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1

Oil burner nozzle  

DOEpatents

An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

Wright, Donald G. (Rockville Center, NY)

1982-01-01

2

Oil burner control for hydronic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control is described for an oil burner heated boiler connected to a hydronic system having a circulator, including: oil burner control means having a step-down transformer and connection means for powering the oil burner control means and adapted to be controlled by a thermostat; the burner control means further includes relay means having normally open relay contacts with the

Kasprzyk

1987-01-01

3

Oil burner control for hydronic system  

SciTech Connect

A control is described for an oil burner heated boiler connected to a hydronic system having a circulator, including: oil burner control means having a step-down transformer and connection means for powering the oil burner control means and adapted to be controlled by a thermostat; the burner control means further includes relay means having normally open relay contacts with the contacts being operated to a closed state in response to the operation of the thermostat; a first of the relay contacts latching the relay means into an operated state upon operation of the thermostat; boiler water temperature limit control means having a high temperature limit switch that open circuits upon the water in the boiler reaching an upper temperature limit; the limit control means including a further switch means that closes when the high temperature limit switch opens; the high temperature limit switch including connection means connecting the oil burner control means, the oil burner, and a second normally open relay contact of the relay means in a first circuit means which is adapted to be connected to a line voltage source to energize the oil burner and the oil burner control means when the water in the boiler is below the upper temperature limit; and circulator energizing means including a second circuit means adapted to connect the circulator to the line voltage source through the further switch means when the further switch means closes to cause the circulator to operate when the high temperature limit switch is open circuited.

Kasprzyk, D.J.

1987-09-01

4

41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene...Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil...

2013-07-01

5

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

6

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01

7

In situ combustion of Antrim oil shale: field test of Tejas petroleum engineers burner  

SciTech Connect

A major problem in having a successful in situ extraction experiment in Antrim oil shale has been the lack of a reliable ignition system. A reliable burner system has now been found. A methane burner was successfully tested for an intermittant 5-day period with a total of 82 hours of burner operation. The burner was ignited at 800 psig (well pressure) and reignited five times. The burner operated during the test at a theoretical gas temperature of 1200/sup 0/F. Increased temperatures are possible with greater fuel to air ratios. The burner was monitored three different ways. Three thermocouples monitored exhaust gas temperature. A sample was taken of exhaust gas and analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, O/sub 2/ and unburned hydrocarbons. The burner pressure pulses were monitored by pressure gauges at the surface on the methane supply line. The three different systems gave an indication of whether the burner was operating. The only thing that the burner test idn't investigate was the upper safe operating temperature limit.

Cole, J.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

1980-01-01

8

The effects of changes in fuel quality and burner technology on oil furnace performance  

SciTech Connect

Heating oil quality is changing in the marketplace due to varying crude sources, attempts to maximize the use of the crude oil barrel, along with significant growth in other middle distillate uses such as diesels and jet aircraft. Maximum efficiency can only be attained from a combustion system by optimizing fuel quality and burner technology, as well as the heating appliance itself. A number of fuels that have distinct properties such as viscosity and aromatics were evaluated using different burner designs: a conventional cast-iron head burner, a flame-retention head burner, and an advanced-design high-pressure burner. Certain overall combustion characteristics for transient cold start operation were examined in detail-burner ignition behavior, flame and particulate emissions, as well as pressure changes. Combustion performance at steady-state and cyclic operation were also evaluated. Results are interpreted in terms of fuel properties, burner design, combustion air requirements, and potential problems in indoor air quality, as well as effect on optimal system efficiency.

Lee, S.W.; Hayden, A.C.S. (Combustion and Carbonization Research Lab., Energy Research Lab., CANMET Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (CA))

1990-01-01

9

Low NOx, high-efficiency multistaged burner: fuel-oil results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the fuel-oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen-content fuel and waste-incineration application in a 0.6-MW package boiler simulator. A low-NOx precombustion chamber burner was reduced in size by about a factor of two (from 600 to 250 ms first-stage residence time) and

J. A. Mulholland; R. K. Srivastava

1987-01-01

10

Low NOx, High Efficiency Multistaged Burner: Fuel Oil Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency is being evaluated for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low NOx precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by approximately a factor of two (from 600 to 250 ms first-stage residence time) and coupled with

James A. Mulholland; Ravi K. Srivastava

1988-01-01

11

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

12

Automatic Equipment for Combined Use of Electric and Oil Burners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control problem at combined uses of electric boilers and fuel oil boilers are discussed, in particular the situation where fuel oil boilers are supplemented with electric boilers. A review of existing control equipment for fuel oil boilers is given, a...

J. Hamrefors

1984-01-01

13

Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments  

SciTech Connect

Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (US))

1992-04-01

14

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the fla...

T. A. Butcher P. Cerniglia

1990-01-01

15

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

16

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity.  

PubMed Central

Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation.

Braun, A G; Busby, W F; Liber, H L; Thilly, W G

1987-01-01

17

Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-06-01

18

DESIGN AND FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A LOW-NOX BURNER FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAMERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental stud...

19

Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

Butcher, Thomas A. (Port Jefferson, NY); Celebi, Yusuf (Middle Island, NY); Fisher, Leonard (Colrain, MA)

2000-09-15

20

Low NO sub x , high efficiency multistaged burner; Fuel oil results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOâ control and high combustion efficiency evaluated for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low NOâ adiabatic precombustion chamber burner has been reduced in size by approximately a factor of two (from a 600 ms first-stage residence time to 250

J. A. Mulholland; R. K. Srivastava

1987-01-01

21

Burner (Stinger)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the following: a history of recurring burners neck pain symptoms in both arms weakness lasting more than ... burner. If you feel any weakness, tingling, or neck pain, avoid participating in contact sports. How Should You ...

22

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

23

DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used with all oil burner installations. The other possible failure mode had been attributed to fuel degradation and this became the main focus of the evaluation. The degradation of fuel usually occurs faster under higher temperature conditions. To preclude this as much as possible controls that provided for a post-purge of combustion airflow after burner shut down were selected. This provided a short period of time where the burner's combustion air blower continues to operate after the flame has gone out. This tends to cool the nozzle and in turn the fuel inside the small flow pathways inside the nozzle components. This study concludes that the use of low capacity nozzles is possible but only when the temperature and thermal mass environment of the combustion chamber result in a relatively ''cool'' condition. This was accomplished in one long-term experiment that essentially operated for a full heating season equivalent with no evidence of nozzle plugging or failure. The nozzle body surface temperature was kept at or below 150 F during the duration of the trial. On the other hand, a second system was studied that ended in a partial nozzle blockage and a system failure. In this ''hot environment'' system the nozzle body temperature reached 210 F. This occurred at close to a full heating season equivalent, yet it still would have resulted in a no-heat complaint by the homeowner.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2007-05-01

24

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

1998-11-03

25

Pulverized coal burner  

DOEpatents

A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

Sivy, Jennifer L. (Alliance, OH); Rodgers, Larry W. (Canton, OH); Koslosy, John V. (Akron, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Uniontown, OH); Kaufman, Keith C. (Canton, OH); Sarv, Hamid (Canton, OH)

1998-01-01

26

Ceramic burner  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

1981-03-31

27

Industrial burner and process efficiency program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory prototype burner which is compatible with a FM (frequency modulation) combustion control system where temperature control is accomplished by regulating the ratio of burner on-time to burner off-time was developed. This multifuel (natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil) high velocity burner is capable of repeated pulse ignition at maximum rated capability (1 million Btu-hour) with preheated air

S. R. Huebner; S. N. Prakash

1981-01-01

28

Gas burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

During handling and in service, the radiant panel and the casing of gas-fired burners sometimes come apart, disabling the burner. Normally, the radiant panel is mounted like a lid on a ceramic-refractory-material box and secured by refractory mortar cement, or adhesive. A novel method of strengthening this mortar bond involves wrapping adhesive-bound glass (or other refractory fibers) around the connection

1981-01-01

29

Pioneer 10  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pioneer 10 was launched by NASA in 1972 on a two-year mission to Jupiter. Nearly 31 years later, its mission finally came to an end with the last signal received on January 22, 2003. The spacecraft exceeded everyone's expectations, including two people from the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute. The Pioneer 10 homepage on NASA's Web site has detailed information on the spacecraft's mission and accomplishments. Descriptions of the final attempts at communication are also given.

2003-01-01

30

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.  

PubMed Central

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low smoke samples (8). Oxygen-containing PAH, typified by phenalene-1-one and its alkyl derivatives, are important mutagens from cyclic firing at high smoke conditions. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors, including the automotive diesel engine, where multiring PAH, typified by fluoranthene and alkylated phenanthrenes, account for a significant portion of the effluent mutagenicity. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed.

Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

1987-01-01

31

DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

32

DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

33

Staged superposition burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gaseous fuel burner comprising a burner body having a burner tip installed in a wall of a furnace or the like for combustion of gaseous fuel therein. It comprises a primary supply means; the burner having a tip for discharging the premix in a direction extending along an inner surface of the furnace wall, secondary air

W. C. Gensler; J. J. Van Eerden; C. F. Gottschlich

1992-01-01

34

Burner systems  

DOEpatents

A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

Doherty, Brian J. (Marblehead, MA)

1984-07-10

35

Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference  

SciTech Connect

The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

McDonald, R.J.

1998-04-01

36

Passive and active control of NO x in industrial burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial burners that use either fuel oil or natural gas are considered as candidates for implementing strategies for control of NOx. Two burners, at 20 and 800 kW burning fuel oil are installed in a tunnel furnace and subjected to active control by way of introducing pulses into the air supply. Using optical diagnostics to identify the CH radical, the

O. Delabroy; E. Haile; F. Lacas; S. Candel; A. Pollard; A. Sobiesiak; H. A. Becker

1998-01-01

37

Gas burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a burner for combustible gases which consist of: a duct for the flow of pressurized combustible mixture; a vortex sheet generator mounted in the duct; the vortex sheet generator having two baffles, each baffle defining a separate path through the generator adapted to conduct substantially equal portions of the total flow of combustion gas through the generator; each of the baffles inclining in an opposite direction longitudinally of the duct and having a straight vortex sheet edge; the vortex sheet edge of the two baffles meeting in the central area of the duct to make a V-configuration opening in the downstream direction of the duct; the vortex sheet edges of the two baffles being contained in a common plane that extends along the longitudinal axis of the duct. Gas from each path through the generator emerging past its respective vortex sheet edge interfaces with gas from the other path emerging from its respective vortex sheet edge in an opposed direction to form a vortex sheet by viscous shear. The shear is attached to and downstream of the vortex sheet edges and that develops into a vortex tube still further downstream of the vortex sheet edges.

Armstrong, R.J.

1987-01-27

38

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR STEAM GENERATORS. TEST REPORT: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents preliminary testing of a 16 MW low-NOx burner for retrofit application to thermally enhanced, oil recovery steam generators. The burner is designed to achieve NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while burning heavy fuel oil containing more than 0.6 w...

39

Self-energizing burner control system for a fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-energizing burner control system for burner means is described having a pilot burner and a main burner. It includes: thermoelectric generator means responsive to a flame from the pilot burner to generate a direct current potential; fuel valve means for controlling fuel to the main burner; and solid state switch means and the fuel valve means connected in series

Bohan; J. E. Jr

1987-01-01

40

Waste oil heater system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A waste oil burner feed and control apparatus is described for improved control of the output flame of a waste oil burner which atomizes waste oil to facilitate combustion, by precisely and adjustably controlling the flow rate of the waste oil being combusted, comprising: (a) a source of oil; (b) an oil supply line which receives oil from the source

G. Schubach; F. Schubach

1993-01-01

41

Ceramic burner plate  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a ceramic burner plate using a fiber composite ceramic of low thermal conductivity having gas passages, and provides a burner plate, wherein the burner plate contains a lithium component and such components as nickel, manganese, cobalt, titanium, copper, iron, chromium, and vanadium, to assist in the combustion of gas, and has a surface construction having triangular projections, hexagonal projections or rhombic projections, to ensure increased heat radiation.

Mihara, T.; Kusuda, T.; Noma, K.; Taki, H.

1985-03-12

42

Fan-Type Gas Burners for Small Heat-Release Rates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Majority of buildings are single-family houses. It is expected that in the future about 70% of all heating boilers and burners will be rated in the range from 10 to 30 kW. This range requires the use of small burners. In contrast to oil burners, this rang...

O. Beedgen

1980-01-01

43

Industrial burner and process efficiency program. Annual report Jan-Dec 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory prototype burner which is compatible with a FM (Frequency Modulation) combustion control system where temperature control is accomplished by regulating the ratio of burner on-time to burner off-time has been developed. This multifuel (Natural Gas and No. 2 Fuel Oil) high velocity burner is capable of repeated pulse ignition at maximum rated capacity (1 million Btu\\/hour) with preheated

S. R. Huebner; S. N. Prakash

1981-01-01

44

Combustor burner vanelets  

SciTech Connect

The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Loveland, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14

45

Energy from true in-situ processing of Antrim shale: methane burner ignition system  

SciTech Connect

A rugged yet simple burner that can be easily ignited and reignited is a necessity if in situ thermal methods of energy extraction are to be feasible. During extraction trials at the Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site at Peck, Michigan such a burner was utilized. The performance of the TOR Development burner and ignitor system proved to be reliable and practical under field conditions. However, some recently discovered measures are crucial in protecting the burner and associated downhole hardware. With such precautions burner life was extended by a factor of 15. In the first trial burner life was two days and in the second trial the burner remained intact at least thirty days. Also described is a system which monitored burner performance by continuously analyzing burner exhaust gases. A slip stream sampling technique utilized the high well pressure to transport, at nearly Mach I, a sample of burner exhaust gas to the analytical trailer. There the sample was analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, unburned hydrocarbons, and O/sub 2/ by a bank of high speed process gas analyzers. Burner flameouts could be detected in less than 2 minutes. Also the system allowed burner (air/fuel) ratios to be determined on a real time basis. These ratios were used for (1) setting the proper air-fuel mixtures for ignition and steady state operation, (2) leak detection, (3) estimation of burner deterioration after extended use, and (4) study of the burner's steady state and transient response characteristics.

VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

1980-08-01

46

Combustion modeling and burner replacement strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains papers presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Included are the following articles: Combustion system optimization by advanced modeling technology, Experience on conversion of oil-fired to coal-fired boiler, Sources and solutions of burner related rumbling problems in boilers.

R. V. Nayak; N. A. Mousa

1990-01-01

47

Fuel burner assembly  

SciTech Connect

A fuel burner assembly is described for providing a stable, non-pulsating flame wall proximate the outlet of a burner duct comprising: a burner duct having an upstream inlet end and a downstream outlet end, the inlet end being adapted to be connected to a source of combustion air and the outlet and being adapted to accommodate a burner flame wall proximate thereto; a sleeve member supportively disposed within the burner duct to extend along the longitudinal axis thereof; a transverse baffle member extending across the inner wall of the sleeve member intermediate the inlet and outlet ends thereof to define upstream and downstream chambers within the sleeve member between the inlet and outlet ends thereof; first air passage means in the sleeve member wall between the upstream chamber and the diversion chamber and second air passage means in the sleeve member wall between the diversion chamber and the downstream chamber; spaced fuel outlet and igniter means selectively positioned in the downstream chamber proximate the outlet end thereof to ignite with the radially inward directed combustion air to create a burner flame wall proximate the outlet end of the burner duct.

Mutchler, P.A.

1988-06-28

48

Dual fuel low NOx burner  

SciTech Connect

A dual fuel burner is described comprising: a divergent quarl having an entrance, and exit downstream from said entrance, and a plurality of axially extending staging air ports equally spaced around said exit; a wind pipe coaxially connected to said entrance of said quarl; a swirl generator coaxially received in said wind pipe, said swirl generator having a plurality of vanes and a center hole; a gas gun including a tube and a gas nozzle, said tube having an upstream end and a downstream end and being coaxially positioned within said center hole of said swirl generator said gas nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said gas nozzle having a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; an oil gun including an oil tube, an oil nozzle, and a high pressure air tube, said oil gun tube having an upstream end and a downstream end, said oil gun tube being coaxially positioned within said gas gun tube, said oil nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said oil gun tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said oil nozzle including a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; said high pressure tube provided within said oil gun tube, said high pressure tube being in fluid communication with said oil nozzle passageways.

Shyhching Yang; Bortz, S.J.

1993-08-31

49

EASTERN PIONEER MOUNTAINS, MONTANA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight mining districts and numerous individual mines ring the eastern Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana, and are within 4 mi of the boundary of the eastern Pioneer area. Mineralized ground peripheral to these districts extends into the area at several places. Three of 12 molybdenum prospects in the Pioneer Mountains are within the eastern Pioneer area. Several areas of Paleozoic carbonate rocks are mineralized or favorably situated with respect to the Pioneer batholith. All such areas have probable resource potential. Detailed studies of structural and stratigraphic controls of ore deposition and its association with intrusive rocks of particular types and ages may be useful in providing the basis for a more precise resource assessment.

Pearson, Robert, C.

1984-01-01

50

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA) [Kensington, CA

1998-01-01

51

Ultralean low swirl burner  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

1998-04-07

52

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

Cheng, R.K.

1998-04-07

53

Gaseous and liquid fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rugged burner designed by Consolidated Natural Gas Service Co., Inc., for metallurgical furnaces (for such processes as the smelting\\/refining of iron and steel, annealing, or other heat treating) can produce high temperatures and a reducing and noncarburizing atmosphere without causing carbonization or other fouling of the burner or furnace. The burner, which can be fabricated largely from standard

Syska

1978-01-01

54

Fuel-staging coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel-staging burner assembly and method in which a burner nozzle has separate, concentrically disposed elements to burn coarse and fine coal particles under different combustion conditions to reduce the production of nitrogen oxides from the combustion of coal as a fuel. The burner assembly further includes a control nozzle for maintaining a swirling motion in the combustion flame and

Vatsky

1980-01-01

55

Burner for Gaseous Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A burner for gaseous fuel, which claims to obtain a stoichiometric and stable combustion is disclosed. It consists of an admission chamber provided with a perforated cover treaded into a body. Terminal part of the cover and the curvilinear extremity of th...

H. Coanda G. Muresan

1982-01-01

56

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu\\/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and

J. D. Sullivan; M. J. Duret

1997-01-01

57

Pioneer III Probe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Looking more like surgeons, these technicians wearing 'cleanroom' attire inspect the Pioneer III probe before shipping it to Cape Canaveral, Florida. Pioneer III was launched on December 6, 1958 aboard a Juno II rocket at the Atlantic Missile Range, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The mission objectives were to measure the radiation intensity of the Van Allen radiation belt, test long range communication systems, the launch vehicle and other subsystems. The Juno II failed to reach proper orbital escape velocity. The probe re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on December 7th ending its brief mission.

1961-01-01

58

Space Pioneers and Where They Are Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the Pioneer Program and its role in exploring the solar system. Sections include: (1) "Pioneers in Space to Understand Our Earth" (describing the background of the program); (2) "First Pioneers"; (3) "The Interplanetary Pioneers"; (4) "Planetary Pioneers"; (5) "Outer Solar System Pioneers"; (6) "The Pioneers Now and In the…

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

59

Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and burnthrough time was studied. Potential design improvements were also evaluated that could simplify burner set up and operation.

Ochs, Robert Ian

60

The New Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2012 National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Digital Principals are pioneers in digital technology and social media in the principalship. In this question and answer session, these principals share their philosophies and practices. Patrick Larkin discusses what else a principal must invest time and resources in for tech…

Farrace, Bob

2012-01-01

61

High efficiency gas burner  

DOEpatents

A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

Schuetz, Mark A. (Belmont, MA)

1983-01-01

62

Firetube boiler fiber burner development program. Final report, September 1982-September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 48-month program to perform field evaluations of durability of the Pyrocore radiant fiber burner in gas-fired firetube boilers are presented. These activities included selection of four industrial test sites; testing of a prototype segmented burner; design, construction, and installation of the four field test units; and field testing of the boilers with both conventional and fiber burners. The burner designs and potential control schemes for achieving various turndown capabilities are discussed. The unique aspects of each test site and installation are described, and the test results and benefits over the evaluation period are presented. Burner modifications implemented to reduce cost and enhance reliability are included. Additional tasks to develop a fuel-oil-firing capability for dual-fuel operation, and to improve the durability of the ceramic materials comprising the burner, are also summarized.

Krill, W.V.; Pam, R.L.; Kesselring, J.P.

1986-12-31

63

Oxy-fuel burner system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of modifying an electric arc furnace to include oxy-fuel burners which assist in the melting of scrap metal. The furnace includes a bottom wall extending to a generally cylindrical side wall, and centrally located electrode means, comprising the steps of: (a) providing gas burners operable to emit hot combustion gases for melting scrap metal; (b) securing mounting means to the furnace to adjustably mount each of the burners to the furnace to flow combustion gases into the furnace along a firing direction extending downwardly at an angle of about 45 degrees and across an associated furnace cold spot; (c) selecting a burner firing rate for each of the burners within the firing rate range and operating each of the burners for a firing time of sufficient duration to provide a total heat energy output of from about 250,000 to about 350,000 BTU per ton of furnace capacity; (d) operating the furnace to determine the occurrence of any side wall wear locations and unmelted scrap metal locations and the burner primarily affecting such locations; (e) adjusting the mounting means to laterally vary the firing direction of the burner primarily affecting the location of side wall wear radially inwardly and to laterally vary the firing direction of the burner primarily affecting the location of any unmelted scrap metal toward such scrap metal; (f) operating the furnace to determine the continued occurence of the side wall wear and unmelted scrap locations determined in step (d).

Herneisen, E.L.; Gist, R.G. Jr.

1988-03-08

64

Pioneer Venus Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

Jones, Douglas E.

1996-01-01

65

Pioneer Venus Data Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis and interpretation of data from the Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer (ORPA) onboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter is reported. By comparing ORPA data to proton data from the Orbiter Plasma Analyzer (OPA), it was found that the ORPA suprathermal electron densities taken outside the Venusian ionopause represent solar wind electron densities, thus allowing the high resolution study of Venus bow shocks using both magnetic field and solar wind electron data. A preliminary analysis of 366 bow shock penetrations was completed using the solar wind electron data as determined from ORPA suprathermal electron densities and temperatures, resulting in an estimate of the extent to which mass loading pickup of O+ (UV ionized O atoms flowing out of the Venus atmosphere) upstream of the Venus obstacle occurred. The pickup of O+ averaged 9.95%, ranging from 0.78% to 23.63%. Detailed results are reported in two attached theses: (1) Comparison of ORPA Suprathermal Electron and OPA Solar Wind Proton Data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and (2) Pioneer Venus Orbiter Retarding Potential Analyzer Observations of the Electron Component of the Solar Wind, and of the Venus Bow Shock and Magnetosheath.

Jones, Douglas E.

1996-03-01

66

Gas burners with controllable flame length  

Microsoft Academic Search

To stabilize the heat working of the furnaces it is necessary to replace the gas burners frequently. Infurnaces with a large number of burners such replacement is laborious and at times impossible. The problem could be resolved by using gas burner devices ensuring alterations in the area of emission section from the nozzle in the working state. In developing burner

A. S. Kozlov; V. I. Kislyak; T. I. Shitova; V. V. Smirnov; I. S. Volkov; V. A. Tolstov

1981-01-01

67

Radial lean direct injection burner  

SciTech Connect

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04

68

Low loss duct burner  

SciTech Connect

A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded position to increase duct turbulence for mixing air flow therethrough with a fuel supply and into a retracted position against each other to reduce pressure drop under nonafterburning operation. Each of the flame stabilizer blades has a platform that controls communication between a hot air source and a duct for improving fuel vaporization during afterburner operation thereby to increase afterburning limits; the platforms close communication between the hot air source and the duct during nonafterburning operation when flame stabilization is not required.

Mar, H. M.; Reider, S. B.

1985-07-09

69

Eugen Sänger: Eminent space pioneer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Sänger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Sänger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space

Aleksander Kerstein; Drago Matko

2007-01-01

70

Development of Pulverized Fuel Combustion for Small Scale Units of the Heat Market. Part: Pulverized Fuel Burner. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six pulverized fuel burners were tested on a superheated steam boiler with a capacity of five tph. All tested burners showed a reliable operation of the boiler designed for oil/gas burning without need of any support energy. The fouling could be kept of a...

