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1

Oil burner nozzle  

DOEpatents

An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

Wright, Donald G. (Rockville Center, NY)

1982-01-01

2

OIL BURNER EMISSIONS: COTTONSEED OIL VERSUS DIESEL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cottonseed oil has been used as a fuel source, either as a blend with diesel in varying proportions, or undiluted (100%), in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in internal combustion engines. However, limited research is available on the use of cottonseed oil as a fuel source in a multi-f...

3

Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R. [and others

1997-12-31

4

Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

Butcher, T.A.

1995-07-01

5

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...for motor gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner),...

2010-07-01

6

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01

7

VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

2004-10-01

8

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

9

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

BUTCHER,T.A.

1998-01-01

10

PERFORMANCE AND AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSION BURNER IN A COMMERCIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents the performance and air pollutant emissions of an experimental water/oil emulsion burner. The burner was fired with two residual oils at selected emulsion water fractions. In addition, various stoichiometric ratios and two load conditions were used to determine...

11

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fuel oil service pumps to burners must be seamless steel with a thickness of at least...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the... (e) Unions shall not be used for pipe diameters of 1 inch and above....

2011-10-01

12

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fuel oil service pumps to burners must be seamless steel with a thickness of at least...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the... (e) Unions shall not be used for pipe diameters of 1 inch and above....

2013-10-01

13

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fuel oil service pumps to burners must be seamless steel with a thickness of at least...copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used between the... (e) Unions shall not be used for pipe diameters of 1 inch and above....

2012-10-01

14

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

15

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

Butcher, T.A.

1998-01-01

16

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

17

DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

18

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

19

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

20

Study to evaluate the effect of performing various energy saving procedures on residential oil burner installations in the New England area and to gather information on the steady-state and dynamic performance of these installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to determine the effect of yearly tune-ups on the steady-state efficiency of residential oil burners. Data were obtained from 429 oil burners in New England homes. The results showed a 2.6% improvement in efficiency after tune-up; this improvement was still found 3 months after the tune-up; and further energy conservation could be effected through over-sized burner

L. Katzman; R. DAgostino

1975-01-01

21

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

2004-09-30

22

Burner (Stinger)  

MedlinePLUS

As a football player, James saw plenty of his teammates get an injury that coaches called a "burner" or "stinger." But ... the nerves against a bone. Contact sports, particularly football and wrestling, are common causes of burners. In ...

23

Swirl Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Except for bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers, all other boilers use burners as the primary source of energy.\\u000a The burner plays an important role in boilers as well as furnaces. The ignition of fuel and aerodynamic and combustion conditions\\u000a in the furnace are all governed primarily by the construction and arrangement of the burners. The performance of the burner

Prabir Basu; Cen Kefa; Louis Jestin

24

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

25

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

1998-11-03

26

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

1998-01-01

27

Micronized-Coal Burner Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

1986-01-01

28

Characterization of the three-dimensional flame-holding mechanism in an industrial oil burner with stereoscopic particle image velocimetry*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional flame-holding mechanism in a gun-type burner has been investigated, as well as the fuel droplet dynamics. This gun-type burner forms a recirculating swirling flow with a complex structure, essential for understanding the flame-holding mechanism. The swirl flow will increase fuel air mixing, improve flame stabilization, and prevent flame attachment on the baffle plate.

Palero, Virginia R.; Ikeda, Yuji

2001-11-01

29

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.  

PubMed Central

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low smoke samples (8). Oxygen-containing PAH, typified by phenalene-1-one and its alkyl derivatives, are important mutagens from cyclic firing at high smoke conditions. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors, including the automotive diesel engine, where multiring PAH, typified by fluoranthene and alkylated phenanthrenes, account for a significant portion of the effluent mutagenicity. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed. PMID:3665865

Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

1987-01-01

30

DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

31

DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

32

Gas burner control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved gas burner control system which eliminates the need for a pilot light for operation of a gas burner is described. The system includes a pair of gapped electrical conductors forming a set of ignition points disposed adjacent to a gas burner, a sensor for detecting the presence of the gas to be burned via the gas burner adjacent

1981-01-01

33

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

34

Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

McDonald, R.J.

1998-04-01

35

Coal/water mixtures get commercial tryouts at oil-designed burners in Sweden and the US  

SciTech Connect

Commercial applications of coal/liquid slurry fuels, initiated in January for the coal/oil mixtures, could accelerate this year as two manufacturers introduce commercial coal/water slurries. Svenska Fluidcarbon AB of Malmoe, Sweden, plans startup of a full-scale production plant for its coal/water mixture (CWM) in October. Primary sales of the slurry will be to the city of Lund, for a steam-generating utility boiler. In the US, the Standard Havens Research Corporation of Kansas City, Missouri, plans sales of its CWM technology to hot-mix asphalt plants. The effort in Sweden is relatively standard for the fledgling slurry-fuel industry. The effort by Standard Havens points to a contrasting focus. Standard Havens plans to sell its slurry-fuel technology to small and medium size asphalt plants. Aqua Black is a complete slurry production and combustion system, designed to permit the industrial user to produce fuel for his own operations. In addition, the plant owner may expand the slurry-fuel system and produce fuel for other businesses in his region.

Not Available

1984-08-13

36

Dual fuel low NOx burner  

SciTech Connect

A dual fuel burner is described comprising: a divergent quarl having an entrance, and exit downstream from said entrance, and a plurality of axially extending staging air ports equally spaced around said exit; a wind pipe coaxially connected to said entrance of said quarl; a swirl generator coaxially received in said wind pipe, said swirl generator having a plurality of vanes and a center hole; a gas gun including a tube and a gas nozzle, said tube having an upstream end and a downstream end and being coaxially positioned within said center hole of said swirl generator said gas nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said gas nozzle having a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; an oil gun including an oil tube, an oil nozzle, and a high pressure air tube, said oil gun tube having an upstream end and a downstream end, said oil gun tube being coaxially positioned within said gas gun tube, said oil nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said oil gun tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said oil nozzle including a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; said high pressure tube provided within said oil gun tube, said high pressure tube being in fluid communication with said oil nozzle passageways.

Shyhching Yang; Bortz, S.J.

1993-08-31

37

Rock Pioneers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners investigate organisms that live along the ocean's rocky coast. Learners add bare rocks to an intertidal zone, and over the course of 6-8 weeks observe what plant and animals colonize (come to live) on the new rocks. The intertidal zone, covered by water during high tides and uncovered at low tides, is usually densely covered with marine organisms such as seaweeds, mussels, barnacles, snails, limpets, anemones and sea stars. Learners may not only discover pioneer organisms (first colonizers) of their new rocks, but other organisms that replace the first arrivals in the process of succession. This activity calls for multiple, weekly return visits to the intertidal zone.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

38

Study of heat transfer between an over-bed oil burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up: Determination of the flame to bed convection coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the heat transfer processes between an over-bed burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up as been conducted. Owing to the difficulty of estimating the flame to bed convection coefficient in an industrial boiler, convection coefficients were determined using a laboratory bench scale unit. Such convection heat transfer coefficients are obtained for 3kg, 4kg and 5.5kg initial

Vijay Jain; Dominic Groulx; Prabir Basu

2010-01-01

39

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

Cheng, R.K.

1998-04-07

40

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

1998-01-01

41

Burners and stingers.  

PubMed

The burner or stinger syndrome is one of the most common injuries in football and most likely represents an upper cervical root injury. Other sports reported include wrestling, hockey, basketball, boxing, and weight lifting. The athlete experiences radiating pain, numbness, or tingling down one upper limb, usually lasting less than 1 minute. Recurrences are common and can lead to permanent neurologic deficits. Burners are usually diagnosed and treated based on physical examination findings, but radiographs, MR imaging, and electrodiagnostic testing may help localize the precise level of injury, identify other associated pathology, and quantify neurologic injury. Management should include education on proper tackling techniques, restoration of neck motion, functional strengthening, and carefully fitted orthosis. PMID:11092018

Feinberg, J H

2000-11-01

42

High efficiency gas burner  

DOEpatents

A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

Schuetz, Mark A. (Belmont, MA)

1983-01-01

43

Oxy-fuel burner system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of modifying an electric arc furnace to include oxy-fuel burners which assist in the melting of scrap metal. The furnace includes a bottom wall extending to a generally cylindrical side wall, and centrally located electrode means, comprising the steps of: (a) providing gas burners operable to emit hot combustion gases for melting scrap metal; (b) securing mounting means to the furnace to adjustably mount each of the burners to the furnace to flow combustion gases into the furnace along a firing direction extending downwardly at an angle of about 45 degrees and across an associated furnace cold spot; (c) selecting a burner firing rate for each of the burners within the firing rate range and operating each of the burners for a firing time of sufficient duration to provide a total heat energy output of from about 250,000 to about 350,000 BTU per ton of furnace capacity; (d) operating the furnace to determine the occurrence of any side wall wear locations and unmelted scrap metal locations and the burner primarily affecting such locations; (e) adjusting the mounting means to laterally vary the firing direction of the burner primarily affecting the location of side wall wear radially inwardly and to laterally vary the firing direction of the burner primarily affecting the location of any unmelted scrap metal toward such scrap metal; (f) operating the furnace to determine the continued occurence of the side wall wear and unmelted scrap locations determined in step (d).

Herneisen, E.L.; Gist, R.G. Jr.

1988-03-08

44

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related...burner must include: (i) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a...

2010-01-01

45

Pioneer Saturn Encounter. [Pioneer 11 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Saturn Spacecraft, which began its journey as Pioneer 11, provided the first close view of the rings of Saturn as well as its system of moons. Its payload of 11 operating instruments obtained or confirmed data about the mass, temperature, composition, radiation belts, and atmosphere of the planet and its larger satellite, Titan. It made photometric and polarization measurements of lapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys, as well as discovered additional rings. Scientific highlights of the mission are summarized. Color imagery provided by the photopolarimeter is included along with illustrations of the planet's magnetic field and radiation belts.

1979-01-01

46

Radial lean direct injection burner  

DOEpatents

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

47

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert C.

1984-01-01

48

Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

2012-06-29

49

Burner ignition system  

DOEpatents

An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

1986-01-21

50

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...functions during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2011-01-01

51

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...functions during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2012-01-01

52

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

...functions during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2014-01-01

53

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...functions during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2013-01-01

54

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology  

E-print Network

RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

55

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOEpatents

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01

56

Multifuel self-regulating burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic self-regulating burner system is described. A serpentine pipe structure connected to a source of fuel has a preheating portion, an orifice pipe portion and a backpressure pipe portion. The orifice pipe portion has an orifice therethrough which exhausts vaporized fuel. The exhausted fuel vapor is burned to heat both the preheater pipe portion for vaporizing and preheating the

Sharp

1980-01-01

57

CIH honors pioneers.  

PubMed

Attendees paid tribute to the contributions of four healthcare information management leaders during the 1993 Computers in Healthcare Pioneer Awards Banquet May 12. Marion Ball, Ed.D., presided over the celebration honoring Ralph Korpman, M.D., Warner V. Slack, M.D., Donald Lindberg, M.D., and John E. Gall, Jr. PMID:10127721

1993-08-01

58

Pioneer F Plaque Symbology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (With the hope that they would not invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

1972-01-01

59

Pioneer Venus orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The orbiter mission of the Pioneer Venus probe is discussed. In accordance with the low-cost Pioneer Venus concept, NASA intends to use the same basic spacecraft, known as the bus, for the execution of the two missions. The bus will be equipped with all of the subsystems common to the probe and orbiter missions (for example, thermal control, solar cells and power supply, attitude measurement and control, telemetry and communication electronics, and auxiliary propulsion unit). For the 1977 mission, the bus will be equipped with the large and small probes and a special antenna system. For the orbiter mission, the bus will be equipped with a retro-propulsion motor and a high-gain antenna. A diagram of the system envisaged is shown.

1974-01-01

60

Latest rotary kiln burner technology possibilities and experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three generations of kiln burner are discussed: a one-channel burner, a multichannel burner with a short, divergent flame and a multichannel burner with a nondivergent flame. Factors pertinent to optimum heat economy, clinker quality requirements and reduction of nitrogen oxide formation are discussed. The development of the rotary kiln burners for pulverized fuels is also examined. Three particular types of

Rainer H. Nobis

1990-01-01

61

Pioneer Venus Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

Jones, Douglas E.

1996-01-01

62

Flamedoctor™: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor™, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor™ burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor™ is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

2003-08-01

63

Multifuel self-regulating burner  

SciTech Connect

An automatic self-regulating burner system is described. A serpentine pipe structure connected to a source of fuel has a preheating portion, an orifice pipe portion and a backpressure pipe portion. The orifice pipe portion has an orifice therethrough which exhausts vaporized fuel. The exhausted fuel vapor is burned to heat both the preheater pipe portion for vaporizing and preheating the fuel , and the backpressure pipe portion for generating an internal pressure which automatically regulates the quantity of fuel vapors which are exhausted from the orifice.

Sharp, J.

1980-11-04

64

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

65

Heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a numerical study of the heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners, which have significant advantages over conventional burners. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated using a one-dimensional conduction, convection, and radiation model. The combustion phenomenon is modeled as spatially dependent heat generation. Nonlocal thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid phases is accounted for by using

T. W. Tong; S. B. Sathe

1991-01-01

66

Stability of lifted flames in centerbody burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The centerbody burner was designed with the objective of understanding the coupled processes of formation, growth, and burn-off of soot through decoupling them using recirculation zones (RZs). Experimentally it was found that the sooting characteristics of the centerbody burner could be altered dramatically via simple changes in the operating conditions. One of the interesting operating regimes in which a flame

V. R. Katta; Scott Stouffer; W. M. Roquemore

2011-01-01

67

Steam-enhanced regime for liquid hydrocarbons combustion: velocity distribution in the burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lab-scale burner device with proprietary design was used for combustion of diesel fuel in a steam-enhanced regime. This operation mode ensures drastic intensification of liquid hydrocarbon combustion due to supply of superheated steam jet to the combustion zone. The particle image velocimetry technique was used for study of velocity field in the burner flame. The method of seeding of flow zone with new kind of tracers (micro-sized silica particles produced from silicon oil added to liquid fuel) was tested.

Alekseenko, S. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Vigriyanov, M. S.; Dulin, V. M.; Kopyev, E. P.; Sharypov, O. V.

2014-06-01

68

Burners  

MedlinePLUS

... among people who play contact sports such as football and wrestling. Symptoms How do I know if ... each stretch for 20 seconds. If you play football, wear extra neck protection. Questions to Ask Your ...

69

Gas Burner (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Burner: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". A gas burner is used to heat non-flammable objects or solutions. It can be used to heat objects to very high temperatures. Temperatures in the hottest region of the burner exceed 1000°C. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

70

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P ID's for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P ED's for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

Not Available

1991-01-01

71

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

72

Pioneering offshore excellence  

SciTech Connect

Hibernia Management and Development Company Ltd. (HMDC) was formed in 1990 by a consortium of oil companies to develop their interests in the Hibernia and Avalon reservoirs offshore Newfoundland in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. The reservoirs are located 315km ESE of St. John`s in the North Atlantic. The water depth is about 80m. The entire Hibernia field is estimated to contain more than three billion barrels of oil in place and the owners development plan area is estimated to contain two billion barrels. Recoverable reserves are estimated to be approximately 615 million barrels. The Hibernia reservoir, the principle reservoir, is located at an average depth of 3,700m. HMDC is building a large concrete gravity based structure (GBS) that which will support the platform drilling and processing facilities and living quarters for 280 personnel. In 1997 the platform will be towed to the production site and production will commence late 1997. Oil will be exported by a 2 km long pipeline to an offshore loading system. Dynamically positioned tankers will then take the oil to market. Average daily production is expected to plateau between 125,000 and 135,000 BOPD. It will be the first major development on the east coast of Canada and is located in an area that is prone to pack ice and icebergs.

Kent, R.P.; Grattan, L.

1996-11-01

73

Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report  

SciTech Connect

An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

NONE

1995-12-01

74

11. Pioneer venus experiment descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding paper of a special issue of Space Science Reviews, devoted to the exploration of Venus and the Pioneer Venus Program, contains brief engineering descriptions of the experiments to be integrated into the Orbiter and Multiprobe scientific payloads.

L. Colin; D. M. Hunten

1977-01-01

75

James E. Keeler Pioneer Astrophysicist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a short biography of James E. Keeler, and describes some of his outstanding discoveries, and his pioneering work in observational research where he applied physical methods to the analysis of planets, stars and nebulae. (GA)

Osterbrock, Donald E.

1979-01-01

76

Pioneer 11's New Saturn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

Science News, 1979

1979-01-01

77

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOEpatents

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, Richard W. (Livermore, CA); Skinner, Dewey F. (Livermore, CA); Thorsness, Charles B. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01

78

Silane-propane ignitor/burner  

DOEpatents

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

1983-05-26

79

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01

80

Application of the controllable pulverized coal rich/lean burners in a 410 t/h boiler  

SciTech Connect

The No. 2 Unit (410 t/h, 100MW) of Jiaozuo Danhe Power Generation Co., Ltd., was put into use in 1975. To stabilize the combustion without oil at low load, eight original designed burners which had been placed in the middle and bottom level on the No. 2 boiler, were replaced with the controllable pulverized coal (PC) rich/lean burners. The practice of operation after the retrofit proves that stable combustion can be achieved at 50% load without support oil, even at 40% load. Boiler efficiency increases to 91.15% from 89.92% at half load (50MW). It is shown the novel burners can make a good performance and combustion can keep stable even when the character parameters of coal change in the large scope. Generally the application is successful and economic benefits will be greatly achieved from now on.

Yang, W.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Weng, W.; Qin, Q.; Yang, J.

2000-07-01

81

Performance test reports and comparison of emission characteristics of prototype liquid multifuel burners developed for US military field cooking applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide data to the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center on the performance of three prototype burners, which have the capability of firing with multiple types of fuels (diesel and JP-8), and the conventional gasoline-fired M-2 burner. The prototype burners are intended to replace the M-2 unit currently used in food cooking appliances in the Army. The burners supplied to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the purpose of testing under this project included one M-2 unit, one M-3 prototype unit designed by Natick, one Babington prototype unit designed by Babington Engineering, and one ITR prototype designed by International Thermal Research Ltd. It should be noted, however, that after the project began, Babington Engineering provided an upgraded prototype unit for testing which replaced the unit initially provided by the Natick Center. The M-3 unit replaced the Karcher unit listed in the contract. The test procedures which were described in a Test Method Report allowed for the measurement of the concentrations of specific compounds emitted from the burners. These compounds included oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde, and particulate emissions. The level of smoke produced was also measured by using a Bacharach Smoke Number system (ASTM Standard D2156). A separate Performance Test Report for each burner was prepared as part of this project, and is attached as part of this report. In those reports details of the measurement techniques, instrumentation, test operating conditions, and data for each burner were included. This paper provides a summary and a comparison of the results for all burners. A brief discussion of emissions from other similar small oil combustion systems is also part of this document to provide perspective on the type of contaminants and levels expected from these systems.

Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.

1994-08-01

82

CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

2013-09-30

83

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P ID's for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

84

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19

85

Improved radiant burner material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

1998-01-01

86

Low NO.sub.x burner system  

DOEpatents

A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH); Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH); Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH)

1993-01-01

87

40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rule for woodwaste burners. 49.127 Section 49...Region 10 § 49.127 Rule for woodwaste burners. (a) What is the purpose...section phases out the operation of woodwaste burners (commonly known as wigwam...

2010-07-01

88

Pioneer: Eyes in the sky  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two Pioneer spacecraft are now the most distant man-made objects in the solar system. They have unique advantages to observe and search, perhaps for the cause of persistent irregularities in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune that strongly suggest the possibilities of another unidentified planet far beyond the one that is the outermost planet. Because Pluto's orbit is greatly

Peter M. Bell

1982-01-01

89

Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

90

Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

91

The Prediction of Burner Stability Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flame extinction model is incorporated in a computational procedure containing the “k-?-g” model of turbulence and applied to the prediction of burner stability features of some furnace trials performed at the International Flame Research Foundation. The fuels are low calorific value gases. As a prelude to the application, the lifting of and blow off of turbulent jet diffusion flames

A. CHAKRAVARTY; F. C. LOCKWOOD; G. SINICROPI

1984-01-01

92

Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary investigation of lower cost Mars missions which perform useful exploration objectives after the Viking/75 mission was conducted. As a study guideline, it was assumed that significant cost savings would be realized by utilizing Pioneer hardware currently being developed for a pair of 1978 Venus missions. This in turn led to the additional constraint of a 1979 launch with the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle which has been designated for the Pioneer Venus missions. Two concepts, using an orbiter bus platform, were identified which have both good science potential and mission simplicity indicative of lower cost. These are: (1) an aeronomy/geology orbiter, and (2) a remote sensing orbiter with a number of deployable surface penetrometers.

Friedlander, A. L.; Hartmann, W. K.; Niehoff, J. C.

