, and then point out how the analysis of early data, which was never analyzed in detail, could allow a more clear understanding of the origin of the anomaly, be it a systematic or a manifestation of unsuspected physics.

Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2005-07-12

436

Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.  

PubMed

Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery." PMID:11841730

Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

2002-03-01

437

Pioneer microbial communities of the fimmvruhls lava flow, eyjafjallajkull, iceland.  

PubMed

Little is understood regarding the phylogeny and metabolic capabilities of the earliest colonists of volcanic rocks, yet these data are essential for understanding how life becomes established in and interacts with the planetary crust, ultimately contributing to critical zone processes and soil formation. Here, we report the use of molecular and culture-dependent methods to determine the composition of pioneer microbial communities colonising the basaltic Fimmvruhls lava flow at Eyjafjallajkull, Iceland, formed in 2010. Our data show that 3 to 5months post eruption, the lava was colonised by a low-diversity microbial community dominated by Betaproteobacteria, primarily taxa related to non-phototrophic diazotrophs such as Herbaspirillum spp. and chemolithotrophs such as Thiobacillus. Although successfully cultured following enrichment, phototrophs were not abundant members of the Fimmvruhls communities, as revealed by molecular analysis, and phototrophy is therefore not likely to be a dominant biogeochemical process in these early successional basalt communities. These results contrast with older Icelandic lava of comparable mineralogy, in which phototrophs comprised a significant fraction of microbial communities, and the non-phototrophic community fractions were dominated by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. PMID:24863128

Kelly, Laura C; Cockell, Charles S; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Marteinsson, Vigg; Stevenson, John

2014-10-01

438

Ira Maximilian Altshuler: psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the life of Ira Maximilian Altshuler, psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist. In 1938, Dr. Altshuler initiated one of the first large-scale music therapy programs for mentally ill persons in the country at Detroit's Eloise Hospital. His innovative programs combined psychoanalytic techniques and music therapy methods specifically designed for use with large groups of clients. He later trained some of the first music therapy interns in the country, including Carol Collins, who served for many years as Professor of Music Therapy at Wayne State University, and Esther Goetz Gilliland, who later became President of NAMT. Dr. Altshuler promoted the practice and profession tirelessly, speaking to numerous audiences over the years and writing 19 articles about music therapy. Altshuler participated in the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) organizational meeting held in New York City in 1950. An active member of the organization for many years, he served on the Research Committee and hosted the 1955 national NAMT conference in Detroit. Even after Altshuler's retirement from Eloise Hospital in 1963, he remained active in numerous civic, music, and music therapy activities until his death 5 year later. Ira Altshuler should be remembered along with other music therapists from the time-Willem Van de Wall, Harriet Ayer Seymour and others-who vigorously embraced and advanced the status of the profession. PMID:14567731

Davis, William B

2003-01-01

439

Analysis of magnetic field data from Pioneer Venus orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject grant (NAG 2-501) supported the analysis of magnetic field data from the Pioneer Venus orbiter for the period 10/1/87 to 9/30/94. During that period, 188 papers were contributed to scientific meetings that either analyzed the magnetometer data or used the data as part of the analysis of a scientific problem. Further, 107 papers were published in research journals and books. The magnetic moment of Venus was described. Venus was found to be essentially devoid of any intrinsic magnetic field. There was evidence though for the presence of lightning in the Venus atmosphere. The altitude distribution of impulsive signals in the night atmosphere was mapped and geographic clusters were found, most probably associated with local time ordering. A new means to create flux ropes in the ionosphere was postulated. On the nightside, ionospheric holes, ionospheric clouds, and tail rays were studied. The subsolar ionopause and the magnetic barrier were examined as was the altitude asymmetry of the ionopause, properties of the magnetosheath, and location of the bow shock upstream waves.

Russell, Christopher T.

1994-01-01

440

Theodore H. Bullock: pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology.  

