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1

STUDY OF A THERMAL AEROSOL OIL BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of a thermal aerosol oil burner, aimed at counteracting the poor atomization and excess burner capacity that are known to reduce seasonal efficiency and contribute to excess emissions in residential oil burners. Generation of a thermal aerosol ...

2

Oil burner for oil-wells  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An oil burner for oil wells in which the oil to be eliminated is admitted to a specially designed sprayer in which its mechanical atomization is brought about by the construction of said sprayer and its pneumatic atomization is effected by means of inputting gas or air under pressure, the atomized product being ignited by means of spark ignitors and the flame produced being protected by a cylindrical casing. Said casing is provided with a front spray ring which injects water into the flame so as to eliminate the formation of black smoke, and a back spray ring for forming a water curtain which protects the platform against heat radiation from the flame. Said burner is mounted on a tubular support permitting its rotation so as to accompany the wind direction. The material combustion capacity of said burner can reach 30 cubic meters an hour, and for higher flow rates, various identical units can be coupled in parallel.

1976-09-14

3

Sleeve and damper for oil burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sleeve and damper to increase the efficiency of oil burner performance was designed to substantially enclose the flame. The sleeve is heated by the flame to a temperature sufficiently high to assure automatic ignition of unburned hydrocarbons that may result from incomplete combustion of the fuel oil. By controlling the damper operation in conjunction with an adjustable induction air

Parkes

1979-01-01

4

PERFORMANCE OF OIL BURNER SYSTEM UTILIZINGVARIOUS PALM BIODIESEL BLENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation on the performance of an oil burner system utilizing various palm biodiesel blends. Biofuel used in this study is a blend of diesel and palm olein, called palm biodiesel. The performance of burner system using palm biodiesel is based on its temperature profile and emissions generated such as nitrous oxide (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and

Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar

2009-01-01

5

Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R. [and others

1997-12-31

6

A low input, variable firing rate, oil-fired burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype low input, VFR oil burner was developed which vaporizes the fuel and mixes it with air prior to combustion. The resulting flame is sootless, odorless, quiet, and efficient (only 5 to 10% excess air). The turndown range is 6:1 and could be extended to 12:1. At 14.25% CO2, the NOx level is typical for a standard gas burner firing at 12% CO2; this is a slight improvement, considering the higher flame temperature of the prototype burner.

Mariano, C. F.

1982-05-01

7

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow

1998-01-01

8

SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

2000-03-16

9

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

10

Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

1992-01-01

11

Burners  

SciTech Connect

A novel high-velocity gas burner has a housing that is partitioned into an air plenum and a combustion zone. Air flows into the plenum with a swirl to meet a ring of gas jets penetrating the partition through collared holes that impede the air flow. The cup-shaped partition has a skirt extending along he housing into the combustion zone so that secondary or excess air can bypass the combustion zone and cool the combustion products to the desired usable temperature. Using a plurality of jets in each burner simplifies the design of burners of various sizes and makes the air-gas mixing mechanism a less critical parameter than if a single jet were used.

Badrock, J.

1982-06-22

12

Oil burners. January 1970-December 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for January 1970-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

This retrospective bibliography cites reports relating to studies, design, construction, and materials for oil burners using crude oil fuel or shale oil fuel. Topics on low excess air burners, dual fuel burners, reduction of pollutants, and ultrasonic jet atomization in burners are also included. (Contains 67 citations, fully indexed and including a table of contents.)

Not Available

1980-12-01

13

VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.  

SciTech Connect

The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this problem is to develop a burner, which can operate at two firing rates, with the lower rate being significantly lower than 0.5 gallons per hour. This paper describes the initial results of adopting this approach through a pulsed flow nozzle. It has been shown that the concept of flow modulation with a small solenoid valve is feasible. Especially in the second configuration tested, where the Lee valve was integrated with the nozzle, reasonable modulation in flow of the order of 1.7 could be achieved. For this first prototype, the combustion performance is still not quite satisfactory. Improvements in operation, for example by providing a sharp and positive shut-off so that there is no flow under low pressures with consequent poor atomization could lead to better combustion performance. This could be achieved by using nozzles that have shut off or check valves for example. It is recommended that more work in cooperation with the valve manufacturer could produce a technically viable system. Marketability is of course a far more complex problem to be addressed once a technically viable product is available.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

2004-10-01

14

Development of an air-atomized oil burner  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

1996-06-01

15

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow

Butcher

1998-01-01

16

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

17

DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

BUTCHER,T.A.