1974-01-01

93

Redox Pioneer: Professor Helmut Sies  

PubMed Central

Abstract Professor Helmut Sies Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 2459–2468. The joy of exploring the unknown and finding something novel and noteworthy: what a privilege! —Prof. Helmut Sies PMID:25178739

Radi, Rafael

2014-01-01

94

Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

1983-01-01

95

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

96

Automatic control system of burner starting units  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing and introducing all-purpose automatic control systems (ACS) for generating units as thermal power stations (ThPS), assembly of the automatic control set of burner starting units for the steam generators is one of the most difficult. The urgency of development of this kind of assembly is due to increased nonuniformity of the load demands from ThPs and the increased

E. I. Astashkin; F. G. Zhirnov; M. Ya. Khesin

1975-01-01

97

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29

98

Numerical investigation of a pulverized-coal startup vortex burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a two-channel vortex pulverized-coal startup burner is proposed, in which fuel-air mixture is admitted through the burner's primary channel. Necessary and sufficient conditions for obtaining stable ignition of pulverized coal during operation of this burner are formulated. A procedure of using the Fluent software system for numerically studying the influence of fuel characteristics and operating parameters on the stability of flame ignition and formation is developed. The results of numerical investigations aimed at determining the effect the flowrate of a mixture of mechanically activated micropowdered coal with air has on the combustion process for a particular design of the startup burner installed in the central part of the main direct-flow round burner used in the PK-40-1 boiler at the Belovo district power station are presented. A conclusion is drawn from these results regarding the extent to which the flowrate of mixture affects the performance of this startup burner.

Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.

2013-06-01

99

Sir Almroth Wright: pioneer immunologist.  

PubMed

This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Almroth Edward Wright, whose pioneer work in immunology saved countless lives, especially in the First World War, but whose name and work are all but forgotten today. Wright was born in 1861 in Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, where his father, an Irish protestant and considerable Hebrew scholar, was the minister. Almroth's Swedish mother, the daughter of NW Almroth, governor of the mint in Stockholm, was responsible for his unusual first name. She had the rare distinction of having served as a nurse with Florence Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari in the Crimean War. PMID:21475098

Ellis, Harold

2011-03-01

100

Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Sänger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Sänger's book "The Technology of Rocket Flight" was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Sänger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Sänger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Sänger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that space research is a concern for all mankind. He was therefore appointed the first president of the IAF. The paper presents how Sänger influenced the development of rocket technology and astronautics, which definitely ranks him with the first three space pioneers.

Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

2007-12-01

101

Pioneer Mars 1979 mission options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two mission concepts utilizing modified Pioneer Venus hardware are presented as relatively low-cost alternatives for scientific exploration of Mars in 1979. Mission A would perform in situ aeronomy measurements in the Martian ionosphere and include several remote sensing instruments capable of geological surface mapping at low altitudes. The initial high eccentricity orbit would be allowed to decay in an adaptive mode. Mission B would sequentially deploy (from an orbiter bus), four, nondestructing surface penetrometers carrying instrumentation to investigate soil density, composition and chemistry, subsurface water, and perhaps seismology. Mission B is more expensive than mission A, since it requires more extensive hardware modifications and systems development.

Niehoff, J. C.; Friedlander, A. L.

1974-01-01

102

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Rebuttable presumption for used oil. 279.63 Section 279.63 Protection of Environment...CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for...

2010-07-01

103

Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1988-01-01

104

KINETIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental studies of subjects related to the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB). The main findings include data on the rate of evolution of H2S from different coals and on the dependence of the rate of evolution on the dist...

105

Constant volume flow burner fuel control system  

SciTech Connect

A burner control system is described for insuring constant volume flow of liquid fuel, irrespective of viscosity changes for the fuel. The system includes: a fuel supply tank bearing liquid fuel, a burner nozzle, a burner nozzle fuel supply line connecting the tank to the nozzle, a fuel return line connecting the nozzle back to the tank for returning excess fuel, first and second positive displacement fuel pumps in series and in order within the fuel supply line, branch lines within the fuel supply line downstream of the second fuel pump, separate, identical first and second variable orifices separately positioned within the branch lines, respectively, each variable orifice having an inlet connected to a respective branch line, the first orifice having an outlet connected to the nozzle and the second orifice having an outlet connected to the return line, means responsive to the pressure at the discharge side of the second pump for controlling the discharge pressure of the first pump, means responsive to the discharge pressure of the first variable orifice for controlling the discharge pressure of the second variable orifice, and means for mechanically linking the separate variable orifices for controlling the variable orifices such that as one opens the other closes; and wherein each of the variable orifices includes a control rod for varying the opening size of each orifice, and the means mechanically linking the separate variable orifices comprises a means for mechanically linking the rods to variably position the control rods such that as one orifice opens, the other closes, and vice versa.

Kinsey, J.B.

1986-04-29

106

Space Pioneers and where they are now  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the Pioneer project, its history and achievements is given. Major discoveries concerning near and interplanetary space, the planets, and various comets are outlined. Anticipated future observations are considered. A list of Pioneer project launches, 1986 statuses, and project firsts is given.

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1987-01-01

107

Redox pioneer: Professor Arne Holmgren.  

PubMed

Dr. Arne Holmgren (Ph.D., 1968) is recognized here as a redox pioneer, because he has published at least one article on redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 articles, each cited over 100 times. He is widely known for his seminal discoveries and in-depth studies of thioredoxins, thioredoxin reductases, and glutaredoxins. Dr. Holmgren, active throughout his career at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, has led the field of research about these classes of proteins for more than 45 years, continuously building upon his sequence determination of Escherichia coli thioredoxin in the late 1960s and discovery of the thioredoxin fold in the 1970s. He discovered and named glutaredoxin and he determined the structure and function of several members of these glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductases. He still continues to broaden the frontiers of knowledge of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems. The thioredoxin fold is today recognized as one of the most common protein folds and the intriguing complexity of redox systems, redox signaling, and redox control of cellular function is constantly increasing. The legacy of Dr. Holmgren's research is therefore highly relevant and important also in the context of present science. In a tribute to his work, questions need to be addressed toward the physiological importance of redox signaling and the impact of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems on health and disease. Dr. Holmgren helped lay the foundation for the redox biology field and opened new vistas in the process. He is truly a redox pioneer. PMID:21473701

Arnér, Elias S J

2011-08-01

108

Book Review ~ The pioneering years of solar energy research at The Australian National  

E-print Network

of a "simple" solar technology. Robin Tennant- Wood begins his narrative on the pioneering years of solar. There was widespread interest in solar energy during the early 1970s with an oil crisis affecting the Western world", as Tennant- Woods puts it, for the development of solar energy research in a society that was still pro

109

Association of Burners with Cervical Canal and Foraminal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of

John D. Kelly; David Aliquo; Michael R. Sitler; Charles Odgers; Ray A. Moyer

2000-01-01

110

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

111

EFFECT OF SWIRL ON PERFORMANCE OF FOAM POROUS MEDIUM BURNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of swirl on combustion inside a foam porous medium burner was investigated in terms of stability, radiation intensity, gaseous emissions, gas and solid temperatures. The swirl was imparted by motorizing the burner tube with a variable speed motor in order to increase the convective heat transfer coupling between the two media, as well as turbulence. Modifications to the

M. M. KAMAL; A. A. MOHAMAD

2006-01-01

112

Burning anthracite at B and W downshot unit and burner upgrading  

SciTech Connect

Low volatile matter (VM) coals have difficulty on ignition, flame stability and burnout. A conventional utility boiler can`t successfully utilize such coals. The applications of enhancing ignition steps, proper burner type and its arrangement plus staging combustion as well as a suitable furnace configuration, along or in combination, may burn such low VM coals with high efficiency. B&W downshot units in Shang An Power Plant (S-Plant) in China applies a downshot firing with a W-shape flame plus primary air exchange burner (PAX) and staging combustion in a combination which achieved a great success in burning the design coal. The design coal is a blended coal (25% Yangquan (YQ) anthracite and 75% Shuyang lean) resulting a 13.95% VMdmf ranking as a semi-anthracite per ASTM-D338. In 1995, all 20 burner registers of Unit 1 had been upgraded. S-Plant and B and W decided to conduct a high anthracite blending coal (75% anthracite) combustion tests. The unit had demonstrated a great fuel flexibility. Based on the achievements, the all burner and staging ports of Unit 2 has been upgraded in 1997. In order to further demonstrate the great enhancing ignition feature, B and W had entrusted Chinese TPRI to conduct 100% YQ anthracite burn tests in May 1998. These tests reveal that with 100% anthracite firing, the ignition was fast and on time; the flame and combustion were very stable. Three days (58 continuous hours) 100% anthracite firing was carried out with the load range from the full (350 MW) to half (170--175 MW). The minimum load of 170--175 MW (48--50% MCR) without oil support was easy to maintain. Due to the plant policy, they don`t allow further reduction of the minimum load lower than 50% MCR. These tests have greatly demonstrated the capability of these units burning 100% anthracite.

Zhou, J. [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

113

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study in which NOx emissions and general combustion performance characteristics of four burners were evaluated under experimental furnace conditions. Of primary interest was the performance of a low NOx Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB), which was test...

114

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

115

Salem, the Pioneer Quaker Community of Iowa  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Salem, the Pioneer Quaker Community of Iowa 1911 by Louis T. Jones This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU Libraries...) Salem, the Pioneer Quaker Community of Iowa. CF KANSAS (Title) em, the Pioneer Quaker Oomrmuiity of IOWA A DI3S3RTATI0K Submitted to The Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts in Jandidaey for the Degree of Master of Arts Department...

Jones, Louis T.

1911-01-01

116

Pioneers of eye movement research  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

Wade, Nicholas J

2010-01-01

117

Washington State Pioneer Life Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many other parts of the American West, the area that later became the state of Washington in 1889 was a place of great opportunity, both in terms of the existing natural resources, and in a more intangible fashion, a place that represented a new beginning for those persons venturing west from the Midwest and the East Coast. This recently developed online database presented by the University of Washington Library contains writings, diaries, letters, and recollections from those persons who moved to Washington in the 19th century. Visitors can search the collections, or elect to browse through the collection list, which contains over two dozen primary documents available for viewing. Some of the highlights here include the recollections of Lila Hannah Firth who lived on San Juan Island (located in Puget Sound) in the 1860s and an account of the first ascension of Mount Rainier, one Dr. William F. Tolmie. Rounding out the site is an online exhibition titled Northwest of the West: the Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast., which serves as a nice introduction to the overall experience of these first pioneers moving west.

118

Redox Pioneer: Professor Joseph Loscalzo.  

PubMed

Dr. Joseph Loscalzo (M.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published two articles in the field of antioxidant/redox biology that have been cited more than 1,000 times and 22 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Dr. Loscalzo is known for his seminal contributions to our understanding of the vascular biology of nitric oxide. His initial discovery that the antiplatelet effects of organic nitrates are potentiated by thiols through a mechanism that involved metabolism to S-nitrosothiols was followed by the demonstration that S-nitrosothiols are formed endogenously through S-transnitrosation, stabilize nitric oxide, and facilitate the transport and transfer of nitric oxide between and within cells of the vessel wall. These properties led to the development of S-nitrosothiol-containing pharmacotherapies to treat disease states characterized by nitric oxide deficiency. Dr. Loscalzo's other scientific contributions include identifying the vascular functional consequences of genetic deficiencies of antioxidant enzymes that decrease nitric oxide bioavailability, collectively termed the "oxidative enzymopathies," and demonstrating the role of mitochondria in modulating the disulfide subproteome, and in redox signaling in hypoxia. He has received numerous awards and honors for his scientific contributions, including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. PMID:20443733

Leopold, Jane A

2010-10-01

119

Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of the Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO[sub x] Burner'' Program is to develop a novel low NO[sub x], pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000[degrees]F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO[sub x], burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

Not Available

1993-02-10

120

Twincities.com Pioneer Press  

E-print Network

by gases and oil that seep out of fissures in the sea floor. Here on the sea floor, at near around seep sites, as well as dramatic coral habitats some believe may be feeding grounds for deepwater into the Gulf's deepwater ecosystems. "When you come up on a seep site or a coral site, it's spectacular

Belogay, Eugene A.

121

46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...all burner fuel oil valves upon— (i) Boiler low-low water level; (ii) Inadequate boiler air flow to support...v) Loss of flame at all burners. (2) The low-low water level safety trip control must account for normal...

2010-10-01

122

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect

LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P&ID`s for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P&ED`s for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

Not Available

1991-12-31

123

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9 ppm and CO emissions below 50 ppm (corrected to 3% stack oxygen). To be commercially successful, these very low levels of NOx and CO must be achievable without significantly affecting other measures of burner performance such as reliability, turndown, and thermal efficiency. Phase 1 of the project demonstrated that sub-9 ppm NOx emissions and sub-50 ppm CO emissions (corrected to 3% oxygen) could be achieved with the RSB in a 3 million Btu/Hr laboratory boiler using several methods of NOx reduction. The RSB was also tested in a 60 million Btu/hr steam generator used by Chevron for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR). In the larger scale tests, fuel staging was demonstrated, with the RSB consistently achieving sub-20 ppm NOx and as low as 10 ppm NOx. Large-scale steam generator tests also demonstrated that flue gas recirculation (FGR) provided a more predictable and reliable method of achieving sub-9 ppm NOx levels. Based on the results of tests at San Francisco Thermal and Chevron, the near-term approach selected by Alzeta for achieving low NOx is to use FGR. This decision was based on a number of factors, with the most important being that FGR has proved to be an easier approach to transfer to different facilities and boiler designs. In addition, staging has proved difficult to implement in a way that allows good combustion and emissions performance in a fully modulating system. In Phase 3 of the project, the RSB will be demonstrated as a very low emissions burner product suitable for continuous operation in a commercial installation. As such, the Phase 3 field demonstration will represent the first installation in which the RSB will be operated continuously with a sub-9 ppm guarantee.

Webb, A.; Sullivan, J.D.

1997-06-01

124

Pioneer to encounter Saturn on September 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The encounter of the Pioneer 11 Spacecraft with Saturn, designed to provide information on the evolution of the Sun and its planets, is described. Photographs and measurements of Saturn, its rings, and several of its 10 satellites, including Titan, to be taken by Pioneer instruments, are emphasized. The encounter sequence and spacecraft trajectory are discussed. A description of Saturn and its atmosphere is included. Onboard instruments and experiments are also described.

1979-01-01

125

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, Palmer

1990-01-01

126

Advanced Burners and Combustion Controls for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems  

E-print Network

continue to operate reliably under a wider range of conditions. Most currently available hot air burners use dilution air to prevent fuel decomposition and internal damage. Ratio control systems which operate properly are compli cated and economically...

Ferri, J. L.

127

30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided...

2011-07-01

128

30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided...

2013-07-01

129

30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

...AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided...

2014-07-01

130

30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee...

2013-07-01

131

30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee...

2014-07-01

132

30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee...

2011-07-01

133

30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee...

2012-07-01

134

30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided...

2012-07-01

135

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

136

Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems  

E-print Network

This paper will deal with various ways of reducing fuel costs for direct fired furnaces. Burner design relating to existing furnaces, new furnaces designed to operate initially on cold air with the ability to add preheated air in the future...

Lied, C. R.

1981-01-01

137

Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1991-05-24

138

Industrial burner modeling: Final report for the CIEE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COYOTE computer program was used as basis for a comprehensive numerical model of industrial burners. This program is based on the full multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations and includes a subgrid-scale turbulence model. The model was used to simulate the flows in a laboratory-scale burner being studied experimentally at UC-Irvine. We summarize what has been learned in the last 3 years

Cloutman

1994-01-01

139

Nonpremixed bluff-body burner flow and flame imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonpremixed bluff-body burner flow and flame have been studied using planar flow visualization and species concentration imaging techniques. The burner consists of a central jet of CH4 in a cylindrical bluff-body and an outer coflowing-air stream. Planar flow visualization, using Mie scattering from seed particles added to the fuel jet, Raman scattering from CH4 and laser-induced fluorescence of CH

M. Namazian; J. Kelly; R. W. Schefer; S. C. Johnston; M. B. Long

1989-01-01

140

Nonpremixed bluff-body burner flow and flame imaging study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonpremixed bluff-body burner flow and flame have been studied using planar flow visualization and species concentration imaging techniques. The burner consists of a central jet of CH 4 in a cylindrical bluff-body and an outer coflowing-air stream. Planar flow visualization, using Mie scattering from seed particles added to the fuel jet, Raman scattering from CH 4 and laser-induced fluorescence

M. Namazian; J. Kelly; R. W. Schefer; S. C. Johnston; M. B. Long

1989-01-01

141

Association of burners with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of the burner phenomenon (N = 32). Pavlov ratios were calculated for levels C-3 through C-6; both mean minimum and mean average ratios were determined. Available oblique radiographs from both the study (N = 31) and control (N = 15) groups were then used to calculate the foramen/vertebral body ratio--a measure of relative foraminal height. Significant differences were found between the burner and control groups for the mean minimum and mean average Pavlov ratios and foramen/vertebral body ratios. Scholastic athletes sustaining the burner phenomenon have an increased risk of cervical canal and foraminal stenosis as measured by the Pavlov and foramen/vertebral body ratios, respectively. The foramen/vertebral body ratio is an easily reproducible and reliable means of assessing foraminal dimensions from oblique radiographs and controls for x-ray magnification and rotation. Foraminal stenosis assessment may prove useful in predicting burner risk, especially in athletes with extension-compression injuries. PMID:10750998

Kelly, J D; Aliquo, D; Sitler, M R; Odgers, C; Moyer, R A

2000-01-01

142

Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

2008-12-16

143

Dual-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

1986-08-05

144

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30

145

Comet Halley: The view from Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plans to scan Halley's Comet at close range using the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. The composition of comets, their paths through space, and the history of comet encounters are examined. An ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the spacecraft will determine the composition of the gaseous coma and will measure the total gas production during its passage. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter will observe the comet for five weeks before solar interference with communications occurs as Venus passes on the far side of the Sun from Earth. Diagrams of the solar system and the relationship of the comet to the planets and the Sun are provided.

1989-01-01

146

OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

2001-09-04

147

Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

Sykora, F.

1977-01-01

148

On the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer spacecraft  

E-print Network

The anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft of (8.74 \\pm 1.33) \\times 10^{-8} cm. s^{-2} fits with a theoretical prediction of a minimal acceleration in nature of about 7.61 \\times 10^{-8} cm. s^{-2}

Moshe Carmeli; John G. Hartnett; Firmin J. Oliveira

2006-02-23

149

Elwood Murray: Pioneering Methodologist in Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elwood Murray (1897-1988) was a pioneer in communication education. Beginning in the 1930s, he applied nontraditional methods in the speech classroom to encourage students to internalize and apply what they learned, and to view knowledge holistically. Drawing on the work of Kunkel, Moreno, Lewin, and Korzybski, Murray focused on developing skills…

Brownell, Judi

2014-01-01

150

A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

Lum, Lydia

2008-01-01

151

Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

152

Pioneer III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the over-all objectives of the Pioneer III and IV experiments is presented. Included is an analysis of the payload design philosophy, a description of the flight hardware, and a synopsis of the results of the experiments.

H. Curtis; D. Schneiderman

1960-01-01

153

Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

1993

154

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

SciTech Connect

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2012-01-01

155

Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

Waller, Peter

1983-01-01

156

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

ScienceCinema

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2013-04-19

157

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P&ID`s for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

158

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30

159

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part...THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2011-01-01

160

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part...THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2010-01-01

161

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part...THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2012-01-01

162

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

...2014-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part...THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2014-01-01

163

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part...THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633—Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2013-01-01

164

User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Lubeck, C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

1994-11-01

165

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

166

Materials evaluations with the pulsed black liquor burner test facility  

SciTech Connect

A pulsed burner was designed to provide sufficient heat to convert a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor into combustible gas which would be used to produce process steam. The pulsed burner design provides a significant increase in the heat transfer capability and consequently significantly increases the efficiency of the conversion process. High temperature corrosion tests were performed in a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor using a pulsed burner process to determine the optimum materials for use in a commercial application. The materials tested included three different austenitic stainless steels, Type 446 martensitic stainless steel, a high temperature carbon steel, 153MA, and four nickel base alloys. All materials performed well with no corrosion attributed to the environment created by the decomposition of a black Kraft liquor. This behavior was contrary to what was expected due to the high concentration of H{sub 2}S present in the high temperature, 562 C, atmosphere.

Stein, A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Co., Boston, MA (United States)

1997-08-01

167

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other

Matt Jackson; Michelle L. Pantoya; Walt Gill

2008-01-01

168

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

169

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

170

Pioneer 10 and 11 RTG performance update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long term reliability of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has been amply demonstrated by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. Each spacecraft is powered by 4 SNAP-19 RTGs. The generators were fueled over 15 years ago (1971). The SNAP-19/Pioneer RTGs are made up to 3 major subsystems: the heat source, the thermopile and the housing and radiator. The heat source consists of a radioisotope fuel, plutonium 238, contained in a multilayer capsule, which is supported by Zr rings in a graphite heat shield. The thermoelectric converter consists of 6 modules, each of which bears upon a flat face of the heat shield. The exemplary performance of these spacecraft under demanding thermal and radiation exposure conditions has proven the reliability, adaptability, and efficiency of the SNAP-19 generator design.

Skrabek, E. A.; McGrew, John W.

171

Use of a Helmholtz burner for low frequency velocity coupled instability measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low frequency velocity coupled response of a composite propellant during combustion was investigated using a Helmholtz resonator in the burner which results in a 230 Hz natural frequency in a chamber less than 30 inches long. Experiments indicate that the acoustic characteristics of the burner permit determination of propellant velocity coupled without prior knowledge of pressure coupled response. Comparisons of burner data and full scale motor firings confirm the ability of the burner to rank propellants for their velocity coupling tendencies. The burner design rationale is described and experimental results are presented.

Lyon, J. M.; Crump, J. E.