PubMed

Theodore H. Bullock (1905-2005) was a pioneer of integrative and comparative neurobiology and one of the founders of neuroethology. His work--distinguished by the tremendous number of different research themes and animal taxa studied--provided the basis for a comprehensive analysis of brain evolution. Among his major achievements are: one of the first physiological analyses of rhythmic central pattern generators; the first simultaneous recording from both the presynaptic and postsynaptic region of a chemical synapse; the demonstration of intercellular communication through graded potentials; and the discovery of two novel sensory organs formed by infrared receptors in pit vipers and electroreceptors in electric fish. He was also one of the first who applied computational tools to the analysis of complex neural signals and to perform a comparative analysis of cognitive events. His two-volume treatise "Structure and function in the nervous system of invertebrates" (with G. Adrian Horridge) remains the most comprehensive, authoritative review of this topic ever written. In addition to his research merits, his legacy is particularly based on his cosmopolitan way of thinking and acting, his large, worldwide school of students, and his committed advocacy for comparative and systems-oriented neurobiology. PMID:18228076

Zupanc, G K H; Zupanc, M M

2008-02-01

441

Pioneer 10 at Silver Au Describes Sun's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost 4 billion kilometers from the Sun, Pioneer 10's findings paint a detailed picture of the solar atmosphere. The heliosphere is now believed to be a huge magnetic bubble created by the solar wind and gets its tear-shape from streamlining due to the motion of the solar system through the interstellar gas. The skin of the bubble, the region between stellar and interstellar gas, is believed to lie between 50 and 100 AU from the Sun. The solar wind drags the Sun's magnetic field with it. The bubble, probably extends far beyond Pluto, and is believed to breathe, expanding and contracting like a giant cosmic lung with each 11 year cycle. The most recent findings show that as storms on the Sun build up toward maximum solar activity, they send out shock waves throughout the bubble which cause ripples. This long lived solar storm turbulence accelerates low energy cosmic ray particles coming in from the galaxy, deflecting them out of the solar system, and shielding the planets. As distance from the Sun increases, more and more cosmic ray particles penetrate the heliosphere.

1981-01-01

442

The Starflight Handbook: A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Starflight Handbook A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel "The Starflight Handbook is an indispensable compendium of the many and varied methods for traversing the vast interstellar gulf--don't leave the Solar System without it!" --Robert Forward "Very sensible, very complete and useful. Its good use of references and technical `sidebars' adds to the book and allows the nontechnical text to be used by ordinary readers in an easy fashion. I certainly would recommend this book to anyone doing any thinking at all about interstellar flight or the notion of possibilities of contacts between hypothetical civilizations in different stat systems." --Louis Friedman Executive Director, The Planetary Society The Starflight Handbook is the first and only compendium on planet Earth of the radical new technologies now on the drawing boards of some of our smartest and most imaginative space scientists and engineers. Scientists and engineers as well as general readers will be captivated by its: In-depth discussions of everything from nuclear pulse propulsion engines to in-flight navigation, in flowing, non-technical language Sidebars and appendices cover technical and mathematical concepts in detail Seventy-five elegant and enlightening illustrations depicting starships and their hardware

Mallove, Eugene F.; Matloff, Gregory L.

1989-06-01

443

Erich Frank (1884-1957): unsung pioneer in nephrology.  

PubMed

The period between the 2 World Wars was a time of budding interest in renal studies and one that closed in major geopolitical unrest, culminating in World War II. The life of Erich Frank (1884-1957) and his contributions to chronic kidney disease provide considerable insight into this period. Frank began his career in Breslau, Germany. His medical thesis and first publication were on the benign nature of orthostatic proteinuria. He went on to define and differentiate essential from renal hypertension, presented evidence for the role of the posterior pituitary in diabetes insipidus, and studied the first oral hypoglycemic agent. As all clinical scientists then, Frank also contributed to other fields of medicine. When Germany turned to Nazism, Frank moved to Turkey, where he was appointed co-chair of the Department of Medicine of the newly established Istanbul University. For the next 23 years, he trained a new generation of modern physicians and laid the foundation of several medical disciplines in Turkey. As author of the first Turkish textbook of nephrology and a teacher who inspired his students, some of whom went on to become the first generation of Turkish nephrologists, Frank was a pioneer in nephrology who helped establish the discipline in his adopted country. PMID:21864962

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Namal, Arin; Eknoyan, Garabed

2011-10-01

444

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.  