E. Luecker

1987-01-01

71

Burner ignition system  

DOEpatents

An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

1986-01-21

72

Are low NOx burners really low NOx?  

SciTech Connect

All low NOx burners are susceptible to system changes and upsets. Segregation of coal and air into what has been termed 'coal ropes' is one such condition. Coal roping in the burner fuel piping creates areas of very high air/fuel ratios allowing premature ignition inside the burner or at the very burner tip. The ability of any burner to lower thermal NOx is diminished in these clean fuel areas. The Sure Alloy Steel Corp. has developed a blender to install just after the last elbow or connection leading to the burner pipes to overcome the problem. 2 figs.

Blankinship, S.

2005-08-01

73

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Fluxgate Magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluxgate magnetometer on the Pioneer Venus orbiter spacecraft is described. Special features include gradiometer operation, on board despinning, a floating point processor and variable Nyquist filters. Initial operations have been entirely successful.

C. T. Russell; R. C. Snare; J. D. Means; R. C. Elphic

1980-01-01

74

Pioneer 11's New Saturn.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New findings about the planet, Saturn and its environs, as collected by Pioneer 11 are detailed. Topics discussed include: the composition of the planet's interior, the search for new satellites, and the planet's magnetic field. (BT)

Science News, 1979

1979-01-01

75

11. Pioneer venus experiment descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This concluding paper of a special issue of Space Science Reviews, devoted to the exploration of Venus and the Pioneer Venus Program, contains brief engineering descriptions of the experiments to be integrated into the Orbiter and Multiprobe scientific payloads.

L. Colin; D. M. Hunten

1977-01-01

76

Controller for pulverized coal burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning pulverized coal in power boilers causes considerable emission of atmospheric pollution. In order to decrease it the combustion process itself has been modified, however at cost of side effects like: increased level of unburned coal particles in the ashes. There are tens of burners in a single power boiler and emission level measurements are made in flue gas duct, so the control based on such averaged and heavily delayed values often results ineffective. The neural controller of the pulverized coal burner attempts to resolve these problems. The clue is utilization of fiber-optic system for monitoring of chosen zone of flame developed in Department of Electronics of Technical University of Lublin. The article contains description of controlled system and optical fiber measurement system, an idea of the controller as well as some results obtained for experimental burner.

Wojcik, Waldemar; Golec, Tomasz; Kotyra, Andrzej; Smolarz, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel; Kalita, Mariusz

2004-09-01

77

Emission Characteristics of the Shell Low-NOx Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Koninklijke\\/Shell-Laboratorium in Amsterdam a low-NOx burner is being developed for the combustion of heavy fuel oil, asphalt, natural gas and refinery gas, as well as for combinations of liquid and gaseous fuels in dual fuel firing mode. The NOx reduction is accomplished by air staging, while the particulate emission is simultaneously kept low using intense steam atomisation (40%w

B. DE JONG

1993-01-01

78

Dual structure infrared surface combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improvement in a surface combustion radiant heat burner comprising an inlet plenum for receiving fuel and oxidant gas mixtures from at least one supply inlet and a burner body secured in communication with the inlet plenum. The burner body having an inlet side facing the plenum and an outlet side defining a radiating surface. It comprises:

J. R. Morris; N. H. Burlingame

1989-01-01

79

Tests of burners for rotary furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of three types of burners were investigated. The burners had the same housing, which was a tube with a 35-mm inside diameter and a l-mm length ending in an interchangeable orifice (Fig. 2). The burner with orifice A had a conical throttle narrowing the flow of gas in its path and forming with the cylindrical orifice a controllable cross

V. V. Strekotin; M. Z. Shvartsrman; I. P. Tsibin; A. A. Vintovkin; L. I. Alekseev; A. L. Chekhovich

1982-01-01

80

Industrial burner and process efficiency program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This

S. R. Huebner; S. N. Prakash; D. B. Hersh

1982-01-01

81

Thermionic cogeneration burner design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since thermionic converters receive heat at very high temperatures (approximately 1800 K) and reject heat at moderately high temperatures (approximately 800 K), they are useful for cogeneration applications involving high temperature processes. The electric power from thermionic converters is produced as a high amperage, low-voltage direct current. An ideal cogeneration application would be to utilize the reject heat at the collector temperature and the electricity without power conditioning. A cogeneration application in the edible oil industry fulfills both of these requirements since both direct heat and hydrogen gas are required in the hydrogenation of the oils. In this application, the low-voltage direct current would be used in a hydrogen electrolyzer.

Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Moffat, A. L.; Morgan, D. T.

82

Uniform-burning matrix burner  

DOEpatents

Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Anselmo, Mark (Arvada, CO)

2001-01-01

83

Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Pettengill, G. H.; Ford, P. G.; Brown, W. E.; Kaula, W. M.; Keller, C. H.; Masursky, H.; Mcgill, G. E.

1979-01-01

84

Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the…

Harris, Alex H. S.

2009-01-01

85

Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the…

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

86

Fuel nozzle for burner construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

By enhancing fuel-air mixing, this two-stage burner configuration lowers the amount of noxious substances and smoke emitted. Primary fuel burns in an annulus in the first combustion zone while secondary fuel is discharged downstream to a second combustion zone. Vortex generators located in the fuel-air passageway to primary zone improve both the mixing and the toroidal flow. More vortex generators

S. J. Markowski; R. P. Lohmann

1981-01-01

87

A two-stage burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new design of burner achieves improved fuel combustion by combining (i) a primary diffusion-flame from a wick with (ii) a secondary premixed-flame. The latter occurs as a result of fuel being vaporized by radiant heat from the diffusion flame and that vapour being mixed by convection with air entrained through an orifice. The efficiency of the diffusion-flame combustion is

L. Nagle; D. Probert

1992-01-01

88

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration, Phase I. Monthly report, October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and design activities have centered around completion of material procurement for installation of the air-atomized Forney Verloop burner system and associated fuel supply systems. Twelve existing burners will be removed from the boiler during a scheduled shutdown to permit the installation of the new burners along with three primary air fans, four fuel oil metering pumps, an ignition oil

Dunn

1977-01-01

89

Automatic gas burner block for thermal units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a new computerized control system and gas burner configuration for natural gas furnaces used for the heat treatment of ceramics and porcelain which is designed to control and monitor combustion and temperature regimes in the furnace and optimize fuel efficiency. The system permits simultaneous operation and thermal load control of up to 12 burners, automatic maintenance of

K. S. Kryzhanovskii; V. I. Senatov

1987-01-01

90

Heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a numerical study of the heat transfer characteristics of porous radiant burners, which have significant advantages over conventional burners. The heat transfer characteristics are investigated using a one-dimensional conduction, convection, and radiation model. The combustion phenomenon is modeled as spatially dependent heat generation. Nonlocal thermal equilibrium between the gas and solid phases is accounted for by using

T. W. Tong; S. B. Sathe

1991-01-01

91

Firetube Boiler Fiber Burner Demonstration Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

First year activities of a 26 month program to demonstrate the durability of the radiant fiber burner in gas-fired firetube boilers are presented. These activities include selection of four industrial test sites, testing of a prototype segmented burner, d...

W. V. Krill J. P. Kesselring

1983-01-01

92

Low NO[sub x] burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuel burner is described for the combustion of a fuel to produce a flue gas in the presence of oxygen, flue gas and water which comprises: (a) a nozzle having a nozzle tip area comprising a flue gas addition means comprising fluid communication with flue gas generated by said burner to provide for circulation of at least a portion

Johnson

1993-01-01

93

Waste Automotive Lubricating Oil as a Municipal Incinerator Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical, economic and environmental impact of using waste automotive lubricating oils to improve the municipal incineration combustion process was examined. Laboratory analyses of selected physical properties of waste oil and a waste oil burner test...

S. Chansky B. McCoy N. Surprenant

1973-01-01

94

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from small (5-mL) glass vials. The vials are filled with a methanol solution of the desired salt and a paper wick is added. Thus, a small amount of solvent (5 mL or less) provides a colored flame, which lasts for several minutes. Vials and paper wicks can be reused. Use of the described alcohol burner in a flame test demonstration has several advantages. It is inexpensive, a number of tests can be run simultaneously, and stock solutions of metal salts can be prepared in advance and stored for future demonstrations.

Dragojlovic, Veljko

1999-07-01

95

Industrial burner and process efficiency program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

1982-10-01

96

Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

Not Available

1993-04-01

97

Burners  

MedlinePLUS

... among people who play contact sports such as football and wrestling. Symptoms How do I know if ... each stretch for 20 seconds. If you play football, wear extra neck protection. Questions to Ask Your ...

98

Second-generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines; Burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Based on fundamental research concerning swirling flows, including the vortex breakdown phenomenon, as well as on stability consideration of premixed flames, a second generation of low-emission burners has been developed. The lean premixing technique provides NO{sub x} emissions below 25 ppmv for natural gas. For liquid fuels the oxides of nitrogen are limited to 42 ppmv (oil No. 2). The novel burner technology will be applied to the well-known ABB silo combustor. As a first step the Conical Premix Burner will be used to retrofit the ABB type 11N. For the ABB gas turbine type 8 the design of a novel fully annular combustor is in progress. Most of the conceptual work concerning burner aerodynamics and burner-burner interaction has been carried out on scaled-down burner and combustor models. For a second step a sector of the combustor in 1:1 scale has been tested at atmospheric pressure. Additional high-pressure tests provide information about the combustor performance at engine conditions. The present paper summarizes the results of the first two steps beginning with the early ideas in the conceptual phase up to the 1:1 tests, which prove the low-No{sub x} capability for both gaseous and liquid fuels under atmospheric pressure conditions.

Sattelmayer, T.; Felchlin, M.P.; Haumann, J.; Hellat, J.; Styner, D. (ABB Corporate Research Center, Aerodynamics Dept., CH-5405 Baden (CH))

1992-01-01

99

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high efficiency, low nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners with flame and heat transfer characteristics suitable for specific industrial processes was investigated. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) a high excess air burner used in direct air dryers for applications in the food

H. A. Abbasi; M. J. Khinkis; R. T. Waibel

1982-01-01

100

Redox pioneer: Professor Leopold Flohé.  

PubMed

Leopold Flohé is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because has published a article on antioxidant/redox biology, as first author, that has been cited more than 1,000 times, and more than 20 articles have been cited more than 100 times. He obtained the medical doctorate at the Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of Tübingen, Germany, in 1968. He held positions in both Academia (Tübingen, Aachen, and Braunschweig, Germany) and industry (Aachen). He is now operating the biotech company MOLISA in Magdeburg, Germany, while teaching as guest professor at the local university. Dr. Flohé is the pioneer who established the selenoprotein nature of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), the first and, for almost 10 years, the only selenoprotein known in animals. His work was pivotal to link the essential trace element selenium to metabolic processes, which led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve selenium supplementation for humans in 1980, and stimulated selenium biochemistry in general. In recent years, he embarked on investigating how pathogens protect themselves from oxidative killing. His inseminating studies on the thiol-dependent hydroperoxide metabolism of trypanosomatids and mycobacteria defined molecular drug targets, paving the way to new therapeutic strategies for neglected diseases affecting the people of developing countries. PMID:20446764

Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde

2010-11-15

101

Granite flame finishing internal burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an internal burner for producing subsonic air-fuel flame jets for the flame finishing of granite and similar stone; a first nozzle within the body of relatively small diameter d{sub 1} at an exit end of the combustion chamber to expand the products to supersonic velocity, a duct of sufficiently large diameter within the body downstream of the first nozzle and open thereto to convert the jet of hot gases to subsonic velocity by shock action for discharging hot gas product of combustion, and a second nozzle having a larger diameter d{sub 2} than the diameter d{sub 1} of the first nozzle within the body open to the duct and at the end of the duct opposite the first nozzle whereby a subsonic flame jet is produced to be directed against the rock surface.

Browning, J.A.

1992-06-30

102

Catalytic reactor with improved burner  

DOEpatents

To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

Faitani, Joseph J. (Hartford, CT); Austin, George W. (Glastonbury, CT); Chase, Terry J. (Somers, CT); Suljak, George T. (Vernon, CT); Misage, Robert J. (Manchester,all of, CT)

1981-01-01

103

Gas Burner (ChemPages Lab)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gas Burner: this is a resource in the collection "ChemPages Laboratory Resources". A gas burner is used to heat non-flammable objects or solutions. It can be used to heat objects to very high temperatures. Temperatures in the hottest region of the burner exceed 1000°C. The ChemPages Laboratory Resources are a set of web pages that include text, images, video, and self check questions. The topics included are those that are commonly encountered in the first-year chemistry laboratory. They have been put together for use as both a pre-laboratory preparation tool and an in-laboratory reference source.

104

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

105

Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1988-01-01

106

Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our contemporary notion of planetary habitability. This study also shows the convergence of the methodological aspects used to examine the concept of habitability, mainly based on analogy.

Raulin Cerceau, Florence

107

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report  

SciTech Connect

The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and sub-50 ppM CO emissions using high excess air, external flue gas recirculation (FGR), and fuel staging in the 3 MMBtu/hr laboratory watertube boiler. In a test in a 50,000 lb/hr oil field steamer with fuel staging, it consistently achieved sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 10 ppM NOx. With high CO{sub 2} casing gas in this steamer, simulating external FGR, sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 5 ppM NOx were achieved. Burner material cost was reduced by 25% on a per Btu basis by increasing the effective surface firing rate at the burner; further reductions will occur in Phase II. The market for 30 ppM and 9 ppM low NOx burners has been identified as package boilers in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb/hr size range (the 30 ppM is for retrofit, the 9 ppM for the new boiler market). Alzeta and Babcock & Wilcox have teamed to sell both boiler retrofits and new boilers; they have identified boiler designs which use the compact flame shape of the RSB and can increase steam capacity while maintaining the same boiler footprint. Alzeta, Chevron, and B & W have teamed to identify sites to demonstrate the RSB in Phases II and III. In Phase II, the RSB will be demonstrated in a 100,000 lb/hr industrial watertube boiler.

Sullivan, J.D.; Duret, M.J.

1997-06-01

108

Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

1999-01-01

109

Examining the Myth of the Pioneer Woman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost thirty years after Judith Godden looked afresh at the pioneer woman it seems that history, as a discipline, has gone some way towards attending to her call to complicate its treatment of (white) women's early experiences in the Australian colonies. The myth of the Pioneer Woman, however, remains as pervasive as ever and it remains tacked on, though now

Jemima Mowbray

110

Pathfinding by Peripheral Pioneer Neurons in Grasshoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grasshopper neurons accurately project axons across long distances between peripheral structures and the central nervous system. Nerve-trunk pathways followed by these axons are established early in embryogenesis by pioneer neurons. Growth cones from the first pioneers navigate along a chain of cells to the CNS. The placement of these cells may constitute the initial guidance mechanism underlying long-distance pathfinding.

David Bentley; Haig Keshishian

1982-01-01

111

Mission to the sun: The solar pioneer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar Pioneer is a mission concept developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU\\/APL) to do exploratory science in the inner heliosphere and outer solar corona. The concept is derived from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft now being built by JHU\\/APL for NASA. The purpose of the Solar Pioneer is to deliver a payload of

R. L. McNutt Jr.; S. M. Krimigis; A. F. Cheng; R. E. Gold; R. W. Farquhar; E. C. Roelof; T. B. Coughlin; A. Santo; R. S. Bokulic; E. L. Reynolds; B. D. Williams; C. E. Willey

1995-01-01

112

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high efficiency, low nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners with flame and heat transfer characteristics suitable for specific industrial processes was investigated. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) a high excess air burner used in direct air dryers for applications in the food processing industry; (2) a hot air burner with high convective heat transfer for direct fired metal processing furnaces; and (3) a hot air burner with a long, luminous flame for direct fired process furnaces in the steel, aluminum, and glass industries. The high convective, hot air burner achieved NOx emission reduction of up to 50%. NOx emissions from the hot air burner with a long, luminous flame were 45 to 60% lower than the standard burner.

Abbasi, H. A.; Khinkis, M. J.; Waibel, R. T.

1982-05-01

113

Firing crude or fuel oil in steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually less expensive to fire thermal steam generators with lease crude, natural gas, fuel or diesel oil rather than to fire with LPG. Special burners are required if these heavy oils are used. The cost of operating these burners depends on the nature of the cost of the power, steam or air. This cost depends more on the

1967-01-01

114

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01

115

Interbus-S pioneers interoperability  

SciTech Connect

End-user demands for interoperability among I/O devices from various vendors is fueling the trend toward open networks. However, the {open_quotes}openness{close_quotes} of a network does not guarantee interoperability simply because a device can connect to it. Connection is the easy part. There are two key aspects to interoperability: first, a stable network platform is needed; second, and most important, profiles are required that define the operation of a particular device. The Interbus-S open I/O network has been a pioneer in the area of interoperability. Its stable platform comes from a protocol chip that handles all network access and data traffic without the need for external software stacks. Device profiles for Interbus-S have been available for five years with eight different profiles already in use. Device profiles define the operating and programming methods of a particular device type. Operating definitions include startup sequence, default operating modes, and general behavior of the device. Programming definitions include command syntax, variable assignments, and terminal assignments. Device profiles offer many advantages to the user, such as the following: (1) An I/O device from one manufacturer can be exchanged with a device from another without impacting the software. (2) Application development is accelerated when devices function and communicate identically. (3) Support and training is simplified when all devices operate identically. (4) Software tools incorporate the functionality of the devices to provide greater ease of use.

Rosenberg, T. [Interbus-S Product Manager for Phoenix Contact Inc., Harrisburg, PA (United States)

1996-11-01

116

CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

2013-09-30

117

Performance test reports and comparison of emission characteristics of prototype liquid multifuel burners developed for US military field cooking applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to provide data to the U.S. Army Natick RD&E Center on the performance of three prototype burners, which have the capability of firing with multiple types of fuels (diesel and JP-8), and the conventional gasoline-fired M-2 burner. The prototype burners are intended to replace the M-2 unit currently used in food cooking appliances in the Army. The burners supplied to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the purpose of testing under this project included one M-2 unit, one M-3 prototype unit designed by Natick, one Babington prototype unit designed by Babington Engineering, and one ITR prototype designed by International Thermal Research Ltd. It should be noted, however, that after the project began, Babington Engineering provided an upgraded prototype unit for testing which replaced the unit initially provided by the Natick Center. The M-3 unit replaced the Karcher unit listed in the contract. The test procedures which were described in a Test Method Report allowed for the measurement of the concentrations of specific compounds emitted from the burners. These compounds included oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), formaldehyde, and particulate emissions. The level of smoke produced was also measured by using a Bacharach Smoke Number system (ASTM Standard D2156). A separate Performance Test Report for each burner was prepared as part of this project, and is attached as part of this report. In those reports details of the measurement techniques, instrumentation, test operating conditions, and data for each burner were included. This paper provides a summary and a comparison of the results for all burners. A brief discussion of emissions from other similar small oil combustion systems is also part of this document to provide perspective on the type of contaminants and levels expected from these systems.

Litzke, W.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.

1994-08-01

118

Multi-Fuel Low-NOx Burner Development, Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to develop high-efficiency, low-nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners having flame and heat-transfer characteristics that are suitable for specific industrial processes in cooperation with burner manufac...

H. A. Abbasi M. J. Khinkis R. T. Waibel

1982-01-01

119

Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located inside the National Air and Space Museum, the Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery highlights the world of aviation in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period, flight technology rapidly advanced, aviation records were made and broken in quick succession, and African Americans gained increasing prominence in the field. Visitors to this site will get a preview of the materials contained in the museum through four sections: "Military Aviation", "Black Wings", "Civilian Aviation", and "Rocket Pioneers". In the "Black Wings" area, visitors will learn about pioneers like Bessie Coleman and then view an interactive feature on the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen. Moving on, the "Rocket Pioneers" section features the work of early innovators such as Robert Goddard, who created the world's first flying, liquid-fuel rocket.

120

Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located inside the National Air and Space Museum, the Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery highlights the world of aviation in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period, flight technology rapidly advanced, aviation records were made and broken in quick succession, and African Americans gained increasing prominence in the field. Visitors to this site will get a preview of the materials contained in the museum through four sections: "Military Aviation", "Black Wings", "Civilian Aviation", and "Rocket Pioneers". In the "Black Wings" area, visitors will learn about pioneers like Bessie Coleman and then view an interactive feature on the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen. Moving on, the "Rocket Pioneers" section features the work of early innovators such as Robert Goddard, who created the world's first flying, liquid-fuel rocket.

2011-02-25

121

The Pioneer anomaly and the holographic scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the recently obtained relation between the Verlinde's holographic model and the first phenomenological Modified Newtonian dynamics. This gives also a promising possible explanation to the Pioneer anomaly.

Giné, Jaume

2012-01-01

122

Robert H. Goddard: American Rocket Pioneer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration Facts website presents a history of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry. The site describes Goddard's achievements and their relationships to advances in rocketry in Germany.

2009-12-30

123

Low NO.sub.x burner system  

DOEpatents

A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH) [Plain Twp., Stark County, OH; LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH) [Summit, OH; Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH) [Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH; Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH) [Canton, OH

1993-01-01

124

Improved radiant burner material. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

1998-01-01

125

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P ID's for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-01-01

126

Pioneers 10 and 11 deep space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneers 10 and 11 were launched from Earth, 2 March 1972, and 5 April 1973, respectively. The Pioneers were the first spacecraft to explore the asteroid belt and the first to encounter the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn. The Pioneer 10 spacecraft is now the most distant man-made object in our solar system and is farther from the Sun than all nine planets. It is 47 AU from the Sun and is moving in a direction opposite to that of the Sun's motion through the galaxy. Pioneer 11 is 28 AU from the Sun and is traveling in the direction opposite of Pioneer 10, in the same direction as the Sun moves in the galaxy. These two Pioneer spacecraft provided the first large-scale, in-situ measurements of the gas and dust surrounding a star, the Sun. Since launch, the Pioneers have measured large-scale properties of the heliosphere during more than one complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle, and have measured the properties of the expanding solar atmosphere, the transport of cosmic rays into the heliosphere, and the high-energy trapped radiation belts and magnetic fields associated with the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Accurate Doppler tracking of these spin-stabilized spacecraft was used to search for differential gravitational forces from a possible trans-Neptunian planet and to search for gravitational radiation. Future objectives of the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions are to continue measuring the large-scale properties of the heliosphere and to search for its boundary with interstellar space.

Dyal, Palmer

1990-01-01

127

Second-generation low-emission combustors for ABB gas turbines; Burner development and tests at atmospheric pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on fundamental research concerning swirling flows, including the vortex breakdown phenomenon, as well as on stability consideration of premixed flames, a second generation of low-emission burners has been developed. The lean premixing technique provides NOâ emissions below 25 ppmv for natural gas. For liquid fuels the oxides of nitrogen are limited to 42 ppmv (oil No. 2). The novel

T. Sattelmayer; M. P. Felchlin; J. Haumann; J. Hellat; D. Styner

1992-01-01

128

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 1. LABORATORY SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

129

ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM BURNERS FOR APPLICATION TO HEAVY FUEL FIRED PACKAGE BOILERS. VOLUME 2. PILOT SCALE TESTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies which defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a co...

130

Numerical and experimental investigation of a mild combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial burner operating in the MILD combustion regime through internal recirculation of exhaust gases has been characterized numerically. To develop a self-sufficient numerical model of the burner, two subroutines are coupled to the CFD solver to model the air preheater section and heat losses from the burner through radiation. The resulting model is validated against experimental data on species

Chiara Galletti; Alessandro Parente; Leonardo Tognotti

2007-01-01

131

High efficiency, low nox emitting, staged combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A staged, high efficiency burner for gaseous, liquid or pulverized solid fuels (including fuels having a high nitrogen content) in which NOX emissions are minimized. The burner includes a burner basket having a base including a throat and a concentric, tubular, frustroconically shaped wall that defines a primary combustion space. The fuel and primary air of about 75% of stoichiometric

Voorheis

1984-01-01

132

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

133

Pioneers of the intrauterine device.  