1980-01-01

172

IBC Position on Bunsen Burner Use in Biosafety Cabinets Background  

E-print Network

. As modern technology has advanced with the introduction of biological safety cabinets and sterile that "openflames are not required in the near microbefree environment of a biological safety cabinet" and "create the practice. The use of Bunsen burners inside of a biological safety cabinet is not recommended because it

Rose, Michael R.

173

Low NOx rotary kiln burner technology: design principles & case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming years, numerous cement plants in USA could be forced to comply with tightening air emission regulations especially with regard to nitrogen oxides (NOx). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is currently considering low NO x rotary kiln burners as a cost effective and efficient choice for NOx reduction in cement kilns. This paper discusses the principles

M. H. Vaccaro

2002-01-01

174

Combustion control system for burning installation with calcining burner  

SciTech Connect

A combustion control system is disclosed for a rotary kiln with a suspension preheater including a calcining burner wherein slurries of portland cement raw materials, lime slurries, alumina, magnesia or the like are filtered into a cake, the cake is then burned in the kiln with the suspension preheater.

Kawata, T.; Nakamura, N.; Tominaga, S.

1981-11-10

175

Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

2014-09-01

176

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

177

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

178

Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

2014-01-01

179

DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

180

SOX OUT ON A LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, covering results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and of calcium-lignosulfonate-mo...

181

Constant pressure-variable orifice burner nozzle assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gas nozzle for a burner gun comprising: conduit means having an inlet and an outlet; gas inlet means for supplying a gas to the inlet of the conduit means; gas outlet means extending completely across the outlet of the conduit means for emitting the gas supplied to the conduit means. The gas outlet means includes a

Voorheis

1987-01-01

182

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

183

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. INFLUENCE OF BURNER VARIABLES ON NOX IN PULVERIZED COAL FLAMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first phase of an investigation to specify burner design criteria to control NOx in natural gas and pulverized coal flames. The two parameters found to have major influence on NO formation were the method of fuel injection and the degree of swirl. ...

184

The far reaches of the solar wind - Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 plasma results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected plasma parameters observed by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 between launch (1972 and 1973) and the end of 1979 are used to find the large-scale radial structure of the solar wind. Comparison of data from the two spacecraft is used to separate temporal from spatial variations. The average bulk speed is found to remain constant at about 430 km/s, with stream structure still evident, though of diminished amplitude, at 20.5 AU (Pioneer 10's distance by the end of 1979). Proton density, flux, pressure, and kinetic energy flux are found to have radial profiles consistent with 1/R-squared. Proton temperatures decrease as R to the -0.6 power, too slowly for an adiabatic expansion.

Kayser, S. E.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

1984-01-01

185

The Pioneer anomaly and a Machian universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss astronomical and astrophysical evidence, which we relate to the principle of zero-total energy of the Universe, that imply several relations among the mass M, the radius R and the angular momentum L of a “large” sphere representing a Machian Universe. By calculating the angular speed, we find a peculiar centripetal acceleration for the Universe. This is an ubiquituous property that relates one observer to any observable. It turns out that this is exactly the anomalous acceleration observed on the Pioneers spaceships. We have thus shown that this anomaly is to be considered a property of the Machian Universe. We discuss several possible arguments against our proposal.

Berman, Marcelo Samuel

2007-12-01

186

Pioneer F/G feed movement mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F/G spacecraft achieves the desired earth-pointing direction through a system requiring the shifting of the main antenna feed 1 in. off axis. The feed is pivoted to this position by an electrically heated thermal actuator consisting of an electroless nickel bellows in a copper housing and filled with Freon 21. The actuator overtravels and maintains the feed in the offset position in a thermostatic limit cycle operation mode until commanded off. The mechanism is expected to operate in a -240 F environment near Jupiter and was successfully tested at such temperatures.

Acker, R. M.

1972-01-01

187

Assessment of Jupiter's trapped radiation by pioneer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments planned for Pioneers F and G during their Jupiter flybys are discussed. The complement includes four energetic charged particle experiments: University of Iowa package consisting of Geiger-Mueller tubes; University of California, San Diego, trapped radiation package consisting of solid state detectors, thin scintillators, and an alcohol water Cerenkov radiator; University of Chicago package containing charged particle detectors; and a Goddard Space Flight Center package containing solid state, cosmic ray detectors. Other experiments are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory magnetometer and the Ames Research Center plasma analyzer. Pitch angle distributions at Jupiter, and the capabilities for unambiguous identification of energetic protons at Jupiter are also discussed.

Mihalov, J. D.

1972-01-01

188

NASA's Fortieth Anniversary: Pioneering The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its inception on October 1, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a forerunner in many areas of advanced scientific research, especially in the fields of space exploration and aeronautics. NASA celebrates forty years of "Pioneering the Future" with a site that chronicles its illustrious history by providing access to numerous publications, including detailed biographies of influential people and declassified government documents. Together, the texts detail the scientific origins, objectives, and achievements of NASA. Audio and video clips of the Apollo missions and archived photographs from the dawn of the space age complement the rich textual history offered at the site.

189

Feast day service honoring pioneers in medicine.  

PubMed

The Standing Liturgical Commission of the Anglican Church in the United States has identified persons whom they consider Holy men or Holy women, and who are celebrated in Lesser Feast and Fast day services. In 2009, the triennial General Convention of the Anglican Church, USA, ratified the recommendation of the Commission that Dr. William W. Mayo and Dr. Charles Menninger and their sons, as pioneers in medicine, were worthy of such a designation. The author was approached to deliver the following homily at a service at the Palmer Memorial Episcopal Church in Houston, Texas, March 6, 2013. PMID:24020606

Menninger, W Walter

2013-01-01

190

Jacob Henle--a pioneer of dermatopathology.  

PubMed

Jacob Henle was one of the most important anatomists of all times. He was the founder of modern histology and discovered numerous anatomic structures, such as Henle's loop in the kidneys and Henle's gland in the conjunctiva of the eyelids. Dermatologists know him chiefly for his description of Henle's layer of the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Only few, however, are aware of other contributions of Henle to dermatology, such as the first description of Demodex folliculorum and, more importantly, the first book devoted to the histopathology of the skin. Henle's contributions were significant enough to qualify him as one of the foremost pioneers of dermatopathology. PMID:19155718

Weyers, Wolfgang

2009-02-01

191

Composite propellant combustion modeling with a porous plate burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A burner is designed to model on a large scale (millimeters) the complex vapor phase processes that take place on awkwardly small scales (about a hundred microns) in the combustion of practical AP/ composite propellants at conventional pressures. Binder vapor evolution is modeled with gaseous fuel (ethane in the experiments reported) flow through a porous plate and oxidizer vapor with the flow of a gaseous oxidizer (air and enriched air in the experiments reported) through discrete holes in the porous plate. Measured flame standoff distance and surface temperature variations are consistent with theoretical predictions at atmospheric pressure. Data obtained at several atmospheres are discussed in the light of the current theories of propellant burning that place varying emphasis on the roles of chemical kinetics and fluid dynamic diffusion/mixing in the vapor phase of a burning composite propellant. The potential and proposed future applications of the burner are indicated.

Kumar, R. N.; Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

1976-01-01

192

Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 94 m/s. Oxidation tests for times to 46 h produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13.5 h. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting on the silicon carbide substrate and led to a 32 percent decrease in strength, compared to the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air-induced attack yielded basically similar results, with slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

1986-01-01

193

Modeling Solid Propellant Strand Burner Experiments with Catalytic Additives  

E-print Network

propellants are burned in a laboratory setting at given pressures reminiscent of those seen in solid rocket motors, and the resulting burning rates are plotted as a function of simulated pressure. According to Sutton and Biblarz, pressure and burning rate... MODELING SOLID PROPELLANT STRAND BURNER EXPERIMENTS WITH CATALYTIC NANOPARTICLE ADDITIVES A Dissertation by COREY ANTHONY FRAZIER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Frazier, Corey

2012-02-14

194

Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate  

SciTech Connect

A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

Garcia, Eugenio [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, c/ Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gancedo, J. Ramon [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gracia, Mercedes, E-mail: rocgracia@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-11-15

195

Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations  

DOEpatents

A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

Farmayan, Walter Farman (Houston, TX); Giles, Steven Paul (Damon, TX); Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip (Katy, TX); Munshi, Abdul Wahid (Houston, TX); Abbasi, Faraz (Sugarland, TX); Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony (Houston, TX); Anderson, Karl Gregory (Missouri City, TX); Tsai, Kuochen (Katy, TX); Siddoway, Mark Alan (Katy, TX)

2011-05-31

196

Latin American oil companies and the politics of energy  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on Latin American energy policy. Topics considered include the politics of Latin American oil production, historical aspects, the formative years of Latin America's pioneer state oil company, setting the Brazilian agenda, the trajectory of a national oil policy, the politics of energy in Venezuela, and a public policy perspective on the state companies.

Worth, J.D.

1985-01-01

197

Experimental Characterization of Premixed Flame Instabilities of a Model Gas Turbine Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the NO\\u000a x\\u000a emissions of heavy duty gas turbine burners have been significantly reduced by introducing premixed combustion. These highly\\u000a premixed burners are known to be prone to combustion oscillations. In this paper, investigations of a single model gas turbine\\u000a burner are reported focusing on thermo-acoustic instabilities and their interaction with the periodic fluctuations of the\\u000a velocity

Kai-Uwe Schildmacher; Rainer Koch; Hans-Jörg Bauer

2006-01-01

198

Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3732672

Mumford, J L; Hatch, G E; Hall, R E; Jackson, M A; Merrill, R G; Lewtas, J

1986-07-01

199

DESIGN NOTE: An opposed jet burner for the study of high-intensity combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bla***An opposed jet burner for the study of high-intensity combustion in the distributed reaction regime is described. The Kolmogorov microscale of turbulence is smaller than the laminar flame thickness. This burner can be applied to both premixed and diffusion flame studies. A stable annular turbulent premixed or diffusion flame can be stabilized between two ceramic plates, which ensure the adiabaticity of the flame. A characteristic feature of this burner is its easy optical access and probe measurements. The NOx emission characteristics of this burner are described in relation to the high-intensity combustion.

Yoshida, Akira

1999-12-01

200

The Role of Abandoned Channels as Refugia for Sustaining Pioneer  

E-print Network

The Role of Abandoned Channels as Refugia for Sustaining Pioneer Riparian Forest Ecosystems John C of abandoned river channels by pioneer riparian trees. Here, we examine the prominence of this establishment that initiated as a result of channel abandonment for a 160-km reach, analyzed con- current patterns of tree

Silver, Whendee

201

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at the S band indicate dense cloud decks at the 1.5 to 4.7 bar levels in the Venus atmosphere. These cloud decks are at lower altitudes than the clouds detected by Mariner 10 and Pioneer

J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi; A. J. Kliore; D. J. McCleese; I. R. Patel

1980-01-01

202

Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

1975-01-01

203

PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE SPACE PROBE PIONEER V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results obtained by Pioneer V are discussed. On March 31, ; 1960, a sudden galactic cosmic-ray intensity decrease occurred at the earth and ; at Pioneer V (5 x 10⁶ km from the earth) of about the same magnitude. The ; direct detection of particles accelerated in solar flares was observed. Evidence ; was found for the solar production

C. Y. Fan; P. Meyer; J. A. Simpson

1960-01-01

204

The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

Corliss, W. R.

1972-01-01

205

Freeman Allen: Boston's pioneering physician anesthetist.  

PubMed

On October 16, 1846 dentist William T. G. Morton successfully demonstrated at the Massachusetts General Hospital that ether could prevent the pain of surgery. For decades afterwards, the administration of anesthesia in the United States was generally relegated to dentists, medical students, junior surgical trainees, or even nonmedical personnel. It was not until the end of the 19th century that a few pioneering physicians began devoting their careers to administering anesthesia to patients, studying ways to make it safer and more effective, and teaching others about its use. One of these individuals was Freeman Allen, who was appointed the first physician anesthetist to the medical staff at the Massachusetts General Hospital and several other major hospitals in Boston. We describe this remarkable man, his contributions to the early development of anesthesiology as a medical specialty, and the true cause of his untimely death. PMID:25329027

Morris, Samuel D; Morris, Alina J; Rockoff, Mark A

2014-11-01

206

A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

Slanger, Tom G.

1993-01-01

207

Redox Pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton  

PubMed Central

Abstract Professor Stuart A. Lipton Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757–764. PMID:23815466

2013-01-01

208

Alyeska pioneers new pipe line technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trans-Alaska pipeline system is being built for one purpose--to make the almost 10-billion-barrel crude oil reserve at Prudhoe Bay available to U. S. industry and consumers. When completed, the pipeline will traverse some of the most rugged terrain in North America. The 1,287-km (800-mi.) long system will transport crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Arctic Ocean coast, generally

McPhail

1976-01-01

209

16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part...FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation...

2010-01-01

210

16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation  

...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part...FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 10 Figure...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation...

2014-01-01

211

16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part...FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation...

2011-01-01

212

16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part...FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation...

2012-01-01

213

16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part...FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 10 Figure...Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation...

2013-01-01

214

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

215

RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second of a two-phase investigation into ways to improve the air pollutant emission and thermal efficiency characteristics of residential oil furnaces. A prototype, low-emission, warm-air furnace (designed in Phase I to embody a number of burner and combu...

216

Periodic motion of a bunsen flame tip with burner rotation  

SciTech Connect

Effects of burner rotation on the shapes and dynamics of premixed Bunsen flames have been investigated experimentally in normal gravity and in microgravity. Mixtures of CH{sub 4}-air and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air are issued from the burner tube with mean flow velocity U = 0.6 m/s. The burner tube is rotated up to 1400 rpm (swirl number S = 1.58). An oscillating flame with large amplitude is formed between a conical-shape flame and a plateau flame under the condition of Lewis number Le > 1 mixtures (rich CH{sub 4}-air and lean C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air mixtures). In contrast, for Le = 1 mixtures (lean CH{sub 4}-air and rich C{sub 3}H{sub 8}-air), asymmetric, eccentric flame or tilted flame is formed under the same swirl number range. Under microgravity condition, the oscillating flames are not formed, indicating that the oscillation is driven by buoyancy-induced instability associated with the unstable interface between the hot products and the ambient air. The flame tip flickering frequency {nu} is insensitive to burner rotation for S < 0.11. For S > 0.11, {nu} decreases linearly with increasing S. As S exceeds 0.11, a minimum value of axial mean velocity along the center line uj,m due to flow divergence is found and it has a linear relationship with {nu}. This result shows that uj,m has direct control of the oscillation frequency. When S approaches unity, the flame oscillation amplitude increases by a factor of 5, compared to the flickering amplitude of a conical-shape flame. This is accompanied by a hysteresis variation in the flame curvature from positive to negative and the thermo-diffusive zone thickness varying from small to large. With S > 1.3, the plateau flame has the same small flickering amplitudes as with S = 0. These results show that the competing centrifugal and buoyancy forces, and the non-unity Lewis number effect, play important roles in amplifying the flame-tip oscillation.

Gotoda, Hiroshi; Maeda, Kazuyuki; Ueda, Toshihisa; Cheng, Robert K.

2003-09-01

217

An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner  

E-print Network

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Heating technologies for energy efficiency Vol.III-1-3 An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner Qingshan Dong Postgraduate Shihong. Zhang Ph. D. Professor Zhiyin Duan Postgraduate Qi Zhou... mnn 2H CO m C H H S O??+++ + ?????? 9.137 Gas/mixture ratio % Given 5.0 Excess air coefficient Table 3 2.08 Actual H2O volume Nm3 Nm-3 00.01 124 0.01612 mn g nH HS CH d V?++ + + ???? 2.222 Actual N2 volume Nm3 Nm-3 0 20.79 VN...

Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

2006-01-01

218

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

219

Industrial pulverized coal low-NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, including those which may require preheated air or oxygen enrichment. The design of the burner specifically addresses the critical performance requirements of industrial systems, namely: high heat release rates, short flames, even heat flux distribution, and high combustion efficiency. The design is applicable to furnaces, industrial boilers, and cement kilns. The development program for this burner includes a feasibility analysis, performance modelling, development of the burner prototype design, and assessment of the economic viability of the burner. The Phase 1 activities covered by this report consisted of three principal tasks: preliminary burner design; fluid flow/combustion modelling and analyses; and market evaluation. The preliminary design activities included the selection of a design coal for the Phase 1 design, preliminary design layout, and preliminary sizing of the burner components. Modelling and analysis were conducted for the coal pyrolysis zone, the rich combustion zone and the lean bumout zone. Both chemical kinetics and one-dimensional coal combustion modelling were performed. The market evaluation included a review of existing industrial coal use, identification of potential near- and long-term markets and an assessment of the optimum burner sizes.

Not Available

1993-12-01

220

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner  

E-print Network

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner J. B of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric

Bell, John B.

221

DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER (DMB) ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR APPLICATION TO INDUSTRIAL AND UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the design of two prototype distributed mixing burners (DMBs) for application to industrial and utility boilers. The DMB is a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired burner in which: (1) mixing of the coal with combustion air is controlled to minimize NOx emissions, a...

222

Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

1977-01-01

223

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2010-07-01

224

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2013-07-01

225

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2012-07-01

226

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

...2014-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2014-07-01

227

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY...63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

2011-07-01

228

Pioneer spacecraft operation at low and high spin rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of executing major changes upward or downward from the nominal spin rate for which the Pioneer F&G spacecraft was designed was investigated along with the extent of system and subsystem modifications required to implement these mode changes in future spacecraft evolving from the baseline Pioneer F and G. Results of a previous study are re-examined and updated for an extended range of spin rate variations for missions that include outer planet orbiters, outer planet flyby and outer planet probe delivery. However, in the interest of design simplicity and cost economy, major modifications of the baseline Pioneer system and subsystem concept were avoided.

1973-01-01

229

Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe Solar Flux Radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Flux Radiometer aboard the Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe operated successfully during its descent through the atmosphere of Venus. The instrument measured atmospheric radiance over the spectral range from 400 to 1800 nm as a function of altitude. Elevation and azimuthal measurements on the radiation field were made with five optical channels. Twelve filtered Si and Ge photovoltaic detectors were maintained near 30 C with a phase-change material. The detector output currents were processed with logarithmic transimpedance converters and digitized with an 11-bit A/D converter. Atmospheric sampling in both elevation and azimuth was done according to a Gaussian integration scheme. The serial output data averaged 20 bits/sec, including housekeeping (sync, spin period, sample timing and mode). The data were used to determine the deposition of solar energy in the atmosphere of Venus between 67 km and the surface along with upward and downward fluxes and radiances with an altitude resolution of several hundred meters. The results allow for more accurate modeling of the radiation balance of the atmosphere than previously possible.

Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.; Palmer, J. M.; Holmes, A.; Wolfe, W. L.; Debell, A. G.; Brod, L. G.; Sholes, R. R.

1980-01-01

230

Suppression Characteristics of Cup-Burner Flames in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure and suppression of laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using physically acting fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, and Ar) in normal earth (lg) and zero gravity (0g). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An initial observation of the flame without agent was also made at the NASA Glenn 2.2-Second Drop Tower. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream by gradually replacing the air until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity. The suppression of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff phenomena of the trailing diffusion flame. The thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

2004-01-01

231

Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

2012-01-01

232

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, artist, c. 1870) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF MISSION AND CONVENTO, C. 1870 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

233

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

234

Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the \\

B. P. Besser

2002-01-01

235

Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled over 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Gulf is the first opportunity to demonstrate its true value in a combat scenario. In a relatively short time (42 days), 307 flights and 1,011 flight hours were completed on Operation Desert Storm. This, coupled with the accuracy of various weapons systems that Pioneer observed/cued for, resulted in timely target engagements. This paper will chronicle the Pioneer deployment and accomplishments on Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Various employment methods, tactics, doctrine, and lessons learned will be presented.

Christner, James H.

1991-12-01

236

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers From Vischer Drawing REAR VIEW OF MISSION About 1870 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

237

The Career Development Program at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Career Development Program, designed to help professional employees accept responsibility for their own careers, located at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory. Covers the concepts governing the program, program elements, and working with management to address program goals. (CH)

Nusbaum, H. J.

1986-01-01

238

Pioneer factors: directing transcriptional regulators within the chromatin environment.  

PubMed

Chromatin is a well-known obstacle to transcription as it controls DNA accessibility, which directly impacts the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery. The recent burst of functional genomic studies provides new clues as to how transcriptional competency is regulated in this context. In this review, we discuss how these studies have shed light on a specialized subset of transcription factors, defined as pioneer factors, which direct recruitment of downstream transcription factors to establish lineage-specific transcriptional programs. In particular, we present evidence of an interplay between pioneer factors and the epigenome that could be central to this process. Finally, we discuss how pioneer factors, whose expression and function are altered in tumors, are also being considered for their prognostic value and should therefore be regarded as potential therapeutic targets. Thus, pioneer factors emerge as key players that connect the epigenome and transcription in health and disease. PMID:21885149

Magnani, Luca; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Lupien, Mathieu

2011-11-01

239

Testing for the Pioneer anomaly on a Pluto exploration mission  

E-print Network

The Doppler-tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft show an unmodelled constant acceleration in the direction of the inner Solar System. An overview of the phenomenon, commonly dubbed the Pioneer anomaly, is given and the possibility for an experimental test of the anomaly as a secondary goal of an upcoming space mission is discussed using a putative Pluto orbiter probe as a paradigm.

Andreas Rathke

2004-09-15

240

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?  

SciTech Connect

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance.