PubMed

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:24354350

Ng, Chin Ting Justin

2014-06-01

445

Shock evolution in the outer heliosphere - Voyager and Pioneer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations are reported of 35 interplanetary shocks detected at heliocentric distances between 6.5 and 9.4 AU in mid-1980 by the Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and Pioneer 11 spacecraft. These shocks were all evidently generated by the interaction of corotating streams. Measurements of the pre- and postshock plasma parameters are used to determine the shock normals and speeds for each shock. Twelve of these 35 events are observed at all three spacecraft. The shock parameters at each spacecraft are compared to determine the time history for the 12 shocks. The single-spacecraft determinations of shock normal and speed are compared wih the results of several techniques for determining shock velocities using all three spacecraft. It is found that shocks undergo significant evolution as they travel past the three spacecraft. Every shock seen by both end spacecraft was also seen by the middle spacecraft. Shock formation possibly may be occurring at a heliocentric distance as great as 7 AU. It appears that the shock surfaces have a complex three-dimensional structure with 'ripples' on a scale of 0.001-1.0 AU.

Gazis, P. R.; Lazarus, A. J.; Hester, K.

1985-01-01

446

A Tool for the Spectral Analysis of the Laser Doppler Anemometer Data of the Cambridge Stratified Swirl Burner  

E-print Network

A series of flow fields generated by a turbulent methane/air stratified swirl burner are investigated using laser Doppler anemometer (LDA). The LDA provides flow field measurements with comparatively high temporal resolutions. However, processing...

Zhou, Ruigang; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

2012-06-08

447

Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark}Burner (LNCB{trademark}) demonstration is to evaluate the applicability of this technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full-scale, cell burner-equipped boilers. More precisely, the program objectives are to: (1) Achieve at least a 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. (2) Reduce NO{sub x} with no degradation to boiler performance or life of the unit. (3) Demonstrate a technically and economically feasible retrofit technology. Cell burner equipped boilers comprise 13% of the Pre-New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) coal-fired generating capacity. This relates to 34 operating units generating 23,639 MWe, 29 of which are opposed wall fired with two rows of two-nozzle cell burners on each wall. The host site was one of these 29. Dayton Power & Light offered use of J.M. Stuart Station`s Unit No. 4 as the host site. It was equipped with 24, two-nozzle cell burners arranged in an opposed wall configuration. To reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the LNCB{trademark} has been designed to delay the mixing of the fuel and combustion air. The delayed mixing, or staged combustion, reduces the high temperatures normally generated in the flame of a standard cell burner. A key design criterion for the burner was accomplishing delayed fuel-air mixing with no pressure part modifications to facilitate a {open_quotes}plug-in{close_quotes} design. The plug-in design reduces material costs and outage time required to complete the retrofit, compared to installing conventional, internally staged low-NO{sub x} burners.

Eckhart, C.F.; Kitto, J.B.; Kleisley, R.J. [and others

1994-07-01

448

Aerothermodynamic cycle analysis of a dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine with an interstage turbine burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on a specific engine, i.e., a dual-spool, separate-flow turbofan engine with an Interstage Turbine Burner (ITB). This conventional turbofan engine has been modified to include a secondary isobaric burner, i.e., ITB, in a transition duct between the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine. The preliminary design phase for this modified engine starts with the aerothermodynamics cycle analysis

Ka Heng Liew

2006-01-01

449

Advanced burner-rig test for oxidationcorrosion resistance evaluation of MCrAlY\\/superalloys systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective coatings are used on gas turbine components to enable them to survive in engine-operating conditions. This study presents a recently developed cyclic burner-rig test that is used to simulate helicopter engine conditions and to assess the oxidation and hot corrosion behaviour of MCrAlY coatings on nickel-base superalloys. A diluted sea-salt solution is atomised into the burner-rig to simulate hot-corrosion.