PubMed

The history of the intrauterine device is remarkably short and its survival has been jeopardized several times from the beginning when Gräfenberg introduced the intrauterine ring in 1928, and later when product liability claims in the USA forced companies to withdraw the IUD from the market. However, a revival is happening, and one of the withdrawn copper IUDs has been re-introduced in the USA. In the 1980s, pessimism about the future of the IUD was based on the fact that there are still two major imperfections inherent in intrauterine contraception: its lack of protection against both 'gyne' and sexually transmitted disease. That IUDs, in contrast with some other methods, do not protect the wearer against microbiological invasion from the lower genital tract is correct, and will probably remain so notwithstanding the prophylactic use of antibiotics at the time of insertion. However, the solution to this imperfection is quite simple: clinicians must learn once and for all to adhere to the principle that bilateral monogamy is the first prerequisite for the safe use of this method of contraception. The second drawback of the IUD is the absence of so-called 'gyne' protection. Although seldom threatening women's health, menorrhagia, occasionally accompanied by pain, is a nuisance, and bleeding problems remain the most frequent single reason for the removal of an IUD. Consequently, research should concentrate on the alleviation of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Prevention is difficult, mainly because the etiopathology of abnormal bleeding is insufficiently understood. Menstrual hemostasis is a complex phenomenon and attempts at etiological treatment give poor results. However, because bleeding is, in all probability, related to an endometrial trauma caused by the geometric incompatibility between the frame of the IUD and the uterine cavity, it was logical for research to concentrate on correcting this factor. This review provides some historical notes about the pioneers who contributed to the improvement of intrauterine contraception since the introduction of the intrauterine ring by Gräfenberg in 1928 until the invention of the frameless device by Wildemeersch in 1984. PMID:9678105

Thiery, M

1997-03-01

134

Burner Stabilities of Jet Diffusion Flames.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The near field lift-off phenomena associated with jet diffusion flames were investigated. Lift-off is defined as the instant when the luminous flame zone detaches from the burner exit, stabilizing itself downstream. The lift-off of the jet diffusion flame...

J. P. Seaba

1990-01-01

135

Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were ach...

M. A. Gedwill

1981-01-01

136

Low-NO(sub x) hydrogen burner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ECN ceramic foam burners, originally designed to burn premixed air/natural gas, turn out to be suitable for burning mixtures of H(sub 2) and CH(sub 4) up to a H(sub 2)/CH(sub 4)-ratio of 70/30 (by volume) at any air ratio at power densities ranging from 2...

A. Van der Drift S. L. Tjeng G. J. J. Beckers J. Beesteheerde

1993-01-01

137

Comet Halley: The view from Pioneer Venus  

SciTech Connect

The plans to scan Halley's Comet at close range using the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. The composition of comets, their paths through space, and the history of comet encounters are examined. An ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the spacecraft will determine the composition of the gaseous coma and will measure the total gas production during its passage. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter will observe the comet for five weeks before solar interference with communications occurs as Venus passes on the far side of the Sun from Earth. Diagrams of the solar system and the relationship of the comet to the planets and the Sun are provided.

Not Available

1989-01-01

138

The long life of Pioneer interplanetary spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 6 to 9 interplanetary spacecraft were launched in 1965, 66, 67, and 68. All continue to operate in various orbits about the sun, gathering data on the solar system environment. Pioneer 10 was launched in 1972, and is now more than halfway to Jupiter, with all systems performing their required functions. The paper reviews these programs and the few anomalies which have been observed. The long-term mission success is discussed in terms of possible causative factors: simplicity in design and operation, redundancy in function and in equipment, comprehensive development and acceptance tests, the mildness of the space environment, and luck.

Dixon, W. J.

1974-01-01

139

Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

2009-08-01

140

Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine  

DOEpatents

A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

Leto, Anthony (Franklin Lakes, NJ)

1983-01-01

141

Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

2011-10-01

142

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

ScienceCinema

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

143

Programs of 1993 Winning Teams: Pioneering Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pioneering Partners for Educational Technology was created to enhance learning in K-12 classrooms by accelerating the use of educational technology. This document outlines the projects of the 1993 winning teams. The Illinois programs are: "A Travel Log Via Computer"; "Weatherization Audit Training for Teachers and Students"; and "Technology for…

1993

144

The Pioneer of the Group Encounter Movement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to (1) identify the Pioneer of the Group Encounter Movement, and (2) expose and clarify some of the ambiguities, contradictions and backbiting evident in the Group Encounter Field. The origins of the group encounter movement are examined with a particularly strong emphasis on J. L. Moreno and his introduction of…

Treadwell, Thomas; Treadwell, Jean

145

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

ScienceCinema

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2013-04-19

146

Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

Sykora, F.

1977-01-01

147

Argonne nuclear pioneers: Chicago Pile 1  

SciTech Connect

On December 2, 1942, 49 scientists, led by Enrico Fermi, made history when Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) went critical and produced the world's first self-sustaining, controlled nuclear chain reaction. Seventy years later, two of the last surviving CP-1 pioneers, Harold Agnew and Warren Nyer, recall that historic day.

Agnew, Harold; Nyer, Warren

2012-01-01

148

Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer (LNMS) uses a single focusing magnetic sector field mass analyzer with mass range of 1-208 amu, resolution sufficient to separate the mercury isotopes, and sensitivity sufficient to detect minor constituents in the 1 ppm range relative to the CO2 in the Venus atmosphere. A combination of ion and chemical pumping is used

J. H. Hoffman; R. R. Hodges; K. D. Duerksen

1979-01-01

149

Pioneer 10: Beyond the Known Planets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On June 13, 1983, the U.S. unmanned spacecraft, "Pioneer 10," will cross the orbit of Neptune. This first flight beyond the planets is being celebrated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other groups. Discusses what the spacecraft will observe and types of data it will collect. (JN)

Waller, Peter

1983-01-01

150

A Pioneer of Collegiate Women's Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features North Carolina State University's Kay Yow, a pioneer of collegiate women's sports. An Olympic gold medal champion whose entire coaching career has been spent in her home state of North Carolina, Yow has amassed a remarkable lifetime win-loss record of 729-337. She is one of only six coaches to have won at least 700 career…

Lum, Lydia

2008-01-01

151

Pioneer mission support. [Deep Space Network activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities within the Deep Space Network in support of the Pioneer Project's in-flight spacecraft during the period December 1976 through March 1977 are reported. The amount of tracking coverage provided by the network and a summary of operational testing ot the Mark III Data Subsystems are presented.

Adamski, T. P.

1977-01-01

152

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15

153

Coal-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-04-29

154

Evaluation of NASA Lean Premixed Hydrogen Burner  

SciTech Connect

The stability characteristics of a prototype premixed, hydrogen-fueled burner were studied. The potential application is the use of hydrogen as a fuel for aircraft gas turbine operation. The burner configuration consisted of nine 6.72 mm (0.265 in) diameter channels through which the reactants entered the burner. Hydrogen was injected radially inward through two 0.906-mm (0.0357 in) diameter holes located on opposite sides of each air channel. In this way the region over which hydrogen and air were premixed was minimized to prevent potential flashback problems. All tests were carried out at atmospheric pressure. Flame stability was studied over a range of fuel-lean operating conditions since lean combustion is currently recognized as an effective approach to NOx emissions reduction. In addition to pure hydrogen and air, mixtures of hydrogen-blended methane and air were studied to evaluate the potential improvements in flame stability as hydrogen replaces methane as the primary fuel component.

Robert W. Schefer

2003-01-01

155

Numerical investigation of a pulverized-coal startup vortex burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a two-channel vortex pulverized-coal startup burner is proposed, in which fuel-air mixture is admitted through the burner's primary channel. Necessary and sufficient conditions for obtaining stable ignition of pulverized coal during operation of this burner are formulated. A procedure of using the Fluent software system for numerically studying the influence of fuel characteristics and operating parameters on the stability of flame ignition and formation is developed. The results of numerical investigations aimed at determining the effect the flowrate of a mixture of mechanically activated micropowdered coal with air has on the combustion process for a particular design of the startup burner installed in the central part of the main direct-flow round burner used in the PK-40-1 boiler at the Belovo district power station are presented. A conclusion is drawn from these results regarding the extent to which the flowrate of mixture affects the performance of this startup burner.

Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.

2013-06-01

156

Discovering Ourselves by Unfolding Our Panorama: Interviewing Pioneers in Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines significant events that have influenced the personal and professional development of pioneers in the counseling field who have been interviewed in the "Journal of Counseling and Development." Presents some of the pioneers' observations and reflections about counselor training. (ABL)

Heppner, P. Paul; And Others

1990-01-01

157

Multiple fuel supply system for staged air burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s dual-fuel staged-air burner can fire simultaneously a gaseous and a liquid fuel at several different locations in the burner at any desired combination of fuel rates. The burner has a swirl chamber for providing a swirl flow path for primary combustion air, a tangential duct system that makes a tangential flow path for the primary

R. P. Guerre; D. L. Juedes; R. R. Ruland

1979-01-01

158

Oil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site, offered by the Institute of Petroleum, is called Fossils into Fuel (1). It describes how oil and gas are formed and processed, as well as offering short quizzes on each section. The second site (2) is maintained by the Department of Energy. Visitors can learn about the history of oil use, how itâÂÂs found and extracted, and more. The next site, called Picture an Oil Well (3), is a one-page illustration and description of the workings of an oil well, offered by the California Department of Conservation. The fourth site, hosted by the Minerals Management Service, is called Stacey Visits an Offshore Oil Rig (4). It tells the story of a girl taking a field trip on an offshore oil rig and what she finds when sheâÂÂs there. The Especially for Kids Web site (5) is presented by NOAA and explores facts about the effects of oil spills. Kids can do experiments, get help writing a report, find further information on the provided additional links, and more. From the Environmental Protection Agency, the sixth site is called Oil Spill Program (6), and it also delves into the topic of oil spills. It provides information about the EPA's program for preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. The next site, offered by How Stuff Works.com, is called How Oil Refining Works (7). Descriptions of crude oil, fractional distillation, chemical processing, and more is presented in a succinct but informative way. The last site is from The Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the Texas Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics and is called CSMâÂÂs Picture Gallery (8). After clicking the Gallery link, visitors will find animations and images that represent CSMâÂÂs work such as oil spill simulations, discontinuous galerkin, the tyranny of scale, contaminant remediation, etc.

Brieske, Joel A.

2002-01-01

159

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma analyzer experiment on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter was designed to determine the basic characteristics of the plasma environment of Venus and the nature of the solar wind interaction at Venus. The plasma analyzer experiment is an electrostatic energy-per-unit charge (E\\/Q) spectrometer which measures ions and electrons. There is a curved plate electrostatic analyzer system with multiple collectors. The

D. S. Intriligator; J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov

1980-01-01

160

The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Wave Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer Venus plasma wave instrument has a selfcontained balanced electric dipole (effective length = 0.75 m) and a 4-channel spectrum analyzer (30-percent bandwidth filters with center frequencies at 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz). The channels are continuously active and the highest Orbiter telemetry rate (2048 bps) yields 4 spectral scans\\/s. The total mass of 0.55

F. L. Scarf; W. W. L. Taylor; P. F. Virobik

1980-01-01

161

The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer

M. A. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1975-01-01

162

KINETIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of theoretical and experimental studies of subjects related to the limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB). The main findings include data on the rate of evolution of H2S from different coals and on the dependence of the rate of evolution on the dist...

163

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

2006-09-30

164

Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrOâ-YâOâ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems

Gedwill

1981-01-01

165

ULTRA LOW NOx BURNER WITH WIDENED STABILITY LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burner designs utilizing premix combustion principles are able to achieve single digit NOx levels when firing natural gas with increased excess air or higher rates of flue gas recirculation (FGR). The main challenge for applying such burners to industrial boilers is the resultant limited stability range with respect to the deviations in the equivalence ratio and the rate of FGR.

Vladimir Lifshits

166

Excitation of Thermoacoustic Oscillations by Premixing Domestic Gas Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments have been performed on fully premixing multiport burners closely representative of those used in modern domestic heating systems to study the ways in which the detail design of the burner head affects the incidence of unwanted thermoacoustic oscillations in practical installations. The effects of changes in the spacing of the flame ports, the velocity profile of the mean flow

C. M. Coats; Z. Chang; P. D. Williams

2007-01-01

167

Optical Fiber Imaging Based Tomographic Reconstruction of Burner Flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of an optical fiber imaging based tomographic system for the 3-D visualization and characterization of a burner flame. Eight imaging fiber bundles coupled with two RGB charge-coupled device cameras are used to acquire flame images simultaneously from eight different directions around the burner. The fiber bundle has 30k picture elements and an

Gang Lu; Yong Yan

2012-01-01

168

Development of a catalytic infrared cooking gas burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic oxidation of natural gas was investigated for application to an infrared stove-top burner. Project goals were to demonstrate stable catalytic combustion of natural gas in a burner, suitable for use in a stove top, that would have a thermal cooking efficiency of 70%, produce less than 10 ppm NOx and 50 ppm CO concentrations in the flue gas,

Tonon

1987-01-01

169

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

170

Solar wind data from the MIT plasma experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the spacecraft-earth distance, the telemetry bit rate, and the ground tracking time allotted to each spacecraft. Thus, the data obtained earlier in the life of each spacecraft are more complete. The solar wind parameters are given in the form of plots and listings. Trajectory information is also given along with a detailed description of the analysis procedures used to extract plasma parameters from the measured data.

Lazarus, A. J.; Heinemann, M. A.; Mckinnis, R. W.; Bridge, H. S.

1973-01-01

171

NASA's Fortieth Anniversary: Pioneering The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its inception on October 1, 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been a forerunner in many areas of advanced scientific research, especially in the fields of space exploration and aeronautics. NASA celebrates forty years of "Pioneering the Future" with a site that chronicles its illustrious history by providing access to numerous publications, including detailed biographies of influential people and declassified government documents. Together, the texts detail the scientific origins, objectives, and achievements of NASA. Audio and video clips of the Apollo missions and archived photographs from the dawn of the space age complement the rich textual history offered at the site.

172

The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly  

ScienceCinema

The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

173

The Quest to Understand the Pioneer Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Pioneer 10/11 missions, launched in 1972 and 1973, and their navigation are reviewed. Beginning in about 1980 an unmodeled force of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -8} cm/s{sup 2} appeared in the tracking data, it later being verified. The cause remains unknown, although radiant heat remains a likely origin. A set of efforts to find the solution are underway: (a) analyzing in detail all available data, (b) using data from the New Horizons mission, and (c) considering an ESA dedicated mission.

Nieto, Michael (LANL) [LANL

2007-03-21

174

Assessment of Jupiter's trapped radiation by pioneer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments planned for Pioneers F and G during their Jupiter flybys are discussed. The complement includes four energetic charged particle experiments: University of Iowa package consisting of Geiger-Mueller tubes; University of California, San Diego, trapped radiation package consisting of solid state detectors, thin scintillators, and an alcohol water Cerenkov radiator; University of Chicago package containing charged particle detectors; and a Goddard Space Flight Center package containing solid state, cosmic ray detectors. Other experiments are the Jet Propulsion Laboratory magnetometer and the Ames Research Center plasma analyzer. Pitch angle distributions at Jupiter, and the capabilities for unambiguous identification of energetic protons at Jupiter are also discussed.

Mihalov, J. D.

1972-01-01

175

Pioneer F/G feed movement mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer F/G spacecraft achieves the desired earth-pointing direction through a system requiring the shifting of the main antenna feed 1 in. off axis. The feed is pivoted to this position by an electrically heated thermal actuator consisting of an electroless nickel bellows in a copper housing and filled with Freon 21. The actuator overtravels and maintains the feed in the offset position in a thermostatic limit cycle operation mode until commanded off. The mechanism is expected to operate in a -240 F environment near Jupiter and was successfully tested at such temperatures.

Acker, R. M.

1972-01-01

176

Feast day service honoring pioneers in medicine.  

PubMed

The Standing Liturgical Commission of the Anglican Church in the United States has identified persons whom they consider Holy men or Holy women, and who are celebrated in Lesser Feast and Fast day services. In 2009, the triennial General Convention of the Anglican Church, USA, ratified the recommendation of the Commission that Dr. William W. Mayo and Dr. Charles Menninger and their sons, as pioneers in medicine, were worthy of such a designation. The author was approached to deliver the following homily at a service at the Palmer Memorial Episcopal Church in Houston, Texas, March 6, 2013. PMID:24020606

Menninger, W Walter

2013-01-01

177

Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase 1 of the Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO[sub x] Burner'' Program is to develop a novel low NO[sub x], pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000[degrees]F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO[sub x], burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

Not Available

1993-02-10

178

Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

2010-05-01

179

Thomas j. Burrill, pioneer in plant pathology.  

PubMed

Perhaps no other American plant pathologist is so deserving of the title "Pioneer of Plant Pathology" as Thomas J. Burrill. A product of the American frontier and a researcher and teacher of plant pathology before the science even had a name, Burrill was a pioneer in every sense of the word. His original research on the cause of fire blight resulted in the first major conceptual advance in plant pathology made by an American. He also played an important role as an administrator and teacher at the University of Illinois. Many of the problems Burrill faced during his long and distinguished career will sound familiar to academic scientists of our own time. In particular, he and his contemporaries contended with student unrest, flagging public interest in higher education, heavy teaching loads, and insufficient support for research activities. By any measure, Burrill was unusually successful in coping with these problems and he fashioned a career remarkable in its contributions to his university, the public, and the scientific community. PMID:19025361

Glawe, D A

1992-01-01

180

Operational use of the Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer UAV system has seen operational use in every U.S. contingency operation since the system's original fielding in 1986. Originally procured as a non-developmental item, the Pioneer was selected for purchase after a successful fly-off competition which was conducted in late 1985. The Pioneer system is a Department of Defense joint system, having been flown by the U.S. Navy,

Steve Reid

1996-01-01

181

PIONEER: A Robot for Structural Assessment of the Chornobyl Shelter  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored the design and fabrication of a radiation-hardened mobile diagnostic robot dubbed Pioneer. Pioneer was designed to operate in the most hazardous locations within the Chornobyl Shelter. Pioneer was delivered to the Ukraine in the spring of 1999. Initial system training and cold testing was performed after delivery.

Catalan, Michael A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thompson, Bruce R. (VISITORS); Dan G. Cacuci

2001-06-30

182

Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating  

SciTech Connect

Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

Gedwill, M.A.

1981-02-01

183

Burner for gasification of powdery fuels  

SciTech Connect

The burner is formed of a tubular housing including a central tubular passage and a boundary annular passage for feeding into the gasification reactor under high speed a carburetion medium such as oxygen or steam. At least three intermediate channels of coaxial annular sections are symmetrically arranged about the central channel and each communicates with a separate inlet conduit for feeding a mixture of powdered fuel with a carrier gas. The transition between the annular intermediate channel and the tubular inlet conduits is made such that the varying outline of the cross-section encloses the same area as the tubular inlet conduit or the annular section intermediate channel. The central tubular channel and the boundary annular channel for feeding the carburetion fluid is configurated so as to divert one stream of the carburetion fluid at an angle of about 45/sup 0/ toward the axially directed jet of the powdered fuel mixture.

Kretschmer, H.; Berger, F.; Fedotov, V.; Fleischer, K.; Gavrilin, V.; Gohler, P.; Gudymov, E.; Jegorov, A.; Schingnitz, M.; Semenov, V.

1984-06-26

184

Fuel burner having a intermittent pilot with pre-ignition testing  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes improvement in a fuel burner having a main burner and a pilot burner for lighting the main burner, an electrically-powered igniter for lighting the pilot burner, a source of electric energy, an igniter power supply receiving a demand signal and supplying power to the igniter responsive to the demand signal, a pilot sensor adjacent to the pilot burner and supplying a pilot signal responsive to presence of a pilot flame, and a main burner valve controlling flow of fuel to the main burner and opening responsive to the pilot signal. The improvement comprises: a pilot burner valve controlling flow of fuel to the pilot burner and opening responsive to a pilot valve control signal; igniter sensing means in sensing relation to the igniter for providing an igniter signal responsive to operation of the igniter; and pilot valve control means receiving the igniter signal, for providing the pilot valve control signal responsive to the igniter signal.

Peterson, S.M.

1991-07-30

185

Particle tracking velocimetry in swirl-stabilised burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle tracking velocimetry was applied in a water model of a swirl-stabilised burner and quantified Lagrangian particle residence time distributions in the near burner region and temporal evolution of particle mean square dispersion in axial and radial directions. The results suggest that instantaneous flow eddies with appropriate timescales increase particle response to the flow and ``trap'' particles within the time-averaged recirculation zone in the near burner region. Central particle injection doubled particle residence time up to the end of the internal recirculation zone relative to off-axis injection and this may lead to lower NOx emissions.

Hardalupas, Y.; Pantelides, K.; Whitelaw, J. H.

186

Application of laser-based diagnostics to industrial scale burners  

SciTech Connect

Laser-based diagnostics have proved invaluable in unraveling the mysteries of combustion processes. The successful application of laser-based diagnostics which have been developed for laboratory-scale flames to the larger, more complex geometries found in practical burners is a major challenge with potentially huge payoffs. We will describe work being carried out in the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) where conventional physical probe techniques (thermocouples for temperature and sample extraction probes for gas composition) are being used in conjunction with laser-based diagnostics to characterize the combustion process in industrial burners.

Fornaciari, N.R.; Schefer, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, P.M.; Claytor, L.E. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

1995-07-01

187

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. umber of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total oil furnaces tested by the EPA in Roanoke, V...

188

Coal--oil slurry combustion demonstration, phase I. Monthly report, September 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and design activities to date have centered around completion of procurement for installation of the air atomized Forney Verloop burner system into the existing boiler which was designed to burn pulverized coal but converted to residual oil in 1969. Electrical design and procurement including instrumentation to support the January 1978 installation of burners, primary air fans, fuel metering pumps

Dunn

1977-01-01

189

Slurry Burner for Mixture of Carbonaceous Material and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which...

D. G. Nodd R. J. Walker

1985-01-01

190

Metal Hydride Preheater for the M2 Diesel Burner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project to demonstrate the feasibility of preheating the catalytic generator of the M2 diesel burner using a metal hydride preheater. Preliminary testing of an electr...

J. Gerstmann M. Golben

1999-01-01

191

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

192

Extinction Characteristics of Cup-Burner Flame in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbon dioxide extinguishes flames through dilution process. The extinction characteristics of CO2 were previously studied using a cup-burner flame under normal-gravity conditions. As the diffusion flames behave differently in microgravity compared to tho...

F. Takahashi G. T. Linteris V. R. Katta

2003-01-01

193

Diagnostics for Pioneer I imploding plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Pioneer I series of imploding plasma experiments are aimed at collapsing a thin aluminum foil with a multimegampere, submicrosecond electrical pulse produced by an explosive flux compression generator and fast plasma compression opening switch. Anticipated experimental conditions are bounded by implosion velocities of 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/s and maximum plasma temperatures of 100 eV. A comprehensive array of diagnostics have been deployed to measure implosion symmetry (gated microchannel plate array and other time-resolved imaging), temperature of the imploding plasma (visible/uv spectroscopy), stagnation geometry (x-ray pinhole imaging), radiation emission characteristics at pinch (XRD's, fast bolometry), and electrical drive history (Rogowski loops, Faraday rotation current detectors, and capacitive voltage probes). Diagnostic performance is discussed and preliminary results are presented.

Lee, P.H.Y.; Benjamin, R.F.; Brownell, J.H.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; McGurn, J.S.; Pecos, J.F.; Price, R.H.; Oona, H.

1985-01-01

194

Impact ionization effects on Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomalies observed during periapsis passages of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are discussed. Data from the Langmuir Probe Experiment show a change in the collected current at periapsis which correlates well with the neutral atmospheric density. The data can be qualitatively explained by the secondary emission of electrons from the spacecraft and from the probe caused by the impact of neutral CO2 molecules, the dominant neutral constituent at periapsis altitude of 150 km. Impact energy is 22 eV. The probe showing this effect is mounted on the leading surface of the spacecraft which is exposed to the streaming neutral gas. As the probe voltage is swept, contributions to the current from the ionospheric plasma and from the secondary electrons can be distinguished. The observed current/voltage behavior suggests a probe-barrier interaction.

Whipple, E. C.; Brace, L. H.; Parker, L. W.