Tangen, Kjell [DNV, 1322 Hoevik (Norway)

2007-08-15

241

Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2006-07-01

242

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

243

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-base alloys (IN-792, IN-738, and IN-100), a cobalt-base alloy (MM-509), and an iron-base alloy (304 stainless steel) were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and with both the concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D.; Lowell, C.

1977-01-01

244

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

245

Pioneer 10 and 11 Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report finishes the work of NASA Grant NAS2-153, which supported data analysis for the UCSD instruments on Pioneers 10 and 11. The data analyzed under this grant span 22 years of interplanetary measurements in the inner and outer heliosphere. The UCSD instruments made their mark in cosmic ray research based upon their high energy thresholds, directional responses, and reliable data streams. one of their primary scientific objectives concerns the size, configuration, and time behavior of the heliosphere. The size scale is inferred from the radial intensity gradient, which is measured between the two spacecraft and extrapolated to interstellar intensity levels at the cosmic ray modulation boundary. This boundary still eludes us, and its position, motion, and the best method of extrapolation are ongoing problems. Current projections place the boundary beyond 100 AU, which may be beyond the termination shock, and raises the question of possible modulation in the heliosheath. Probably our only hope of seeing this region in the immediate future rides on the possibility that the boundary will move inward. Our instruments have recorded many Forbush, or transient, decreases in the outer heliosphere. These observations led us to a model that attributes many of the decreases to solar wind stream-stream interactions, and relates the cosmic ray variations to the locally observed magnetic field magnitude. As the cosmic ray variations in this model result only from topological changes in the modulation integral, the model is a tool for studying the possibility that the 11 year cosmic ray modulation cycle can be accounted for by a superposition of Forbush decreases. The cosmic ray angular distribution function is measurable, given a good telemetry rate, by the UCSD Cerenkov detector which counts particles of energy greater than 500 MeV/n. We obtained statistically significant samples from 1 to 9 AU, at 13 AU, and at 34 AU. The anisotropy tends to be a few tenths of a per cent at all radial distances. A quasiperiodic variation in the east-west anisotropy with period of about 50 days remains unexplained.

Fillius, Walker

1997-01-01

246

Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

2001-01-01

247

Pioneer anomaly: What can we learn from LISA?  

E-print Network

The Doppler tracking data from two deep-space spacecraft, Pioneer 10 and 11, show an anomalous blueshift, which has been dubbed the "Pioneer anomaly". The effect is most commonly interpreted as a real deceleration of the spacecraft - an interpretation that faces serious challenges from planetary ephemerides. The Pioneer anomaly could as well indicate an unknown effect on the radio signal itself. Several authors have made suggestions how such a blueshift could be related to cosmology. We consider this interpretation of the Pioneer anomaly and study the impact of an anomalous blueshift on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a planned joint ESA-NASA mission aiming at the detection of gravitational waves. The relative frequency shift (proportional to the light travel time) for the LISA arm length is estimated to 10E-16, which is much bigger than the expected amplitude of gravitational waves. The anomalous blueshift enters the LISA signal in two ways, as a small term folded with the gravitational wave signal, and as larger term at low frequencies. A detail analysis shows that both contributions remain undetectable and do not impair the gravitational-wave detection. This suggests that the Pioneer anomaly will have to be tested in the outer Solar system regardless if the effect is caused by an anomalous blueshift or by a real force.

Denis Defrere; Andreas Rathke

2005-09-07

248

Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands  

PubMed Central

Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

2014-01-01

249

Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands.  

PubMed

Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

2014-08-01

250

Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

Not Available

1991-08-09

251

Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

Not Available

1991-08-09

252

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15

253

Field test of a low NO{sub x} short flame duct burner  

SciTech Connect

With funding from the California Energy Commission and Southern California Gas Company, a new duct burner technology has undergone development and field testing that addresses two critical issues for cogeneration applications: limiting NO{sub x} emissions levels to less than 9 ppmv, corrected to 15% O{sub 2} and minimizing flame length. With commercialization of Dry Low NO{sub x} gas turbine combustors, regulatory pressures will focus on duct burners to maintain cogeneration plant emissions below 9 ppmv corrected to 15% CO{sub 2} without the use of costly selective catalytic reduction. Short burner flame length helps reduce plant footprint and ducting costs, and enables the design of compact segmented heat recovery steam generators. The new burner design utilizes a porous metal fiber material as the flame holder, and full premixing of the fuel gas and oxygen available in the gas turbine exhaust gas.

Bartz, D.F.

1996-12-31

254

ANALYSIS OF UTILITY CONTROL STRATEGIES USING THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the impact of proposed acid rain legislation on the potential application of limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) technology incorporating recent research and development findings. Several regulatory strategies and emission red...

255

SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

256

FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

Not Available

2004-07-01

257

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

258

Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

1995-01-01

259

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633—Details of Burner Stand-off...

2014-01-01

260

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633—Details of Burner Stand-off...

2013-01-01

261

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633—Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2010-01-01

262

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633—Details of Burner Stand-off...

2012-01-01

263

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633—Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2013-01-01

264

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633—Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2010-01-01

265

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633—Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2010-01-01

266

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633—Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2013-01-01

267

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633—Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2014-01-01

268

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633—Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2014-01-01

269

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633—Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2012-01-01

270

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633—Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2012-01-01

271

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633—Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2012-01-01

272

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633—Details of Burner Stand-off...

2010-01-01

273

16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633—Details of Vertical Burner Head...

2011-01-01

274

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633—Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2014-01-01

275

16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633—Details of Burner Stand-off...

2011-01-01

276

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633—Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2011-01-01

277

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633—Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2011-01-01

278

16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633—Details of Horizontal Burner Head...

2013-01-01

279

Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

Mahan, J. R.

1983-01-01

280

Study of the turbulent inverse diffusion flame in recessed backstep and coaxial burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the turbulent Inverse Diffusion Flame (IDF) in recessed coaxial and backstep burners is carried out,\\u000a based on visible flame appearance, flame length, flame stability, centerline temperature distribution, centerline oxygen concentration,\\u000a and NO\\u000a x\\u000a emissions. The backstep burner is observed to produce a compact flame shape with less luminosity at a higher air-fuel velocity\\u000a ratio, as compared

S. Mahesh; D. P. Mishra

2011-01-01

281

Pioneer 11 Image of Saturn and its Moon Titan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Pioneer 11 image of Saturn and its moon Titan at the upper left. The irregularities in ring silhouette and shadow are due to technical anomalies in the preliminary data later corrected. Looking at the rings from left to right, the ring area begins with the outer A ring; the Encke Division; the inner A Ring; Cassini Division; the B Ring; the C Ring; and the innermost area where the D Ring would be. The image was made by Pioneer Saturn on Wednesday, August 26, 1979, and received on Earth at 3:19 pm PDT. Pioneer was, at that time, 2,846,000 kilometers (1,768,422 miles) from Saturn. The image was produced by computer at the University of Arizona and managed by NASA's Ames Research Center.

1979-01-01

282

Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-05-01

283

Support for temporally varying behavior of the Pioneer anomaly from the extended Pioneer 10 and 11 Doppler data sets  

E-print Network

The Pioneer anomaly is a small sunward anomalous acceleration found in the trajectory analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. As part of the investigation of the effect, analysis of recently recovered Doppler data for both spacecraft has been completed. The presence of a small anomalous acceleration is confirmed using data spans more than twice as long as those that were previously analyzed. We examine the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly, and conclude that: i) the data favor a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (~2\\times 10^{-11} m/s^2/yr) with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model; ii) although the direction of the acceleration remains imprecisely determined, we find no support in favor of a Sun-pointing direction over the Earth-pointing or along the spin-axis directions, and iii) support for an early "onset" of the acceleration remains weak in the pre-Saturn Pioneer 11 tracking data. We present these new findings and discuss their implications for the nature of the Pioneer anomaly.

Slava G. Turyshev; Viktor T. Toth; Jordan Ellis; Craig B. Markwardt

2011-07-14

284

Development of a Pioneer Venus expert scheduling system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Expert System has been developed to perform a substantial part of the science planning for NASA's Pioneer Venus spacecraft. The program performs functions that have been traditionally performed by operations personnel ('orbit builders'), and attempts to directly duplicate their methods and techniques. Output from the program is formatted to correspond to the previously hand-generated worksheets, in order to ease program validation as well as operator acceptance. Pioneer Venus mission operations are described in detail followed by a description of the expert system implementation.

Rosenthal, Donald A.; Jackson, Robert W.

1988-01-01

285

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at the S band indicate dense cloud decks at the 1.5 to 4.7 bar levels in the Venus atmosphere. These cloud decks are at lower altitudes than the clouds detected by Mariner 10 and Pioneer Venus probes, and are uniform in absorption characteristics in the polar regions. The regions close to the polar hot spots have depressed the upper cloud heights and increased polar density; these areas are free of thermal inversions characteristic of the north polar regions away from the hot spots.

Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.; Kliore, A. J.; Mccleese, D. J.; Patel, I. R.

1980-01-01

286

Emissions Measurements from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study examines NO(x) and CO emissions associated with alternative fuel injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which mixing of reactants is associated with stream wise vorticity generation and straining of fuel-air interfaces, while the third is a non-lobed fuel injector which creates relatively little fuel-air mixing prior to ignition.Results show that one lobed injector geometry appears to produce locally lean premixed flame structures, resulting in low NO. emissions when compared with non-lobed injector emissions. The other lobed injector geometry appears to produce a local fuel-air mixture which is closer to stoichiometric conditions, with NO(x) emissions that are actually higher than for the non-lobed injector. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions become high for over-all lean operating conditions, consistent with premixed combustion behavior. The present study demonstrates the importance of control of the local equivalence ratio in minimizing burner emissions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1998-01-01

287

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

2002-01-01

288

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

Dyer, J. W.

1975-01-01

289

Pioneer Venus mechanical roots pump test and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical pump for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system was obtained, and a limited performance testing program, including ultimate/compression ratio tests and throughput tests at three different pump speeds, was performed. Considerable operating experience with the pump was obtained over approximately 200 hours of running. The test results show general agreement with pump specifications.

Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.

1973-01-01

290

Scalar Field Models: From the Pioneer Anomaly to Astrophysical Constraints  

E-print Network

In this work we study how scalar fields may affect solar observables, and use the constraint on the Sun's central temperature to extract bounds on the parameters of relevant models. Also, a scalar field driven by a suitable potential is shown to produce an anomalous acceleration similar to the one found in the Pioneer anomaly.

J. Paramos

2005-05-17

291

Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

1972-01-01

292

Pioneers in Public Library Service to Young Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents biographies of four leaders in public library service to young adults: Mabel Williams, Margaret Scoggin, Jean Roos, and Margaret Edwards. They are described as pioneers who worked to obtain recognition for and establish young adult work and who can serve as inspirations for librarians today. (EM)

Atkinson, Joan

1986-01-01

293

Pioneer Venus Orbiter contributions to a revised Venus reference ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) included an empirical model of the Venusian ionosphere (Bauer et al. 1985) which was based primarily on in situ and radio occultation measurements made by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) in 1979 and 1980, a time of very high solar activity. The solar cycle variations of in situ parameters could not be determined

L. H. Brace; J. M. Grebowsky; A. J. Kliore

1997-01-01

294

The Pioneer 11 radio occultation measurements of the Jovian ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio occultation data obtained with the Pioneer 11 spacecraft are utilized to study Jupiter's ionosphere. The ingress measurements, which were conducted by using a stable earth-based frequency reference for the tracking link, yielded ionospheric data near the morning terminator at about 79 deg south latitude. Data were also taken during egress on the evening side near 20 deg north latitude.

G. Fjeldbo; A. Kliore; B. Seidel; D. Sweetnam; P. Woiceshyn

1976-01-01

295

A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

Labi, Aisha

2013-01-01

296

The Pioneer 10 anomalous acceleration and Oort cloud comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson et al. [Phys. Rev. D 65 (2002) 082004] recently reported new evidence that both Pioneer 10 and 11 are experiencing nearly the same unmodeled anomalous acceleration directed toward the Sun. Numerous mechanisms, both internal and external to the spacecraft, have been proposed to explain this unmodeled acceleration. If we assume that the cause of the anomalous acceleration is (1)

Daniel P. Whitmire; John J. Matese

2003-01-01

297

Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations at Jupiter encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-channel extreme ultraviolet photometer on Pioneer 10 was used to investigate hydrogen and helium emissions from the atmosphere of Jupiter and emissions associated with the Galilean satellites. The hydrogen Lyman a signal observed from Jupiter corresponded to 400 R in brightness. By using the results of Wallace and Hunten, the eddy diffusion coefficient is found to be K =

R. W. Carlson; D. L. Judge

1974-01-01

298

Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind interaction with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of the Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby in late November and early December 1973 has been performed. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found

J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov; H. R. Collard; D. D. McKibbin; L. A. Frank; D. S. Intriligator

1974-01-01

299

700 Honor ARC Pioneers and Founders at Gathering in Washington.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Appalachian Regional Commission celebrated its 20th anniversary by honoring commission pioneers and founders at a Washington, DC, gathering. A new program aimed at lowering the region's school dropout rate was announced at the banquet. State plans and investment programs and a finish-up program accomplishments were approved at a business…

Appalachia, 1985

1985-01-01

300

1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: About 1790 Re- photo: January 1940 (From old drawing by Sukes, showing first church at left, second church being built near center - about 1790) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

301

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34

A. G. Klein

2006-01-01

302

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975)

A. G. Klein

2006-01-01

303

"Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone…

Kenney, Keith

304

Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation  

SciTech Connect

The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons.

Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

2007-10-12

305

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet. PMID:21806201

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

2011-07-01

306

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H2, CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20 000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

2011-07-01

307

Quality Changes of Superheated Steam–Dried Fibers from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional drying of the fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) using flue gas from diesel burners frequently causes browning and dust explosion. Replacing the drying medium with superheated steam is expected to improve the quality of EFB fibers as well as improve the safety of the dryer operation. In this study, the effects of steam temperature and steam

Rosdanelli Hasibuan; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

2009-01-01

308

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

309

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS AND ORGANIC FINGERPRINTS FROM COMBUSTION OF OIL AND WOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents data from an Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) pilot study on the total carbon, organics, and particulate emissions from oil furnaces with both gun-type and retention head burners. hese data are compared to results of a similar IACP study on woodstoves condu...

310

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES AND COMPARISON WITH WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. A number of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total extractable organics, and mutagenicity. r...

311

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

1975-01-01

312

Reproductive traits of pioneer gastropod species colonizing deep-see hydrothermal vents after an eruption  

E-print Network

The colonization dynamics and life histories of pioneer species are vital components in understanding the early succession of nascent hydrothermal vents. The reproductive ecology of pioneer species at deep-sea hydrothermal ...

Bayer, Skylar (Skylar Rae)

2011-01-01

313

Celebrating 400 Years of Pioneer Spirit: From Jamestown to the Wild West  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this questions and answer interview with Rachel Dickinson, author of "Great Pioneer Projects You Can Build Yourself", the writer discusses her interest in the American pioneer movement, her research, and her goals in introducing readers to the day-to-day life of an American pioneer. Dickinson's book offers a hands-on look at what life was like…

Curriculum Review, 2007

2007-01-01

314

Grant Title: PIONEER HI-BRED FOUNDATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A  

E-print Network

Grant Title: PIONEER HI-BRED FOUNDATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A Agency/Department: Pioneer Hi-Bred Foundation Community Investment Programs. Area of Research: Community projects to support: Pioneer Hi-Bred makes a difference in the communities where its customers and employees live and work

Farritor, Shane

315

Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

1984-01-01

316

A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

Mahan, J. R.

1984-01-01

317

Application of HBC burners in a 410 t/h boiler in LPFC thermal power station  

SciTech Connect

The HBC (Horizontal Bias Combustion) Burner was developed to simultaneously solve five problems, i.e. combustion efficiency, flame stabilization, slagging, high temperature corrosion of furnace wall tube metal and NOx emission, that existed in burning low rank Chinese coal. It was developed for tangential fired systems. HBC burners have been applied to the retrofit of a B and BW-410/9.8-M pulverized coal boiler of 410 t/h steam at MCR in LPFC. Prior to the retrofit, there were three serious problems: flame stability was poor; slagging was terrible; and NOx emission was high. Satisfactory results have been obtained in operation after the retrofit with the HBC burners. The flame stability has been improved a great deal. Furthermore, the slagging problem has been solved. Moreover, NOx emission has been abated by more than 50%.

Sun Shaozeng; Wang Zhijin; Wu Shaohua; Zhu Tong; Qin Yukun [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

1997-12-31

318

Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year study of noise production in a long tubular burner is described. The research was motivated by an interest in understanding and eventually reducing core noise in gas turbine engines. The general approach is to employ an acoustic source/propagation model to interpret the sound pressure spectrum in the acoustic far field of the burner in terms of the source spectrum that must have produced it. In the model the sources are assumed to be due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release; thus only direct combustion-noise is considered. The source spectrum is then the variation with frequency of the thermal-acoustic efficiency, defined as the fraction of combustion heat release which is converted into acoustic energy at a given frequency. The thrust of the research was to study the variation of the source spectrum with the design and operating parameters of the burner.

Mahan, J. R.

1983-01-01

319

Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

1999-07-07

320

Heat recuperator and method for use with gas-fired furnace using nozzle or pre-mix burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat recuperator and a method for recuperating heat from a furnace having a nozzle-mix burner to enhance the efficiency of combustion of one or more burners associated with the furnace. The recuperator comprises an exhaust tube which is connectable to a furnace combustion chamber for receiving heated exhaust gas therethrough. The exhaust tube has an outer cylindrical wall and

Vider

1985-01-01

321

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2006-07-15

322

Solar wind stream structure at large heliocentric distances Pioneer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time profiles and histograms of plasma data from Pioneers 10 and 11 are examined for the period between 1975 and 1983. During this time, Pioneer 10 traveled between a heliocentric distance of 8.7 and 30.4 AU. The velocity structure of the solar wind at these heliocentric distances is found to have one of two distinct forms: approximately 70 percent of the time the solar wind has a nearly flat velocity profile. Occasionally, this flat velocity profile is accompanied by quasi-periodic variations in density and in thermal speed consistent with the concept that the 'corotating interaction regions' which are produced by the interaction of high- and low-speed streams at intermediate heliocentric distances are replaced by 'pressure regions' in the outer heliosphere. The remaining 30 percent of the time the solar wind is marked by large (50-200 km/s) long-term (30-120 days) shifts in the average solar wind velocity.

Gazis, P. R.

1987-01-01

323

Distant solar wind plasma - View from the Pioneers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporal variation and spatial gradients over nearly 50 AU in heliocentric distance and about 17 deg of latitude are investigated on the basis of observations from Pioneer 10-11, Voyager 2, IMP 8, and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. The average solar wind velocity was found to vary somewhat over the solar cycle, but at any given epoch the average velocity is essentially independent of heliocentric distance. No indication of a terminal shock or signature of interaction with the interstellar medium was found. The stream structure commonly observed in the inner heliosphere diminishes with increasing heliocentric distance, reflecting the processing of material in the stream-stream heliosphere, both at times of high sunspot activity and disturbed solar conditions, and near the solar minimum when the interplanetary current sheet is flattened.

Barnes, Aaron

1990-01-01

324

Pioneer Venus radar results - Geology from images and altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unimodal distribution of relief for Venus was obtained from the Pioneer Venus altimetry measurements. The 'upland' rolling plains constituting 65% of the surface show dark circular lava-filled impact basins; highlands in the 8% of the area comprise Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra; and the lowlands consist of crudely circular surfaces with low relief within the highlands. The complex ridge-and-trough

Harold Masursky; Eric Eliason; P. G. Ford; G. E. McGill; G. H. Pettengill; Gerald G. Schaber; Gerald Schubert

1980-01-01

325

The atmosphere of Io from Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occultation of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft by Io (JI) provided an opportunity to obtain two S-band radio occultation measurements of its atmosphere. The day-side entry measurements revealed an ionosphere having a peak density of about 60,000 el\\/cu cm at an altitude of about 100 km. The topside scale height indicates a plasma temperature of about 406 K if it

A. J. Kliore; G. Fjeldbo; B. L. Seidel; D. N. Sweetnam; T. T. Sesplaukis; P. M. Woiceshyn; S. I. Rasool

1975-01-01

326

Polar Cloud Structure as Derived From the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultation data taken on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at S band (13.06 cm) are used to obtain vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions. Resulting profiles show dense cloud decks at the 1.5- to 4.7-bar level in the Venus atmosphere. The cloud decks are lower in altitude and more

J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi; A. J. Kliore; D. J. McCleese; I. R. Patel

1980-01-01

327

Gravity tests in the solar system and the Pioneer anomaly  

E-print Network

We build up a new phenomenological framework associated with a minimal generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory. When linearity, stationarity and isotropy are assumed, tests in the solar system are characterized by two potentials which generalize respectively the Newton potential and the parameter $\\gamma $ of parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. The new framework seems to have the capability to account for the Pioneer anomaly besides other gravity tests.

Marc-Thierry Jaekel; Serge Reynaud

2005-04-05

328

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of JupiteL and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Rj, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 'y, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived

E. J. Smith; L. Davis Jr.; D. E. Jones; P. J. Coleman Jr.; D. S. Colburn; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett; A. M. A. Frandsen

1974-01-01

329

Infrared radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter. I - Instrument description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ten-channel IR radiometer for the Pioneer Venus orbiter is described. The experimental techniques used and the design of the instrumentation by which they were implemented are considered. Emphasis is placed on temperature sounding, limb sounding, limb darkening, zenith scanning, cloud top temperature, spectral albedo and water vapor measurements. Instrumentation description is also given including optics, detectors, and electronics. Attention is given to data acquisition and handling, calibration, and in-flight performance.