1998-01-01

18

Blue Flame Burner - Conversion from Oil to Wood Powder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions of using wood powder in a blue flame burner have been investigated. This burner delivers a transparent flame free from soot. Flow tests have been performed as a two-dimensional water-model. A prototype has been manufactured and it has been ...

J. Sieurin

1984-01-01

19

Blower augmentor for power oil and power gas burners  

SciTech Connect

An oil burner is described in combination: (a) a blower comprising a scroll housing and a driven squirrel cage, the squirrel cage having an interior air space, and having blades disposed around space and constituting an air impeller; (b) the scroll housing having a tangential air outlet, and further comprising a spiral wall encircling the squirrel cage; (c) a stationary barrier wall mounted in the housing and extending into the interior air space of the squirrel cage. The barrier wall extends outward from and with respect to a central axial area of the squirrel cage to a location adjacent the blades; (d) the housing is wider than the squirrel cage in axial dimension, to provide an end space between the squirrel cage and the housing, in which end space air tends to recirculate in the housing; and (e) support and baffle means disposed in the end space between the housing and squirrel cage, for mounting the barrier wall and for redirecting in outward directions a portion of the circularly travelling recirculating air in the housing.

Fisher, L.A.

1987-07-14

20

PERFORMANCE AND AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL WATER/RESIDUAL OIL EMULSION BURNER IN A COMMERCIAL BOILER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents the performance and air pollutant emissions of an experimental water/oil emulsion burner. The burner was fired with two residual oils at selected emulsion water fractions. In addition, various stoichiometric ratios and two load conditions were used to determine...

21

Using air pressure--mechanical atomising burners to improve combustion of oil in gas turbine plant combustors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance testing of an air pressure--mechanical atomizing burner for improving oil combustion in gas turbine (GT) power plant combustors are described. From these tests it was concluded that the use of the air pressure--mechanical atomizing burner with a pressure drop of the atomizing air in the burner of ..delta..p\\/sub b\\/ of 0.13 to 0.2 MPa and its

A. G. Tumanovskii; I. F. Pshenisnov; V. G. Gabbasov

1976-01-01

22

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: FUEL OIL RESULTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the fuel oil portion of an evaluation, utilizing a multistaged combustion burner designed for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency, for high nitrogen content fuel and waste incineration application in a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator. A low N...

23

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 3. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND FURTHER FURNACE INVESTIGATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the third phase of a research program with the overall objective of specifying burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. A distributed mixing burner was developed, and its potenti...

24

Environmental Assessment of an Enhanced Oil Recovery Steam Generator Equipped with a Low-NOx Burner. Volume 1. Technical Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steam...

C. Castaldini L. R. Waterland H. I. Lips

1986-01-01

25

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

26

Development of a Low Pressure, Air Atomized Oil Burner with High Atomizer Air Flow: Progress Report FY 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5-8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or ''FAB'' has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a toroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the firing rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% O{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

Butcher, T.A.

1998-01-01

27

Morphology of globules and cenospheres in heavy fuel oil burner experiments  

SciTech Connect

Number 6 fuel oil was heated, sprayed, and burned in an enclosure using a small commercial oil burner. Samples of residues that emerged from the flame were collected at various locations outside the flame and observed by a scanning electron microscope. Porous cenospheres, larger globules (of size 80 {mu}m to 200 {mu}m) that resemble soap bubbles formed from the very viscous liquid residue, and unburned oil drops were the types of particle collected. This paper reports on the qualitative relationships of the morphology of these particles to the temperature history to which they were subjected were made.