Aymeric Raffaitin; Fabrice Crabos; Eric Andrieu; Daniel Monceau

2006-01-01

450

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOEpatents

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15

451

Demonstration of a burner for the investigation of partially premixed low-temperature flames  

SciTech Connect

A burner, which stabilizes near-one-dimensional low-temperature flames at atmospheric pressure, was designed to access the combustion regime near 1500 K for quantitative species diagnostics. Combustion temperatures between 1300 and 1800 K in argon-diluted methane-oxygen flames were achieved by preheating the burner and adapting the inert gas flow. Mass spectrometry with electron ionization was used to determine mole fractions profiles of reactants, products, and intermediates. Combustion parameters were varied including stoichiometry, diluent mole fraction and preheat temperature. Mole fraction profiles resemble those taken in regular premixed flat flames. A number of C{sub 1}- and C{sub 2}-intermediates as well as some oxygenated species were identified. Higher-mass species (m/z > 42) were not detected in the low-temperature methane-oxygen flames which contain 90% argon in the cold gases. (author)

Struckmeier, U.; Lucassen, A.; Kohse-Hoeinghaus, K. [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hansen, N. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Wada, T.; Peters, N. [Institut fuer Technische Verbrennung, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 64, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2010-10-15

452

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS BASED INVESTIGATION OF SENSITIVITY OF FURNACE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS TO BURNER FLOW CONTROLS  

SciTech Connect

This is the extended second Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts.

Marc Cremer; Zumao Chen; Dave Wang; Paul Wolff

2004-06-01

453

Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

Zaplatynsky, I.

1982-01-01

454

Turbulent-flame characterization for improved gas-burner performance. Annual report for November 1983-November 1984  

SciTech Connect

A flow visualization study of a range of practical type burner flames was performed to help define an idealized burner for detailed laser diagnostics. Direct-flame pictures, short-exposure schlieren and high-speed schlieren movies were taken of bluff, radial, and coaxial fuel injector flames with and without divergent quarl and combustion air swirl. Both the radial and coaxial injector flames were characterized by small, fast-moving turbulent fuel-jet structures, and large, slow-moving cold flame boundary outer structures. Bluff-body fuel-injector flames were characterized by an attached recirculation zone, and in some cases, an extended flame emanating from the recirculation zone, and in some cases, an extended flame emanating from the recirculation zone. By varying the fuel and air flow rates, a wide variety of stable flames were produced. The fuel-jet structures for these flames were similar to those observed in the coaxial and radial injector flames. However, only small- to moderate-scale structures were observed in the outer regions of the bluff-body flames. Given the stability, diversity, practicality, and uniqueness of the bluff-body flame, an idealized version of this burner was designed and fabricated. Characterization tests with this burner showed that most of the conventional-burner flame and mixing-structure characteristics were observed in the idealized burner flames.

Namazian, M.; Kelly, J.

1984-12-01

455

Velocity and Size Characteristics of Liquid-Fuelled Flames Stabilized by a Swirl Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velocity and droplet size characteristics of an unconfined quarl burner, of 16 mm quarl inlet diameter, have been measured with a phase-Doppler anemometer at a swirl number of about 0.29: the Reynolds number of the flow was 30 000, based on the cold bulk velocity of 30.4 m s-1 and the hydraulic diameter. The atomization was achieved by shear between

Y. Hardalupas; A. M. K. P. Taylor; J. H. Whitelaw

1990-01-01

456

Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

1952-01-01

457

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls

Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

2005-01-01

458

Thermal shock testing of burner cans coated with a thick thermal barrier coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick (1.8 mm) thermal barrier coatings were air-plasma-sprayed onto two different substrate geometries, including small circular\\u000a substrates and burner cans. Two different top-coating spray parameters were used, where the settings of the substrate temperature\\u000a and the lamella thickness were varied. A segmentation crack network was found in the top coatings sprayed using a high substrate\\u000a temperature and a high lamella