1983-01-01

195

Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

1975-01-01

196

Pioneer-Venus solar flux radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the design and performance characteristics of the Solar Flux Radiometer flown on the Large Probe of the Pioneer-Venus Multiprobe spacecraft. Radiance measurements of the Venusian atmosphere in spectral channels between 400 and 1800 nm as a function of altitude were made, along with elevation and azimuthal measurements of the radiation field performed with five optical channels. Filtered Si and Ge photovoltaic detector output currents were processed with logarithmic transimpedance converters prior to being multiplexed and digitized. Atmospheric sampling in elevation and azimuth was done according to a Gaussian integration scheme; the received data were used to determine the deposition of solar energy in the Venus atmosphere along with upward and downward fluxes and radiances with an altitude resolution of several hundred meters between 67 km and the surface.

Palmer, J. M.

1979-01-01

197

A Study of Pioneer Venus Nightglow Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed during the 12-month period of this contract involved: (1) further analysis of latitudinal variations in the Venusian NO nightglow intensity from PVOUVS data; (2) corrections made to the input data for the VTGCM model, relating specifically to a factor of three increase in the three-body recombination rate coefficient of N + O; (3) consideration of limits on the rate of reaction of N-atoms with CO2; (4) consideration of the Venusian equivalent of the terrestrial hot N-atom reaction for NO production; and (5) successful location of video images of meteor trails from space, for the purpose of making a comparison with the meteor trail that we have hypothesized as an explanation of intense UV spectra observed on a particular Pioneer Venus (PV) orbit.

Slanger, Tom G.

1993-01-01

198

David Lasser - An American Spaceflight Pioneer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the use of rockets for human spaceflight. His involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he moved on to pursue a distinguished, if turbulent, career in the labor movement. In lieu of an oral history, Mr. Lasser provided his recollections on the pioneering days of rocketry and his thoughts on mankind's destiny in space. This paper provides an overview of Mr. Lasser's life and accomplishments as an American spaceflight visionary, along with a compilation of the information that he graciously provided.

Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

2002-01-01

199

The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

1975-01-01

200

Transmission of combustion roar from burners and furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reviewing recently obtained data on the effect of flow velocity on the combustion-roar transmission and reflection coefficients of a tube closed at one end and open at the other, Battelle Columbus Laboratories applied the results to the determination of the amplification factor for burner tiles and radiant-tube (or tunnel-type) industrial furnace burners, assuming the flame consists of an array

1978-01-01

201

Redox pioneer: Professor Stuart A. Lipton.  

PubMed

[Figure: see text] Stuart A. Lipton, M.D., Ph.D. is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because of his publication of four articles that have been cited more than 1000 times, and 96 reports which have been cited more than 100 times. In the redox field, Dr. Lipton is best known for his work on the regulation by S-nitrosylation of the NMDA-subtype of neuronal glutamate receptor, which provided early evidence for in situ regulation of protein activity by S-nitrosylation and a prototypic model of allosteric control by this post-translational modification. Over the past several years, Lipton's group has pioneered the discovery of aberrant protein nitrosylation that may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease). In particular, the phenotypic effects of rare genetic mutations may be understood to be enhanced or mimicked by nitrosative (and oxidative) modifications of cysteines and thereby help explain common sporadic forms of disease. Thus, Lipton has contributed in a major way to the understanding that nitrosative stress may result from modifications of specific proteins and may operate in conjunction with genetic mutation to create disease phenotype. Lipton (collaborating with Jonathan S. Stamler) has also employed the concept of targeted S-nitrosylation to produce novel neuroprotective drugs that act at allosteric sites in the NMDA receptor. Lipton has won a number of awards, including the Ernst Jung Prize in Medicine, and is an elected fellow of the AAAS. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 757-764. PMID:23815466

Stamler, Jonathan S

2013-09-10

202

Pioneer Initiatives To Reform Education Support Programs. A Center Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report extrapolates basic implications from work being done by pioneer initiatives to reform education support initiatives. Pioneer initiatives around the United States are demonstrating the need to rethink how schools and communities can meet the challenge of addressing persistent barriers to student learning. This report stresses the need…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

203

Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

1974-01-01

204

The interplanetary Pioneers. Volume 2: System design and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer systems, subsystems, and ground support activities are described. Details are given on the launch trajectory and solar orbit plans, spacecraft design approach and evolution, scientific instrument, test and ground support equipment, Delta launch vehicle, tracking and communication, and data processing equipment. Pioneer specifications, and reliability and quality assurance are also included.

Corliss, W. R.

1972-01-01

205

Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an

M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1976-01-01

206

Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an advanced fuel cycle; (2) To qualify the transuranics-containing fuels and advanced structural materials needed for a full-scale ABR; and (3) To support the research, development and demonstration required for certification of an ABR standard design by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ABTR should also address the following additional objectives: (1) To incorporate and demonstrate innovative design concepts and features that may lead to significant improvements in cost, safety, efficiency, reliability, or other favorable characteristics that could promote public acceptance and future private sector investment in ABRs; (2) To demonstrate improved technologies for safeguards and security; and (3) To support development of the U.S. infrastructure for design, fabrication and construction, testing and deployment of systems, structures and components for the ABRs. Based on these objectives, a pre-conceptual design of a 250 MWt ABTR has been developed; it is documented in this report. In addition to meeting the primary and additional objectives listed above, the lessons learned from fast reactor programs in the U.S. and worldwide and the operating experience of more than a dozen fast reactors around the world, in particular the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II have been incorporated into the design of the ABTR to the extent possible.

Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

2008-12-16

207

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration. Phase I. Monthly report, August 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with various commercially available blending equipment is being investigated in the laboratory. Stability is also being evaluated using

Dunn

1977-01-01

208

Coal--Oil Slurry Combustion Demonstration, Phase I. Monthly Report, December 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion of a coal-oil slurry in an 80 MW utility boiler originally designed to burn coal but now burning No. 6 oil will be demonstrated. New low pressure air atomized oil burners will be installed. The stability of coal-oil mixtures produced with v...

R. M. Dunn

1978-01-01

209

Alyeska pioneers new pipe line technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trans-Alaska pipeline system is being built for one purpose--to make the almost 10-billion-barrel crude oil reserve at Prudhoe Bay available to U. S. industry and consumers. When completed, the pipeline will traverse some of the most rugged terrain in North America. The 1,287-km (800-mi.) long system will transport crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Arctic Ocean coast, generally

McPhail

1976-01-01

210

Dual-water mixture fuel burner  

DOEpatents

A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

Brown, Thomas D. (Finleyville, PA); Reehl, Douglas P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Walbert, Gary F. (Library, PA)

1986-08-05

211

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30

212

Venturi burner nozzle for pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect

A new and improved burner for pulverized coal comprises a tubular nozzle for containing a primary, flowing stream of coal/air mixture having an outlet for discharging the stream into a combustion zone of a furnace. A venturi is mounted in the nozzle having a convergent section, a throat, and divergent flow section adjacent the outlet. The convergent section concentrates the pulverized coal toward a central portion of the flowing stream in the throat of the venturi. A conical flow spreader is mounted in the divergent section and includes a hollow, open outer end. The spreader cone and the divergent flow section of the venturi form an annular, expanding, flow pattern of coal/air mixture for discharge into the combustion zone and a plurality of swirl vanes between the spreader cone and wall of the divergent section impart swirl to stabilize an annular discharge of the primary coal/air stream from the nozzle to form a high temperature reducing zone wherein a portion of the hot combustion products are recirculated back toward the open end of the flow spreader so that volatiles in the coal are driven off rapidly and burned in a fuel-rich, reducing atmosphere, minimizing the formation of NO /SUB x/ . A stream of secondary air is introduced by vanes to swirl around the primary coal/air stream discharged from the outlet forming a long stable flame pattern providing a relatively slow combustion rate.

Itse, D.C.; Penterson, C.A.

1984-10-30

213

[Auguste Lumière, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].  

PubMed

At the "Grand Café" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Paré, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumière was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Bérard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumière were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

2003-06-01

214

Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe Solar Flux Radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar Flux Radiometer aboard the Pioneer Venus Sounder Probe operated successfully during its descent through the atmosphere of Venus. The instrument measured atmospheric radiance over the spectral range from 400 to 1800 nm as a function of altitude. Elevation and azimuthal measurements on the radiation field were made with five optical channels. Twelve filtered Si and Ge photovoltaic detectors were maintained near 30 C with a phase-change material. The detector output currents were processed with logarithmic transimpedance converters and digitized with an 11-bit A/D converter. Atmospheric sampling in both elevation and azimuth was done according to a Gaussian integration scheme. The serial output data averaged 20 bits/sec, including housekeeping (sync, spin period, sample timing and mode). The data were used to determine the deposition of solar energy in the atmosphere of Venus between 67 km and the surface along with upward and downward fluxes and radiances with an altitude resolution of several hundred meters. The results allow for more accurate modeling of the radiation balance of the atmosphere than previously possible.

Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.; Palmer, J. M.; Holmes, A.; Wolfe, W. L.; Debell, A. G.; Brod, L. G.; Sholes, R. R.

1980-01-01

215

Galen: a pioneer of spine research.  

PubMed

Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research. PMID:10586461

Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P K

1999-11-15

216

46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automatic combustion control; (ii) Programing control; (iii) Automatic feedwater...setpoints. (5) All requirements for programing control subsystems and safety control...Where light oil pilots are used, the programing control and burner safety trip...

2010-10-01

217

46 CFR 62.35-20 - Oil-fired main boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Automatic combustion control; (ii) Programing control; (iii) Automatic feedwater...setpoints. (5) All requirements for programing control subsystems and safety control...Where light oil pilots are used, the programing control and burner safety trip...

2009-10-01

218

Coal--Oil Slurry Combustion Demonstration, Phase I. Monthly Report, September 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Engineering and design activities to date have centered around completion of procurement for installation of the air atomized Forney Verloop burner system into the existing boiler which was designed to burn pulverized coal but converted to residual oil in...

R. M. Dunn

1977-01-01

219

Pioneer Venus and near-earth observations of interplanetary shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty-three transient interplanetary shocks observed near earth during 1978-1982, and mostly reported in the literature, have also been identified at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. There seems to be a fairly consistent trend for lower shock speeds, farther from the sun. Shock normals obtained using the Pioneer Venus data correspond well with published values from near earth. By referring to the portion of the Pioneer Venus plasma data used here from locations at longitudes within 37 deg of earth, it is found that shocks are weaker at earth, compared with those closer to the sun.

Mihalov, J. D.; Russell, C. T.; Knudsen, W. C.; Scarf, F. L.

1987-01-01

220

Pioneer Venus and near-earth observations of interplanetary shocks  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three transient interplanetary shocks observed near earth during 1978-1982, and mostly reported in the literature, have also been identified at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. There seems to be a fairly consistent trend for lower shock speeds, farther from the sun. Shock normals obtained using the Pioneer Venus data correspond well with published values from near earth. By referring to the portion of the Pioneer Venus plasma data used here from locations at longitudes within 37{degree} of earth, it is found that shocks are weaker at earth, compared with closer to the sun.

Mihalov, J.D. (NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)); Russell, C.T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Knudsen, W.C. (Knudsen Geophysical Research, Monte Sereno, CA (United States)); Scarf, F.L. (TRW Space and Technology Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

1987-04-01

221

Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly documents the extensive evaluation which was performed on the anticipated environmental impacts of that plant. This source can be referenced in the open literature and is publicly available. The CRBRP design was also of a commercial demonstration plant size - 975 MWth - which falls in the middle of the range of ABR plant sizes being considered (250 MWth to 2000 MWth). At the time the project was cancelled, the CRBRP had progressed to the point of having completed the licensing application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and was in the process of receiving NRC approval. Therefore, it was felt that [CRBRP, 1977] provides some of the best available data and information as input to the GNEP PEIS work. CRBRP was not the source of all the information in this document. It is also expected that the CRBRP data will be bounding from the standpoint of commodity usage because fast reactor vendors will develop designs which will focus on commodity and footprint reduction to reduce the overall cost per kilowatt electric compared with the CRBR plant. Other sources used for this datacall information package are explained throughout this document and in Appendix A. In particular, see Table A.1 for a summary of the data sources used to generate the datacall information.

Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-10-15

222

OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

2001-09-04

223

Cosmic ray radial intensity gradients measured by Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports revised and updated measurements of the cosmic ray radial intensity gradient made with Pioneer 10 and 11 over the radial range 1-5 AU in differential energy windows from 10-70 MeV/nucleon, and for the integral intensity exceeding 70 MeV/nucleon. In most cases small positive gradients are found of the order of a few percent per AU, with evidence for significant temporal variations. Spectral studies show the presence of the 'anomalous' helium component below 50 MeV at all radial distances from 1-5 AU.

Mckibben, R. B.; Pyle, K. R.; Simpson, J. A.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; Ogallagher, J. J.

1975-01-01

224

Exploratory Burner for Enhanced Flame Radiation. Final Report, June 1988-December 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory methane burner was constructed for increasing the flame radiation output in turbulent diffusion flames from burners and in furnaces. Prior to its combustion as a turbulent diffusion flame in ambient air, methane fuel was preheated to high t...

M. A. Delichatsios, J. de Ris, L. Orloff

1991-01-01

225

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633âBurner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2010-01-01

226

16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure...1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS...9 Figure 9 to Part 1633âBurner Placements on Mattress/Foundation...

2009-01-01

227

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30

228

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

229

User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Lubeck, C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

1994-11-01

230

Pioneer 10 Data Analysis: Investigation on Periodic Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer Anomaly refers to the difference between the expected theoretical trajectory of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and the observed trajectory through Doppler measurements. It has been interpreted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as a constant anomalous acceleration (Anderson et al. 2002). For this analysis, the Groupe Anomalie Pioneer (GAP) composed of several french laboratories has developped a specific trajectography software, ODYSSEY, which enables to test different anomaly models. The paper will present, after a brief description of the software and the implemented models, the last results obtained: in addition to the constant anomaly, time dependent signatures of the anomaly have been noticed which can be described geometrically. The fit of the Pioneer 10 data with these new models yields a reduction of the standard deviation of the residual by a factor 2 with respect to the simple constant anomaly.

Levy, A.; Christophe, B.; Reynaud, S.; Courty, J.-M.; Bério, P.; Métris, G.

2008-11-01

231

Operational use of the Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer UAV system has seen operational use in every U.S. contingency operation since the system's original fielding in 1986. Originally procured as a non-developmental item, the Pioneer was selected for purchase after a successful fly-off competition which was conducted in late 1985. The Pioneer system is a Department of Defense joint system, having been flown by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Army. The system received extensive acclaim for outstanding performance in Operational Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Pioneers are currently being flown by the U.S. Navy from LPD class naval vessels and the U.S. Marine Corps from land based operations. Both services are currently supporting the NATO Joint Task Force in Bosnia.

Reid, Steve

1996-11-01

232

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, artist, c. 1870) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF MISSION AND CONVENTO, C. 1870 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

233

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

234

The Career Development Program at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Career Development Program, designed to help professional employees accept responsibility for their own careers, located at Du Pont's Pioneering Research Laboratory. Covers the concepts governing the program, program elements, and working with management to address program goals. (CH)

Nusbaum, H. J.

1986-01-01

235

55. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

55. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: 1902 Re-photo: January 1940 INTERIOR OF CONVENTO - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

236

63. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1850's Re-photo: January 1940 RUINED WALLS (now gone) - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

237

56. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. Historic American Buildings Survey From Society of California Pioneers Original: 1902 Re-photo: January 1940 INTERIOR OF CONVENTO - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

238

Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled over 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Gulf is the first opportunity to demonstrate its true value in a combat scenario. In a relatively short time (42 days), 307 flights and 1,011 flight hours were completed on Operation Desert Storm. This, coupled with the accuracy of various weapons systems that Pioneer observed/cued for, resulted in timely target engagements. This paper will chronicle the Pioneer deployment and accomplishments on Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Various employment methods, tactics, doctrine, and lessons learned will be presented.

Christner, James H.

1991-12-01

239

Six Internet Pioneers Teach English to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six English-as-a-Second-or-Other-Language (ESOL) practitioners who are also Internet pioneers talk about their Internet work, share insights, and provide advice to teachers on creating online materials. (Author/VWL)

Oliver, Dennis; Davis, Randall; Hoter, Elaine; Kelly, Charles; Sperling, Dave; Vilmi, Ruth

2001-01-01

240

Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the \\

B. P. Besser

2002-01-01

241

Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P&ID`s for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

Not Available

1991-12-31

242

A new scaling methodology for NO(x) emissions performance of gas burners and furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general burner and furnace scaling methodology is presented, together with the resulting scaling model for NOsb{x} emissions performance of a broad class of swirl-stabilized industrial gas burners. The model is based on results from a set of novel burner scaling experiments on a generic gas burner and furnace design at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal

Tse-Chih Hsieh

1997-01-01

243

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?  

SciTech Connect

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance.

Tangen, Kjell [DNV, 1322 Hoevik (Norway)

2007-08-15

244

Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center  

SciTech Connect

If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

2007-04-16

245

A new Mission to explore the Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability to explain the so-called Pioneer Anomaly with conventional physics has contributed to growing discussions about its origin Radio-metric tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and orbit determinations have consistently indicated that at heliocentric distances of about 20 to 70 astronomical units a small anomalous blue-shifted Doppler frequency drift occurs This frequency shift can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of 8 74 pm 1 33 cdot 10 -10 ms -2 Anderson et al 1998 This signal has become known as the Pioneer Anomaly The inability to explain the Pioneer Anomaly with conventional physics as well as the increasing number of proposals to explain it outside conventional physics emphasizes the need for a new experiment We discuss the recent developments of a mission to explore the Pioneer Anomaly in a dedicated experiment conducted in deep space This joint European-US mission is motivated by the desire to better understand the laws of fundamental physics as they affect dynamics in the solar system Experience gained from the Pioneer Spacecraft leads to a creative approach to spacecraft design like precision formation flying combined with laser ranging

Dittus, H.; Laemmerzahl, C.; Turyshev, S. G.; Anderson, J. D.; Johann, U.

246

Combustion tests of beneficiated and micronized coal-water fuels: use of internal-mix atomizer and rotary-cup burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combustion tests were conducted in an oil-designed 100-hp firetube boiler using a burner with an internal-mix atomizer to determine the effect of coal beneficiation and coal particle size-consist on combustion properties of coal-water fuels (CWF). Samples of Eastern Kentucky bituminous coal, beneficiated to ash levels of 2.5%, 7.8%, and 10.3%, were used to prepare CWF's containing approx. 90% (by weight)

Y. C. Fu; G. T. Bellas; T. D. Brown; J. I. Joubert; G. F. Walbert

1985-01-01

247

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

248

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

249

Industrial burner and process efficiency program. Final report Jan 79-Oct 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This

S. R. Huebner; S. N. Prakash; D. B. Hersh

1982-01-01

250

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 3. GUIDELINE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

251

Pioneer 8 Extraterrestrial Magnetic Field Data Processing Elaborazione Dei Dati di Campo Magnetico Extraterrestre Ottenuti Dalla Sonda Pioneer 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer programs for Pioneer 8 interplanetary magnetic field data reduction are presented. After a review of the technical characteristics of the magnetometer, data sequencing, and data organization on the tapes, the various computer programs are div...

B. Bavassano A. Castelli

1972-01-01

252

Pioneer 10 and 11 Data Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report finishes the work of NASA Grant NAS2-153, which supported data analysis for the UCSD instruments on Pioneers 10 and 11. The data analyzed under this grant span 22 years of interplanetary measurements in the inner and outer heliosphere. The UCSD instruments made their mark in cosmic ray research based upon their high energy thresholds, directional responses, and reliable data streams. one of their primary scientific objectives concerns the size, configuration, and time behavior of the heliosphere. The size scale is inferred from the radial intensity gradient, which is measured between the two spacecraft and extrapolated to interstellar intensity levels at the cosmic ray modulation boundary. This boundary still eludes us, and its position, motion, and the best method of extrapolation are ongoing problems. Current projections place the boundary beyond 100 AU, which may be beyond the termination shock, and raises the question of possible modulation in the heliosheath. Probably our only hope of seeing this region in the immediate future rides on the possibility that the boundary will move inward. Our instruments have recorded many Forbush, or transient, decreases in the outer heliosphere. These observations led us to a model that attributes many of the decreases to solar wind stream-stream interactions, and relates the cosmic ray variations to the locally observed magnetic field magnitude. As the cosmic ray variations in this model result only from topological changes in the modulation integral, the model is a tool for studying the possibility that the 11 year cosmic ray modulation cycle can be accounted for by a superposition of Forbush decreases. The cosmic ray angular distribution function is measurable, given a good telemetry rate, by the UCSD Cerenkov detector which counts particles of energy greater than 500 MeV/n. We obtained statistically significant samples from 1 to 9 AU, at 13 AU, and at 34 AU. The anisotropy tends to be a few tenths of a per cent at all radial distances. A quasiperiodic variation in the east-west anisotropy with period of about 50 days remains unexplained.

Fillius, Walker

1997-01-01

253

How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

Jansen, Michael P.

1997-01-01

254

EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

255

Process development report: 0. 20-m primary burner system  

SciTech Connect

HTGR reprocessing consists of crushing the spent fuel elements to a size suitable for burning in a fluidized bed to remove excess graphite, separating the fissile and fertile particles, crushing and burning the SiC-coated fuel particles to remove the remainder of the carbon, dissolution and separation of the particles from insoluble materials, and solvent extraction separation of the dissolved uranium and thorium. Burning the crushed fuel elements is accomplished in a primary burner. This is a batch-continuous, fluidized-bed process utilizing above-bed gravity fines recycle. In gas-solid separation, a combination of a cyclone and porous metal filters is used. This report documents operational tests performed on a 0.20-m primary burner using crushed fuel representative of both Fort St. Vrain and large high-temperature gas-cooled reactor cores. The burner was reconstructed to a gravity fines recycle mode prior to beginning these tests. Results of two separate and successful 48-hour burner runs and several short-term runs have indicated the operability of this concept. Recommendations are made for future work.

Rickman, W.S.

1978-09-01

256

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

257

Thermal Barrier Coatings: Burner Rig Hot Corrosion Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6...

P. E. Hodge S. Stecura M. A. Gedwill I. Zaplatynsky S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

258

Thermal Barrier Coatings: Burner Rig Hot Corrosion Test Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings to the combustion products of Na- and V-contaminated fuels and to identify alternate coatings with improved resistance to potential utility ...

P. E. Hodge S. Stecura M. A. Gedwill I. Zaplatynsky S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

259

NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

1996-01-01

260

SOX OUT ON A LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, covering results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and of calcium-lignosulfonate-mo...

261

Low NOx, High Efficiency Multistaged Burner: Gaseous Fuel Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency. Both deep air staging, resulting in a three-stage configuration, and boiler front ...

R. K. Srivastava J. A. Mulholland

1988-01-01

262

Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

Stetson, K. A.

1984-01-01

263

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

264

Scaling Laws for NO x Emission Performance of Burners and Furnaces from 30 kW to 12 MW  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general analytical approach for scaling NOx emissions from burners and furnaces is presented, together with the scaling model for NOx emissions performance that results when this approach is applied to a broad class of swirl-stabilized industrial gas burners. The model is based on results from a set of collaborative burner scaling experiments on a generic gas burner and furnace

T.-C. Adrian Hsieh; Werner J. A. Dahm; James F. Driscoll

1998-01-01

265

System and process for controlling the flow of air and fuel to a burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a flow controller system capable of controlling the flow of air and fuel to a burner in a plurality of operating modes throughout the firing range of the burner. The air and fuel are conducted to the burner by separate conduits fluidly connected to the burner. The system comprises: (a) an air flow indicating means including a differential pressure sensing means fluidly connected across the air conduit and the burner for sensing the pressure drop of the air flow across the burner and generating a signal indicative of the rate of air flow into the burner; (b) first and second valves for modulating the flow of air and fuel, respectively, to the burner which are fluidly connected upstream of the air flow indicating means; (c) a fuel flow indicating means for generating a signal indicative of the rate of fuel flow into the burner, and (d) a control means operatively and separately connected to both the first and second valves and the fuel and air flow indicating means for maintaining selected air and fuel flow rates throughout the firing range of the burner by comparison with precalibrated air and fuel flow ratios. The control means is adjustable at all points throughout the firing range of the burner.

West, J.S.

1987-02-24

266

Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands.  