Kwack, E.Y.; Shakkottai, P.; Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (US))

1992-04-01

28

Development of a low NO\\/sub x\\/ burner for enhanced oil recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data derived at laboratory and pilot-scale has been used to develop a low NO\\/sub x\\/ burner which is capable of operating with high nitrogen liquid fuels such as crude oils and synthetic fuels. Emissions of NO\\/sub x\\/ can be minimized by application of a staged combustion process in which the first stage is thermally isolated and provides long residence time

G. England; M. Heap; Y. Kwan; R. Payne; D. Pershing

1982-01-01

29

Gaseous emissions from burning diesel, crude and prime bleachable summer yellow cottonseed oil in a burner for drying seedcotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cottonseed oil has been used as a fuel source either as a blend with diesel in varying proportions or undiluted (100%) in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in internal combustion engines. However, limited research is available on the use of cottonseed oil as a fuel source in a multi-fueled burner similar to those used by cottonseed oil mills and

G. A. Holt; J. D. Hooker

2004-01-01

30

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with a low-NOx burner. Volume 1. Technical results. Final report, January 1984January 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance\\/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conventional burner, and comprehensive testing of the low-NOx-burner-equipped steamer. Comprehensive test measurements included continuous flue-gas monitoring; source assessment sampling system testing with

C. Castaldini; L. R. Waterland; H. I. Lips

1986-01-01

31

Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-12-01

32

Design and field demonstration of a low-NOx burner for TEOR (thermally enhanced oil recovery) steamers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses a program that addresses the need for advanced NOx control technology for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generators. A full-scale (60 million Btu\\/hr) burner system has been developed and tested, the concept for which was based on fundamental studies. Test results are included for full-scale burner performance in an experimental test furnace, and in a field-operating

G. C. England; Y. Kwan; R. Payne; M. Osborne

1984-01-01

33

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

34

Evaluation and demonstration of low-NOx burner systems for TEOR (Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery) steam generators: final report - field evaluation of commercial prototype burner. Report for September 1981November 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design criteria established in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. The report describes the successful installation and testing of a full-scale

G. England; Y. Kwan; R. Payne

1985-01-01

35

Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

1998-09-28

36

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions. II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation.

Braun, A.G.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Liber, H.L.; Thilly, W.G.

1987-08-01

37

Evaluation and Demonstration of Low-NOx Burner Systems for TEOR (Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery) Steam Generators: Design Phase Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial gr...

G. C. England M. P. Heap Y. Kwan R. Payne

1984-01-01

38

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

39

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude....

40

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner

C. R. KRISHNA; T. BUTCHER

2004-01-01

41

Regenerative burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of combusting fuel in a furnace having a pair of regenerative burners, each burner having a combustion chamber. It comprises: supplying fuel and oxygen alternatively to each burner to create alternating firing burners wherein the oxygen is supplied from two sources providing first and second oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations and simultaneously alternating the

Gitman

1990-01-01

42

Evaluation and demonstration of low-NOx burner systems for TEOR (thermally enhanced oil recovery) steam generators: design phase report. Report for October 1981February 1983  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to maintain NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while firing a heavy

G. C. England; M. P. Heap; Y. Kwan; R. Payne

1984-01-01

43

DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-TUNING RESIDENTIAL OIL/BURNER - OXYGEN SENSOR ASSESSMENT AND EARLY PROTOTYPE SYSTEM OPERATING EXPERIENCE  

SciTech Connect

This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available.

MCDONALD,R.J.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KRAJEWSKI,R.F.

1998-09-01

44

LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

2004-09-30

45

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with a low-NOx burner. Volume 1. Technical results. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conventional burner, and comprehensive testing of the low-NOx-burner-equipped steamer. Comprehensive test measurements included continuous flue-gas monitoring; source assessment sampling system testing with subsequent laboratory analysis to give total flue-gas organics in two boiling point ranges and specific quantitation on the semivolatile organic priority pollutants; C1 to C6 hydrocarbon sampling; Methods 5/8 sampling for particulate and SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ emissions; and emitted particle size distribution tests using Andersen impactors. Full-load NOx emissions of 110 ppm (3% O/sub 2/) could be maintained from the low-NOx burner at acceptable CO and smoke emissions, compared to about 300 ppm (3% O/sub 2/) from the conventional-burner-equipped steamer. At the low-NOx condition, CO, SO/sub 2/, and SO/sub 3/ emissions were 93, 594, and 3.1 ppm, respectively. Particulate emissions were 39 mg/dscm with a mean particle diameter of 3 to 4 micrometers. Total organic emissions were 11.1 mg/dscm, almost exclusively volatile (C1 to C6) organics. Three PAHs were detected at from 0.1 to 1.4 micrograms/dscm.

Castaldini, C.; Waterland, L.R.; Lips, H.I.