Taylor, F. W.; Vescelus, F. E.; Locke, J. R.; Beer, R.; Foster, G. T.; Forney, P. B.; Houghton, J. T.; Delderfield, J.; Schofield, J. T.

1979-01-01

330

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter are reviewed, and present plans for its approach to Saturn are discussed. The spacecraft is described together with its instrumentation, Jupiter-encounter operations, and scientific investigations. Scientific objectives at Saturn are outlined, including imaging of the planet, magnetospheric studies, measurements of Titan's mass and ephemeris, estimates of the mass of Saturn's rings, and penetration of the ring plane, particularly the D ring.

Dyer, J. W.

1975-01-01

331

System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

Acheson, L. K.

1973-01-01

332

Planetary magnetism. [Mariner, Venera and Pioneer probe results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent data on planetary magnetism are reviewed, with attention given to information obtained by Mariner 10 at Mercury, from Venera 9 and 10 orbiting Venus, and Pioneer spacecraft flying past Jupiter. In addition, less recent magnetic measurements of Mars are reconsidered. Doubts about whether Mars has an active dynamo at present are mentioned, and further planetary magnetic assessments are suggested. In particular, the need to refine knowledge of multipole moments is stressed.

Russell, C. T.

1979-01-01

333

Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods.

Li, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1998-04-01

334

Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

Gokoglu, S. A.

1984-01-01

335

New oxy-fuel burner system for reheat furnaces at Timken  

SciTech Connect

A high-efficiency, low cost, oxy-fuel burner system has been developed for reheat furnaces that also results in a substantial reduction in NO[sub x] emissions compared with other systems. Through a cooperative project between Timken and AGA, it has been shown that the extremely high efficiency, along with other intangible benefits of oxy-fuel combustion can be successfully applied to reheat furnaces. Previously known disadvantages associated with oxy-fuel flames in relatively low temperature processes have been overcome by the patented burner design and operational practice developed.

Frisk, L.O. (AGA AB, Lindingo (Sweden)); Burfield, L.J. (Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States))

1994-04-01

336

effect of hydrogen addition and burner diameter on the stability and structure of lean, premixed flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low swirl burners (LSBs) have gained popularity in heating and gas power generation industries, in part due to their proven capacity for reducing the production of NOx, which in addition to reacting to form smog and acid rain, plays a central role in the formation of the tropospheric ozone layer. With lean operating conditions, LSBs are susceptible to combustion instability, which can result in flame extinction or equipment failure. Extensive work has been performed to understand the nature of LSB combustion, but scaling trends between laboratory- and industrial-sized burners have not been established. Using hydrogen addition as the primary method of flame stabilization, the current work presents results for a 2.54 cm LSB to investigate potential effects of burner outlet diameter on the nature of flame stability, with focus on flashback and lean blowout conditions. In the lean regime, the onset of instability and flame extinction have been shown to occur at similar equivalence ratios for both the 2.54 cm and a 3.81 cm LSB and depend on the resolution of equivalence ratios incremented. Investigations into flame structures are also performed. Discussion begins with a derivation for properties in a multicomponent gas mixture used to determine the Reynolds number (Re) to develop a condition for turbulent intensity similarity in differently-sized LSBs. Based on this requirement, operating conditions are chosen such that the global Reynolds number for the 2.54 cm LSB is within 2% of the Re for the 3.81 cm burner. With similarity obtained, flame structure investigations focus on flame front curvature and flame surface density (FSD). As flame structure results of the current 2.54 cm LSB work are compared to results for the 3.81 cm LSB, no apparent relationship is shown to exist between burner diameter and the distribution of flame surface density. However, burner diameter is shown to have a definite effect on the flame front curvature. In corresponding flow conditions, a decrease in burner diameter results a broader distribution of curvature and an increased average curvature, signifying that compared to the larger 3.81 cm LSB, the flame front of the smaller burner contains tighter, smaller scale wrinkling.

Kaufman, Kelsey Leigh

337

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2011-07-01

338

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2014-07-01

339

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2010-07-01

340

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2013-07-01

341

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part...Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially...Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State...

2012-07-01

342

LOW COST BIOHEATING OIL APPLICATION.  

SciTech Connect

The report describes primarily the results of combustion tests carried out with a soy methyl ester (SME) that can be considered as a biofuel that does not quite meet the ASTM D 6751-02 specifications for biodiesel. The tests were performed in a residential boiler and a commercial boiler. Blends of the SME in distillate fuel (home heating fuel or equivalently, ASTM No.2 fuel oil) were tested in both the boilers. Similar tests had been conducted in a previous project with ASTM biodiesel blends and hence provided a comparison. Blends of the SME in ASTM No.6 oil (residual oil) were also tested in the commercial boiler using a different burner. Physical properties of the blends (in both the petroleum based fuels) were also measured. It was found that the SME blends in the distillate burned, not surprisingly, similarly to biodiesel blends. Reductions in NOx with blending of the SME were the most significant finding as before with biodiesel blends. The blends in No.6 oil also showed reductions in NOx in the commercial boiler combustion tests, though levels with No.6 blends are higher than with No.2 blends as expected. A significant conclusion from the physical property tests was that even the blending of 10% SME with the No.6 oil caused a significant reduction in viscosity, which suggests a potential direction of application of such blends.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2003-05-01

343

Niches, rather than neutrality, structure a grassland pioneer guild.  

PubMed

Pioneer species are fast-growing, short-lived gap exploiters. They are prime candidates for neutral dynamics because they contain ecologically similar species whose low adult density is likely to cause widespread recruitment limitation, which slows competitive dynamics. However, many pioneer guilds appear to be differentiated according to seed size. In this paper, we compare predictions from a neutral model of community structure with three niche-based models in which trade-offs involving seed size form the basis of niche differentiation. We test these predictions using sowing experiments with a guild of seven pioneer species from chalk grassland. We find strong evidence for niche structure based on seed size: specifically large-seeded species produce fewer seeds but have a greater chance of establishing on a per-seed basis. Their advantage in establishment arises because there are more microsites suitable for their germination and early establishment and not directly through competition with other seedlings. In fact, seedling densities of all species were equally suppressed by the addition of competitors' seeds. By the adult stage, despite using very high sowing densities, there were no detectable effects of interspecific competition on any species. The lack of interspecific effects indicates that niche differentiation, rather than neutrality, prevails. PMID:16006328

Turnbull, Lindsay A; Manley, Liz; Rees, Mark

2005-07-01

344

Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

Jones, D. E.

1986-01-01

345

Independent Confirmation of the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I perform an independent analysis of radio Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft for the time period 1987-1994. All of the tracking data were taken from public archive sources, and the analysis tools were developed independently by myself. I confirm that an apparent anomalous acceleration is acting on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is not accounted for by present physical models of spacecraft navigation. My best fit value for the acceleration, including corrections for systematic biases and uncertainties, is (8.60 plus or minus 1.34) x 10(exp -8) centimeters per second, directed towards the Sun. This value compares favorably to previous results. I examine the robustness of my result to various perturbations of the analysis method, and find agreement to within plus or minus 5%. The anomalous acceleration is reasonably constant with time, with a characteristic variation time scale of greater than 70 yr. Such a variation timescale is still too short to rule out on-board thermal radiation effects, based on this particular Pioneer 10 data set.

Markwardt, Craig B.

2002-01-01

346

Redox Pioneer: Professor Joe M. McCord  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dr. Joe McCord (Ph.D. 1970) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least three articles on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that have been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 37 articles each cited over 100 times. Dr. McCord is known for the monumental discovery of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) while a graduate student under fellow redox pioneer Irwin Fridovich and demonstrating its necessity to aerobic life. Beyond this, McCord's career is distinguished for bridging the gap from basic science to clinical relevance by showing the application of SOD and superoxide to human physiology, and characterizing the physiological functions of superoxide in inflammation, immunological chemotaxis, and ischemia–reperfusion injury, among other disease conditions. Work by McCord serves as the foundation upon which our understanding of how superoxide functions in a variety of physiological systems is built and demonstrates how superoxide is essential to aerobic life, yet, if left unchecked by SOD, toxic to a multitude of systems. These discoveries have substantial significance in a wide range of studies with applications in cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurology, and medicine, as well as general health and longevity. Dr. McCord's contributions to free radical biology have been recognized through many prestigious achievement awards, honorary titles, and conferences around the world; each serving as a testament to his status as a redox pioneer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 183–188. PMID:24117164

Schnell, David M.

2014-01-01

347

Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

Knudsen, William C.

1993-01-01

348

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math meets ecology lesson provides hands-on experiences with mixing oil and water, provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives learners opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Cartwright, Lisa

2010-01-01

349

Data analysis for the Pioneer Venus electric field detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector (OEFD) measures plasma wave electric fields at four frequencies 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Although limited in frequency resolution, this allows us to study various plasma wave phenomena, including whistler-mode waves (approximately 100 Hz), ion acoustic waves (approximately 730 Hz and 5.4 kHz), and electron plasma oscillations (approximately 30 kHz). The Pioneer Venus OEFD data are often cited as evidence for lightning on Venus. This topic has been a fruitful research topic throughout the lifetime of the grant. The evidence for lightning is now very strong. It is now clear that many of the electric field bursts detected by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are consistent with radiation propagating through the ionosphere from below. The only likely atmospheric source is planetary lightning. However, any electromagnetic waves generated by lightning will tend to be absorbed by the ionosphere. Only a small fraction of the wave energy could escape to be detected by a spacecraft such as Pioneer Venus. In terms of ionospheric and plasma wave phenomena, a clear demonstration that the waves can escape will probably clinch the debate. We have begun an analysis of the transmission characteristics of the ionosphere, but a more thorough understanding requires further support. One of the major successes of the Pioneer Venus OEFD was the generation of plasma wave maps of the region upstream of the Venus bow shock, known as the foreshock. The Pioneer Venus OEFD data provided an extensive set of data, not available at any other planet. For example, we found that waves generated by electrons streaming away form the shock only extend a finite distance upstream. Presumably the free energy supplied by the back-streaming electrons is removed by the waves. However, comparison with terrestrial observations show that the waves at the earth extend much further (in absolute scale), and it appears the amount of free energy available is closely related to the shock size. The last topic addressed concerns the plasma waves observed above the dayside ionopause of Venus. Although originally cited as a source of energy for the topside ionosphere, much of our more recent work shows that the waves are probably more involved in the coupling of planetary ions to the solar wind. As such, the waves may be part of the process whereby planetary ions are 'picked-up' by the solar wind, and hence lost from the near-Venus environment. This is one mechanism for scavenging the atmosphere, since the planetary ions ultimately come from ionized planetary neutrals within the atmosphere. In addition, similar wave modes appear to occur above the ionopause of Mars. Thus the Pioneer Venus OEFD data provide an important clue for understanding solar-wind ionosphere coupling at the unmagnetized planets.

Strangeway, Robert J.

1995-12-01

350

Propagation of a large Forbush decrease in cosmic-ray intensity past the Earth, Pioneer 11 at 34 AU, and Pioneer 10 at 53 AU  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1991, large and distinctive Forbush decreases in cosmic-ray intensity were observed at Pioneer 11 at 34 AU on 21 August and at Pioneer 10 at 53 AU on 30 September. An apparently related shock passed Voyager 1 at 46 AU on 14 September. These three events are plausibly associated with each other and with a large Forbush decrease at

James A. Van Allen; R. Walker Fillius

1992-01-01

351

World oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

Sweeney, J. L.

1982-06-01

352

Fan atomized burner design advances to commercial development stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may

B. Kamath; T. A. Butcher

1996-01-01

353

PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale studies of sulfur capture in the EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) process and the effect of LIMB on particulate properties and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance. The sulfur capture studies showed that hydrated l...

354

Imaging of diluted turbulent ethylene flames stabilized on a Jet in Hot Coflow (JHC) burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial distributions of the hydroxyl radical (OH), formaldehyde (H2CO), and temperature imaged by laser diagnostic techniques are presented using a Jet in Hot Coflow (JHC) burner. The measurements are of turbulent nonpremixed ethylene jet flames, either undiluted or diluted with hydrogen (H2), air or nitrogen (N2). The fuel jet issues into a hot and highly diluted coflow at two

Paul R. Medwell; Peter A. M. Kalt; Bassam B. Dally

2008-01-01

355

Unsteady flame and flow field interaction of a premixed model gas turbine burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NOx emissions of heavy duty gas turbines have been significantly reduced by introducing lean premixed combustion. These flames are known to be prone to combustion instabilities. In this paper, investigations of a single model gas turbine burner are presented with focus on thermo-acoustic eigenmodes of the combustor and the resulting interaction between periodic flow field oscillations and flame front

K.-U. Schildmacher; A. Hoffmann; L. Selle; R. Koch; C. Schulz; H.-J. Bauer; T. Poinsot; W. Krebs; B. Prade

2007-01-01

356

BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of boiler design criteria for application of dry sorbent control technology with low-NOx burners on tangentially fired pulverized-coal-burning boilers. A comprehensive review of past and current research in the area of sorbent SOx control prov...

357

SONOTECH, INC. FREQUENCY-TUNABLE PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM (CELLO PULSE BURNER) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech) of Atlanta, Georgia, has developed a pulse combustion burner technology that claims to offer benefits when applied in a variety of combustion processes. The technology incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large-amplitude acoustic or soni...

358

Flame structure of LPG-air Inverse Diffusion Flame in a backstep burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental study characterizes the turbulent LPG Inverse Diffusion Flame (IDF) stabilized in a backstep burner in terms of visible flame length, dual flame structure, centerline temperature distribution, and oxygen concentration. The visible flame length for a fixed fuel jet velocity is found to reduce with increase in air jet velocity. Besides this, the effect of air and fuel

S. Mahesh; D. P. Mishra

2010-01-01

359

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. The full-scale demonstrat...

360

ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

2013-04-02

361

Theoretical analysis of porous radiant burners under 2-D radiation field using discrete ordinates method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a theoretical study to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners (PRBs). In the present work, a 2-D rectangular model is used to solve the governing equations for porous medium and gas flow before the premixed flame to the exhaust gas. The gas and the solid phases are considered in non-local thermal equilibrium and combustion

M. M. Keshtkar; S. A. Gandjalikhan Nassab

2009-01-01

362

DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR EXTENSION OF APPLICABILITY OF LOW-EMISSION, HIGH-EFFICIENCY COAL BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third year's efforts in a program to develop criteria for extending the applicability of low-emission, high-efficiency coal burners. For the small-scale fuel studies, 28 coals covering all ranks were tested under a wide variety of conditions to ascertain ...

363

Social Studies (Still) on the Back Burner: Perceptions and Practices of K-5 Social Studies Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, Neil Houser concluded that social studies in Delaware was "on the back burner." Some ten years later, the same can be said concerning social studies in South Carolina. With a continued emphasis being placed on the more "pressing" fields such as math and language arts, coupled with the inclusion of social studies on South Carolina's…

Lintner, Timothy

2006-01-01

364

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION WITH MULTISTAGE BURNERS) TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissionscontrol technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides ...

365

INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

366

EVALUATIONS OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR PERFORMANCE AT EDGEWATER UNIT 4 LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNERS (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes laboratory- and pilot-scale studies of the Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) process as well as preliminary on-site tests at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. The effects of LIMB on electrostatic precipitation (ESP) performance are reported in term...

367

Note LPSC 07-37 The TMSR as Actinide Burner and Thorium Breeder  

E-print Network

Note LPSC 07-37 The TMSR as Actinide Burner and Thorium Breeder E. Merle-Lucotte, D. Heuer, C. Le for the Thorium fuel cycle which allows nuclear energy production with a very low production of radiotoxic minor-evaluate this concept. They have shown that the MSBR suffers from major drawbacks concerning for example safety

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

Khesin, M. [MK Engineering, N. Andover, MA (United States); Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D. [NYSEG, Barker, NY (United States); Girvan, R. [Forney Corp., Carrollton, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

369

Rapeseed and safflower oils as diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

During the past decade the US has become increasingly dependent upon imported oil to meet our energy demands. Nearly 50 percent of our US consumption of petroleum is imported. Research has shown that agricultural crops can be used to reduce this dependence. Vegetable oil as an alternative fuel has been under study at the Univ. of Idaho since 1979. Since then the Idaho research team has pioneered the use of rapeseed oil as a diesel fuel substitute. Idaho`s interdisciplinary team includes plant breeding, plant modification, process development and scale-up, engine testing, and economics. Researchers in Montana have studied safflower oil as a potential diesel fuel replacement since 1983. This project, aimed for use of safflower oil in railroad engines, involves genetics, agronomics, economics and contract engine testing.

Peterson, C.L. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Haines, H. [Montana Bioenergy Programs, Helena, MT (United States); Chase, C. [Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-31

370

Jovian magnetic fields is complex, Pioneer 11 shows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the magnetic field of the planet Jupiter is presented. The data are based on the information returned by Pioneer 11 space probe. It was determined that the magnetic field stretches across 9 million miles of space at some times and shrinks in volume by three-fourths or more at other times. It was also determined that electrons trapped in the magnetic field of Jupiter are 10,000 times more intense than those in the Van Allen radiation belts which circle the earth. Additional data were obtained on the polar regions, atmospheric circulation, and the nature of the moons.

Panagakos, N.; Waller, P.

1975-01-01

371

Outer planet Pioneer imaging communications system study. [data compression  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of different types of imaging data compression on the elements of the Pioneer end-to-end data system were studied for three imaging transmission methods. These were: no data compression, moderate data compression, and the advanced imaging communications system. It is concluded that: (1) the value of data compression is inversely related to the downlink telemetry bit rate; (2) the rolling characteristics of the spacecraft limit the selection of data compression ratios; and (3) data compression might be used to perform acceptable outer planet mission at reduced downlink telemetry bit rates.

1974-01-01

372

Health Coaching Education: A Conversation With Pioneers in the Field  

PubMed Central

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success. PMID:24416669

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-01-01

373

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N2, O2, Ar, CO, H2O, SO2, and CO2 were measured, and upper limits set for H2, COS, H2S, CH4, Kr, N2O, C2H4, C2H6, and C3H8. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid-like droplets and support the possibility of water vapor at altitudes of 42 and 24 km. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the origin, evolution, and present state of Venus' atmosphere.

Oyama, V. I.; Carle, G. C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J. B.; Reynolds, R. T.; Craig, R. A.

1980-01-01

374

Geophysical Research Letters. Selected Papers on Pioneer Venus Orbiter: Entry Phase. Volume 20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following papers which are comprised of subject matter related to the The Pioneer Venus Orbiter's Entry Phase: The Pioneer Venus entry phase; solar cycle variations of electron density and temperature in the Venusian nightside ionosphere; the magnetic state of the lower ionosphere during Pioneer Venus entry phase; the nightside ionosphere of Venus under varying levels of solar EUV flux; observation of the nightside Venus ionosphere; final encounter of the Pioneer Venus orbiter ion mass spectrometer; ion measurement during Pioneer Venus reentry; implications for solar cycle variation of ion composition and dynamics; evidence for day-to-night ion transport at low solar activity in the Venus pre-dawn ionosphere; model calculations of the dayside ionosphere of Venus at solar minimum; natural composition measurements by the Pioneer Venus neutral mass spectrometer during orbiter reentry; the Venus atmospheric response to solar cycle variations; and plasma waves observed at low altitudes in the tenuous Venus nightside ionosphere.

1993-01-01

375

Oil Oil Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan makes real world connections as students explore the ability to estimate the surface area of an oil spill. The lesson provides surface area information about the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and gives students opportunities to estimate small oil spills of their own making. This lesson includes two students activity sheets, one fractional amount overhead sheet, assessment and extension suggestions, and questions for reflection.

Lisa Cartwright

2010-01-01

376

An Array of Photodiodes for Monitoring Hydrocarbons Combustions Burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-intrusive method for monitoring hydrocarbons, gas and oil flames, is introduced in this paper. The method is based in a radiometry measurement of the flame, which is implemented by using an array of silicon photodiodes with interference optical filters. The array is designed to cover wavelengths for evaluating the formation and behaviour of excited CH* and C2* radicals. These radicals CH* and C2* can be detected at centre wavelengths of 432 nm and 516 nm respectively. The radiometry analysis for monitoring non-confined oil flames was checked by a radiometer, using crosscorrelation data. These radicals are also measured for gas flames in the reaction region for a confined flame. Simple and low cost electronic was designed to drive the array of silicon photodiodes and they were set in an optical system and in a data acquisition system. The tests reported demonstrate that the flame condition can be adequately monitored for different air excess, different axial position as well as for different firing rate. Indeed, experimental test were taken for two power level: low and high firing rate. The fast response, the non-intrusive character and the instantaneous measurement of information make the proposed optical sensor a key to develop advances control strategies, which can be used successfully in combustion processes.

Arias, P. Luis; Torres, I. Sergio; Sbárbaro, H. Daniel; Farías, F. Oscar

2008-04-01

377

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

SciTech Connect

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

Cygan, David

2006-12-28

378

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter - Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of Jupiter and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Jupiter radii, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 gamma, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived has a moment of 4.0 G (R sub J) cubed and a tilt angle with respect to Jupiter's rotation axis of 11 deg. A model of the Jovian magnetosphere is presented in which the essential feature is an eastward current sheet that forms an annulus with Jupiter at the center. At large distances from the planet the current sheet is nearly parallel to Jupiter's equator but, in general, does not lie in it. The current sheet is warped, so that it is above the equator on one side and below it on the other. The current sheet rotates with the planet, more or less like a rigid body, this behavior causes an apparent up and down motion and periodic crossings of the current sheet by Pioneer.