PubMed

Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. PMID:24383765

Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

2014-08-01

267

Pioneer Anomaly - Analysis of an extended data set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of Doppler tracking data from the NASA satellites Pioneer 10 and 11 (Anderson et al., 2002) has detected an anomalous, constant, acceleration of magnitude 8 x 10-10 m/s2 directed toward the sun. The studied range corresponded to a heliocentric distance interval of 40.0 to 70.5 AU in the case of Pioneer 10 and of 22.4 to 31.7 AU for Pioneer 11. The anomaly has been independently confirmed, but despite a study of the spacecraft systematics and influential forces, in particular forces due to thermal radiation of the S/C radio isotope thermal generators, being performed no satisfactory cause of the acceleration has yet been found. An extended data set is presently under study that includes housekeeping telemetry as well as Doppler data and covers the majority of the mission lifetimes (that is, corresponding to 4.6 to 80.2 AU for Pioneer 10 and 1.0 to 41.7 AU for Pioneer 11). The status of the project will be reported.

Dittus, Hansjoerg; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Rievers, Benny; Hackmann, Eva; Laemmerzahl, Claus

268

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. INFLUENCE OF BURNER VARIABLES ON NOX IN PULVERIZED COAL FLAMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first phase of an investigation to specify burner design criteria to control NOx in natural gas and pulverized coal flames. The two parameters found to have major influence on NO formation were the method of fuel injection and the degree of swirl. ...

269

FIELD EVALUJATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

270

Brans-Dicke theory and the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar-tensor theory offers the possibility of a modification of Newtonian gravity due to the presence of a 4d scalar dilaton field. The prototypical version of such a theory, massless Brans-Dicke theory, is considered here in the Einstein frame representation. The acceleration of a test mass is obtained from the exact 4d Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions with spherical symmetry. The deviation of this acceleration from the pure Newtonian gravitational acceleration is examined to see if it can account for the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, while satisfying solar system constraints. Theoretical considerations, along with limits inferred from Pioneer 10 data, suggest that Brans-Dicke gravity could account for no more than a small fraction of the Pioneer anomaly, so that a complete explanation of the anomaly must lie elsewhere.

Anderson, John D.; Morris, J. R.

2012-09-01

271

Scientific results from the Pioneer Saturn encounter - Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific results of the Pioneer Saturn encounter with Saturn are summarized. The Pioneer mission was designed to image the planet, its satellites and rings, and measure its particulate environment and the magnetic field and photon and charged particle radiation by means of 11 operational scientific instruments and its 2.293-GHz telemetry carrier signal. Principle results of the mission include the discovery of an additional ring and a previously unidentified satellite, the further characterization of the physical properties of Saturn and its magnetic field, and the description of the planetary magnetosphere. The successful completion of the mission demonstrated the ability of spacecraft such as Voyager 1 and 2 to survive the particle environments of Saturn's rings and trapped radiation environments, and Pioneer Saturn is expected to continue transmitting information on the interplanetary medium and the solar wind interaction with the interstellar medium until the mid-1980's.

Opp, A. G.

1980-01-01

272

VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and the future European Extremely Large Telescope," says Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Director General. At the heart of VISTA is a 3-tonne camera containing 16 special detectors sensitive to infrared light, with a combined total of 67 million pixels. Observing at wavelengths longer than those visible with the human eye allows VISTA to study objects that are otherwise impossible to see in visible light because they are either too cool, obscured by dust clouds or because they are so far away that their light has been stretched beyond the visible range by the expansion of the Universe. To avoid swamping the faint infrared radiation coming from space, the camera has to be cooled to -200 degrees Celsius and is sealed with the largest infrared-transparent window ever made. The VISTA camera was designed and built by a consortium including the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the UK ATC and the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. Because VISTA is a large telescope that also has a large field of view it can both detect faint sources and also cover wide areas of sky quickly. Each VISTA image captures a section of sky covering about ten times the area of the full Moon and it will be able to detect and catalogue objects over the whole southern sky with a sensitivity that is forty times greater than that achieved with earlier infrared sky surveys such as the highly successful Two Micron All-Sky Survey. This jump in observational power - comparable to the step in sensitivity from the unaided eye to Galileo's first telescope - will reveal vast numbers of new objects and allow the creation of far more complete inventories of rare and exotic objects in the southern sky. "We're delighted to have been able to provide the astronomical community with the VISTA telescope. The exceptional quality of the scientific data is a tribute to all the scientists and engineers who were involved in this exciting and challenging project," adds Ian Robson, Head of the UK ATC. The first released image shows the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), a spectacular star-forming cloud of gas and du

2009-12-01

273

Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G. [Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9H5 (Canada); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

2009-02-15

274

Polar cloud structure as derived from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions recorded by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at the S band indicate dense cloud decks at the 1.5 to 4.7 bar levels in the Venus atmosphere. These cloud decks are at lower altitudes than the clouds detected by Mariner 10 and Pioneer Venus probes, and are uniform in absorption characteristics in the polar regions. The regions close to the polar hot spots have depressed the upper cloud heights and increased polar density; these areas are free of thermal inversions characteristic of the north polar regions away from the hot spots.

Cimino, J. B.; Elachi, C.; Kliore, A. J.; Mccleese, D. J.; Patel, I. R.

1980-01-01

275

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

Ala Qubbaj

2005-03-01

276

Transient behaviors of a flame over a Tsuji burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigated numerically the physical mechanisms underlying the transient behaviors of the flame over a porous cylindrical burner. The numerical results showed that a cold flow structure at a fixed inflow velocity of U in = 0.6 m/s in a wind tunnel could be observed in two co-existing recirculation flows. Flow variations occur repeatedly until t = 4.71 s, and then a vortex existed steadily behind the burner and no shading occurred. The ignition of flammable mixture led to a rapid rise in gas temperature and a sudden gas expansion. When it reached the stable envelope flame condition, U in is adjusted to an assigned value. Two blow-off mechanisms were identified. It was also found in the study flame shapes with buoyancy effects agreed with the ones observed experimentally by Tsai. Furthermore, the lift-off flame would appear briefly between the envelopes and wake ones, and was stabilized as a wake flame.

Chen, Young-Da; Chen, Da-Da; Chen, Chiun-Hsun

2008-12-01

277

Thermal barrier coatings: burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings to the combustion products of Na- and V-contaminated fuels and to identify alternate coatings with improved resistance to potential utility gas turbine environments. Coatings were evaluated on air-cooled, hollow superalloy erosion bar specimens of nickel-base alloy IN-792 and cobalt-base alloy MM-509. Operating conditions

P. E. Hodge; S. Stecura; M. A. Gedwill; I. Zaplatynsky; S. R. Levine

1978-01-01

278

OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS  

SciTech Connect

The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

2001-08-20

279

Fundamental Scaling of NOx Emissions from Burners and Furnaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal similarity and uniform measurement protocols have yielded the first NOx scaling data from burners and furnaces over the range of thermal scales from 30 kW to 12 MW. Detailed in-flame measurements of NO, NOx, CO, O2, unburned hydrocarbons, temperature, and velocities at each scale allow identification

Adrian T.-C. Hsieh; Werner J. A. Dahm; James F. Driscoll

1996-01-01

280

RPV Pioneer abroad USS Iowa-an EMI case history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the two-year history of RDT&E (research, development, test, and evaluation) EMI (electromagnetic interference) control efforts provided by the US Navy's Shipboard Electromagnetic Compatibility Improvement Program (SEMCIP) to support introduction into the fleet of the remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) Pioneer. The effort encompassed fifteen test events from August 1986 to March 1989. Special EMI problems resulted from the

R. T. Ford

1990-01-01

281

Pioneer Venus observations during Comet Halley's inferior conjunction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Feb. 4, 1986, Halley passed through inferior conjunction with Venus but was at high latitudes. Not all data for this time period have been received. However, the data that are available suggest that at most only weak effects associated with Halley were seen at Pioneer Venus. The data during this time, however, are useful for correlating with the behavior of the plasma tail.

Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Scarf, F. L.

1985-01-01

282

Wind Tunnel Study of the Pioneer Remotely Piloted Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) performed impressively well in the recent Gulf War. The Pioneer RPV has been fielded as the ground-launched, short-range RPV for the Marine Corps and as a RATO-launched, short-range RPV operating off of the Navy's battlesh...

R. M. Bray

1991-01-01

283

A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education…

Labi, Aisha

2013-01-01

284

Pioneer 11's encounter with Jupiter and mission to Saturn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space between Saturn and its rings.

Dyer, J. W.

1975-01-01

285

Monitoring and Controlling System Performance in the Pioneer Buoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer buoy is part of an aquatic observatory, known as GLUCOS (Great Lakes Urban Coastal Observing System), being developed by the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Great Lakes WATER Institute. The buoy can function as a rapid deployment system for measuring transient phenomena, or as a controller and wireless communication hub for large specialized instruments, such as water samplers or sediment

D. Murray; T. R. Consi

2007-01-01

286

Reinterpreting the Pioneer anomaly and its annual residual  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to its long-term constancy, the Pioneer (spacecraft) anomaly appears to only exist for bodies whose mass is less than that of: planets, moons, comets, and heavy asteroids of known mass. Assuming the observational evidence is reliable and not the result of an unknown systematic effect, a violation of the Weak Principle of Equivalence is implied. This constraint is

287

Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

1972-01-01

288

Pioneer Venus mechanical roots pump test and evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical pump for use with the Pioneer-Venus probe mass spectrometer inlet system was obtained, and a limited performance testing program, including ultimate/compression ratio tests and throughput tests at three different pump speeds, was performed. Considerable operating experience with the pump was obtained over approximately 200 hours of running. The test results show general agreement with pump specifications.

Thomas, N. C.; Crosmer, W. E.

1973-01-01

289

Educational Technology Dissemination Through Pioneering Partners: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pioneering Partners provides K-12 educators in the Great Lakes Region--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Wisconsin--with educational technology development opportunities, coalition-building opportunities, dissemination skills training, connection to Greatlinks Net/Internet, and financial support to defray…

Hawkes, Mark; And Others

290

Pioneer 10 ultraviolet photometer observations at Jupiter encounter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-channel extreme ultraviolet photometer on Pioneer 10 was used to investigate hydrogen and helium emissions from the atmosphere of Jupiter and emissions associated with the Galilean satellites. The hydrogen Lyman a signal observed from Jupiter corresponded to 400 R in brightness. By using the results of Wallace and Hunten, the eddy diffusion coefficient is found to be K =

R. W. Carlson; D. L. Judge

1974-01-01

291

Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind interaction with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of the Pioneer 10 plasma analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby in late November and early December 1973 has been performed. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found

J. H. Wolfe; J. D. Mihalov; H. R. Collard; D. D. McKibbin; L. A. Frank; D. S. Intriligator

1974-01-01

292

Pioneer Venus Small Probes Net Flux Radiometer Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Wisconsin net flux experiment on the Pioneer Venus mission investigated the distribution of radiative energy deposition and loss which drives atmospheric circulation on Venus. The instrument used an external sensor and a novel method of chopping to measure the net flux of solar and planetary radiation during descent through the thick Venus atmosphere. The sensor, consisting of

L. A. Sromovsky; H. E. Revercomb; Verner E. Suomi

1980-01-01

293

Historic Resource Study: Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To place the Mormons and the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail in historical perspective is difficult, for they were both unique as well as uniquely American. Most Mormons tend to emphasize that which is unique in their history. In no way do Mormons ...

S. B. Kimball

1991-01-01

294

Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry

G. H. Pettengill; D. F. Horwood; C. H. Keller

1980-01-01

295

Reconstruction of the Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer, northeast Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer was closed temperate rainforest dominated by Nothofagus johnstonii Hill, which probably produced N. menziesii-type pollen. However, other angiosperms (Quintinia, Cupaniae, Ilex, Cunoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Winteraceae) were also present, as well as several conifers (Athrotaxis, Phyllocladus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Dacrycarpus and Araucariaceae). This rainforest was floristically more complex that the modern Tasmanian Nothofagus cunninghamii rainforests but

Robert S. Hill; Michael K. Macphail

1983-01-01

296

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975)

A. G. Klein

2006-01-01

297

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34

A. G. Klein

2006-01-01

298

Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation  

SciTech Connect

The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons.

Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

2007-10-12

299

Survey of the Pioneer 10 and 11 Jupiter mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After a description of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, the following scientific experiments are discussed: Helium Vector Magnetometer, Fluxgate Magnetometer, Plasma Analyzer, Geiger Tube Telescope, Cosmic Ray Telescope, Trapped Radiation Detector, Ultraviolet Photometer, Imaging Photopolarimeter, Infrared Radiometer, Asteroid-Meteoroid Detector, and Meteoroid detector. Also reviewed are the mission profile and status.

Wolfe, J. H.

1976-01-01

300

The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1973-01-01

301

The magnetic field of Saturn - Pioneer 11 observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer experiment consists of two biaxial fluxgate sensors assemblies and an associated electronics system that is designed to measure fields up to 10 gauss along three orthogonal axes. It was used to provide a higher upper range than that provided by the helium vector magnetometer whose maximum measureable field is only 1.4 gauss. Observations of

M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1980-01-01

302

ICF Hybrid Burner Using Tritium-Lean Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A near-term ICF driven actinide burner has gained much interest.. However, the D-T ICF approach with tritium breeding gives a low support ratio. We propose here using fast ignition of tritium-lean targets to obtain a higher fraction of useful neutrons by reducing tritium-breeding requirements while lowering neutron-induced material damage [1]. This approach appears feasible as simulations show fast ignited tritium-lean targets use only a modest added input-energy over DT targets [2, 3]. Further, discovery of the ``block ignition'' concept is even more encouraging [3]. Thus we suggest the added time to go directly to tritium lean ICF burners (vs. D-T) is minimal. The presentation reviews physics and technology issues for development of a competitive actinide burner.[4pt] [1] M. Ragheb, et al., ``Alternate approach to ICF with low tritium inventories and high power densities'', J. Fus. Energy 4, 339-351 (1985).[0pt] [2] G. N. Miley, ``Tritium-Lean Fusion Reactors Revisited'', ANS TOFE Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008.[0pt] [3] G.H. Miley, et al., ``Reduction of Threshold for Laser Fusion Ignition at Nonlinear Force Driven Block Acceleration'', ANS TOFE Conference, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 2008

Miley, George; Yang, Xiaoling; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hora, Heinrich

2009-11-01

303

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 4: Pioneer 10, from January 1974 - January 1975 and Pioneer 11, from 1 May 1973 through Jupiter encounter period January 1975  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tracking and Data Systems support of Pioneer 10 from January 1974 through January 1975 is described along with Pioneer 11 support from May 1973 through Jupiter encounter. Topics covered include: operations in the interplanetary environment from the time of completion of the second trajectory correction to the start of Jupiter encounter; the implementation, planning, and testing that led to Jupiter encounter; and the operations during the 60-day encounter period for Pioneer 11.

Miller, R. B.; Barton, W. R.; Cloonan, E. A.; Nash, J. C.

1975-01-01

304

Exploring the Effects of Employing Different Scaling Criteria on Swirl Stabilised Pulverised Coal Burner Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT–The effects of employing different scaling criteria on the performance of swirl stabilised pulverised coal burners are presented. Two burners were studied at 2.5MWthermal input. The burners were scaleddown from a SO MW1 reference case usingboth constantvelocityandconstant residence-time scaling criteria. Coal particle size distribution was maintained constant at 75% < 751lffi in both cases. Parametric studies were performed on each

J. P. SMART; D. J. MORGAN

1994-01-01

305

Laser vibration measurements through combustive flows: application to an industrial burner in working conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the application of a laser Doppler vibrometer for the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of a burner during normal working conditions. The burner is a 1:4 scale model of a real CH4 industrial burner for gas turbines, with a power of 120 kW. A first series of tests has been performed in order to determine the resonance

Nicola Paone; Gian Marco Revel

2000-01-01

306

Technology for the development of high-efficiency oil-fired residential heating equipment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marketplace is now ready for low-capacity burners to minimize the detrimental effects on seasonal efficiency that burner oversizing can bring about and to meet the needs of new energy-efficient homes. This report presents a review and assessment of technology that should be considered in the development of efficient residential oil-burning equipment having capability for reliable, low-capacity operation. The focus

D. W. Locklin; H. R. Hazard

1980-01-01

307

33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading...147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading...Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading...

2013-07-01

308

Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Zâ model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Zâ zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

309

The Z3 model of Saturns magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z3 model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z3 zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

310

The Z3 model of Saturn's magnetic field and the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z3 model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of the Z3 zonal harmonic model, which was derived from Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 fluxgate magnetometer observations. Differences between the Pioneer 11 magnetometer and the

J. E. P. Connerney; M. H. Acuna; N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

311

Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies  

SciTech Connect

The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.

Mumford, J.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Hall, R.E.; Jackson, M.A.; Merrill, R.G. Jr.; Lewtas, J.

1986-07-01

312

The Pioneer Anomaly: Data Analysis and Mission Proposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts show an anomalous Sun-ward acceleration with a nearly constant value. This paper reports the work of the french teams which have formed the Groupe Anomalie Pioneer (GAP) to study this anomaly. A new orbit determination software has been developped which has already led to an independant confirmation of the existence of an anomaly. Missions have been proposed in the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision process. The mission named Odyssey aims at testing General Relativity at heliocentric distances up to 50 AU. The principle of the test is to compare the range using DSN techniques to the prediction of General Relativity. A crucial instrument is the accelerometer embarked on board to measure the non geodesic acceleration and account for it in the navigation software.

Levy, A.; Christophe, B.; Reynaud, S.; Courty, J.-M.; Bério, P.; Métris, G.

2007-07-01

313

A possible magnetic wake of Titan - Pioneer 11 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with measurements of the magnetic field along the outbound leg of Pioneer's trajectory at Saturn, which suggest that the spacecraft may have passed through the magnetic wake of Titan at a distance of 145 Titan radii downstream from Titan. The data obtained over a period of several hours around the crossing of Titan's L shell exhibit a number of characteristics which are qualitatively consistent with predictions based on theories of the interaction between a supersonic magnetized plasma and a conducting or magnetized planetary body. In addition, values of the plasma mass density derived from the interaction geometry are consistent with an upper limit inferred from in situ plasma measurements obtained during the outbound leg of Pioneer's trajectory.

Jones, D. E.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Walker, R. J.; Sonett, C. P.

1980-01-01

314

The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

2008-01-01

315

Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1976-01-01

316

System expectations for Pioneer I foil implosion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Prior to the beginning of the Pioneer I shot of the Los Alamos National Laboratory TRAIL-MASTER project, numerous computational simulations were run to provide ball-park estimates for the electrical currents and voltages in the circuit, the timing of the implosion, the kinetic energy, temperature, and radiation output of the load. The purpose of these calculations was to provide guidance in setting the timings of the various switches within the circuit and to establish operating ranges for the various diagnostics.

Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

1985-01-01

317

Craniofacial surgery, from past pioneers to future promise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  As a surgical subspecialty devoted to restoration of normal facial and calvarial anatomy, craniofacial surgeons must navigate\\u000a the balance between pathologic states of bone excess and bone deficit. While current techniques employed take root in lessons\\u000a learned from the success and failure of early pioneers, craniofacial surgery continues to evolve, and novel modalities will\\u000a undoubtedly arise integrating past and present

Derrick C. Wan; Matthew D. Kwan; Anand Kumar; James P. Bradley; Michael T. Longaker

2009-01-01

318

New Horizons and the onset of the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20–70 AU from the Sun has indicated the presence of an unmodeled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift which can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP=(8.74±1.33)×10?8 cm\\/s2 directed approximately towards the Sun. In addition, there is early (roughly modeled) data from as close in as

Michael Martin Nieto

2008-01-01

319

System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 2: Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the low-cost Pioneer Venus space probe program are discussed. The space mission and science requirements are analyzed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) the multiprobe mission, (2) the orbiter mission, (3) science payload accomodations, and (4) orbiter spacecraft experimental interface specifications. Tables of data are provided to show the science allocations for large and small probes. Illustrations of the systems and components of various probe configurations are included.

Acheson, L. K.

1973-01-01

320

Revisiting the pioneering market orientation model in an emerging economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to replicate Kohli and Jaworski, and Kohli's pioneering market orientation model within a highly growth-oriented and competitive banking industry in an emerging Middle-Eastern economy, Jordan. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted among top management personnel of 475 bank branches in Jordan. A total of 11 hypotheses related to market orientation; its antecedents

Musa Dwairi; Shahid N. Bhuian; Anthony Jurkus

2007-01-01

321

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter: Pioneer 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of JupiteL and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Rj, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 'y, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived

E. J. Smith; L. Davis Jr.; D. E. Jones; P. J. Coleman Jr.; D. S. Colburn; P. Dyal; C. P. Sonett; A. M. A. Frandsen

1974-01-01

322

Preannouncing pioneering versus follower products: what should the message be?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high practical relevance, prior research does not provide a clear picture whether the effectiveness of new product\\u000a preannouncements is contingent upon order of entry and whether the message content of preannouncements for pioneering products\\u000a should be different from those for followers. Drawing on diffusion research, the authors examine how preannouncements that\\u000a focus on risk reduction and the product’s

Christian Homburg; Torsten Bornemann; Dirk Totzek

2009-01-01

323

Pioneer 10 and 11 (Jupiter and Saturn) magnetic field experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnet field data obtained by the vector helium magnetometer (VHM) during the encounters of Jupiter (Pioneer 10 and 11) and Saturn (Pioneer 11) was analyzed and interpreted. The puzzling characteristics of the Jovian and Saturnian magnetospheric magnetic fields were studied. An apparent substorm (including thinning of the dayside tail current sheet) was observed at Jupiter, as well as evidence suggesting that at the magnetopause the cusp is at an abnormally low latitude. The characteristics of Saturn's ring current as observed by Pioneer 11 were dramatically different from those suggested by the Voyager observations. Most importantly, very strong perturbations in the azimuthal ring current magnetic field suggest that the plane of the ring was not in the dipole equatorial plane, being tilted 5 to 10 deg. relative to the dipole and undergoing significant changes during the encounter. When these changing currents were corrected for, an improved planetary field determination was obtained. In addition, the ring and azimuthal currents at Saturn displayed significantly different time dependences.

Jones, D. E.

1986-01-01

324

Pioneer Venus data analysis for the retarding potential analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the data analysis and archiving activities, analysis results, and instrument performance of the orbiter retarding potential analyzer (ORPA) flown on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft during the period, Aug. 1, 1988 to Sept. 30, 1993. During this period, the periapsis altitude of the Orbiter spacecraft descended slowly from 1900 km altitude, at which altitude the spacecraft was outside the Venus ionosphere, to approximately 130 km altitude in Oct. 1992 at which time communication with the spacecraft ceased as a result of entry of the spacecraft into the Venus atmosphere. The quantity of ORPA data returned during this reporting period was greatly reduced over that recovered in the previous years of the mission because of the reduced power capability of the spacecraft, loss of half of the onboard data storage, and partial failure of the ORPA. Despite the reduction in available data, especially ionospheric data, important scientific discoveries resulted from this extended period of the Pioneer Venus mission. The most significant discovery was that of a strong solar cycle change in the size of the dayside ionosphere and the resulting shutoff of flow of dayside ions into the nightside hemisphere. The large, topside O+ F2 ionospheric layer observed during the first three years of the Pioneer Venus mission, a period of solar cycle maximum activity, is absent during the solar cycle minimum activity period.

Knudsen, William C.

1993-01-01

325

Independent Confirmation of the Pioneer 10 Anomalous Acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I perform an independent analysis of radio Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft for the time period 1987-1994. All of the tracking data were taken from public archive sources, and the analysis tools were developed independently by myself. I confirm that an apparent anomalous acceleration is acting on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is not accounted for by present physical models of spacecraft navigation. My best fit value for the acceleration, including corrections for systematic biases and uncertainties, is (8.60 plus or minus 1.34) x 10(exp -8) centimeters per second, directed towards the Sun. This value compares favorably to previous results. I examine the robustness of my result to various perturbations of the analysis method, and find agreement to within plus or minus 5%. The anomalous acceleration is reasonably constant with time, with a characteristic variation time scale of greater than 70 yr. Such a variation timescale is still too short to rule out on-board thermal radiation effects, based on this particular Pioneer 10 data set.

Markwardt, Craig B.