P. Bengtsson; T. Ericsson; J. Wigren

1998-01-01

459

A quantitative study of acoustic growth rates in a characterized Rijke burner with particle combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoustic growth rate, frequency, and limiting amplitude of a characterized Rijke burner were quantitatively measured during the combustion of aluminum and zirconium carbide particles, which are common solid propellant additives. Extremely narrow size distributions of aluminum particles with mean diameters of 9.2, 19.0, 35.6, and 68.7 mum were tested at mass loadings up to 3% for frequencies of 800

Brian Russell Newbold

2000-01-01

460

Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating

A. Lowenstein; B. Cohen; S. Feldman; M. Spatz; E. Smith

1986-01-01

461

Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented includes: (1) the development of a heat-pipe condensing heat exchanger; (2) the development of a nominal 100,000 Btu\\/hr modulating air\\/gas valve; (3) the experimental performance studies of a water\\/copper thermosyphons; (4) the field operation of a six-zone warm-air heating system; (5) the adaptation of a conventional venturi-type burner to modulation; and (6) the results of a one-day

A. Lowenstein; B. Cohen; S. Feldman; J. Marsala; M. Spatz; E. Smith; J. Tandler

1988-01-01

462

Numerical simulation of self-excited combustion oscillations in a non-premixed burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-excited combustion oscillations or instabilities in combustion chambers are generated by periodical and feedback interactions between flow, acoustics, and the heat released by combustion. As a consequence, pressure pulsation with high amplitudes may arise, leading to substantial noise and, sometimes, to mechanical and\\/or thermal damage for the combustion system concerned. Self-excited oscillations in a nonpremixed burner were numerically simulated, based

C.-C. Hantschk; D. Vortmeyer

2002-01-01

463

LES to Ease Understanding of Complex Unsteady Combustion Features of Ramjet Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramjet burners are known to produce highly unsteady operating conditions with strong couplings between combustion, acoustics\\u000a and flow dynamics. Predicting such operating limit-cycles still remains a difficult task for Computational Fluid Dynamics\\u000a (CFD) although recent use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) clearly opens new possibilities. The main difficulties for LES are\\u000a to properly address numerically specific flow features at the

Laurent Yves Marcel Gicquel; Anthony Roux

464

Low-Frequency Oscillation of a Non-Premixed Flame on a Bluff-Body Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flickering characteristics of a non-premixed flame interacting with von Krmn vortex street on a bluff-body burner were investigated experimentally with varied velocities of the central fuel jet and annular air stream. Flow visualization in terms of a shadowgraph, planar laser-induced fluorescence of hydroxyl, and Mie scattering, which was obtained via PIV used to analyze the flow field, indicated that

Kuo-Long Pan; Chih-Chieh Li; Wen-Chi Juan; Jing-Tang Yang

2009-01-01

465

Development and validation of a combustion model for a fuel cell off-gas burner  

E-print Network

and environmentally clean power generation has never been so important. The increasing cost of fossil fuels and more stringent regulations on emissions (particularly CO2 and NOx), together with increasing demand for electricity, make the provision of cost... Development and Validation of a Combustion Model for a Fuel Cell Off-Gas Burner W. Tristan Collins Magdalene College University of Cambridge A dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy June 2008...

Collins, William Tristan

2008-10-14

466

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 1: Pioneer 10-prelaunch planning through second trajectory correction, 4 December 1969 - 1 April 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tracking and data system support of the launch, near-earth, and deep space phases of the Pioneer 10 mission, which sent a Pioneer spacecraft into a flyby of Jupiter that would eventually allow the spacecraft to escape the solar system is discussed. The support through the spacecraft's second trajectory correction is reported. During this period, scientific instruments aboard the spacecraft registered information relative to interplanetary particles and fields, and radiometric data generated by the network continued to improve knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system. In addition to network support activity detail, network performance and special support activities are covered.

Siegmeth, A. J.; Purdue, R. E.; Ryan, R. E.