Smith, E. J.; Frandsen, A. M. A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Jones, D. E.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Colburn, D. S.; Dyal, P.; Sonett, C. P.

1974-01-01

379

The Pioneer 11 radio occultation measurements of the Jovian ionosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio occultation data obtained with the Pioneer 11 spacecraft are utilized to study Jupiter's ionosphere. The ingress measurements, which were conducted by using a stable earth-based frequency reference for the tracking link, yielded ionospheric data near the morning terminator at about 79 deg south latitude. Data were also taken during egress on the evening side near 20 deg north latitude. The latter measurements were conducted in the one-way mode; i.e., an on-board crystal oscillator was employed as a frequency reference for the downlink (spacecraft-to-earth) signal. These data confirm previous results obtained with Pioneer 10 and show that Jupiter has a multilayered ionosphere extending over an altitude range of more than 3000 km. The topside scale height near 79 deg south latitude was 540 + or - 60 km. Assuming a topside electron, H(+) distribution controlled by diffusion yields a plasma temperature of 850 + or - 100 K in this region. The radio data indicate that the upper atmosphere is either warmer or more dissociated into atomic hydrogen than previously anticipated.

Fjeldbo, G.; Kliore, A.; Seidel, B.; Sweetnam, D.; Woiceshyn, P.

1976-01-01

380

Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a methanol spray in a vitiated coflow. As a proof of concept, an ensemble light diffraction (ELD) optical instrument was used to conduct preliminary measurements of droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.

Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.

2000-01-01

381

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in...

2013-01-01

382

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in...

2014-01-01

383

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in...

2010-01-01

384

EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-COST RETROFIT LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses program objectives, approaches, current status and results, future activities, and schedules for EPA's program for research and development, field evaluation, and demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology. Primary emphasis is on:...

385

Hydroxylammonium nitrate-based liquid propellant combustion-interpretation of strand burner data and the laminar burning velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of the burning velocity of a hydroxylammonium nitrate-based liquid propellant undergoing combustion in a strand burner. Experiments were conducted at constant pressures of 6.7-34 MPa while the propellant was confined in a strand burner with a 1.8 Ã 1.0-mm rectangular cross section, a size smaller than that used in previous studies. An electric discharge was used

S VOSEN

1990-01-01

386

The Effect of the Near Burner Aerodynamics on Pollution, Stability and Combustion in a PF-Fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the effect of a change in the near burner region aerodynamics was undertaken in a large-scale laboratory furnace firing a high-volatile bituminous pulverised fuel. To this end two variations of primary air\\/fuel jet design were installed in a swirl stabilized burner of the type used in wall-fired boilers. Significant differences in flame shape, intensity, stability performance and

T. ABBAS; P. Costen; M. A. HASSAN; F. C. LOCKWOOD

1993-01-01

387

Effects of nozzle length on flame and emission behaviors of multi-fuel-jet inverse diffusion flame burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the nozzle length on the air-pollutant-emission and noise-radiation behaviors of a burner utilizing a multi-fuel-jet inverse diffusion flame (MIDF). Comparison of the experimental results obtained from two MIDF burners, one with a long nozzle and the other with a short nozzle, operating under the same air\\/fuel supply conditions (Reair and

H. S. Zhen; Y. S. Choy; C. W. Leung; C. S. Cheung

2011-01-01

388

Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale. Phase II. Quarterly progress report, September 1, 1980-November 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The major activities at OOSI's Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7 and 8; blasthole drilling; tracer testing MR4; conducting the start-up and burner tests on MR3; continuing the surface facility construction; and conducting Retorts 7 and 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests. Environmental monitoring continued during the quarter, and the data and analyses are discussed. Sandia National Laboratory and Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) personnel were active in the DOE support of the MR3 burner and start-up tests. In the last section of this report the final oil inventory for Retort 6 production is detailed. The total oil produced by Retort 6 was 55,696 barrels.

Not Available

1981-01-01

389

Qiu Ti’s Contributions to Juelanshe and the Intersection of Modernist Ideology, Public Receptivity, and Personal Identity for a Woman Oil Painter in Early Twentieth-Century China  

E-print Network

Despite her pioneering actions as one of the first female oil painters in China, Qiu Ti (1906-1958) remains on the periphery of China's modernist art movement. This dissertation repositions her to the center of a lively early twentieth...

Wright, Amanda Sue

2011-12-31

390

Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

Zaplatynsky, I.

1982-01-01

391

Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 deg C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 310 ft/sec. Oxidation tests for times to 46 hr produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13-1/2 hr. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting of the silicon carbide substrate which led to a 32 percent strength decrease below the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air induced attacked yielded basically similar results with some slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

1985-01-01

392

Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner  

DOEpatents

An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

2008-04-15

393

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

Not Available

1991-09-01

394

Effect of burner settings on flame stability during the combustion of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

Combustion tests were conducted to determine the range of secondary air swirl required to maintain a stable combustion flame. Results obtained during the flame stability testing show no significant effect of swirl settings on NOx, SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} for three combustion tests (834,330 Btu/hr, 669,488 Btu/hr and 508, 215 Btu/hr). At each of the two higher firing rates, combustion was relatively complete regardless of swirl settings, therefore, burner settings may be adjusted to provide a visually stable flame without concern for higher carbon in ash as a function of burner settings. The parameters affecting flame stability are mainly coal particle size, volatile matter, ash content and excess air. Tests conducted at three different locations (Top, Middle and Bottom) revealed that the gaseous concentrations such as NOx, SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were a function of residence time for each of the firing rates.

Masudi, H.; Samudrala, S.; Hudson, C. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1997-07-01

395

Large Eddy Simulation of a Two-Phase Reacting Flow in an Experimental Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large eddy simulations are performed on the experimental burner MERCATO operated at ONERA fed with air and liquid kerosene.\\u000a The purpose of the present study is to assess the reliability of the Euler-Euler approach for two-phase flow with and without\\u000a combustion. The mesoscopic Eulerian quantities for the liquid dispersed phase and the gaseous variables are advanced in space\\u000a and time

M. Sanjosé; E. Riber; L. Gicquel; B. Cuenot; T. Poinsot

396

DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The

Cygan

2006-01-01

397

Nitric oxide formation by inverse diffusion flames in staged-air burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemiluminescent measurements of NO and NOx in the exhaust of a laboratory staged-air burner were made to investigate furnace emissions. Emissions throughout the transition from primary fuel-rich to overall fuel-lean conditions were mapped for a range of secondary-air jet parameters. This allows quantification of the NOx emissions through the rich-to-lean transition and also their sensitivity to secondary-air injection parameters. Mixing

William P. Partridge; Normand M. Laurendeau

1995-01-01

398

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

SciTech Connect

Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2014-06-01

399

New oxy-fuel burner system for reheat furnaces at Timken  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-efficiency, low cost, oxy-fuel burner system has been developed for reheat furnaces that also results in a substantial reduction in NO[sub x] emissions compared with other systems. Through a cooperative project between Timken and AGA, it has been shown that the extremely high efficiency, along with other intangible benefits of oxy-fuel combustion can be successfully applied to reheat furnaces.

L. O. Frisk; L. J. Burfield

1994-01-01

400

A quasi-adiabatic laminar flat flame burner for high temperature calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flat flame burners were developed for many purposes. In this study, a new flat flame burner for the high temperature calibration of combustion product species and temperature is presented. The burner is operated on methane/air mixtures. Equivalence ratios can be varied from phi = 0.65 to phi = 1.5. A flat, laminar, premixed flame stabilizes above the flame holder that is manufactured from porous material and differently to other designs is not water cooled. Unlike most other realizations, the flame burns detached by 1.5-2.5 mm from the flame holder. This is realized by adjusting the exit speed to a value very close to the burning velocity of the corresponding equivalence ratio. As the control range between flame blow-off and attachment to the flame holder is very narrow, this strategy requires spatially very uniform porous materials and a precise mass flow control. Heat losses to the flame holder necessary for flame stabilization are minimized furthermost by these detached flames. This becomes manifested by a temperature rise of the flame holder by less than 10 K and an almost homogeneous temperature distribution within the flame holder. In consequence, flame temperatures measured by Rayleigh thermometry are observed to be close to adiabatic flame temperatures. Differences between adiabatic and measured temperatures depend on the equivalence ratio and range from 35 K to 50 K. By comparison with 1D-flame simulations with and without radiation models, it is shown that these temperature losses are mainly due to radiation but not to heat conduction to the flame holder. For this reason, flames stabilized on this burner are termed quasi-adiabatic as they exhibit exhaust gas temperatures very similar to freely propagating flames.

Gregor, Mark Aurel; Dreizler, Andreas

2009-06-01

401

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-print Network

Heating Value and Ultimate and Proximate Ana)ysis 11. 2. 2 Ash Analysis 11. 2. 3 Thermogravimetric Analysis . 11. 3 Schemes of Firing Feedlot Manure 11. 4 Corrosion and Ash Formation in Boilers 11. 5 Burner Technology . 11. 5. 1 Introduction 11. 5... D APPENDIX E APPENDIX F APPENDIX G APPENDIX H APPENDIX APPENDIX j APPENDIX K VITA SECONDARY AIR CALIBRATION. MECHANICAL DRAWINGS CALCULATION OF CO, Oz NORMALIZATION EXPERIMENTAL DATA WYOMING COAL SIZE DISTRIBUTION ULTIMATE ANALYSIS...

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01

402

Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

1952-01-01

403

Flame stability of single and multiport aerated gas burners in vitiated air  

SciTech Connect

Combustion air that is deficient in oxygen is said to be vitiated. A situation may arise in the kitchen when combustion air is vitiated by recirculation of the combustion products. The effects of vitiation manifest themselves into several other effects viz: change in flame stability limits, flame size and minimum ignition energy. The main effect of vitiation on flame stability is to increase the tendency to blow-off by reducing the burning velocity. An attempt is made in this paper to present experimental data on burning velocity and blow-off stability of LPG-air flames with vitiation of combustion air. Different levels of vitiation were created around a gas stove by placing it centrally in a perspex sided enclosure called the vitiation chamber. In the combustion diagram, the burner port loading and primary aeration were plotted to get the yellow-tipping and blow-off curves of multiport burners as also the operating point of the burner on the same diagram. Blow-off data were also obtained in respect of upright flames stabilized on four single port, cylindrical burners of different diameters. Carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor were used as vitiants. The blow-off stability was significantly affected by vitiation of combustion air, the effect being most severe in case of vitiation by CO{sub 2} and the least in case of vitiation by N{sub 2}, the water vapor having an intermediate effect. Quantitatively, the effect of vitiation, even by N{sub 2}, on the blow-off stability of LPG- air flames is significant enough to cause performance problems for combustion appliances at levels of vitiation that may be encountered in practice.

Sharma, S.P.

1997-07-01

404

Numerical simulation of the laminar diffusion flame in a simplified burner  

SciTech Connect

The laminar ethylene-air diffusion fame in a simple laboratory burner was simulated with the COYOTE reactive flow program. This program predicts the flow field, transport, and chemistry for the purposes of code validation and providing physical understanding of the processes occurring in the flame. We show the results of numerical experiments to test the importance of several physical effects, including gravity, radiation, and differential diffusion. The computational results compare favorably with the experimental measurements.

Cloutman, L.D.

1995-11-08

405

Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3. Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus spacecraft performance requirements are presented. The specifications include: (1) Design criteria and performance requirements for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft systems and subsystems for a 1978 multiprobe mission and a 1978 orbiter mission, spacecraft system interface, and scientific instrument integration.

1973-01-01

406

Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new…

Metzler, Mike

2007-01-01

407

Atmosphere of Jupiter from the Pioneer 11 S-band occultation experiment - Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two additional radio occultation measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter were obtained with Pioneer 11. The entry measurement leads to a temperature profile that is substantially in agreement with those obtained with Pioneer 10, showing temperatures much higher than those derived from other observations. The exit measurement is not usable because of the discontinuous drift of the spacecraft auxiliary oscillator,

A. Kliore; G. Fjeldbo; B. L. Seidel; T. T. Sesplaukis; D. W. Sweetnam; P. M. Woiceshyn

1975-01-01

408

Radiation Instrumentation Electronics for the Pioneers III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the devices carried aboard lunar payloads, Pioneer III and Pioneer IV, was a radiation measurement instrument. Its purpose was to detect and process information on particle flux rates encountered along the nominal cis-lunar trajectory to be followed by those payloads. Radiation data were collected by two different Geiger-Mueller tubes. One tube registered particle counts and the resultant accumulation

Conrad Josias

1960-01-01

409

Current status of models of Jupiter's magnetosphere in the light of Pioneer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The salient features of the various models of Jupiter's magnetosphere are compared with each other and with the major findings of Pioneer 10 and 11. No single model explains all the major phenomena detected by the Pioneers. A unified model of Jupiter's magnetosphere is proposed.

Prakash, A.; Auer, P.

1975-01-01

410

Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

Bohn, Willy L.

2005-03-01

411

Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer.  

PubMed

In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics. PMID:18828456

Ellis, Harold

2008-09-01

412

Global view of Venus from Magellan, Pioneer, and Venera data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This global view of Venus, centered at 270 degrees east longitude, is a compilation of data from several sources. Magellan synthetic aperature radar mosaics from the first cycle of Magellan mapping are mapped onto a computer-simulated globe to create the image. Data gaps are filled with Pioneer-Venus orbiter data, or a constant mid-range value. Simulated color is used to enhance small-scale structure. The simulated hues are based on color images recorded by the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 spacecraft. The image was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Multimission Image Processing Laboratory and is a single frame from a video released at the JPL news conference, 10-29-91. View provided by JPL with alternate number P-39225 MGN81.

1991-01-01

413

Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.  

PubMed

Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed. PMID:20649243

Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

2010-07-01

414

Future exploration of Venus (post-Pioneer Venus 1978)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study was performed to determine the major scientific unknowns about the planet Venus to be expected in the post-Pioneer Venus 1978 time frame. Based on those results the desirability of future orbiters, atmospheric entry probes, balloons, and landers as vehicles to address the remaining scientific questions were studied. The recommended mission scenario includes a high resolution surface mapping radar orbiter mission for the 1981 launch opportunity, a multiple-lander mission for 1985 and either an atmospheric entry probe or balloon mission in 1988. All the proposed missions can be performed using proposed space shuttle upper stage boosters. Significant amounts of long-lead time supporting research and technology developments are required to be initiated in the near future to permit the recommended launch dates.

Colin, L.; Evans, L. C.; Greeley, R.; Quaide, W. L.; Schaupp, R. W.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.

1976-01-01

415

Reinterpretation of the Pioneer 6 bow shock crossing.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper re-examines and reinterprets the interesting bow shock crossing of Pioneer 6 on December 16, 1965, by combining the high-resolution data for the magnetic field measurements with all the available plasma data. It is shown that, although a small correction of the magnetic field data improves the validity test of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conditions, it is the plasma density measurements that are the principal source of the remaining inconsistencies. With the exception of the densities, the best agreement between the measurements and the R-H relations is obtained when the specific heat ratio is slightly less than the classical value of 5/3 expected for a magnetized plasma in the magnetosheath. A more accurate shock normal determination has been made, and it is found that the shock itself is possibly in motion with respect to the earth and that locally it may be approximated as a normal shock.

Mariani, F.; Chao, J. K.; Ness, N. F.

1972-01-01

416

Magnetic coordinates for the Pioneer 10 Jupiter encounter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic coordinates of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft and the five innermost satellites are reported for the Jupiter encounter. The D sub 2 offset is used to make the calculations. Magnetic coordinates are needed for the interpretation of the trapped particle measurements, including the absorption effects of the satellites. Contours of constant field magnitude and magnetic latitude are given at the surface of Jupiter for the D sub 2 model. The system 3 longitude of a spacecraft at Jupiter is derived, and formulas given for the relationships between system 1, 2, and 3 longitudes. The longitude of the magnetic dipole increases by about 3 deg per year, due to the inaccurate rotation rate used to define system 3 longitude.

Mead, G. D.

1974-01-01

417

Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

2002-09-01

418

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, Ar, CO, H/sub 2/O, SO/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ were measured, and upper limits set for H/sub 2/, COS, H/sub 2/S, CH/sub 4/, Kr, N/sub 2/O, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, and C/sub 3/H/sub 8/. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid--like droplets and support the possibility of water vapor at altitudes of 42 and 24 km. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the origin, evolution, and present state of Venus' atmosphere.

Oyama, V.I.; Carle, G.C.; Woeller, F.; Pollack, J.B.; Reynolds, R.T.; Craig, R.A.

1980-12-30

419

Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

Sime, Ruth Lewin

2013-03-01

420

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 1472] on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. This work and its history are briefly reviewed in this paper.

Klein, A. G.

2006-11-01

421

Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of this program is to develop a novel low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000{degree}F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. In the low NO{sub x} coal burner concept, the flue gas is recycled to the burner by jet pump action provided by the momentum of the primary air flow. The recycled flue gas is used to convey the pulverized coal to the jet pump where mixing with the primary air takes place. Ignition occurs downstream of the jet mixing section. The recycled flue gas is at high temperature. When the pulverized coal is entrained, it is heated by conduction from the flue gas. The coal is pyrolyzed to a large extent before being mixed with the primary air. These pyrolysis products are the source of energy for the downstream flame. In this process, the fuel nitrogen associated with pyrolysis products can be converted to molecular nitrogen in the pyrolysis flame if the oxygen is held to substoichiometric concentrations based upon the burning species (pyrolysis products and some char). Pyrolysis products combustion is believed to be the primary source of NO{sub x} emissions in coal combustors. Progress is described.

Not Available

1993-02-23

422

Fully Automatic Segmentation of the Brain From T1-Weighted MRI Using Bridge Burner Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Purpose To validate Bridge Burner, a new brain segmentation algorithm based on thresholding, connectivity, surface detection, and a new operator of constrained growing. Materials and Methods T1-weighted MR images were selected at random from three previous neuroimaging studies to represent a spectrum of system manufacturers, pulse sequences, subject ages, genders, and neurological conditions. The ground truth consisted of brain masks generated manually by a consensus of expert observers. All cases were segmented using a common set of parameters. Results Bridge Burner segmentation errors were 3.4% ± 1.3% (volume mismatch) and 0.34 ± 0.17 mm (surface mismatch). The disagreement among experts was 3.8% ± 2.0% (volume mismatch) and 0.48 ± 0.49 mm (surface mismatch). The error obtained using the brain extraction tool (BET), a widely used brain segmentation program, was 8.3% ± 9.1%. Bridge Burner brain masks are visually similar to the masks generated by human experts. Areas affected by signal intensity nonuniformity artifacts were occasionally undersegmented, and meninges and large sinuses were often falsely classified as the brain tissue. Segmentation of one MRI dataset takes seven seconds. Conclusion The new fully automatic algorithm appears to provide accurate brain segmentation from high-resolution T1-weighted MR images. PMID:18504741

Mikheev, Artem; Nevsky, Gregory; Govindan, Siddharth; Grossman, Robert; Rusinek, Henry

2009-01-01

423

Lead-cooled breeders and burners - Are the latter even necessary?  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares neutronics, transuranic burning capabilities and safety aspects of lead-cooled self-breeders and burners employing uranium- and thorium-based fuels. Both fast reactors are optimized with respect to minor actinide (MA) transmutation performance in the start-up cores. The Monte Carlo code MCB is used for the neutronic and burn-up analyses; accidental behavior is studied by EAC-2 and STAR-CD codes. We show that lead-cooled fast reactors (LFRs) can be used both as breeders and burners of transuranics from spent LWR fuel and that minor actinides are incinerated in self-breeder cores nearly as effectively as in dedicated critical burners. In optimized 600 MWe LFR self-breeders about 100 kg of MAs can be transmuted per year. This corresponds to an annual production of minor actinides in two EPRs. We demonstrate that the same reactor (self-breeder) can be used for breeding only or for breeding combined with MA burning, depending on the core load composition. Regarding safety, LFRs feature favorable characteristics in coping with investigated accident initiators (unprotected Loss-of-Flow and Loss-of-Heat Sink). The reasons are good natural circulation behavior together with the high boiling point of the lead coolant. (authors)

Tucek, K.; Carlsson, J.; Wider, H. [Joint Research Center, European Commission, Inst. for Energy, Postbus 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

2006-07-01

424

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul [Morningstar Applied Physics Inc., LLC, Vienna, VA 22182 (Austria)

2010-01-28

425

Peppermint Oil  

MedlinePLUS

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Peppermint Oil Common Name: peppermint oil Latin Name: Mentha x piperita peppermint.jpg © Steven ... This fact sheet provides basic information about peppermint oil—common names, what the science says, potential side ...