2002-01-01

326

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

327

Technology for the development of high efficiency oil-fired residential heating equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of efficient residential oil burning equipment with capability for reliable, low capacity operation is assessed. Technical approaches with potential application to unconventional types of oil burners and to efficient heat exchangers, including those that operate partially in the mode of condensing moisture from the flue gases to regain the latent heat of vaporization are reviewed. The following concepts

D. W. Locklin; H. R. Hazard

1980-01-01

328

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

329

Aerodynamic characteristics of flame with introduction of gas through the side walls of burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

the aerodynamic conditions of fuel combustion in burners of regenerative glassmaking furnaces of different designs. With this in view models of burners were made with organic glass on a scale of 1:10. Compressed air was used as the stimulating agent. The consumption of compressed air was measured with the help of rotameters RS-7 and RS-5 and it ensured the condition

L. P. Shutnikova; O. P. Popov

1978-01-01

330

Exploratory burner for enhanced-flame radiation. Final report, June 1988December 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exploratory methane burner was constructed for increasing the flame radiation output in turbulent diffusion flames from burners and in furnaces. Prior to its combustion as a turbulent diffusion flame in ambient air, methane fuel was preheated to high temperatures (up to 1500 K) to facilitate the formation of soot particles which contribute to a significant increase in flame radiation

M. A. Delichatsios; J. de Ris; L. Orloff

1991-01-01

331

Effect of different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of considering different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner is studied numerically. A 3D numerical model based on a unit cell was implemented to correctly predict the momentum, heat and mass transfer at the interface of the two layers. Two operating modes are simulated corresponding to the burner radiating to cold and hot environments.

T. C. Hayashi; I. Malico; J. C. F. Pereira

2010-01-01

332

An experimental study on the combustion characteristics of a low no x burner using reburning technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of a low NOx burner using reburning technology have been experimentally studied. The reburn burner usually has three distinct reaction\\u000a zones which include the primary combustion zone, the reburn zone and the burnout zone by provided secondary air. NOx is mainly produced in a primary combustion zone and a certain portion of NOx can be converted to

Kook-Young Ahn; Han-Seok Kim; Min-Gyu Son; Ho-Keun Kim; Yong-Mo Kim

2002-01-01

333

Efficient Burner Characterization by Acoustic Measurements II. Annual Report, FY 80.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are summarized from a project at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with the aim of developing a simple acoustic device for monitoring the combustion efficiency in burners; at this stage the applicability is restricted to gas fired burners bu...

P. Seshan K. Ramohalli

1980-01-01

334

Large eddy simulation of forced ignition of an annular bluff-body burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of the ignition process is a crucial issue in the design of many combustion systems. Large eddy simulation (LES) of a conical shaped bluff-body turbulent nonpremixed burner has been performed to study the impact of spark location on ignition success. This burner was experimentally investigated by Ahmed et al. [Combust. Flame 151 (2007) 366–385]. The present work focuses

V. Subramanian; P. Domingo; L. Vervisch

2010-01-01

335

Large eddy simulation of forced ignition of an annular bluff-body burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of the ignition process is a crucial issue in the design of many combustion systems. Large eddy simulation (LES) of a conical shaped bluff-body turbulent nonpremixed burner has been performed to study the impact of spark location on ignition success. This burner was experimentally investigated by Ahmed et al. [Combust. Flame 151 (2007) 366-385]. The present work focuses

V. Subramanian; P. Domingo; L. Vervisch

2010-01-01

336

Industrial burner and process efficiency program. Annual report Jan-Dec 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high velocity, multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion scheme, pulse firing burner has been developed together with a digital control scheme using the frequency modulation (FM) method of regulating the number of duration of pulse firing of the burner for process temperature control. Proof of concept test in a batch hardening furnace is planned next to evaluate this FM combustion

S. R. Huebner; S. N. Prakash

1982-01-01

337

Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area

R. C. Catapan; M. Costa; A. A. M. Oliveira

2011-01-01

338

Effects of inclined jets on turbulent oxy-flame characteristics in a triple jet burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactants are generally injected into the industrial furnaces by jets. An effective method to act on combustion in such systems is to control the way injection jets. The present study concerns the control of turbulent flames by the jets deflection in a natural gas-oxygen burner with separated jets. The burner of 25 kW power is constituted with three aligned

T. Boushaki; M. A. Mergheni; J. C. Sautet; B. Labegorre

2008-01-01

339

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase II. Annual report Jan-Dec 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Phase II of this program, three burner manufacturers, Eclipse, Inc., Hauck Manufacturing, and Bloom Engineering, are cooperating with IGT in the development of industrial burners that incorporate various NOx control techniques while maintaining the heat-transfer characteristics of the flames suitable for the particular process application. NOx control by catalytic combustion, staged combustion, and\\/or recirculation is being incorporated in the

H. A. Abbasi; M. J. Khinkis; R. T. Waibel

1981-01-01

340

APPLICATION OF ROOF RADIANT BURNERS IN LARGE PUSHER-TYPE FURNACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the application of roof flat-flame burners in the pusher-type steel slab reheating furnaces, after furnace reconstruction and replacement of conventional torch burners, with the objective to increase the efficiency of radiative heat transfer from the refractory roof to the charge. Based on observations and on mea- surements of the construction and process parameters under operating conditions,

A. VARGA; M. TATI; L. LAZI

341

Method and apparatus for fuel\\/air control of surface combustion burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is described for use in controlling the operation of a surface burner generating a flame producing emissions having a carbon monoxide concentration, said system comprising: a detector means for generating electrical signal equivalents corresponding to the intensity of electromagnetic radiation from said flame; an air valve for providing a controlled flow of air to said surface burner in

Zabielski; M. F. Sr

1993-01-01

342

EMISSIONS OF CO AND NO FROM A TWO STAGE POROUS MEDIA BURNER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present measurements of CO and NO emissions and the fraction of the heat of reaction emitted as radiation for a two stage burner. The fuel-air mixtures of different equivalence ratios were burned in two separate porous ceramic sections. The primary radiating surface in this burner is the outer cylindrical surface of the porous media. We compared

JANET L. ELLZEY; RAKESH GOEL

1995-01-01

343

Low Btu gas staged air burner for forced-draft service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a staged-air vortex burner for use in burning low Btu fuel and under forced-draft service. The burner comprising a flame zone; a swirl chamber for creating a swirling flow path for primary combustion air and primary low heating value gas; means for discharge into the flame zone; and, means adjacent to each other for introducing secondary air

L. W. Jr. Davis; J. P. Geosits; D. L. Juedes; E. F. Kiezek

1989-01-01

344

EMISSIONS FROM REFINERY PROCESS HEATERS EQUIPPED WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes an investigation of the performance of commercial low-NOx burners in refinery process heaters. Refineries in Southern and Central California were surveyed to determine the number of existing or planned low-NOx burners. Tests on 10 process heaters equipped wi...

345

Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.  

PubMed

Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

2013-10-01

346

Multi-fuel low-NO\\/sub x\\/ burner development, Phase II. Final report Mar 79Feb 82  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this program was to develop high-efficiency, low-nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners having flame and heat-transfer characteristics that are suitable for specific industrial processes in cooperation with burner manufacturers for process heating applications. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) A high excess air

H. A. Abbasi; M. J. Khinkis; R. T. Waibel

1982-01-01

347

Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

Hoult, D. P.

1979-01-01

348

Indirect measurement of the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum of a long turbulent burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method is described for deducing the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum (defined as the fraction of combustion heat release converted to acoustic energy at a given frequency) of a long turbulent burner from the sound spectrum measured in the far field. The method, which is based on a one-dimensional model of the unsteady flow in the burner, is applied to a tubular diffusion-flame hydrogen burner whose length is large compared to its diameter. The results for thermal powers ranging from 4.5 to 22.3 kW show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency is relatively insensitive to the burner power level, decreasing from a value of around 0.0001 at 150 Hz with a slope of about 20 dB per decade. Evidence is presented indicating that acoustic agitation of the flame below 500 Hz, especially in the neighborhood of the resonant frequencies of the burner, is a significant acoustic source.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.; Blevins, L. R.; Cline, J. G.

1983-01-01

349

Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

1977-01-01

350

Process for improving the combustion of a blow-type burner  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for achieving optimal combustion. A boiler has a blower-type burner operatively associated therewith wherein the burner has a variable speed blower. Combustive air is provided to the burner, and in accordance with the invention, a gaseous combustion-correcting complex is provided for supplying a plurality of gaseous additives to the combustive air of the burner. A plurality of sensors are disposed within the boiler and burner, and within a discharge outlet of the boiler, and a central unit is operatively connected to the sensors for receiving information signals therefrom. In response to the information signals received from the sensors, the central unit controls the speed of the variable speed blower and the operation of the gaseous combustion-correcting complex for providing predetermined amounts of the additives to the combustive air.

2000-03-21

351

Occurrence of benzo(a)pyrene in combustion effluents of kerosene and diesel burners  

SciTech Connect

Due to limited Jordanian resources, kerosene and diesel burners have been widely used for heating homes and water, warming bread, grilling meat and cooking food. Jordan annually imports and average of 204 tons of burners which corresponds to approximately 20,400 burners. Considerable amounts of combustion products are produced such as gases, aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially benzo(a)pyrene (Bp), the well known carcinogen for man and animal. Since most Jordanians use burners more than five months a year, a considerable amount of combustion effluents accumulate indoors. Some of these materials can enter the human body via various routes, and are potential health hazards. Little information is available about the chemical nature and amount of the combustion effluents produced by these burners; therefore the present study was designed to screen for benzo(a)pyrene in the indoor-accumulated combustion effluent.

Gharaibeh, S.H.; Abuirjeie, M.A.; Hunaiti, A.A.

1988-09-01

352

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat recovery...Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery...covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat...

2009-07-01

353

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat recovery...Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery...covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat...

2010-07-01

354

RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACE SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION--PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the second of a two-phase investigation into ways to improve the air pollutant emission and thermal efficiency characteristics of residential oil furnaces. A prototype, low-emission, warm-air furnace (designed in Phase I to embody a number of burner and combu...

355

Effect of energetic electrons on combustion of premixed burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many studies of plasma-assisted combustion, authors superpose discharges onto flames to control combustion reactions. This work is motivated by more fundamental point of view. The standpoint of this work is that flames themselves are already plasmas. We irradiated microwave power onto premixed burner flame with the intention of heating electrons in it. The microwave power was limited below the threshold for a discharge. We obtained the enhancement of burning velocity by the irradiation of the microwave power, which was understood by the shortening of the flame length. At the same time, we observed the increases in the optical emission intensities of OH and CH radicals. Despite the increases in the optical emission intensities, the optical emission spectra of OH and CH were not affected by the microwave irradiation, indicating that the enhancement of the burning velocity was not attributed to the increase in the gas temperature. On the other hand, we observed significant increase in the optical emission intensity of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen, which is a clear evidence for electron heating in the premixed burner flame. Therefore, it is considered that the enhancement of the burning velocity is obtained by nonequilibrium combustion chemistry which is driven by energetic electrons. By irradiating pulsed microwave power, we examined the time constants for the increases and decreases in the optical emission intensities of N2, OH, CH, and continuum radiation.

Sasaki, Koichi

2011-11-01

356

Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

357

Suppression Characteristics of Cup-Burner Flames in Low Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structure and suppression of laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using physically acting fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, and Ar) in normal earth (lg) and zero gravity (0g). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An initial observation of the flame without agent was also made at the NASA Glenn 2.2-Second Drop Tower. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream by gradually replacing the air until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity. The suppression of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff phenomena of the trailing diffusion flame. The thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

2004-01-01

358

Health Coaching Education: A Conversation With Pioneers in the Field  

PubMed Central

In February 2013, Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHMJ) interviewed eight pioneers in the field of health coaching education: Michael Arloski, PhD, PCC; Linda Bark, PhD, RN, MCC, NC-BC; Georgianna Donadio, PhD; Meg Jordan, PhD, RN; Sam Magill, MBA, MCC; Margaret Moore, MBA; Linda Smith, PA-C, MA; and Cheryl Walker, ML, MCC. This article features biographies of the participants and their perspectives on the evolution and value of health coaching education and the keys to its success.

Snyder, Suzanne

2013-01-01

359

Reentry thermal protection from Pioneer F RTG insulation material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ablation tests were performed on the insulation material used in the Pioneer F radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) in the Ames Arc-Heated Planetary-Gas Wind Tunnel. Test results indicate that the material, trade name Min-K 1301, should experience little ablation for heat transfer rates below 40 BTU/sq ft-sec. If the current design were to be changed so that the various pieces of Min-K were fastened or interlocked together the total amount of heat delivered to the RTG heat source during an earth orbital decay reentry would be reduced by at least 22.7%.

Vorreiter, J. W.

1972-01-01

360

Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere  

DOEpatents

According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

Coolidge, Dennis W. (Katy, TX) [Katy, TX; Rinker, Franklin G. (Perrysburg, OH) [Perrysburg, OH

1994-01-01

361

Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner  

SciTech Connect

''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

Ala Qubbaj

2004-09-01

362

Geophysical Research Letters. Selected Papers on Pioneer Venus Orbiter: Entry Phase. Volume 20  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contents include the following papers which are comprised of subject matter related to the The Pioneer Venus Orbiter's Entry Phase: The Pioneer Venus entry phase; solar cycle variations of electron density and temperature in the Venusian nightside ionosphere; the magnetic state of the lower ionosphere during Pioneer Venus entry phase; the nightside ionosphere of Venus under varying levels of solar EUV flux; observation of the nightside Venus ionosphere; final encounter of the Pioneer Venus orbiter ion mass spectrometer; ion measurement during Pioneer Venus reentry; implications for solar cycle variation of ion composition and dynamics; evidence for day-to-night ion transport at low solar activity in the Venus pre-dawn ionosphere; model calculations of the dayside ionosphere of Venus at solar minimum; natural composition measurements by the Pioneer Venus neutral mass spectrometer during orbiter reentry; the Venus atmospheric response to solar cycle variations; and plasma waves observed at low altitudes in the tenuous Venus nightside ionosphere.

1993-01-01

363

The planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere of Jupiter - Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data obtained by the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer are presented along with models of the intrinsic magnetic field of Jupiter and its magnetosphere. Data acquired between 2.84 and 6.0 Jupiter radii, where the intensity of the planetary field ranged between 1900 and 18,400 gamma, were used to develop a six-parameter eccentric dipole model of the field. The dipole so derived has a moment of 4.0 G (R sub J) cubed and a tilt angle with respect to Jupiter's rotation axis of 11 deg. A model of the Jovian magnetosphere is presented in which the essential feature is an eastward current sheet that forms an annulus with Jupiter at the center. At large distances from the planet the current sheet is nearly parallel to Jupiter's equator but, in general, does not lie in it. The current sheet is warped, so that it is above the equator on one side and below it on the other. The current sheet rotates with the planet, more or less like a rigid body, this behavior causes an apparent up and down motion and periodic crossings of the current sheet by Pioneer.

Smith, E. J.; Frandsen, A. M. A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Jones, D. E.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Colburn, D. S.; Dyal, P.; Sonett, C. P.

1974-01-01

364

A neo-Newtonian explanation of the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 20 years NASA has struggled to find an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (? 8.5×10^{-10} m s^{-2}), observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999). No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was first announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by Céspedes-Curé (2002) that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density ?_{*}^{} due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational influence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n' < 1), implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.

Greaves, E. D.

2009-05-01

365

Support for the thermal origin of the pioneer anomaly.  

PubMed

We investigate the possibility that the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is due to the recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the vehicles. To this end, relying on the project and spacecraft design documentation, we constructed a comprehensive finite-element thermal model of the two spacecraft. Then, we numerically solve thermal conduction and radiation equations using the actual flight telemetry as boundary conditions. We use the results of this model to evaluate the effect of the thermal recoil force on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft at various heliocentric distances. We found that the magnitude, temporal behavior, and direction of the resulting thermal acceleration are all similar to the properties of the observed anomaly. As a novel element of our investigation, we develop a parametrized model for the thermal recoil force and estimate the coefficients of this model independently from navigational Doppler data. We find no statistically significant difference between the two estimates and conclude that, once the thermal recoil force is properly accounted for, no anomalous acceleration remains. PMID:23004253

Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T; Kinsella, Gary; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lok, Shing M; Ellis, Jordan

2012-06-15

366

A Study of Scrap Heating By Burners. Part I: Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A furnace, approximately 1 m3 in capacity, was built to measure the efficiency of heat transfer from a propane-oxygen burner to different types of industrial steel scrap. Supplementary measurements were undertaken to measure the scrap density, size, and void fraction to insure complete combustion of the propane and to measure the extent of scrap oxidation. Local values of temperature in the scrap bed were measured along with the exit temperature of the off gas. The off gas temperature was a direct measurement of the overall efficiency of heating. It was found that smaller and denser scrap was heated more effectively. Configurations that increased the path length of the gas also increased the efficiency of heating. In Part II, a mathematical model is developed to compare with the measured temperatures.

Mandal, Kamalesh; Irons, Gordon A.

2013-02-01

367

Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

1984-01-01

368

Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

1977-01-01

369

High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Became Operational  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, developed over the last 3 years, is now collecting research data in a production mode. The High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique because it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow s advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone through four fused-silica optical windows, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enable the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors.

Nguyen, Quang-Viet

2003-01-01

370

A quantitative study of acoustic growth rates in a characterized Rijke burner with particle combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic growth rate, frequency, and limiting amplitude of a characterized Rijke burner were quantitatively measured during the combustion of aluminum and zirconium carbide particles, which are common solid propellant additives. Extremely narrow size distributions of aluminum particles with mean diameters of 9.2, 19.0, 35.6, and 68.7 ?m were tested at mass loadings up to 3% for frequencies of 800 and 1200 Hz. Large aluminum particles were ignited in the C3H8/O2 flame of a welding nozzle, mounted flush with the burner's flat, C3H8/O 2/N2 flame. Testing provided no conclusive evidence of distributed particle combustion affecting the acoustic driving in the Rijke burner. In solid propellant rockets, the distributed combustion of aluminum particles far from the propellant surface may contribute to pressure oscillations caused by acoustic combustion instability. The Rijke burner was developed as an experimental platform to investigate the phenomenon. Research into the transient acoustic response of Rijke burners is almost nonexistent; consequently, the current burner's acoustic response was quantified as a function of gas flow rate, gas composition, geometry, and burner orientation for two frequencies. Acoustic growth rate trends were explained in terms of the pulsing flame's heat release and the flame's position relative to the optimal acoustic driving point. Variations in gas flow rate, flame temperature, geometry, and exhaust temperature profile could affect a 300 s-1 change in acoustic growth rate for the conditions tested. Frequency remained approximately constant, except for acoustic mode shifts which occurred due to geometry alterations or changing gas temperatures in the burner's hot section. The Rijke burner's acoustic response was not significantly altered by the installation of the welding nozzle with its gas mixture operated near stoichiometric or fuel rich. The radial and axial temperature profiles of the gas temperatures in the burner's hot section were also measured during burner characterization. Gas temperatures would often drop 800 K from the centerline to the burner wall (37 mm diameter). Transient acoustic results were modeled utilizing the temperature measurements-reduced to the axial dimension. The model predicts the experimental trends and approximate magnitude for acoustic growth rate; agreement between the model and measured frequency is excellent.

Newbold, Brian Russell

2000-12-01

371

Fire Suppression in Low Gravity Using a Cup Burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station increase the likelihood of accidental fires. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of numerical models, which include detailed combustion-suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches.The structure and extinguishment of enclosed, laminar, methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using various fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, and Fe(CO)5). The experiments involve both 1g laboratory testing and low-g testing (in drop towers and the KC-135 aircraft). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity, and thus, the extinguishing agent concentrations were determined. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff of the trailing diffusion flame. Furthermore, the buoyancy-induced flame flickering in 1g and thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

2004-01-01

372

Target pioneering and early morphology of the murine chorda tympani  

PubMed Central

Many studies demonstrate that differentiation of certain sensory receptors during development is induced by their nerve supply. Thus the navigational accuracy of pioneering fibres to their targets is crucial to this process. The special gustatory elements of the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves are used extensively as model systems in this field. We examined the chorda tympani, the gustatory component of the facial nerve, to determine the precise time course of its development in mice. The transganglionic fluorescent tracer DiI was injected into the anterior aspect of the mandibular arch of fixed embryos aged between 30 and 50 somites (E10–E12). It was allowed to diffuse retrogradely via the geniculate ganglion to the brainstem for 4 wk, before the distribution of DiI was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Geniculate ganglion cells were first labelled at the 34 somite stage (E10). Pioneering chorda tympani fibres that arise from these cells passed peripherally and followed an oblique course as they grew towards the mandibular arch. At the 36 somite stage (E10.5), the peripheral component followed an intricate postspiracular course and passed anteriorly to arch over the primitive tympanic cavity, en route to the lingual epithelium. From the 36 to 50 somite stages (E10.5–E12), it consistently traced in the fashion of a ‘U’ bend. The central fascicle also traced at the 36 somite stage (E10.5) and just made contact with the brainstem. At the 40 somite stage (E11), the central fibres clearly chose a route of descent into the spinal trigeminal tract and branched into the solitary tract. Pioneering chorda tympani fibres contact the lingual epithelium when the target is primordial. The lingual epithelium may be a source of a neurotropic factor that attracts peripheral chorda tympani fibres to the sites of putative papillae. However, the chorda tympani is probably not a vital influence on the subsequent differentiation of gustatory papillae, since the papillae are elaborated 5 d later at E15 in murine embryos. The early morphology of the nerve is true to the amniote vertebrate phenotype.

SCOTT, LISA; ATKINSON, MARTIN E.

1998-01-01

373

Development of an intelligent multi-burner control system at British Steel Tinplate, Ebbw Vale works.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work on an advanced intelligent burner control system was undertaken at the boiler plant at British Steel Tinplate, Ebbw Vale Works. The work began after an initial investigative project at British Steel Technical, Welsh Laboratories, and a practical phas...

1991-01-01

374

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

375

Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

1995-01-01

376

Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters  

SciTech Connect

The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R. [and others

1995-07-01

377

The influence of combustion liner holes on noise production by ducted burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoacoustic energy conversion process in a turbulent flame is not yet sufficiently well understood to allow accurate prediction of the sound pressure field of even the simplest of laboratory burners. The present contribution is intended to be a step toward fuller understanding of this process. In particular, the possibility is explored that the source structure, in the form of the thermoacoustic efficiency spectrum, might be influenced by the acoustic response of the burner itself. Experimental results are presented which seem to establish that, at least for the gas-fueled laboratory burner studied, source activity is not affected by the addition of downstream combustion liner holes which otherwise alter the acoustic response of the burner.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

1984-10-01

378

SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

379

Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating with the thermosyphon heat exchanger located outside the furnace cabinet. A 100,000 -Btu/hr modulating burner has also been developed. Comprehensive study of the burner's operating characteristics has produced guidelines for the design and application of the device. Finally, the modulating burner has been incorporated into a zone-controlled heating system. In parallel with the development of the preceding heating system components, the performance of thermosyphons over a wide range of operating conditions is being explored with the objective of improving design procedures for incorporating these devices into heat exchangers.

Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Spatz, M.; Smith, E.

1986-03-01

380

The influence of combustion liner holes on noise production by ducted burners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermoacoustic energy conversion process in a turbulent flame is not yet sufficiently well understood to allow accurate prediction of the sound pressure field of even the simplest of laboratory burners. The present contribution is intended to be a step toward fuller understanding of this process. In particular, the possibility is explored that the source structure, in the form of the thermoacoustic efficiency spectrum, might be influenced by the acoustic response of the burner itself. Experimental results are presented which seem to establish that, at least for the gas-fueled laboratory burner studied, source activity is not affected by the addition of downstream combustion liner holes which otherwise alter the acoustic response of the burner.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

1984-01-01

381

Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

Mahan, J. R.

1983-01-01

382

Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown ...

D. Zhu M. A. Kuczmarski R. A. Miller

2011-01-01

383

Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the...

D. Holve F. Acosta J. Y. Chen R. Cabra R. W. Dibble Y. Hamano

2000-01-01

384

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

Not Available

1991-01-01

385

Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

386

Wall-Fired Boiler Design Criteria for Dry Sorbent SO2 Control with Low NOx Burners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses the impact of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on wall-fired utility boilers for both new and retrofit designs. Recent attention has focused on dry sorbent sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology which, in conjun...

R. K. Mongeon

1987-01-01

387

Industrial pulverized coal low-NO(sub x) burner. Phase 1, Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO(sub x) pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, incl...