1973-01-01

467

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

2000-04-01

468

Measurements of premixed-flame turbulence generation and modification in a Taylor-Couette burner  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent, premixed lean methane-air flames were studied experimentally in a Taylor-Couette burner, extending the previous work of non-reacting turbulent-flow measurements. A laser-Doppler velocimetry system is employed to measure velocity fluctuations in the circumferential direction at the center of the annulus where mean velocities are nearly zero. Turbulence parameters such as the intensities, approximated integral and micro-time and length scales and one-dimensional frequency spectra are obtained for the flow-field ahead and behind the flame front. The frequency spectra exhibit a -5/3 slope reaffirming isotropic characteristics. It is found that there is an increase in intensity, turbulence Reynolds number and energy across a broad range of frequencies behind the flame along with a shift toward larger scales. However, there appears to be a decrease in amplification of the intensities and turbulence Reynolds number with increasing pre-ignition turbulence in the burner (generated by counter-rotation of the cylinder walls). Results suggest that the presence of flame-generated turbulence in the TC burner is sensitive to both pre-ignition turbulence and equivalence ratio. (author)

Arjomand-Kermani, Amir M.; Aldredge, Ralph C. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-5294 (United States)

2007-10-15

469

77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination and Merger; Pioneer General...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY...qualify as acceptable surety on Federal bonds has been terminated. The...

2012-03-28

470

San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 19071915.  

PubMed

The 19071915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality. PMID:22826896

Frink, Brenda D

2012-01-01

471

Pioneer and Voyager observations of solar cycle variations in the outer heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar wind measurements from the Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft are now available through mid-1993. These measurements extend our knowledge of the outer heliosphere to heliographic latitudes that range between -10 deg and 17.5 deg, and provide insight into the variation with solar cycle of the structure of the distant solar wind. The average temperature, mass flux density, dynamic pressure, and kinetic and thermal energy flux densities varied strongly with solar cycle at the latitude of Pioneer 11 (10 deg to 17 deg N), but were almost constant in the vicinity of the solar equator. These parameters may have increased with latitude between the solar equator and 17 deg N. There was also a short-term variation in average solar wind parameters near the time of the 1986 solar minimum, when the inclination of the heliospheric current sheet dropped below the latitude of Pioneer 11.

Gazis, P. R.

1994-01-01

472

76 FR 34712 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model; Extension of the Submission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...formed an Accountable Care Organization (ACO) through which they...Center initiative targeted at organizations that can demonstrate the...in the Pioneer ACO Model, organizations would ideally already be...community is critical to the success of the Innovation...

2011-06-14

473

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

2011-10-04

474

Duchenne De Boulogne: a pioneer in neurology and medical photography.  

PubMed

Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne was born 200 years ago in Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais, France). He studied medicine in Paris and became a physician in 1831. He practiced general medicine in his native town for about 11 years and then returned to Paris to initiate pioneering studies on electrical stimulation of muscles. Duchenne used electricity not only as a therapeutic agent, as it was commonly the case earlier in the 19th century, but chiefly as a physiological investigation tool to study the anatomy of the living body. Without formal appointment he visited hospital wards across Paris searching for rare cases of neuromuscular disorders. He built a portable electrical device that he used to functionally map all bodily muscles and to study their coordinating action in health and disease. He gave accurate descriptions of many neuromuscular disorders, including pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy to which his name is still attached (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). He also invented a needle system (Duchenne's histological harpoon) for percutaneous sampling of muscular tissue without anesthesia, a forerunner of today's biopsy. Duchenne summarized his work in two major treatises entitled De l'lectrisation localise (1855) and Physiologie des mouvements (1867). Duchenne's iconographic work stands at the crossroads of three major discoveries of the 19th century: electricity, physiology and photography. This is best exemplified by his investigation of the mechanisms of human physiognomy in which he used localized faradic stimulation to reproduce various forms of human facial expression. The album that complements his book on this issue is considered a true incunabulum of photography. Duchenne de Boulogne, a shy but hard-working, acute and ingenious observer, became one of most original clinicians of the 19th century. He died in Paris in 1875. PMID:16225184