1986-02-01

46

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME 2. HEAVY-OIL AND COAL-FIRED FURNACES AND THE EVALUATION OF RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes Phase II of a research program, the overall objective of which was to specify burner design criteria for minimum pollutant emissions from both pulverized-coal- and residual-fuel-oil-fired combustors. Phase II included both furnace investigations and the evalu...

47

DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used with all oil burner installations. The other possible failure mode had been attributed to fuel degradation and this became the main focus of the evaluation. The degradation of fuel usually occurs faster under higher temperature conditions. To preclude this as much as possible controls that provided for a post-purge of combustion airflow after burner shut down were selected. This provided a short period of time where the burner's combustion air blower continues to operate after the flame has gone out. This tends to cool the nozzle and in turn the fuel inside the small flow pathways inside the nozzle components. This study concludes that the use of low capacity nozzles is possible but only when the temperature and thermal mass environment of the combustion chamber result in a relatively ''cool'' condition. This was accomplished in one long-term experiment that essentially operated for a full heating season equivalent with no evidence of nozzle plugging or failure. The nozzle body surface temperature was kept at or below 150 F during the duration of the trial. On the other hand, a second system was studied that ended in a partial nozzle blockage and a system failure. In this ''hot environment'' system the nozzle body temperature reached 210 F. This occurred at close to a full heating season equivalent, yet it still would have resulted in a no-heat complaint by the homeowner.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2007-05-01

48

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with a low-NOx burner. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, January 1984January 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data reported include equipment calibration records, steamer operating data, and complete flue-gas emission results. Flue-gas emission measurements included continuous monitoring for criteria pollutants; onsite gas chromatography (GC)

C. Castaldini; L. R. Waterland; H. I. Lips

1986-01-01

49

Development of self-tuning residential oil-burner. Oxygen sensor assessment and early prototype system operating experience  

SciTech Connect

This document is the first topical report dealing with a new project leading towards the development of a self-tuning residential oil burner. It was initiated under the Statement of Work for the Oil Heat Research and Development Program, for Fiscal Year 1997 as defined in the Combustion Equipment Technology Program, under the management of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In part, this work is based on research reported by BNL in 1990, suggesting various options for developing control strategies in oil heat technology leading to the enhanced efficiency of oil-fired heating systems. BNL has been addressing these concepts in order of priority and technology readiness. The research described in this report is part of an ongoing project and additional work is planned for the future assuming adequate program funding is made available. BNL has continued to investigate all types of sensor technologies associated with combustion systems including all forms of oxygen measurement techniques. In these studies the development of zirconium oxide oxygen sensors has been considered over the last decade. The development of these sensors for the automotive industry has allowed for cost reductions based on quantity of production that might not have occurred otherwise. This report relates BNL`s experience in testing various zirconium oxide sensors, and the results of tests intended to provide evaluation of the various designs with regard to performance in oil-fired systems. These tests included accuracy when installed on oil-fired heating appliances and response time in cyclic operating mode. An evaluation based on performance criteria and cost factors was performed. Cost factors in the oil heat industry are one of the most critical issues in introducing new technology.

McDonald, R.J.; Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.

1998-09-01

50

Ceramic burner  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

1981-03-31

51

Universal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This disclosure pertains to wall burners which are used to raise the temperature of a gas stream flowing through a duct. Wall burners are mounted outside the duct and fire into the duct through a porthole formed in the duct wall. The present invention is uniquely characterized by a pre-main combustion chamber wherein a combusting fuel-air mixture is generated using

Lambiris

1977-01-01

52

Measurements of the Size of Particles Produced by an Oil Burner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies of liquid fuel atomisation have usually been connected with the development of the aircraft jet engine and have been confined to light fuel oils with low viscosities, whereas the atomisation of heavy fuel oils has attracted little attenti...

T. Paloposki

1984-01-01

53

Elaeis guineensis Jacq. (oil palm) fluctuations in central Africa during the late Holocene: climate or human driving forces for this pioneering species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is naturally abundant in all the African rain forests. Because this tree is a heliophytic, pioneering species, it can rapidly\\u000a colonize the periphery of the rain forest and gaps created inside, regardless of the cause. In the majority of traditional\\u000a African societies, people exploit natural oil palm groves; no attempt is made to propagate

Jean Maley

2001-01-01

54

46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...header as practicable. The location is to be accessible to the operator or remotely controlled. (g) Bushings and street ells are not permitted in fuel oil discharge piping. (h) Each fuel-oil service pump must be equipped with controls as...