1993-01-01

388

Experiments on Stability of Bunsen-Burner Flames for Turbulent Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air-ratio range. (author)

Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

1948-01-01

389

Adiabatic Radiant Hot Air Burner. Annual Report September 1988-September 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hot air is a dominant means of industrial product heating or drying and is commonly used for processes such as: agricultural dehydrating, greenhouse and form space heating, paper and textile drying, and pharmaceutical production. Direct gas-fired burners ...

R. K. Tidball B. N. Marshall A. A. Nikzad

1990-01-01

390

Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

1984-01-01

391

EPA's LIMB (Environmental Protection Agency's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners) technology development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives an overview of EPA's Limestone Injection with Multistage Burners (LIMB) program, a progam for research, development, and demonstration of cost-effective emissions control technology for coal fired boilers that can reduce both sulfur oxides(SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The LIMB concept uses low-NOx burners plus sorbent injection to control these pollutants simultaneously. LIMB technology represents a lower-cost alternative

Lachapelle

1985-01-01

392

Stability of Partially Premixed Tubular Burner Flames with Co-Flow and External Swirl-Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the stability data of partially premixed LPG-air flames issuing from a central pipe of 9.5 mm diameter in a co-axial burner. The burner is operated in co- flow or swirl mode of secondary air surrounding the flame base. For the range of fuel flow rates studied, the results show that lift, drop-back and blow-out velocities are higher

A. Zeenathul Farida; K. Kumaran; T. Sundararajan

393

Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of methane cup-burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsation frequency of the cup-burner flame was determined by means of experimental investigations and numerical simulations. Simplified chemical kinetics was successfully implemented into a laminar fluid flow model applied to the complex burner geometry. Our methodical approach is based on the monitoring of flame emission, fast Fourier transformation and reproduction of measured spectral features by numerical simulations. Qualitative agreement between experimental and predicted oscillatory behaviour was obtained by employing a two-step methane oxidation scheme.

Bitala, P.; Kozubková, M.; Kade?ábek, P.; Nevrlý, V.; Dlabka, J.; Kozubek, E.; Št?pánek, O.; Bojko, M.; Kubát, P.; Zelinger, Z.

2013-04-01

394

Effects of inclined jets on turbulent oxy-flame characteristics in a triple jet burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactants are generally injected into the industrial furnaces by jets. An effective method to act on combustion in such systems is to control the way injection jets. The present study concerns the control of turbulent flames by the jets deflection in a natural gas–oxygen burner with separated jets. The burner of 25kW power is constituted with three aligned jets,

T. Boushaki; M. A. Mergheni; J. C. Sautet; B. Labegorre

2008-01-01

395

Computational Modelling of Swirling Diffusion Flame in Air-Staged Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents an application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulating an industrial-scale low NOx burner. The main aim of the performed research is to provide the experimentally validated computational prediction of turbulent, non-premixed swirling gas flame in an air-staged burner. Computations are performed using the k-?, k-? and Reynolds-stress turbulence models in order to examine the relative

P. B?lohradský; V. Kermes; P. Stehlík

396

Study of Low-Temperature Combustion in a Low-NOxBurner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Natural Gas Premixed Forced Internal Recirculation Burner (FIR) developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) reduces NOx emission level to sub-1O vppm. The FIR burner incorporates air staging and internal recirculation of combustion products. which greatly enhances heat removal. In the primary zone, combustion of rich natural gas\\/air mixtures occurs at low-temperatures (800 to 13ooK), therefore, NOx formation

Pawel Mosiewicz; Peter Porshnev; Sergei Nester; Lawrence A. Kennedy; Alexander Fridman; J. Rabovitser; D. Cygan

2000-01-01

397

Numerical Investigation of Different Burner Arrangement on a Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation of combustion process in a 200 MW coal-fired boiler is performed using CFD software. The work is focused on concentrate-lean burner, which arranges with different horizontal tilts and the air-staging technique. The numerical simulations on the regular burner have been validated with the experiment data. The other simulation results using the same models could be considered for the

Fei Xing; Tingwei Ji; Shuai Zhang; Peiyong Wang

2011-01-01

398

Abatement of SF6 and CF4 using an enhanced kerosene microwave plasma burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kerosene microwave plasma burner was presented as a tool for abatement of SF6 and CF4 gases, which cause global warming. The plasma burner operates by injecting kerosene as a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into a microwave plasma torch and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen (O2) gas. The abatement of SF6 and CF4,

Dong Hun Shin; Yong Cheol Hong; Soon Cheon Cho; Han Sup Uhm

2006-01-01

399

A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars.  

PubMed

The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of the group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other extreme environments, from Antarctic rocks to thermal springs and hypersaline habitats, but it is unable to compete with more specialized organisms. Genetic evidence suggests that all forms belong to a single species. Its remarkable tolerance of environmental extremes makes Chroococcidiopsis a prime candidate for use as a pioneer photosynthetic microorganism for terraforming of Mars. The hypolithic microbial growth form (which lives under stones of a desert pavement) could be used as a model for development of technologies for large-scale Martian farming. PMID:11539232

Friedmann, E I; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

1995-03-01

400

An analysis of communications blackout for Pioneer Venus entry probes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the maximum duration of communications blackout are presented for a proposed Pioneer Venus mission involving a multiprobe entry targeted to individual impact sites. Calculations of the inviscid flow about the probes have been made using both finite-rate chemistry and equilibrium chemistry computer codes. Equilibrium boundary-layer calculations including ablation are also presented both with and without the presence of alkali metal contaminants from the heat shield. Methods are described for estimating maximum electron density in the inviscid wake and the recirculation region at the base of the probes. The results presented provide a conservative basis for planning for storage and subsequent telemetry of data during the entry phase of the mission.

Grose, W. L.; Falanga, R. A.; Sutton, K.

1975-01-01

401

Neutron interferometry: The pioneering contributions of Samuel A. Werner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1975, Sam Werner, while on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company, and his collaborators from Purdue University, Roberto Colella and Albert Overhauser, carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2 MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment [Colella et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 34 (1975) 1472] on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. This work and its history are briefly reviewed in this paper.

Klein, A. G.

2006-11-01

402

Pioneer 10 observations of the solar wind interation with Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer 10 Plasma Analyzer experiment flight data during the Jupiter flyby are presented. The observations show that the interaction of Jupiter's magnetic field with the solar wind is similar in many ways to that at earth, but the scale size is over 100 times larger. Jupiter is found to have a detached standing bow shock wave of high Alfven Mach number. Jupiter has a prominent magnetopause which deflects the magnetosheath plasma and excludes its direct entry into the Jovian magnetosphere. The sunward hemisphere of Jupiter's outer magnetosphere is found to be highly inflated with thermal plasma and a high beta region which is highly responsive to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. Observational arguments are presented which tend to discount a thin disklike magnetosphere but, rather, favor a Jovian magnetosphere, albeit probabily considerably flattened as compared to the earth's magnetosphere, yet still with reasonable thickness. Results concerning the shock jump conditions, the magnetosheath flow field and inferred internal magnetospheric plasma are presented.

Wolfe, J. H.; Mihalov, J. D.; Collard, H. R.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Frank, L. A.; Intriligator, D. S.

1974-01-01

403

Magnetospheres of earth and Jupiter after Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possible reasons are discussed for the marked differences observed between the magnetospheres of earth and Jupiter, and a model of Jupiter's magnetosphere is proposed which can explain the observations of the Pioneer 10 mission. It is shown that the corotating plasma in Jupiter's plasmasphere is in the form of a flattened disk due to inertial forces and that Jupiter's magnetosphere is, in part, a rigidly rotating warped skew 'magnetodisk'. According to the proposed model, the inner part of the magnetosphere consists of a warped magnetodisk, the dipole field lines are modified by a ring current, and the equatorial plasma density increases with distance in the region beyond the synchronous orbit radius. Considerable attention is given to the effects resulting from spiraling of the magnetic-field lines, the tilt in the magnetic dipole, and the strong viscous interaction of the solar wind on the dawn side of the magnetosphere.

Prakash, A.; Brice, N.

1975-01-01

404

[Boleslas Matuszewki--pioneer of medical film-making].  

PubMed

Boleslas Matuszewski, born in 1856, was a pioneer in medical film-making. He worked simultaneously on improving his movie camera, film-making, collecting film documentation, and the idea of establishing an archive of medical films. Although his first attempts at filming and showing surgical operations didn't gain widespread approval, he was not discouraged, and succeeded in garnering support from a number of French doctors, who realised the importance of his ideas, not only in filming and forming medical film documentation, but also in the use of film for educative purposes. His visionary ideas gained acceptance when Dr. Doyen, on the occasion of the 66th Convention of the British Medical Society, in 1898, used film material as part of his lecture. Shortly afterwards, the Medical Academy took steps to show certain operative techniques, which represented both the confirmation and fruition of Matuszewski's ideas about filmmaking and the establishment of an archive of medical films. PMID:16623267

Matanovi?, Dragana

2005-01-01

405

Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

2002-09-01

406

Florence Nightingale: creator of modern nursing and public health pioneer.  

PubMed

In starting this series of articles on distinguished women in nursing, medicine and the related healthcare professions, the choice of the first name is obvious. Florence Nightingale is, I suggest, the most famous female in the long history of medicine and is a name that is known and revered throughout the world. Most people--even those in 'the trade'--think of her as 'the lady with the lamp', the heroine who went out to the Crimean War and nursed the sick and wounded at Scutari. Important though this was, her main contribution was her continued work, long after the war, in nursing organisation and training, hospital planning, public and military health and her pioneering work in the efficient gathering of medical statistics. PMID:18828456

Ellis, Harold

2008-09-01

407

Future exploration of Venus (post-Pioneer Venus 1978)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive study was performed to determine the major scientific unknowns about the planet Venus to be expected in the post-Pioneer Venus 1978 time frame. Based on those results the desirability of future orbiters, atmospheric entry probes, balloons, and landers as vehicles to address the remaining scientific questions were studied. The recommended mission scenario includes a high resolution surface mapping radar orbiter mission for the 1981 launch opportunity, a multiple-lander mission for 1985 and either an atmospheric entry probe or balloon mission in 1988. All the proposed missions can be performed using proposed space shuttle upper stage boosters. Significant amounts of long-lead time supporting research and technology developments are required to be initiated in the near future to permit the recommended launch dates.

Colin, L.; Evans, L. C.; Greeley, R.; Quaide, W. L.; Schaupp, R. W.; Seiff, A.; Young, R. E.

1976-01-01

408

Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

Bohn, Willy L.

2005-03-01

409

The magnetic field of Saturn - Pioneer 11 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer experiment consists of two biaxial fluxgate sensors assemblies and an associated electronics system that is designed to measure fields up to 10 gauss along three orthogonal axes. It was used to provide a higher upper range than that provided by the helium vector magnetometer whose maximum measureable field is only 1.4 gauss. Observations of the intrinsic magnetic field of Saturn measured by the high-field fluxgate magnetometer were found to be much weaker than expected. An analysis of preliminary data combined with the preliminary trajectory yield a model for the main planetary field which is a simple centered dipole. It was determined that the polarity of Saturn is opposite that of Earth, and that the tilt is small, within 2 deg plus or minus 1 deg.

Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

1980-01-01

410

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

SciTech Connect

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a 'young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the 'dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies.The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul [Morningstar Applied Physics Inc., LLC, Vienna, VA 22182 (Austria)

2010-01-28

411

An Anzatz about Gravity, Cosmology, and the Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pulsar 1913+16 binary system may represent a `young' binary system where previously it is claimed that the dynamics are due to either a third body or a gravitational vortex. Usually a binary system's trajectory could reside in a single ellipse or circular orbit; the double ellipse implies that the 1913+16 system may be starting to degenerate into a single elliptical trajectory. This could be validated only after a considerably long time period. In a majority of binary star systems, the weights of both stars are claimed by analysis to be the same. It may be feasible that the trajectory of the primary spinning star could demonstrate repulsive gravitational effects where the neutron star's high spin rate induces a repulsive gravitational source term that compensates for inertia. If true, then it provides evidence that angular momentum may be translated into linear momentum as a repulsive source that has propulsion implications. This also suggests mass differences may dictate the neutron star's spin rate as an artifact of a natural gravitational process. Moreover, the reduced matter required by the `dark' mass hypothesis may not exist but these effects could be due to repulsive gravity residing in rotating celestial bodies. The Pioneer anomaly observed on five different deep-space spacecraft, is the appearance of a constant gravitational force directed toward the sun. Pioneer spacecraft data reveals that a vortex-like magnetic field exists emanating from the sun. The spiral arms of the Sun's magnetic vortex field may be causal to this constant acceleration. This may profoundly provide a possible experimental verification on a cosmic scale of Gertsenshtein's principle relating gravity to electromagnetism. Furthermore, the anomalous acceleration may disappear once the spacecraft passes out into a magnetic spiral furrow, which is something that needs to be observed in the future. Other effects offer an explanation from space-time geometry to the Yarkovsky thermal effects are discussed.

Murad, Paul

2010-01-01

412

Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2011-01-15

413

Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

2011-01-01

414

Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

Andrew Seltzer

2005-05-01

415

Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

2001-01-01

416

‘Through the magic of authentic reproduction’: tourists’ perceptions of authenticity in a pioneer village  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a concept, authenticity is widely debated across tourism studies and theoretically approached from numerous perspectives. This mixed-method qualitative study utilizes a constructivist framework for examining tourists' motivations, perceptions of authenticity and landscape experience in a self-proclaimed ‘authentic reproduction’ pioneer community. Spring Mill Pioneer Village is the original location of the former village; however, as a heritage landscape, it is

Jillian M. Rickly-Boyd

2011-01-01

417

‘Through the magic of authentic reproduction’: tourists’ perceptions of authenticity in a pioneer village  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a concept, authenticity is widely debated across tourism studies and theoretically approached from numerous perspectives. This mixed-method qualitative study utilizes a constructivist framework for examining tourists' motivations, perceptions of authenticity and landscape experience in a self-proclaimed ‘authentic reproduction’ pioneer community. Spring Mill Pioneer Village is the original location of the former village; however, as a heritage landscape, it is

Jillian M. Rickly-Boyd

2012-01-01

418

The Quilt-Block History of Pioneer Days: With Projects Kids Can Make.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The uses and techniques of quilt making are presented in this book which focuses on the quilt patterns as allegory for pioneer history. Pioneer experiences are described and linked visually with appropriate quilt patterns. An activity accompanies each pattern presentation. The work is organized into 10 chapters: (1) "Quilts and History: A Simple…

Cobb, Mary

419

Pioneer House: Reflections on Working with Redl and Wineman in 1947.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on his early days in youth work, Dr. Henry Maier discusses his days on the front lines at Pioneer House as a young colleague of Fritz Redl and David Wineman. Pioneer House, in Detroit Michigan, was a home for boys that provided a treatment approach to behavior problems. (BF)

Maier, Henry W.

2001-01-01

420

Systems design study of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 3. Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pioneer Venus spacecraft performance requirements are presented. The specifications include: (1) Design criteria and performance requirements for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft systems and subsystems for a 1978 multiprobe mission and a 1978 orbiter mission, spacecraft system interface, and scientific instrument integration.

1973-01-01

421

[F. V. Raspail, founder of histochemistry and pioneer of the cell theory, reflected in contemporary medals].  

PubMed

Contemporary medals on F. V. Raspail are not related to the pioneering scientist, founder of histochemistry and pioneer of cell theory. They show the politician Raspail on cheap coinage popular as a souvenir and sign of political following. Raspail's personality and political mind made science and politics inseparable for him. For the general public Raspail first of all was a political man. PMID:6362489

Hildebrand, R

1983-01-01

422

Results of Pioneer 10 and 11 Meteoroid Experiments: Interplanetary and Near-Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 10 (channel 0) recorded 95 penetrations through the 25-tm stainless steel test material while the spacecraft was between 1 and 18 AU. The spatial density of 10-9g meteoroids is found to be essentially constant between 1 and 18 AU. The meteoroid penetration detectors on Pioneer 11 recorded 87 penetrations (55 on channel 0 and

D. H. Humes

1980-01-01

423

Current status of models of Jupiter's magnetosphere in the light of Pioneer data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The salient features of the various models of Jupiter's magnetosphere are compared with each other and with the major findings of Pioneer 10 and 11. No single model explains all the major phenomena detected by the Pioneers. A unified model of Jupiter's magnetosphere is proposed.

Prakash, A.; Auer, P.

1975-01-01

424

Z3 Model of Saturn's Magnetic Field and the Pioneer 11 Vector Helium Magnetometer Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Magnetic field observations obtained by the Pioneer 11 vector helium magnetometer are compared with the Z(sub 3) model magnetic field. These Pioneer 11 observations, obtained at close-in radial distances, constitute an important and independent test of th...

J. E. P. Connerney M. H. Acuna N. F. Ness

1984-01-01

425

Commercial/industrial: The downside of a high turndown burner  

SciTech Connect

A few years ago I wrote an article titled {open_quotes}The Benefits of a High Turndown Burner.{close_quotes} Normally speaking, we want to try to match firing rate to boiler load. This will lessen cycling, thus cutting back on the losses due to prepurge, post purge, and standby loss. Theoretically speaking, if we are using 1,000,000 btuh we want to be firing at 1,000,000 btuh. If our load drops to 500,000 btuh then we want to fire at 500,000 btuh. In many applications, usually process and industrial, we have a rapid large load variation. In the heating business we have a slower variation, as the seasons change If we have a load which constantly varies, for example, from 200,000 btuh to 1,000,000 btuh, a standard boiler, with a 4-1 turndown, would be cycling continuously. Thus our cycling losses appear! In this situation, a 10-1 turndown would conserve considerable energy. In some applications such as hotels, restaurants, and even some apartment buildings, where there is a large intermittent domestic water load, there can be considerable savings.

McAuley, J.A. Jr.

1996-02-01

426

Methanol as a soot reducer in a turbulent swirling burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combined effect of using methanol as a fuel additive together with a prototype multifuel injector has been evaluated with regard to soot formation in a tubular laboratory burner with a turbulent swirl stabilized diffusion flame. Kerosene, ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with approximately 14,12.8 and 10.3 wt pct of hydrogen respectively were characterized in terms of soot loading at the axial positions Z/D = 2.5 and 4.0 and normalized radius r/R = + or 0.67. Mixtures of ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol were also characterized in the same way. Measurements with the plain fuels showed a drastic reduction in soot formation, in the order of one hundred and fifty fold decrease, due to the new injector design. Further reductions by a factor of 2 and 1.5 were accomplished with the mixtures of 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol respectively.

Izquierdo, A. J.; Hoult, D. P.

1984-01-01

427

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

1978-01-01

428

Thermal barrier coatings - Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

SciTech Connect

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na- and V-contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in wt %) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 vol % MgO-50 vol % Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

Hodge, P.E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M.A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S.R.

1980-01-01

429

Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.  

PubMed

The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

2011-10-01

430

Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.  

SciTech Connect

Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2006-09-15

431

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

2002-01-01

432

System for utilizing oil shale fines  

DOEpatents

A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01

433

76 FR 10581 - Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. ER11-2905-000] Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based...in the above-referenced proceeding of Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based rate...

2011-02-25

434

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet. PMID:21806201

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

2011-07-01

435

Design of ``model-friendly'' turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H2, CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20 000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

2011-07-01

436

SO2 on Venus: A final cross-calibration with Pioneer Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present reporting period we have met with the Pioneer Venus PI to collaborate on the recalibration of the UV spectrometer of Pioneer Venus. The associated data reduction and analysis activities have been completed. The sensitivity of the UV spectrometer has been steadily declining since orbit insertion of Pioneer Venus in 1978 due to aging of the detector tubes. The sensitivity decline is a strong function of wavelength and the rate of decline is also a function of time. Measures were taken to reduce the light dose received by the instrument to slow down the sensitivity decline. The stellar calibration using the bright UV star Hadar in 1990 indicates that the sensitivity decline may have slowed down more than have been previously estimated. The derived amount of SO2 from Pioneer Venus depends on the accuracy of the absolute sensitivity of the UV spectrometer. The previous cross calibration between IUE and Pioneer Venus led to the use of the same solar flux data for reducing and modelling data from both IUE and Pioneer Venus. The comparison between the 1991 IUE results and the Pioneer Venus stellar calibration carried out in 1990 will allow a more accurate determination of sensitivity decline of the PV UV spectrometer. The result of this comparison will be crucial in determining the trend of SO2 in the Venus atmosphere.

Stern, S. Alan

1993-01-01

437

A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion of fluoride during early childhood leading to the formation of defective enamel. The increased fluoride content is thought to result in a metabolic alteration of ameloblasts, which results in defective matrix, and improper calcification of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 6244 patients between the ages of 6yrs to 60yrs, who presented to our outpatient clinic from October 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped according to their age into the following groups- 6-14 yrs, 15-25 yrs, 26-40 yrs, and 40-60yrs. Only permanent dentition was taken into consideration in this study. Results: The overall prevalence of fluorosis in this study was 63.34% (3955 of 6244 patients). Men had a slightly higher prevalence of 64.27% compared to 62.28% among women. Conclusion: Prevention of fluorosis would require efforts at raising awareness among the people about the harmful effects of their dietary choices on their teeth. They also need to be educated about adequate and proper oral hygiene, such as brushing their teeth at least two times daily. How to cite this article: Sunil T K L, Shetty S, Annapoorna B M, Pujari S C, Reddy P S, Nandlal B. A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):67-72.

L, Sunil Tejaswi K; Shetty, Suneeth; M, Annapoorna B; Pujari, Sudarshan C; P, Sarveshwar Reddy; Nandlal, B

2013-01-01

438

Initial pioneer venus magnetic field results: dayside observations.  

PubMed

Initial observations by the Pioneer Venus mangnetometer in the sunlit ionosphere reveal a dynamic ionosphere, very responsive to external solar-wind conditions. The localtions of the bow shock and ionosphere are variable. The strength of the magnetic field just olutside the ionopause is in approximate pressure balance with the thermal plasma of the ionosphere and changes markedly from day, to day in response to changes in solar wind pressure. The field strength in the ionosphere is also variable from day to day. The field is often weak, at most a few gammas, but reaching many tens of gammas for periods of the order of seconds. These field enchantments are interpreted as due to the passage of spacecraft through flux ropes consisting of bundles of twisted field lines surrounded by the ionospheric plasma. The helicity of the flux varies through the flux tube, with lows pitch angles on the inside and very lage angles in the low-field outer edges of the ropes. These ropes may have external or internal sources. Consistent with previous results, the average position of the bow shock is much closer to the planet than would be expected if the solar wnd were completely deflected by the planet. In total, these observations indicate that the solar wind plays a significant role in the physics of the Venus ionosphere. PMID:17832982

Russell, C T; Elphic, R C; Slavin, J A

1979-02-23

439

The atmosphere of Io from Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The occultation of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft by Io (JI) provided an opportunity to obtain two S-band radio occultation measurements of its atmosphere. The day-side entry measurements revealed an ionosphere having a peak density of about 60,000 el/cu cm at an altitude of about 100 km. The topside scale height indicates a plasma temperature of about 406 K if it is composed of Na(+) and 495 K if N2(+) is principal ion. A thinner and less dense ionosphere was observed on the exit (night side), having a peak density of 9,000 el/cu cm at an altitude of 50 km. The topside plasma temperature is 160 K for N2(-) and 131 K for Na(+). If the ionosphere is produced by photoionization in a manner analogous to the ionospheres of the terrestrial planets, the density of neutral particles at the surface of Io is less than 10 to 1 trillion per cu cm, corresponding to a surface pressure of less than 10 to 1 nanobars.

Kliore, A. J.; Fjeldbo, G.; Seidel, B. L.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Sesplaukis, T. T.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Rasool, S. I.

1975-01-01

440

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.  

PubMed

Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:24354350

Ng, Chin Ting Justin

2014-06-01

441

The Starflight Handbook: A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Starflight Handbook A Pioneer's Guide to Interstellar Travel "The Starflight Handbook is an indispensable compendium of the many and varied methods for traversing the vast interstellar gulf--don't leave the Solar System without it!" --Robert Forward "Very sensible, very complete and useful. Its good use of references and technical `sidebars' adds to the book and allows the nontechnical text to be used by ordinary readers in an easy fashion. I certainly would recommend this book to anyone doing any thinking at all about interstellar flight or the notion of possibilities of contacts between hypothetical civilizations in different stat systems." --Louis Friedman Executive Director, The Planetary Society The Starflight Handbook is the first and only compendium on planet Earth of the radical new technologies now on the drawing boards of some of our smartest and most imaginative space scientists and engineers. Scientists and engineers as well as general readers will be captivated by its: In-depth discussions of everything from nuclear pulse propulsion engines to in-flight navigation, in flowing, non-technical language Sidebars and appendices cover technical and mathematical concepts in detail Seventy-five elegant and enlightening illustrations depicting starships and their hardware

Mallove, Eugene F.; Matloff, Gregory L.