Parent, Andr

2005-08-01

475

Effects of pioneering plants on microbial structures and functions in a glacier forefield  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the small-scale spatial impact of the pioneering plant Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood (L. alpina) on biological and chemicalphysical parameters in an early successional stage of a glacier forefield. Considering the frequent\\u000a occurrence of isolated patches of this pioneer plant in the forefield of the Dammaglacier (Switzerland), we hypothesized that\\u000a the impact of the plant would establish gradients

Ciro Miniaci; Michael Bunge; Laurence Duc; Ivan Edwards; Helmut Brgmann; Josef Zeyer

2007-01-01

476

Pioneer trees in Amazonian floodplains: Three key species form monospecific stands in different habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pioneer tree species Salix humboldtiana, Cecropia latiloba, Senna reticulata form monospecific stands in the Central Amazonian white-water flood plain. In contrast toterra firma forests where species composition is unpredictable even for pioneer species, in Central Amazonianvrzea the occurrence of the main colonizing species seems to be predictable. This predictability is linked to characteristic habitat\\u000a conditions and the low

Pia Parolin; Astrid C. Oliveira; Maria Teresa F. Piedade; Florian Wittmann; Wolfgang J. Junk

2002-01-01

477

Research of High-quality innovative and pioneering undergraduate training model of Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the innovative and pioneering education in China, it is necessary to update the concept and content of university education, foster people-oriented, diversity of quality education, establish innovative educational concept. We apply Inquiry-based learning for innovative theory and Co-operative education for engineering ability to the teaching and practice of software engineering, establish the High-quality innovative and pioneering

Pan Tiejun I; Fang Yuefeng; Zheng Leina; Yang Xiaoyan; Liu Yunpeng

2010-01-01

478

Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powdered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PER) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PER burners for satisfactory performance. During this past quarter, a porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Various gas mixtures were tested. Results indicated that the stability limits of the burner and emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. However, the maximum radiant efficiency of the burner remained constant. Results obtained from this study can be useful to develop optimum design guidelines for PER burner manufacturers.

Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

1996-04-01

479

Low NOx combustion system for heavy oil  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the increasing demand for white oil as one of countermeasures for pollution control and as a fuel for motor vehicle, coupled with the increasing import of heavy crude oil, heavy oils such as asphalt and distillation residue have become surplus in Japan. It is difficult by the conventional low NOx technology to control the NOx emission from the industrial small and medium capacity boilers, which use heavy oil as their fuels. The authors have been developing and improving NOx control technologies for boilers such as low NOx burners, two-stage combustion methods and so on. They have developed a new combustion system for heavy oil, which generates less NOx and soot than conventional systems, by applying the knowledge, obtained in the course of their development of Coal Partial Combustor (CPC). The conventional low NOx combustion method for oil firing boilers has been developed based on decreasing the flame temperature and delaying the combustion reaction. In the system, however, the heavy oil shall be combusted in the intense reducing atmosphere at the high flame temperature between 1,500 C and 1,600 C, and then the combustions gas shall be cooled and oxidized by two-stage combustion air. With this system, NOx emission can be suppressed below 100ppm (converted as O{sub 2}=4%).

Kurata, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Hideki

1999-07-01

480

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} emissions. At issue are the NO{sub x} contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO{sub x} control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT (SNCR) and NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO{sub x} reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO{sub x} removal efficiency plus projected NO{sub x} reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO{sub x} burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu or less. At burner NO{sub x} emission level of 0.20 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO{sub x} removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost.