2009-10-01

55

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) heavy oil low-NOx burner. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, January 1984January 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue-gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu\\/hr) enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

C. Castaldini; L. R. Waterland; R. DeRosier

1986-01-01

56

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with an EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) heavy oil low-NOx burner. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue-gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

Castaldini, C.; Waterland, L.R.; DeRosier, R.

1986-04-01

57

Cylinder head burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burner is described for providing a hot gas stream and directing the stream over an object to be cleaned thereby. The burner consists of: burner means a burner chamber having an inlet operably connected to the burner means, a burner pipe connected to the inlet, and an outlet; a basket for supporting the object within the chamber wherein the

1986-01-01

58

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.  

PubMed

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low smoke samples (8). Oxygen-containing PAH, typified by phenalene-1-one and its alkyl derivatives, are important mutagens from cyclic firing at high smoke conditions. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors, including the automotive diesel engine, where multiring PAH, typified by fluoranthene and alkylated phenanthrenes, account for a significant portion of the effluent mutagenicity. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed. PMID:3665865

Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

1987-08-01

59

Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: I. Yields and chemical characterization of extractables from combustion of No. 2 fuel oil at different Bacharach Smoke Numbers and firing cycles.  

PubMed Central

Particulates and complex organic mixtures were sampled from the exhaust of a flame retention head residential oil burner combusting No. 2 fuel oil at three firing conditions: continuous at Bacharach Smoke No. 1, and cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) at Smoke Nos. 1 and 5. The complex mixtures were recovered by successive Soxhlet extraction of filtered particulates and XAD-2 sorbent resin with methylene chloride (DCM) and then methanol (MeOH). Bacterial mutagenicity [see Paper II (8)] was found in the DCM extractables. Samples of DCM extracts from the two cyclic firing conditions and of the raw fuel were separated by gravity column chromatography on alumina. The resulting fractions were further characterized by a range of instrumental methods. Average yields of both unextracted particulates and of DCM extractables, normalized to a basis of per unit weight of fuel fired, were lower for continuous firing than for cyclic firing. For cyclic firing, decreasing the smoke number lowered the particulates emissions but only slightly reduced the average yield of DCM extractables. These and similar observations, here reported for two other oil burners, show that adjusting the burner to a lower smoke number has little effect on, or may actually increase, emissions of organic extractables of potential public health interest. Modifications of the burner firing cycle aimed at approaching continuous operation offer promise for reducing the amount of complex organic emissions. Unburned fuel accounted for roughly half of the DCM extractables from cyclic firing of the flame retention head burner at high and low smoke number. Large (i.e., greater than 3 ring) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were not observed in the DCM extractables from cyclic firing. However, nitroaromatics, typified by alkylated nitronaphthalenes, alkyl-nitrobiphenyls, and alkyl-nitrophenanthrenes were found in a minor subfraction containing a significant portion of the total mutagenic activity of the cyclic low smoke samples (8). Oxygen-containing PAH, typified by phenalene-1-one and its alkyl derivatives, are important mutagens from cyclic firing at high smoke conditions. Thus, oil burner effluents differ markedly from those of several other combustors, including the automotive diesel engine, where multiring PAH, typified by fluoranthene and alkylated phenanthrenes, account for a significant portion of the effluent mutagenicity. Implications for combustion and emissions source identification are discussed.

Leary, J A; Biemann, K; Lafleur, A L; Kruzel, E L; Prado, G P; Longwell, J P; Peters, W A

1987-01-01

60

Evaluation and demonstration of low NOx burner systems for TEOR steam generators. Test report: preliminary evaluation of commercial prototype burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report documents preliminary testing of a 16 MW low-NOx burner for retrofit application to thermally enhanced, oil recovery steam generators. The burner is designed to achieve NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while burning heavy fuel oil containing more than 0.6 weight percent bound nitrogen. The design of this burner (documented in a companion report) is

G. England; Y. Kwan; R. Payne

1983-01-01

61

EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR STEAM GENERATORS. TEST REPORT: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report documents preliminary testing of a 16 MW low-NOx burner for retrofit application to thermally enhanced, oil recovery steam generators. The burner is designed to achieve NOx emissions below 85 ppm (at 3 percent O2) while burning heavy fuel oil containing more than 0.6 w...