426

Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California  

PubMed Central

Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards. Citation: Logue JM, Klepeis NE, Lobscheid AB, Singer BC. 2014. Pollutant exposures from natural gas cooking burners: a simulation-based assessment for Southern California. Environ Health Perspect 122:43–50;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306673 PMID:24192135

Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

2013-01-01

427

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired electric utilities are facing a serious challenge with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} emissions. At issue are the NO{sub x} contributions to the acid rain, ground level ozone, and particulate matter formation. Substantial NO{sub x} control requirements could be imposed under the proposed Ozone Transport Rule, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and New Source Performance Standards. McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Fuel Tech are teaming to provide an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system will be comprised of an ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology plus a urea-based, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system. This system will be capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu and target ammonia (NH3) slip level targeted below 5 ppmV for commercial units. Our approach combines the best available combustion and post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies. More specifically, B and W's DRB-4Z TM ultra low-NO{sub x} PC burner technology will be combined with Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT (SNCR) and NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) systems and jointly evaluated and optimized in a state-of-the-art test facility at MTI. Although the NO{sub x}OUT Cascade (SNCR/SCR hybrid) system will not be tested directly in this program, its potential application for situations that require greater NO{sub x} reductions will be inferred from other measurements (i.e., SNCR NO{sub x} removal efficiency plus projected NO{sub x} reduction by the catalyst based on controlled ammonia slip). Our analysis shows that the integrated ultra low-NO{sub x} burner and SNCR system has the lowest cost when the burner emissions are 0.25 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu or less. At burner NO{sub x} emission level of 0.20 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu, the levelized cost per ton of NO{sub x} removed is 52% lower than the SCR cost.

Hamid Farzan

2001-07-01

428

Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared (PIR) burner at various barometric pressures (operating altitude) and gas compositions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. In this program, the theoretical basis for the behavior of PIR burners will be established through analysis of the combustion, heat and mass transfer, and other related processes that determine the performance of PIR burners. Based on the results of this study, a burner performance model for radiant output will be developed. The model will be applied to predict the performance of the selected burner and will also be modified and improved through comparison with experimental results. During this period, laboratory facilities that are necessary for conducting this research are completed. The student research assistants have started working in the laboratory. The selection of the test burner has completed. The preparation and instrumentation of this test burner is underway. The theoretical analysis and modeling of the fundamental combustion process of the PIR burner is progressing well. A study of the existing models are being conducted, which will yield specific direction and recommendations for the new model to be developed.

Bai, Tiejun

1995-04-01

429

Oil Spill!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

2005-01-01

430

Motor oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Motor oil can be recycled and reused, cutting down on our foreign oil dependence. It can also contaminate drinking water and harm beach shore sand, as well as birds. Birds covered in oil cannot fly again until all the oil is washed off.

N/A N/A (None;)

2007-02-11

431

A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion of fluoride during early childhood leading to the formation of defective enamel. The increased fluoride content is thought to result in a metabolic alteration of ameloblasts, which results in defective matrix, and improper calcification of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 6244 patients between the ages of 6yrs to 60yrs, who presented to our outpatient clinic from October 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped according to their age into the following groups- 6-14 yrs, 15-25 yrs, 26-40 yrs, and 40-60yrs. Only permanent dentition was taken into consideration in this study. Results: The overall prevalence of fluorosis in this study was 63.34% (3955 of 6244 patients). Men had a slightly higher prevalence of 64.27% compared to 62.28% among women. Conclusion: Prevention of fluorosis would require efforts at raising awareness among the people about the harmful effects of their dietary choices on their teeth. They also need to be educated about adequate and proper oral hygiene, such as brushing their teeth at least two times daily. How to cite this article: Sunil T K L, Shetty S, Annapoorna B M, Pujari S C, Reddy P S, Nandlal B. A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):67-72. PMID:24155605

L, Sunil Tejaswi K; Shetty, Suneeth; M, Annapoorna B; Pujari, Sudarshan C; P, Sarveshwar Reddy; Nandlal, B

2013-01-01

432

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.  

PubMed

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:24354350

Ng, Chin Ting Justin

2014-06-01

433

The atmosphere of Io from Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occultation of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft by Io (JI) provided an opportunity to obtain two S-band radio occultation measurements of its atmosphere. The day-side entry measurements revealed an ionosphere having a peak density of about 60,000 el/cu cm at an altitude of about 100 km. The topside scale height indicates a plasma temperature of about 406 K if it is composed of Na(+) and 495 K if N2(+) is principal ion. A thinner and less dense ionosphere was observed on the exit (night side), having a peak density of 9,000 el/cu cm at an altitude of 50 km. The topside plasma temperature is 160 K for N2(-) and 131 K for Na(+). If the ionosphere is produced by photoionization in a manner analogous to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets, the density of neutral particles at the surface of Io is less than 10 to 1 trillion per cu cm, corresponding to a surface pressure of less than 10 to 1 nanobars.

Kliore, A. J.; Fjeldbo, G.; Seidel, B. L.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Sesplaukis, T. T.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Rasool, S. I.

1975-01-01

434

Pioneer microbial communities of the Fimmvörðuháls lava flow, Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland.  

PubMed

Little is understood regarding the phylogeny and metabolic capabilities of the earliest colonists of volcanic rocks, yet these data are essential for understanding how life becomes established in and interacts with the planetary crust, ultimately contributing to critical zone processes and soil formation. Here, we report the use of molecular and culture-dependent methods to determine the composition of pioneer microbial communities colonising the basaltic Fimmvörðuháls lava flow at Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, formed in 2010. Our data show that 3 to 5 months post eruption, the lava was colonised by a low-diversity microbial community dominated by Betaproteobacteria, primarily taxa related to non-phototrophic diazotrophs such as Herbaspirillum spp. and chemolithotrophs such as Thiobacillus. Although successfully cultured following enrichment, phototrophs were not abundant members of the Fimmvörðuháls communities, as revealed by molecular analysis, and phototrophy is therefore not likely to be a dominant biogeochemical process in these early successional basalt communities. These results contrast with older Icelandic lava of comparable mineralogy, in which phototrophs comprised a significant fraction of microbial communities, and the non-phototrophic community fractions were dominated by Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria. PMID:24863128

Kelly, Laura C; Cockell, Charles S; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Marteinsson, Viggó; Stevenson, John

2014-10-01

435

The monopropellant hydrazine propulsion subsystem for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Multiprobe spacecraft propulsion subsystems and their performance are presented. Monopropellant hydrazine subsystems on each spacecraft provided the capability to spin up the spacecraft after separation and perform all spin rate, velocity, and attitude changes required by the control subsystem to satisfy mission objectives. The propulsion subsystem provides thrust on demand by supplying anhydrous hydrazine from the propellant tanks through manifolds, filters and valves to the thrust chamber assemblies where the hydrazine is catalytically decomposed and expanded in a conical nozzle. The subsystems consist of seven 1 lbf thrusters for the Orbiter and six 1 lbf thrusters for the multiprobe which are isolated by two latch valves from the two propellant tanks so that two redundant thruster clusters are provided to ensure mission completion in the event of a single point failure. The propellant feed system is of all-welded construction to minimize weight and leakage and titanium is used as the primary material of construction. The multiprobe burned up on entering the Venus atmosphere with enough propellant left for the mission and the Orbiter was inserted into Venus orbit with enough propellant remaining for more than 2 earth years of orbital operations.

Barker, F. C.

1979-01-01

436

Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion.

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A.

2011-06-01

437

Structures and stabilization of low calorific value gas turbulent partially premixed flames in a conical burner  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are carried out on partially premixed turbulent flames stabilized in a conical burner. The investigated gaseous fuels are methane, methane diluted with nitrogen, and mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, simulating typical products from gasification of biomass, and co-firing of gasification gas with methane. The fuel and air are partially premixed in concentric tubes. Flame stabilization behavior is investigated and significantly different stabilization characteristics are observed in flames with and without the cone. Planar laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of a fuel-tracer species, acetone, and OH radicals is carried out to characterize the flame structures. Large eddy simulations of the conical flames are carried out to gain further understanding of the flame/flow interaction in the cone. The data show that the flames with the cone are more stable than those without the cone. Without the cone (i.e. jet burner) the critical jet velocities for blowoff and liftoff of biomass derived gases are higher than that for methane/nitrogen mixture with the same heating values, indicating the enhanced flame stabilization by hydrogen in the mixture. With the cone the stability of flames is not sensitive to the compositions of the fuels, owing to the different flame stabilization mechanism in the conical flames than that in the jet flames. From the PLIF images it is shown that in the conical burner, the flame is stabilized by the cone at nearly the same position for different fuels. From large eddy simulations, the flames are shown to be controlled by the recirculation flows inside cone, which depends on the cone angle, but less sensitive to the fuel compositions and flow speed. The flames tend to be hold in the recirculation zones even at very high flow speed. Flame blowoff occurs when significant local extinction in the main body of the flame appears at high turbulence intensities. (author)

Yan, B.; Liu, C. [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Li, B.; Sun, Z.W.; Li, Z.S.; Alden, M. [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Baudoin, E.; Bai, X.S. [Division of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Chen, G. [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 300072 Tianjin (China); Mansour, M.S. [Cairo University, Natl Inst Laser Enhanced Sci., Cairo (Egypt)

2010-04-15

438

Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.

Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

439

The effect of fuel-to-air ratio on burner-rig hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samples of a cobalt-base alloy, Mar M-509, were subjected to hot corrosion in a Mach-0.3 burner rig. The corrodent was NaCl added as an aqueous solution to the combustion products of a sulfur-containing Jet-A fuel. The metal temperature was fixed at 900 C. The extent of hot corrosion increased by a factor of three as the fuel-to-air mass ratio was increased from 0.033 to 0.050. Because the depositing salt was always Na2SO4, the increased attack appeared to be related to the gas composition.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.; Kohl, F. J.

1978-01-01

440

Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

1986-01-01

441

Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls  

SciTech Connect

This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the single wall fired unit were presented in a technical paper entitled, ''CFD Investigation of the Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls,'' presented at the 28th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems in Clearwater, FL March 9-14, 2003. In addition to the work completed on the single wall fired unit, the project team made the selection of a 580 MW opposed wall fired unit to be the subject of evaluation in this program. Work is in progress to update the baseline model of this unit so that the parametric simulations can be initiated.

Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

2003-04-30

442

Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Variable-area Exhaust Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel to determine effect of altitude and flight Mach number on performance of tail-pipe burner equipped with variable-area exhaust nozzle and installed on full-scale turbojet engine. At a given flight Mach number, with constant exhaust-gas and turbine-outlet temperatures, increasing altitude lowered the tail-pipe combustion efficiency and raised the specific fuel consumption while the augmented thrust ratio remained approximately constant. At a given altitude, increasing flight Mach number raised the combustion efficiency and augmented thrust ratio and lowered the specific fuel consumption.

Jansen, Emmert T; Thorman, H Carl

1950-01-01

443

Self-Induced Combustion Instability of Laminar Premixed Flames on a Slot Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion dynamics of laminar-premixed flames is experimentally studied using a slot burner. Sound levels and CH* chemiluminescence intensity are measured for various mixture flow velocities and equivalence ratios of propane/air mixtures. Combustion instability is observed only for fuel lean conditions. The instability frequency increases with the mixture velocity and the measured sound level increases with the equivalence ratio as well as the mixture velocity. The nature of combustion oscillation is also investigated using a high-speed CCD camera and a periodic sudden extinction at the tip of flame caused by the interaction between flame and vortex-shedding process is identified as the source of noise emission.

Lee, Wonnam; Lee, Jong Guen; Santavicca, Domenic Adam

444

Numerical simulation of the laminar diffusion flame in a simplified burner. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame in a simple laboratory burner was simulated with the COYOTE reactive flow program. This program predicts the flow field, transport, and chemistry for the purposes of code validation and providing physical understanding of the processes occurring in the flame. The authors show the results of numerical experiments to test the importance of several physical phenomena, including gravity, radiation, and differential diffusion. The computational results compare favorably with the experimental measurements, and all three phenomena are important to accurate simulations.

Cloutman, L.D.

1996-02-01

445

Despite dramatic breakthroughs in organ transplantation, many of which were pioneered at Massachusetts  

E-print Network

Despite dramatic breakthroughs in organ transplantation, many of which were pioneered breakthrough in immune tolerance induction. This achievement, which received widespread national media thousands of lives each year. Major Breakthrough in Tolerance Induction for Organ Transplantation Innovative

Mootha, Vamsi K.

446

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. Ford, artist, 1883) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION FROM A DISTANCE, 1883 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

447

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION COMPLEX IN 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

448

The Pioneer Fund, the Behavioral Sciences, and the Media's False Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The president of the Pioneer Fund, a nonprofit foundation that makes grants into studies of individual and racial differences, addresses some of the media attacks on the fund in the context of the nature-nurture controversy. (SLD)

Weyher, Harry F.

1998-01-01

449

Pioneer 10 and 11 radio occultations by Jupiter. [atmospheric temperature structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results on the temperature structure of the Jovian atmosphere are reviewed which were obtained by applying an integral inversion technique combined with a model for the planet's shape based on gravity data to Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-occultation data. The technique applied to obtain temperature profiles from the Pioneer data consisted of defining a center of refraction based on a computation of the radius of curvature in the plane of refraction and the normal direction to the equipotential surface at the closest approach point of a ray. Observations performed during the Pioneer 10 entry and exit and the Pioneer 11 exit are analyzed, sources of uncertainty are identified, and representative pressure-temperature profiles are presented which clearly show a temperature inversion between 10 and 100 mb. Effects of zonal winds on the reliability of radio-occultation temperature profiles are briefly discussed.

Kliore, A. J.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Hubbard, W. B.

1977-01-01

450

Atmosphere of Jupiter from the Pioneer 11 S-band occultation experiment - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two additional radio occultation measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter were obtained with Pioneer 11. The entry measurement leads to a temperature profile that is substantially in agreement with those obtained with Pioneer 10, showing temperatures much higher than those derived from other observations. The exit measurement is not usable because of the discontinuous drift of the spacecraft auxiliary oscillator, presumably due to the trapped radiation belts of Jupiter. The combination of two Pioneer 10 measurements and one Pioneer 11 measurement yields an oblateness of 0.06496 at 1 millibar and 0.06547 at 160 millibars. Measurements in the Jovian ionosphere indicate a number of layers distributed over about 3000 kilometers, with a topside temperature of about 750 K.

Kliore, A.; Fjeldbo, G.; Seidel, B. L.; Sesplaukis, T. T.; Sweetnam, D. W.; Woiceshyn, P. M.

1975-01-01

451

Effect of the Jovian oblateness on Pioneer 10/11 radio occultations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oblateness of Jupiter, which was neglected in the standard inversion technique for radio occultation data, has a substantial effect on the refractivity profiles of the neutral Jovian atmosphere derived from the Pioneer 10/11 occultations. The geometry of the Pioneer 10 entry and exit occultations has the effect that oblateness should account for much of the discrepancy of the results with plausible atmospheric models. The effect of the oblateness on Pioneer 11 entry is smaller, where much of the discrepancy could be due to other effects, such as cycle-slip in the spacecraft transponder. Theory indicates that the Pioneer 11 exit occultation should be affected by the oblateness in the opposite sense from the first three occultations; and, indeed, the data which had not been invertible under the spherical assumption produced reasonable results when an oblateness correction was applied.

Hubbard, W. B.; Hunten, D. M.; Kliore, A.

1975-01-01

452

Atmosphere of jupiter from the pioneer 11 s-band occultation experiment: preliminary results.  

PubMed

Two additional radio occultation measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter were obtained with Pioneer 11. The entry measurement leads to a temperature profile that is substantially in agreement with those obtained with Pioneer 10, showing temperatures much higher than those derived from other observations. The exit measurement is not usable because of the discontinuous drift of the spacecraft auxiliary oscillator, presumably due to the trapped radiation belts of Jupiter. The combination of two Pioneer 10 measurements and one Pioneer 11 measurement yields an oblateness of 0.06496 at 1 millibar and 0.06547 at 160 millibars. Measurements in the Jovian ionosphere indicate a number of layers distributed over about 3000 kilometers, with a topside temperature of about 750 K. PMID:17734367

Kliore, A; Fjeldbo, G; Seidel, B L; Sesplaukis, T T; Sweetnam, D W; Woiceshyn, P M

1975-05-01

453

The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford Past Issues / ... and a forceful advocate for anyone suffering from addiction or breast cancer. America fought her struggles with ...

454

Performance control strategies for oil-fired residential heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Results are reported of a study of control system options which can be used to improve the combustion performance of residential, oil-fired heating equipment. Two basic control modes were considered in this program. The first is service required'' signals in which an indication is provided when the flame quality or heat exchanger cleanliness have degraded to the point that a service call is required. The second control mode is excess-air trim'' in which the burner would essentially tune itself continuously for maximum efficiency. 35 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

Butcher, T.

1990-07-01

455

A higher-order projection method for the simulation of unsteady turbulent nonpremixed combustion in an industrial burner  

SciTech Connect

The modeling of transient effects in burners is becoming increasingly important. The problem of ensuring the safe performance of an industrial burner, for example, is much more difficult during the startup or shutdown phases of operation. The peak formation of pollutants is also much more dependent on transient behavior, in particular, on peak temperatures, than on average operating conditions. In this paper we present a new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, reacting flow in industrial burners. The algorithm uses a second-order projection method for unsteady, low-Mach number reacting flow and accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transport, turbulence, and chemical kinetics. The time step used by the method is restricted solely by an advective CFL condition. The methodology is applicable only in the low-Mach number regime (M < .3), typically met in industrial burners. The projection method for low-Mach number reacting flow is an extension of a higher-order projection method for incompressible flow [9, 5, 3,4] to the low-Mach number equations of reacting flow. Our method is based on an approximate projection formulation. Radiative transport is modeled using the discrete ordinates method. The main goal of this work is to introduce and investigate the simulation of burners using a higher-order projection method for low-Mach number combustion. As such, the methodology is applied here only to axisymmetric flow in gas-fired burners for which the boundaries can be aligned with a rectangular grid. The perfect gas law is also assumed. In addition, we use a one-step reduced kinetics mechanism, a {kappa} {minus} {epsilon} model for turbulent transport, and a simple turbulent combustion model.

Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Howell, L.; Lai, M.

1994-12-01

456

Pioneer trees in Amazonian floodplains: Three key species form monospecific stands in different habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three pioneer tree species —Salix humboldtiana, Cecropia latiloba, Senna reticulata — form monospecific stands in the Central Amazonian white-water flood plain. In contrast toterra firma forests where species composition is unpredictable even for pioneer species, in Central Amazonianvárzea the occurrence of the main colonizing species seems to be predictable. This predictability is linked to characteristic habitat\\u000a conditions and the low

Pia Parolin; Astrid C. Oliveira; Maria Teresa F. Piedade; Florian Wittmann; Wolfgang J. Junk

2002-01-01

457

Quiet time interplanetary cosmic ray anisotropies observed from Pioneer 10 and 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerenkov counters on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, capable of detecting alpha particles and protons with energies up to 480 MeV, and nucleons and electrons with energies up to 6 MeV, have yielded data on cosmic ray anisotropies during periods of low solar activity. Observations from Pioneer 11 place east-west anisotropy at 0.41 plus or minus 0.11%, and the

W.-H. Ip; W. Fillius; A. Mogro-Campero; L. J. Gleeson; W. I. Axford

1978-01-01

458

Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus  

SciTech Connect

In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O/sup +/ of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O/sup +/ bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O/sup +/ component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux < or approx. =10/sup 7/ ions cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of < or approx. =10/sup 25/ ions s/sup -1/; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O/sup +/ component is estimated as 10/sup 5/--10/sup 6/ K in order of magnitude.

Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.

1982-11-01

459

Quiet time interplanetary cosmic ray anisotropies observed from Pioneer 10 and 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cerenkov counters on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, capable of detecting alpha particles and protons with energies up to 480 MeV, and nucleons and electrons with energies up to 6 MeV, have yielded data on cosmic ray anisotropies during periods of low solar activity. Observations from Pioneer 11 place east-west anisotropy at 0.41 plus or minus 0.11%, and the north-south anisotropy at near zero; Pioneer 10 results show east-west anisotropy to be approximately 0.59 plus or minus 0.18%, and the north-south component at 0.25 plus or minus 0.08%. It is noted that the Pioneer 10 observations were obtained at the 6 AU range, while those from Pioneer 11 originated closer to the sun (1.1 to 2.7 AU). Attention is given to the ratio of the perpendicular to parallel components of the diffusion coefficient, and to the large north-south anisotropy reported by Pioneer 10, an effect due possibly to gradient drift, and to an additional streaming independent of the magnetic field polarity.

Ip, W.-H.; Fillius, W.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Gleeson, L. J.; Axford, W. I.