Hamid Farzan

2001-07-01

481

Pioneer agriculture explosion and CO2 levels in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE has recently been considerable concern regarding the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. For example, it has been computed that up to 1950, 60 109 tonnes of carbon in the form of CO2 have been discharged into the atmosphere, due to industrial processes such as cement-making and the combustion of coal, oil and natural gas1,2. The changing composition of

A. T. Wilson

1978-01-01

482

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

483

Influence of division cone angles between the fuel-rich and the fuel-lean ducts on gasparticle flow and combustion near swirl burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial bias combustion pulverized coal swirl burners are used in boilers when burning low-grade coals, which are often low-volatility anthracite and lean coals that do not burn stably. In a gasparticle test facility, a three-dimensional particle-dynamics anemometer was used to measure gasparticle flows in the near-burner region. Division cones between the fuel-rich and the fuel-lean ducts of the burner were

L. Z. Qi; W. ZhiXin; S. Rui; S. ShaoZeng; C. LiZhe; W. ShaoHua; Q. YuKun

2002-01-01

484

Scaling characteristics of the aerodynamics and low-NOx properties of industrial natural gas burners: The scaling 400 study. Part 3. The 30kw test results  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the SCALING 400 study is to assist in the development of new ultra-low NOx natural gas burners for industrial and utility operations so as to maintain and expand future demand for natural gas as the fuel of choice for clean combustion applications. The study is determining the scaling characteristics of near-burner aerodynamics and low-NOx properties of industrial natural gas burners, thereby yielding valuable new engineering information on the scaling of natural gas burners to contribute to the development of new low-NOx designs.

Driscoll, J.F.; Dahm, W.J.A.; Wu, M.S.

1993-08-15

485

Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale. Phase II. Quarterly progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The major activities at OOSI's Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7 and 8; blasthole drilling; tracer testing MR4; conducting the start-up and burner tests on MR3; continuing the surface facility construction; and conducting Retorts 7 and 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests. Environmental monitoring continued during the quarter, and the data and analyses are discussed. Sandia National Laboratory and Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) personnel were active in the DOE support of the MR3 burner and start-up tests. In the last section of this report the final oil inventory for Retort 6 production is detailed. The total oil produced by Retort 6 was 55,696 barrels.

Not Available

1981-01-01

486

Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries like Hale, Barnard, Pickering, Clark, Saegmuller, etc and may constitute an important historical resource. Contact University Archivist, Steven Fisher, sfisher@du.edu for access. We remain grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for helping to fulfill the dream that partially eluded Mr.Chamberlin.

Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.

1999-05-01

487

COSMIC OPTICAL BACKGROUND: THE VIEW FROM PIONEER 10/11  

SciTech Connect

We present the new constraints on the cosmic optical background (COB) obtained from an analysis of the Pioneer 10/11 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) data. After careful examination of data quality, the usable measurements free from the zodiacal light are integrated into sky maps at the blue ({approx}0.44 {mu}m) and red ({approx}0.64 {mu}m) band. Accurate starlight subtraction is achieved by referring to all-sky star catalogs and a Galactic stellar population synthesis model down to 32.0 mag. We find that the residual light is separated into two components: one component shows a clear correlation with thermal 100 {mu}m brightness, while another betrays a constant level in the lowest 100 {mu}m brightness region. The presence of the second component is significant after all the uncertainties and possible residual light in the Galaxy are taken into account, and thus it most likely has the extragalactic origin (i.e., the COB). The derived COB brightness is (1.8 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -9} and (1.2 {+-} 0.9) x 10{sup -9} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1} at the blue and red bands, respectively, or 7.9 {+-} 4.0 and 7.7 {+-} 5.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1}. From comparison with the integrated brightness of galaxies, we conclude that bulk of the COB is comprised of normal galaxies which have already been resolved in the current deepest observations. There seems to be little room for contributions of other populations including 'first stars' at these wavelengths. On the other hand, the first component of the IPP residual light represents the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)-scattered starlight by the interstellar dust. We derive mean DGL-to-100 {mu}m brightness ratios of 2.1 x 10{sup -3} and 4.6 x 10{sup -3} at the two bands, which are roughly consistent with the previous observations toward the denser dust regions. Extended red emission in the diffuse interstellar medium is also confirmed.

Matsuoka, Y.; Oyabu, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K., E-mail: matsuoka@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

2011-08-01