1989-06-01

442

Optical measurement of interplanetary particulates from Pioneer 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial concentration and size distribution for particulates measured in situ by the asteroid/meteoroid detector on Pioneer 10 between 1.0 and 3.5 AU are presented. The size distribution includes particles of radii from about 35 microns to 10 cm. Extrapolation from the smallest particle sizes measured shows good agreement with the results of the particle penetration detector carried on the same spacecraft. Within the uncertainties of this experiment, a single size distribution seems appropriate for all but the smallest particles measured. There is evidence for the existence of a planetary sweeping effect in the vicinity of the Mars orbit. As calculated from the particle spatial distribution, the zodiacal light brightness is found to vary approximately as the inverse square of solar distance out to about 2.25 AU and then decrease more rapidly. The absolute value of the zodiacal light brightness as calculated from the particle spatial concentration is found to be too high by a factor of 10.

Soberman, R. K.; Neste, S. L.; Lichtenfeld, K.

1974-01-01

443

Pioneer 10 at Silver Au Describes Sun's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost 4 billion kilometers from the Sun, Pioneer 10's findings paint a detailed picture of the solar atmosphere. The heliosphere is now believed to be a huge magnetic bubble created by the solar wind and gets its tear-shape from streamlining due to the motion of the solar system through the interstellar gas. The skin of the bubble, the region between stellar and interstellar gas, is believed to lie between 50 and 100 AU from the Sun. The solar wind drags the Sun's magnetic field with it. The bubble, probably extends far beyond Pluto, and is believed to breathe, expanding and contracting like a giant cosmic lung with each 11 year cycle. The most recent findings show that as storms on the Sun build up toward maximum solar activity, they send out shock waves throughout the bubble which cause ripples. This long lived solar storm turbulence accelerates low energy cosmic ray particles coming in from the galaxy, deflecting them out of the solar system, and shielding the planets. As distance from the Sun increases, more and more cosmic ray particles penetrate the heliosphere.

1981-01-01

444

Constraining an expanding locally anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work it is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards a given central mass by considering a background described by an expanding locally anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter, either gravitational interaction corrections. In particular are analysed the possible measurable effects on the outskirts of the Solar system, for heliocentric distances above 20AU, and are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity on Schwarzschild backgrounds imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of ap?+0.4-2.0+2.1×10-10(ms). It is also computed the mass-energy density for the ELA metric within the bounds obtained and are discussed the respective contributions to the cosmological density parameter which, for compatibility with the ?CDM model, are included in the cosmological relative density of cold dark matter ? (?c).

Castelo Ferreira, P.

2013-04-01

445

ANALYSIS OF EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL OIL FURNACES AND COMPARISON WITH WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a series of emission tests on a residential oil furnace to determine emissions from two types of burners. A number of analyses were performed on the emissions, including total mass, filterable particulate, total extractable organics, and mutagenicity. r...

446

Study of Fuel Staging for NOx Control in an Oil-fired Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the design of burner systems with CFD simulations to identify effective designs for NOx control in an oil-fired furnace with 1200? preheated combustion air. The study focused on the design of fuel staging systems. However, air staging was also conducted as a basis for comparison. Simulation results indicate that fuel staging was more effective than air staging

S. R. Wu; B. R. Adams

447

COMBUSTION MODIFICATION EFFECTS ON NOX EMISSIONS FROM GAS-, OIL-, AND COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report represents the conclusion of 4 years of analysis of large quantities of emissions, operating conditions, and boiler configuration data from full-scale multiple-burner, electric-generating boilers firing natural gas, oil, and coal fuels. The overall objective of the stu...

448

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS AND ORGANIC FINGERPRINTS FROM COMBUSTION OF OIL AND WOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents data from an Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) pilot study on the total carbon, organics, and particulate emissions from oil furnaces with both gun-type and retention head burners. hese data are compared to results of a similar IACP study on woodstoves condu...

449

Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

1984-01-01

450

Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.  

PubMed

Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology. PMID:20000525

Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

2009-12-15

451

Gasoline from coal: the pioneering South African experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fact that South Africa had no commercially significant deposits of crude oil necessitated the early development of production of gasoline from coal which was present in abundance in low to medium grade in thick seams, the development of the process since the early 1950s is discussed. Both the Fischer Tropsch and Lurgi processes are used, and three large plants

Hoogendoorn

1982-01-01

452

Tracking and data system support for the Pioneer project. Volume 1: Pioneer 10-prelaunch planning through second trajectory correction, 4 December 1969 - 1 April 1972  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tracking and data system support of the launch, near-earth, and deep space phases of the Pioneer 10 mission, which sent a Pioneer spacecraft into a flyby of Jupiter that would eventually allow the spacecraft to escape the solar system is discussed. The support through the spacecraft's second trajectory correction is reported. During this period, scientific instruments aboard the spacecraft registered information relative to interplanetary particles and fields, and radiometric data generated by the network continued to improve knowledge of the celestial mechanics of the solar system. In addition to network support activity detail, network performance and special support activities are covered.

Siegmeth, A. J.; Purdue, R. E.; Ryan, R. E.

1973-01-01

453

Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year study of noise production in a long tubular burner is described. The research was motivated by an interest in understanding and eventually reducing core noise in gas turbine engines. The general approach is to employ an acoustic source/propagation model to interpret the sound pressure spectrum in the acoustic far field of the burner in terms of the source spectrum that must have produced it. In the model the sources are assumed to be due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release; thus only direct combustion-noise is considered. The source spectrum is then the variation with frequency of the thermal-acoustic efficiency, defined as the fraction of combustion heat release which is converted into acoustic energy at a given frequency. The thrust of the research was to study the variation of the source spectrum with the design and operating parameters of the burner.

Mahan, J. R.

1983-01-01

454

Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

1999-07-07

455

Inherited Biotic Protection in a Neotropical Pioneer Plant  

PubMed Central

Chelonanthus alatus is a bat-pollinated, pioneer Gentianaceae that clusters in patches where still-standing, dried-out stems are interspersed among live individuals. Flowers bear circum-floral nectaries (CFNs) that are attractive to ants, and seed dispersal is both barochorous and anemochorous. Although, in this study, live individuals never sheltered ant colonies, dried-out hollow stems - that can remain standing for 2 years - did. Workers from species nesting in dried-out stems as well as from ground-nesting species exploited the CFNs of live C. alatus individuals in the same patches during the daytime, but were absent at night (when bat pollination occurs) on 60.5% of the plants. By visiting the CFNs, the ants indirectly protect the flowers - but not the plant foliage - from herbivorous insects. We show that this protection is provided mostly by species nesting in dried-out stems, predominantly Pseudomyrmex gracilis. That dried-out stems remain standing for years and are regularly replaced results in an opportunistic, but stable association where colonies are sheltered by one generation of dead C. alatus while the live individuals nearby, belonging to the next generation, provide them with nectar; in turn, the ants protect their flowers from herbivores. We suggest that the investment in wood by C. alatus individuals permitting still-standing, dried-out stems to shelter ant colonies constitutes an extended phenotype because foraging workers protect the flowers of live individuals in the same patch. Also, through this process these dried-out stems indirectly favor the reproduction (and so the fitness) of the next generation including both their own offspring and that of their siblings, all adding up to a potential case of inclusive fitness in plants.

Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Leroy, Celine; Delabie, Jacques H. C.; Rossi, Vivien; Cereghino, Regis

2011-01-01

456

Karl Kleist (1879-1960)- a pioneer of neuropsychiatry.  

PubMed

Karl Kleist (1879-1960) was instrumental in pioneering German neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology, including the description of frontal, constructional, limb-kinetic (innervatory) and psychomotor apraxias, frontal akinesia and aspontaneity, as well as object and form blindness. Besides isolating episodic twilight states, involutional paranoia and symptomatic (especially influenza) psychoses, he was particularly involved in applying Wernicke's syndromatic and Kraepelin's prognostic and aetiological principles to classify "neurogenous" psychoses by refuting the assumption of mixed entities whenever possible. Thus, has phasophrenias denoted manic-depressive illness, unipolar affective disorders and marginal, i.e., atypical psychoses. The rather benign cycloid psychoses form the most prominent examples of the latter. Schizophrenias, on the other hand, were limited to poor long-term catamnestic outcomes. Kleist conceptualized the core group of schizophrenic illness as psychic system diseases-hence the origin of the term "systematic schizophrenias" within the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard School. Kleist was mainly influenced by Wernicke and his psychic reflex arc, but Ernst Mach's empiriocriticism, Theodor Meynert's cerebral connectionism, and associationism also shaped his outlook. Kleist's localization of cerebral functions by lesion analyses was indeed the best available at the time and continues to reveal insights to the interested reader. From his Frankfurt School, which may have been the last of a completely unified neuropsychiatry, came sound representatives of psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery. His technical mastery and achievements seem indisputable, but his balancing acts during the Third Reich may today be questioned. Despite joining the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) and the local Court of Genealogical Health (Erbgesundheitsgericht), Kleist was, however, one of the few German physicians who continued to treat Jewish patients, to employ Jewish colleagues and to voice evident criticism of the policies of "eugenics" and "euthanasia". This paper attempts to illuminate Kleist's biography and life's work in the relevant historical context. PMID:14740633

Neumärker, Klaus-Jürgen; Bartsch, Andreas Joachim

2003-12-01

457

Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus  

SciTech Connect

In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O/sup +/ of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O/sup +/ bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O/sup +/ component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux < or approx. =10/sup 7/ ions cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/. This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of < or approx. =10/sup 25/ ions s/sup -1/; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O/sup +/ component is estimated as 10/sup 5/--10/sup 6/ K in order of magnitude.

Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.

1982-11-01

458

Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851-1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education - not a university - he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

Moss, K.; Stauning, P.

2012-03-01

459

RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER AUGMENTATION IN GAS-FIRED RADIANT TUBE BURNERS BY POROUS INSERTS: EFFECT OF INSERT GEOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of an experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation by porous media in a natural gas-fired radiant tube burner. The results show that significant heat transfer augmentation is possible with the use of porous ceramic inserts in both premixed and nonpremixed gas-fired radiant tube burners. Furthermore, this work has shown that geometry variations in the porous

T. E. Peard; J. E. Peters; M. Q. Brewster; R. O. Buckius

1993-01-01

460

Salma Al Sharhan 1933-2014 Dubai ruler leads tributes to pioneering Emirati nurse.  

PubMed

Salma Al Sharhan, affectionately known as 'Mama Salma', has died aged 80. Born in Ras al-Khaimah, one of the Persian Gulf Arab sheikhdoms forming the United Arab Emirates, she was a pioneering nurse in the region. PMID:24749611

Adams, John

2014-04-22

461

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION COMPLEX IN 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

462

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. Ford, artist, 1883) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION FROM A DISTANCE, 1883 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

463

Pc-403: Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Spacecraft Mission Operational Characteristics Document, Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pioneer Venus spacecraft primary and backup operational modes and operational limitations for maneuvers, roll references transfer, attitude determination, spacecraft power discipline and spacecraft thermal discipline, are described. The functions and ...

F. C. Barker

1978-01-01

464

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2011-10-04

465

Are heating-system retrofit and tune-up programs really increasing the efficiency of oil-fired systems?  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a two-year field test involving over 300 homes to evaluate the US Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program for low-income fuel-oil-heated houses. One conclusion was that houses receiving oil-burner clean and tune-ups did not increase in system steady-state efficiency any more than a similar group of weatherized and control houses not receiving clean and tune-ups. A set of oil-burner performance goals proposed by the Alliance to Save Energy were not attained by most of the tuned-up oil systems, thereby not achieving a major benefit of heating-system programs from current implementation methods. Whole-system replacements produced higher-than-average savings and systems with flame-retention burners had higher steady-state efficiencies and used less fuel than normal burners. Other space-heating-system measures including setback thermostats were not statistically significant in reducing fuel-oil consumption. Secondary benefits of improved safety (such as lowering carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gases and inside houses) and reliability were present in weatherized houses, although not in as high a quantity as is often espoused.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-07-01

466

Development of combustion data to utilize low-Btu gases as industrial process fuels. Project 8985 special report No. 1, forward-flow burner type  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data were gathered to determine the performance of a Bloom baffle burner when retrofit with three low-Btu gases. The baffle burner is representative of the forward-flow type of burner and was fired on a furnace with a load simulating the preheat zone of a steel reheat furnace--a typical use for this burner. The low-Btu gases simulated for these combustion trials

1978-01-01

467

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2006-07-15

468

Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft,

Cullison

1997-01-01

469

Growth and physiology of olive pioneer and fibrous roots exposed to soil moisture deficits.  

PubMed

In woody plants, pioneer roots are the main roots used to expand the root system horizontally and vertically whereas fibrous 'feeder' roots are chiefly used in the absorption of water and nutrients. Because of their different roles, we expected newly emerged pioneer and fibrous roots to respond differently to restrictions in soil moisture. We hypothesized that fibrous roots would exhibit greater growth plasticity and greater physiological impairment from soil moisture deficits, especially under heterogeneous conditions. We compared the responses of fibrous and pioneer roots of olive seedlings (Olea europaea) to localized and uniform soil moisture deficits in transparent containers in the greenhouse. In comparison with uniformly wet conditions, uniformly dry conditions caused reduced shoot photosynthesis and reduced shoot growth, but no significant effect on root morphology, root respiration (measured in aerated buffer solution using excised roots) or electrolyte leakage as a function of root age. Under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions, root growth tended to preferentially occur in the moist sector, especially in the pioneer roots. In comparison with pioneer roots in the moist sector, pioneer roots in the dry sector had higher tissue density and higher suberin content, but no shift in root respiration, non-structural carbohydrates or electrolyte leakage. In contrast, fibrous roots in the dry sector exhibited evidence of impaired physiology in older (>38 days) roots compared with similar age fibrous roots in the moist sector. While we anticipated that, compared with pioneer roots, fibrous roots would be more sensitive to soil moisture deficits as expressed by higher electrolyte leakage, we did not expect the strong growth plasticity of pioneer roots under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions. Differentiating the responses of these two very different root types can improve our understanding of how different portions of the root system of woody plants cope with soil moisture deficits. PMID:22084020

Polverigiani, S; McCormack, M L; Mueller, C W; Eissenstat, D M

2011-11-01

470

Demonstration of orbit determination using same-beam interferometry for Magellan and Pioneer 12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbit determination results are presented for Magellan and Pioneer 12 utilizing same-beam interferometer (SBI) data, which is a new data type for planetary orbiter navigation. The orbit determination data employing this data type, based on orbit-to-orbit consistency, has been explained in terms of nominal error models. Results show the orbit determination accuracy for Pioneer 12 using Doppler plus SBI data to be better than the accuracy utilizing only Doppler data by 30 percent.

Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.

1992-01-01

471

Demonstration of orbit determination using same-beam interferometry for Magellan and Pioneer 12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbit determination results are presented for Magellan and Pioneer 12 utilizing same-beam interferometer (SBI) data, which is a new data type for planetary orbiter navigation. The orbit determination data employing this data type, based on orbit-to-orbit consistency, has been explained in terms of nominal error models. Results show the orbit determination accuracy for Pioneer 12 using Doppler plus SBI data to be better than the accuracy utilizing only Doppler data by 30 percent.

Folkner, W. M.; Border, J. S.; Nandi, S.

1992-08-01

472

High temperature burner-duct-recuperator system evaluation: Second annual report, October 1982--September 1983  

SciTech Connect

Activities in the second year of a project to develop a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator are reported. The recuperator is designed to operate in high temperature flue gas streams that contain contaminants and delivers 2000/degree/F preheat air to the combustion system of a steel mill soaking pit. A prototype recuperator was constructed and evaluated. Analysis thermal and fluid flow, flow induced vibration, stress, and materials test data were obtained. Final recuperator system design modifications were made, based on the prototype results, and system fabrication was initiated. Other activities included the development of a high temperature burner, completion of a preliminary economic analysis, and host site preparation.

Snyder, J. E.

1986-02-01

473

Sclerotome-derived Slit1 drives directional migration and differentiation of Robo2-expressing pioneer myoblasts.  

PubMed

Pioneer myoblasts generate the first myotomal fibers and act as a scaffold to pattern further myotome development. From their origin in the medial epithelial somite, they dissociate and migrate towards the rostral edge of each somite, from which differentiation proceeds in both rostral-to-caudal and medial-to-lateral directions. The mechanisms underlying formation of this unique wave of pioneer myofibers remain unknown. We show that rostrocaudal or mediolateral somite inversions in avian embryos do not alter the original directions of pioneer myoblast migration and differentiation into fibers, demonstrating that regulation of pioneer patterning is somite-intrinsic. Furthermore, pioneer myoblasts express Robo2 downstream of MyoD and Myf5, whereas the dermomyotome and caudal sclerotome express Slit1. Loss of Robo2 or of sclerotome-derived Slit1 function perturbed both directional cell migration and fiber formation, and their effects were mediated through RhoA. Although myoblast specification was not affected, expression of the intermediate filament desmin was reduced. Hence, Slit1 and Robo2, via RhoA, act to pattern formation of the pioneer myotome through the regulation of cytoskeletal assembly. PMID:21653616

Halperin-Barlev, Osnat; Kalcheim, Chaya

2011-07-01

474

Cosmic Optical Background: the view from Pioneer 10/11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the new constraints on the cosmic optical background (COB) obtained from an analysis of the Pioneer 10/11 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) data. After careful examination of data quality, the usable measurements free from the zodiacal light are integrated into sky maps at the blue (~0.44 ?m) and red (~0.64 ?m) bands. Accurate starlight subtraction is achieved by referring to all-sky star catalogs and a Galactic stellar population synthesis model down to 32.0 mag. We find that the residual light is separated into two components: one component shows a clear correlation with thermal 100 ?m brightness, while another betrays a constant level in the lowest 100 ?m brightness region. Presence of the second component is significant after all the uncertainties and possible residual light in the Galaxy are taken into account, thus it most likely has the extragalactic origin (i.e., the COB). The derived COB brightness is (1.8 +/- 0.9) × 10-9 and (1.2 +/- 0.9) × 10-9 erg s-1 cm-2 sr-1 Å-1 at the blue and red band, respectively, or 7.9 +/- 4.0 and 7.7 +/- 5.8 nW m-2 sr-1. Based on a comparison with the integrated brightness of galaxies, we conclude that the bulk of the COB is comprised of normal galaxies which have already been resolved by the current deepest observations. There seems to be little room for contributions of other populations including ``first stars'' at these wavelengths. On the other hand, the first component of the IPP residual light represents the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)--scattered starlight by the interstellar dust. We derive the mean DGL-to-100 ?m brightness ratios of 2.1 × 10-3 and 4.6 × 10-3 at the two bands, which are roughly consistent with the previous observations toward denser dust regions. Extended red emission in the diffuse interstellar medium is also confirmed.

Matsuoka, Y.; Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K.; Oyabu, S.

2012-08-01

475

Cosmic Optical Background: The View from Pioneer 10/11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the new constraints on the cosmic optical background (COB) obtained from an analysis of the Pioneer 10/11 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) data. After careful examination of data quality, the usable measurements free from the zodiacal light are integrated into sky maps at the blue (~0.44 ?m) and red (~0.64 ?m) band. Accurate starlight subtraction is achieved by referring to all-sky star catalogs and a Galactic stellar population synthesis model down to 32.0 mag. We find that the residual light is separated into two components: one component shows a clear correlation with thermal 100 ?m brightness, while another betrays a constant level in the lowest 100 ?m brightness region. The presence of the second component is significant after all the uncertainties and possible residual light in the Galaxy are taken into account, and thus it most likely has the extragalactic origin (i.e., the COB). The derived COB brightness is (1.8 ± 0.9) × 10-9 and (1.2 ± 0.9) × 10-9 erg s-1 cm-2 sr-1 Å-1 at the blue and red bands, respectively, or 7.9 ± 4.0 and 7.7 ± 5.8 nW m-2 sr-1. From comparison with the integrated brightness of galaxies, we conclude that bulk of the COB is comprised of normal galaxies which have already been resolved in the current deepest observations. There seems to be little room for contributions of other populations including "first stars" at these wavelengths. On the other hand, the first component of the IPP residual light represents the diffuse Galactic light (DGL)—scattered starlight by the interstellar dust. We derive mean DGL-to-100 ?m brightness ratios of 2.1 × 10-3 and 4.6 × 10-3 at the two bands, which are roughly consistent with the previous observations toward the denser dust regions. Extended red emission in the diffuse interstellar medium is also confirmed.

Matsuoka, Y.; Ienaka, N.; Kawara, K.; Oyabu, S.

2011-08-01

476

LOW COST BIOHEATING OIL APPLICATION.  

SciTech Connect

The report describes primarily the results of combustion tests carried out with a soy methyl ester (SME) that can be considered as a biofuel that does not quite meet the ASTM D 6751-02 specifications for biodiesel. The tests were performed in a residential boiler and a commercial boiler. Blends of the SME in distillate fuel (home heating fuel or equivalently, ASTM No.2 fuel oil) were tested in both the boilers. Similar tests had been conducted in a previous project with ASTM biodiesel blends and hence provided a comparison. Blends of the SME in ASTM No.6 oil (residual oil) were also tested in the commercial boiler using a different burner. Physical properties of the blends (in both the petroleum based fuels) were also measured. It was found that the SME blends in the distillate burned, not surprisingly, similarly to biodiesel blends. Reductions in NOx with blending of the SME were the most significant finding as before with biodiesel blends. The blends in No.6 oil also showed reductions in NOx in the commercial boiler combustion tests, though levels with No.6 blends are higher than with No.2 blends as expected. A significant conclusion from the physical property tests was that even the blending of 10% SME with the No.6 oil caused a significant reduction in viscosity, which suggests a potential direction of application of such blends.

KRISHNA,C.R.

2003-05-01

477

Continuously adjustable low-power gasifier burner/boiler system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catalytic gasification of straight run gasoline by partial oxidation with air was studied. Test models of a gasifier/boiler system which utilizes heating oil as primary fuel were developed. The systems have the following characteristics: (1) power range from 2 kW to 12 kW; (2) continuously adjustable power; (3) stoichiometric combustion; (4) soot free operation; (5) load independent exhaust temperature; and (6) low, constant exhaust temperature.

Kostka, H.; Michel, A.

1982-04-01

478

Oxygen enriched air/natural gas burner system development. Final report, July 1984-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

In order to remain competitive in the global market, energy intensive combustion processes must reduce costs. Air-natural gas combustion is used in many of these processes including heating and melting of glass and metals. These applications are summarized with respect to natural gas consumption and energy efficiency. Oxygen enrichment can increase furnace productivity and reduce operating costs through improved energy efficiency. Commercial air-natural gas burners were shown to be generally limited to 30% enrichment. Since the maximum benefits of oxygen enrichment (high flame temperature and NOx minimization) are achieved with 100% oxygen, a simple retrofit technology was developed to convert air-natural gas burners to fire oxy-fuel. The technology was tested in a ladle preheating process and a glass melting furnace where increased production and fuel savings were observed. In the glass furnace, burner survivability was improved through water cooling. NOx emissions from heating and melting processes have become a significant environmental issue. A computer-based mathematical model was developed to predict the effect of burner firing conditions on NOx levels. The model currently predicts values higher than experimentally observed, but the trend is correct. The data show that conversion of a furnace to 100% oxygen-natural gas can dramatically reduce NOx emissions to well within existing regulations.

Dalton, A.I.; Tyndall, D.W.

1989-11-01

479

PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR DIOXIDE CAPTURE POTENTIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of tests on two large-scale staged-mixing (SM) burners developed by L and L Steinmuller of West Germany. One objective was to optimize their performance for low-NOx emissions, high efficiency, and combined NOx/SO2 control with sorbent injection. The exper...

480

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. The full-scale demonstrat...

481

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired sys