1978-01-01

460

A Metal Fuel Core Concept for 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the core design and performance characteristics of a metal fuel core concept for a 1000 MWt Advanced Burner Reactor. A ternary metal fuel form of U-TRU-Zr was assumed with weapons grade plutonium feed for the startup core and TRU recovered from LWR spent fuel for the recycled equilibrium core. A compact burner core was developed by trade-off between the burnup reactivity loss and TRU conversion ratio, with a fixed cycle length of one-year. In the startup core, the average TRU enrichment is 15.5%, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.81, and the burnup reactivity loss over a cycle is 3.6% {delta}k. The heavy metal and TRU inventories are 13.1 and 2.0 metric tons, respectively. The average discharge burnup is 93 MWd/kg, and the TRU consumption rate is 55.5 kg/year. For the recycled equilibrium core, the average TRU enrichment is 22.1 %, the TRU conversion ratio is 0.73, and the burnup reactivity loss is 2.2% {delta}k. The TRU inventory and consumption rate are 2.9 metric tons and 81.6 kg/year, respectively. The evaluated reactivity coefficients provide sufficient negative feedbacks. The control systems provide shutdown margins that are more than adequate. The integral reactivity parameters for quasi-static reactivity balance analysis indicate favorable passive safety features, although detailed safety analyses are required to verify passive safety behavior. (authors)

Yang, W.S.; Kim, T.K.; Grandy, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne IL 60439 (United States)

2007-07-01

461

Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners  

SciTech Connect

We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

2011-06-01

462

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

2011-03-01

463

Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion  

DOEpatents

A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

2002-01-01

464

New burner system for reheat furnaces for maximum efficiency and low emissions  

SciTech Connect

The steel industry is continuously looking for ways to improve energy efficiency and productivity. As reheat furnaces have a major impact on both, considerable work has been done in this area, and several alternative technologies have been developed. All of them, however, seem to have drawbacks as well as benefits. Low-cost solutions, such as oxygen enrichment, have technical limitations. Other alternatives, overcoming some of those limitations, become unreasonably complicated and expensive to install. In addition, most alternatives available to increase efficiency in reheat furnaces have environmental problems, such as increased emissions and high NO[sub x] formation. AGA Gas, Inc., in cooperation with The Timken Co., has developed a new burner system that gives maximum efficiency at a low investment cost. The first installation has been in operation in a production furnace since Jan. 1991. All important heating characteristics have been improved. At the same time, overall emissions, including NO[sub x], are substantially lower than for other burner systems. As a result, Timken has converted an additional furnace to the new technology and several more are being considered. AGA has also successfully installed the new system overseas.

Frisk, L.O. (AGA AB, Lidingo (Sweden)); Burfield, L.J. (Timken Co., Canton, OH (United States))

1993-07-01

465

Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

2002-01-01

466

Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications  

SciTech Connect

A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

Abbasi, Hamid A. (Naperville, IL); Kurek, Harry (Dyer, IN); Chudnovsky, Yaroslav (Skokie, IL); Lisienko, Vladimir G. (Ekaterinburg, RU); Malikov, German K. (Ekaterinburg, RU)

2010-08-03

467

Numerical simulation of nitric oxide destruction by gaseous fuel reburning in a single-burner furnace  

SciTech Connect

A numerical study on nitric oxide (NO) reduction during pulverized coal combustion with reburning technology was presented in this paper. The NO model, including reburning mechanism, was incorporated into a comprehensive coal combustion model for predicting NO reduction in a laboratory-scale single-burner furnace with gaseous fuel reburning. The reburning NO submodel in this study requires the solution of only two transport equations to simulate the complicated physical and chemical processes inherent in the reburning technology. A number of experiments have been previously performed in the single-burner furnace, and the experimental data obtained from the optimized reburn configuration were used to validate the model. Profile comparisons show that the predicted temperature and oxygen concentration match well with the measurements, and the general trend of predicted NO concentration is very similar to that measured. The results of this study show that the present NO model depicts quite well the observed behavior of NO annihilation in the reburning process. It is expected that this usable and computationally economic model represents a useful tool to simulate the gaseous fuel reburning process for the researchers concerned with practical combustors. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Sheng Su; Jun Xiang; Lushi Sun; Zhongxiao Zhang; Xuexin Sun; Chuguang Zheng [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

2007-07-01

468

Experimental and numerical investigation of the acoustic response of multi-slit Bunsen burners  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and numerical techniques to characterize the response of premixed methane-air flames to acoustic waves are discussed and applied to a multi-slit Bunsen burner. The steady flame shape, flame front kinematics and flow field of acoustically exited flames, as well as the flame transfer function and matrix are computed. The numerical results are compared with experiments. The influence of changes in the mean flow velocity, mixture equivalence ratio, slit width and distance between the slits on the transfer function is studied, both numerically and experimentally. Good agreement is found which indicates the suitability of both the experimental and numerical approach and shows the importance of predicting the influence of the flow on the flame and vice versa. On the basis of the results obtained, the role and physical nature of convective flow structures, heat transfer between the flame and burner plate and interaction between adjacent flames are discussed. Suggestions for analytical models of premixed flame-acoustics interaction are formulated. (author)

Kornilov, V.N.; de Goey, L.P.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Combustion Technology Group, TU/e, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Rook, R.; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J.H.M. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Scientific Computing Group, TU/e, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-10-15

469

Research on drilling fluids and cement slurries at Standard Oil Production Company: an internship report  

E-print Network

. An experienced mud engineer can judge the quality of an oil mud by looking at the sheen on the surface of the mud. The smell can reveal decomposition of water wet emulsifiers and viscosifiers. The ability of the oil mud to wet the skin gives another... attended a solids separation technology seminar presented by Geolograph Pioneer. They presented the most common methods for separating drill solids from the drilling mud. These methods included hydrocyclones, centrifuges and seive screens. Methods...

Flipse, Eugene Charles, 1956-

2013-03-13

470

Charcoal burner  

SciTech Connect

A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

Bakic, M.C.

1988-12-27

471

High Pressure Burner Rig Testing of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si3N4 Turbine Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings are being developed for Si3N4 components for turbine engine propulsion applications. High pressure burner rig testing was used to evaluate the coating system performance and durability. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the coating component systems under the simulated engine environments.

Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Pastel, Robert T.

2007-01-01

472

ACID DEPOSITION STRATEGIES, THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION/MULTISTAGE BURNERS) PROGRAM AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper summarizes the various acid deposition bills introduced in the U.S. Congress during the past 2 years and discusses emission sources. A rapidly emerging technology called Limestone Injection/Multistage Burners (LIMB), which has the potential for simultaneous SO2 and NOx ...

473

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Low Swirl Burner J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, X. Gao, M. J. Lijewski  

E-print Network

that control the formation of nitrogen emissions in this type of flame. To accurately capture the emissionsSimulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Low Swirl Burner J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, X. Gao, M. J nitrogen emissions. The simulation shows how the cellular burn- ing structures characteristic of lean

Bell, John B.

474

SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT OF SUPERFUND APPLICATIONS FOR THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION INC. PYRETRON OXYGEN ENHANCED BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

Incineration is widely used to clean up Superfund sites. Modifications which improve the efficiency with which waste can be incinerated are therefore of interest to EPA. Oxygen/air burners are of interest because their installation on conventional incinerators can allow for signi...

475

Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

2015-01-01

476

Numerical simulation of three-stage pulverized coal burner ignited by high-temperature air  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, several million tons of oil is consumed annually to ignite pulverized coal (PC) when the boiler starts up, as well as to stabilize the combustion. In this paper, one oil-free ignition technique was studied for oil-saving, by means of which high temperature air was used to ignite PC. Numerical simulation was carried out to recognize the exact flow

Kang Zhi-Zhong; Sun Bao-min

2010-01-01

477

Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of the ``Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO{sub x} Burner`` Program is to develop a novel low NO{sub x}, pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000{degrees}F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO{sub x}, burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

Not Available

1993-02-10

478

The Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1%) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1984-01-01

479

The Z3 model of Saturn's magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z(sub 3) zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the Z(sub 3) model field are found to be small (approximately 1 percent) and quantitatively consistent with the expected instrumental accuracy. A detailed examination of these differences in spacecraft payload coordinates shows that they are uniquely associated with the instrument frame of reference and operation. A much improved fit to the Pioneer 11 observations is obtained by rotation of the instrument coordinate system about the spacecraft spin axis by 1.4 degree. With this adjustment, possibly associated with an instrumental phase lag or roll attitude error, the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations are fully consistent with the Voyager Z(sub 3) model.

Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1984-01-01

480

Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots.  

PubMed

Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients. PMID:21210817

Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M

2011-04-01

481

Temperature of the atmosphere of Jupiter from Pioneer 10/11 radio occultations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio-occultation data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 flybys are analyzed using an integral inversion technique combined with a model for Jupiter's shape based on gravity data in order to account for the oblateness of the planet's atmosphere. The inversion technique defines the center of refraction in terms of the radius of curvature and the normal to the equipotential surface at the closest approach point of the ray. An Abelian inversion of the data obtained during the Pioneer 10 entry, the Pioneer 10 exit, and the Pioneer 11 exit is performed by fixing the center of refraction at some average value for each occultation event. The results for all three measurements are found to be consistent and to show a temperature inversion between the 10-mb and the 100-mb levels, with temperatures of 130 to 170 K at 10 mb and 80 to 100 K at 100 mb. Major sources of error are discussed, and it is concluded that the range of reasonable temperature uncertainties at these levels does not exceed 40 K. It is noted that the temperature inversion was also inferred from Pioneer 10 IR radiometric data.

Kliore, A. J.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Hubbard, W. B.

1976-01-01

482

Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the "father of rocketry" in Western Europe - is Hermann Oberth. The others were Max Valier, Franz von Hoefft, Guido von Pirquet, Hermann Potocnik, Friedrich Schmiedl, Franz Ulinski, Eugen Saenger and others. Franz Ulinski (1890-1974) was born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejow, Czech Republic). After attending schools in Wels, Upper Austria, he started a career in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910. During his service he worked beginning 1917 at an airplane engine plant in Fischamend and in 1919/20 at the "Fliegerarsenal" (aircraft arsenal) in Vienna. End of 1920 the army of the remaining republic of Austria had to severely reduce its forces and Ulinski was superannuated without further payment. Since 1917 he was also inscribed at the College for Advanced Technology in Vienna ("Technische Hochschule Wien"), but he never graduated, instead he autodidactically attained the VDI-Engineering-Diploma (VDI = "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure"- Association of German Engineers). During 1921-1924 he worked as a development engineer and later as a design engineer for a car factory. In 1925 he set up and ran his own company (radio sale enterprise) and in 1929 an engineering workshop. From 1938 to 1945 he first served as technical staff and later as a design engineer at the Siebel- Flugzeugwerke (Airplane-Factory) in Halle/Saale, Germany. After the Second World War he was employed as a design engineer at different engineering companies in Austria and he died 1974 in Wels. Ulinski's first contact with the topic of space flight occurred during the time period when he was a member of the Austro- Hungarian Army. Ulinski was one of the first in the german speaking part of Europe to publish an article with his ideas about space flight in 1920 (three years before Herman Oberth published his book on travelling into space). The Austrian flight magazine "Der Flug" (The Flight) printed a manuscript deposited by Ulinski at the Academy of Sciences in Vienna (October 1, 1919) in a special edition of December 1920. Ulinski describes in this article a space ship using corpuscular rays as impulse. The energy for accelerating the electrons comes from either solar energy, which has been transformed into electrical energy before, or from the use of "intra-atomic" energy. Unfortunately, the study suffers from some serious errors in the description of the physics involved, but still it can be considered as one of the first to propose the energy gained from solar radiation as a driving power for a spacecraft. During the Twenties another design of a space ship by Ulinski got some doubtful publicity. The space ship consisted of a closed chamber, within the rocket should work. The disagreement of this design with the laws of mechanics (physics) is rather obvious and brought Ulinski into disrepute in the rocket circles of the time. Two years ago the last known work of Ulinski with respect to rocketry was discovered. It is a typewritten manuscript of a talk he gave on March 24, 1941 at a VDI-meeting in Halle/Saale with the title "The problem of rocket flight".

Besser, B. P.

2002-01-01

483

Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171); David Alberstein

2008-02-01

484

Burner rig study of variables involved in hole plugging of air cooled turbine engine vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of combustion gas composition, flame temperatures, and cooling air mass flow on the plugging of film cooling holes by a Ca-Fe-P-containing deposit were investigated. The testing was performed on film-cooled vanes exposed to the combustion gases of an atmospheric Mach 0.3 burner rig. The extent of plugging was determined by measurement of the open hole area at the conclusion of the tests as well as continuous monitoring of some of the tests using stop-action photography. In general, as the P content increased, plugging rates also increased. The plugging was reduced by increasing flame temperature and cooling air mass flow rates. At times up to approximately 2 hours little plugging was observed. This apparent incubation period was followed by rapid plugging, reaching in several hours a maximum closure whose value depended on the conditions of the test.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1983-01-01

485

High gas velocity burner tests on silicon carbide and silicon nitride at 1200 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of silicon carbide and silicon nitride were exposed to a Mach one gas velocity burner simulating a turbine engine environment. Cyclic tests up to 100 hour duration were conducted at specimen temperatures of 1200 C. A specimen geometry was used that develops thermal stresses during thermal cycling in a manner similar to blades and vanes of a gas turbine engine. Materials were compared on a basis of weight change, dimensional reductions, metallography, fluorescent penetrant inspection, X-ray diffraction analyses, failure mode, and general appearance. One hot pressed SiC, one reaction sintered SiC, and three hot pressed Si3N4 specimens survived the program goal of 100 one-hour cycle exposures. Of the materials that failed to meet the program goal, thermal fatigue was identified as the exclusive failure mode.

Sanders, W. A.; Probst, H. B.

1973-01-01

486

Performance (Off-Design) Cycle Analysis for a Turbofan Engine With Interstage Turbine Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the performance of a steady-state, dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine, with an interstage turbine burner (ITB) serving as a secondary combustor. The ITB, which is located in the transition duct between the high- and the low-pressure turbines, is a relatively new concept for increasing specific thrust and lowering pollutant emissions in modern jet-engine propulsion. A detailed off-design performance analysis of ITB engines is written in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel (Redmond, Washington) macrocode with Visual Basic Application to calculate engine performances over the entire operating envelope. Several design-point engine cases are pre-selected using a parametric cycle-analysis code developed previously in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel, for off-design analysis. The off-design code calculates engine performances (i.e. thrust and thrust-specific-fuel-consumption) at various flight conditions and throttle settings.

Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.; Mattingly, J. D.; Marek, C. J.

2005-01-01

487

Experimental Evaluation of a Low Emissions High Performance Duct Burner for Variable Cycle Engines (VCE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation was conducted with a three stage Vorbix duct burner to determine the performance and emissions characteristics of the concept and to refine the configuration to provide acceptable durability and operational characteristics for its use in the variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed program. The tests were conducted at representative takeoff, transonic climb, and supersonic cruise inlet conditions for the VSCE-502B study engine. The test stand, the emissions sampling and analysis equipment, and the supporting flow visualization rigs are described. The performance parameters including the fuel-air ratio, the combustion efficiency/exit temperature, thrust efficiency, and gaseous emissions calculations are defined. The test procedures are reviewed and the results are discussed.

Lohmann, R. P.; Mador, R. J.

1979-01-01

488

Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

2011-01-01

489

Burner Rig Hot Corrosion of a Single Crystal Ni-48Al-Ti-Hf-Ga Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion resistance of a single crystal Ni-48Al-1Ti-0.5Hf-0.2Ga alloy was examined in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 hours. The combustion chamber was doped with 2 ppmw synthetic sea salt. The hot corrosion attack produced a random mound morphology on the surface. Microstructurally, the hot corrosion attack appeared to initiate with oxide-filled pits which were often broad and shallow. At an intermediate stage, the pits increased in size to incorporate unoxidized Ni islands in the corrosion product. The rampant attack stage, which was observed only at sharp sample corners, was characterized by rapid inward growth of alumina in finger-like protrusions incorporating significant amounts of Al-depleted Ni islands. Aluminum consumption in the oxide fingers resulted in the growth of a gamma' layer ahead of the advancing oxide fingers.

Nesbitt, James A.; Darolia, Ram; Cuy, Michael D.

1998-01-01

490

Mechanical swirler for a low-NO{sub x}, weak-swirl burner  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a mechanical swirler for generating diverging flow in lean premixed fuel burners. The swirler of the present invention includes a central passage with an entrance for accepting a feed gas, a flow balancing insert that introduces additional pressure drop beyond that occurring in the central passage in the absence of the flow balancing insert, and an exit aligned to direct the feed gas into a combustor. The swirler also has an annular passage about the central passage and including one or more vanes oriented to impart angular momentum to feed gas exiting the annular passage. The diverging flow generated by the swirler stabilizes lean combustion thus allowing for lower production of pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen. 16 figs.

Cheng, R.K.; Yegian, D.T.

1999-03-09

491

An Experimental and Numerical Study of a Supersonic Burner for CFD Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laboratory scale supersonic burner has been developed for validation of computational fluid dynamics models. Detailed numerical simulations were performed for the flow inside the combustor, and coupled with finite element thermal analysis to obtain more accurate outflow conditions. A database of nozzle exit profiles for a wide range of conditions of interest was generated to be used as boundary conditions for simulation of the external jet, or for validation of non-intrusive measurement techniques. A set of experiments was performed to validate the numerical results. In particular, temperature measurements obtained by using an infrared camera show that the computed heat transfer was larger than the measured value. Relaminarization in the convergent part of the nozzle was found to be responsible for this discrepancy, and further numerical simulations sustained this conclusion.

Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

2008-01-01

492

Premix fuels study applicable to duct burner conditions for a variable cycle engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Emission levels and performance of a premixing Jet-A/air duct burner were measured at reference conditions representative of take-off and cruise for a variable cycle engine. In a parametric variation sequence of tests, data were obtained at inlet temperatures of 400, 500 and 600K at equivalence ratios varying from 0.9 to the lean stability limit. Ignition was achieved at all the reference conditions although the CO levels were very high. Significant nonuniformity across the combustor was observed for the emissions at the take-off condition. At a reference Mach number of 0.117 and an inlet temperature of 600K, corresponding to a simulated cruise condition, the NOx emission level was approximately 1 gm/kg-fuel.

Venkataramani, K. S.

1978-01-01

493

Analyzing the aerodynamic structure of swirl flow in vortex burner models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the parameters characterizing large-scale vortex structures formed in the models of various burners with flow swirling. The experiments included flow visualization and velocity field measurements carried out using a modern contact-less diagnostic system constructed on the basis of a laser Doppler anemometer. In addition, the frequency responses of unsteady vortex flow modes were investigated using dedicated acoustic sensors. The distribution of static pressure induced by an unsteady vortex was obtained using the phase averaging method. Along with experiments, the swirl flow parameters were calculated using an analytic theory and the Star CCM+ commercial software package. The adequacy of the mathematical modeling results was checked by comparing them with the physical experiment data.

Gesheva, E. S.; Litvinov, I. V.; Shtork, S. I.; Alekseenko, S. V.

2014-09-01

494

Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

2003-01-01

495

Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

2014-12-01

496

Burner Emissions Associated with Lobed and Non-Lobed Fuel Injectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study examines NO(sub x), and CO emissions associated with three alternative fuel-injector geometries. These injectors mix fuel and air and strain their interfaces to differing extents and thus create different local equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Two of the devices studied are lobed fuel injectors, in which molecular mixing of reactants is associated with streamwise vorticity generation, while the third one is a non-lobed fuel injector. Results show that rapid mixing allowed both lobed injector geometries to produce very lean premixed flame structures, with a lower achievable turn-down or fuel/air mass flux ratio than for the analogous non-lobed injector, which largely, produced distinct diffusion flames. All three injectors exhibited some level of sooting near walls and in the far-field region, with the non-lobed injector sooting to the greatest extent. At low fuel flow rates, in which the lobed injectors created locally very lean premixed conditions, there resulted lower NO(sub x) emissions as compared with non-lobed injector emissions. Yet at higher fuel-air mass flux ratios, NO(sub x) emissions from the lobed injectors were actually higher than for the nonlobed injector, likely due to reduced sooting and hence reduced radiative heat losses associated with enhanced mixing. For both lobed injector geometries examined here, CO emissions became high for low values of the fuel/air mass flux ratio, again consistent with locally premixed combustion behavior, despite the fact that fuel was injected separately from air directly into the burner test section. The present study demonstrates that, for fuel-air mixing enhancement devices, control of the local equivalence ratio is critical in order to optimize burner emissions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1998-01-01

497

Discovery of directional and nondirectional pioneer transcription factors by modeling DNase profile magnitude and shape.  

PubMed

We describe protein interaction quantitation (PIQ), a computational method for modeling the magnitude and shape of genome-wide DNase I hypersensitivity profiles to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Through the use of machine-learning techniques, PIQ identified binding sites for >700 TFs from one DNase I hypersensitivity analysis followed by sequencing (DNase-seq) experiment with accuracy comparable to that of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq). We applied PIQ to analyze DNase-seq data from mouse embryonic stem cells differentiating into prepancreatic and intestinal endoderm. We identified 120 and experimentally validated eight 'pioneer' TF families that dynamically open chromatin. Four pioneer TF families only opened chromatin in one direction from their motifs. Furthermore, we identified 'settler' TFs whose genomic binding is principally governed by proximity to open chromatin. Our results support a model of hierarchical TF binding in which directional and nondirectional pioneer activity shapes the chromatin landscape for population by settler TFs. PMID:24441470

Sherwood, Richard I; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; O'Donnell, Charles W; Lewis, Sophia; Barkal, Amira A; van Hoff, John Peter; Karun, Vivek; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K

2014-02-01

498

High-gain backup antenna design for Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and performance is described of a high-gain antenna designed to serve on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft as a backup to the principal high-gain antenna unit in the unlikely event the mechanically despun antenna mechanism malfunctioned. The final design, a center-fed standing wave array of six sleeve dipoles enclosed in a fiber glass radome, performed successfully, as did all the antennas, on the Pioneer Orbiter spacecraft which was launched on May 20, 1978, as part of the Pioneer Venus mission. Photographs of experimental models giving details of design and construction are included, as well as graphs showing measured pattern and impedance matching characteristics of the subject antenna.

Glaser, J. I.

1986-01-01

499

Development, Application and Performance of Venturi Register L. E. A. Burner System for Firing Oil and Gas Fuels  

E-print Network

The effect of reducing excess air as a means of curtailing energy waste was recognized in Europe come twenty - five years ago. Research and development work was begu