62

Development of a burner for the high pressure combustion of liquid fuel with oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this dissertation was to develop a compact burner capable of generating heat at high rates in a confined space such as an oil well, although not confined to this use. The burner developed utilized vortex motion similar to that used in cyclone combustors and swirl burners. Number 2 fuel oil and oxygen were used as the reactants

Peperakis

1984-01-01

63

Environmental assessment of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator equipped with a low-NOx burner. Volume 2. Data supplement. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced-oil-recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data reported include equipment calibration records, steamer operating data, and complete flue-gas emission results. Flue-gas emission measurements included continuous monitoring for criteria pollutants; onsite gas chromatography (GC) for volatile hydrocarbons (Cl-C6); Methods 5/8 sampling for particulate and SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 3/ emissions; source assessment sampling system (SASS) for total organics in two boiling-point ranges (100 to 300 C and greater than or equal to 300 C), organic compound category information using infrared spectrometry (IR), and specific quantitation of the semivolatile organic priority pollutants using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); Andersen impactor train measurements of emitted particle-size distribution; and N/sub 2/O emissions by gas chromatography/electron-capture detector (GC/ECD).

Castaldini, C.; Waterland, L.R.; Lips, H.I.

1986-02-01

64

Low NOx burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid fuel burner system is disclosed for minimum production of NOx under varying rates of fuel firing and varying rates of combustion air or oxidant supply, which comprises a fuel burner including means for burning liquid and gaseous fuel. Liquid fuels are burned in an axial burner tube, and the gaseous fuels are burned in a plurality of gas

H. E. Goodnight; R. R. Martin; R. D. Reed

1982-01-01

65

Rotary Burner Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

Paul Flanagan

2003-04-30

66

Wood fuel in suspension burners  

SciTech Connect

Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

Wolle, P.C.

1982-01-01

67

Cylinder head burner  

SciTech Connect

A burner is described for providing a hot gas stream and directing the stream over an object to be cleaned thereby. The burner consists of: burner means a burner chamber having an inlet operably connected to the burner means, a burner pipe connected to the inlet, and an outlet; a basket for supporting the object within the chamber wherein the basket includes spaced-apart end plates having bores therein, fastening means for fastening the object to be cleaned to the basket including spring-biased means for positioning the fastening means on at least one of the end plates and wherein the fastening means is removably fixable in the bores to accommodate objects of varying size; and means for removably mounting the basket in the chamber.

Palmer, D.C.

1986-06-03

68

Pioneers and followers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market pioneeringwhere a firm is first to offer a distinctively new product to the marketis a commonly recognized form of corporate entrepreneurship. As with other forms of corporate entrepreneurship, the linkage between market pioneering and firm performance has received limited empirical attention, much of which has yielded inconsistent results. Nonetheless, two conclusions regarding when and how pioneering relates to firm

Jeffrey G. Covin; Dennis P. Slevin; Michael B. Heeley

2000-01-01

69

Design report: Low NOx burners for package boilers. Final report, May 1985March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The burner utilizes two-stage combustion in a deep staging mode in which a precombustor firing substoichiometrically is retrofitted to the front of the boiler. The

R. A. Brown; H. Dehne; S. Eaton; H. B. Mason; S. Torbov

1990-01-01

70

Energy from true in-situ processing of Antrim shale: methane burner ignition system  

SciTech Connect

A rugged yet simple burner that can be easily ignited and reignited is a necessity if in situ thermal methods of energy extraction are to be feasible. During extraction trials at the Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site at Peck, Michigan such a burner was utilized. The performance of the TOR Development burner and ignitor system proved to be reliable and practical under field conditions. However, some recently discovered measures are crucial in protecting the burner and associated downhole hardware. With such precautions burner life was extended by a factor of 15. In the first trial burner life was two days and in the second trial the burner remained intact at least thirty days. Also described is a system which monitored burner performance by continuously analyzing burner exhaust gases. A slip stream sampling technique utilized the high well pressure to transport, at nearly Mach I, a sample of burner exhaust gas to the analytical trailer. There the sample was analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, unburned hydrocarbons, and O/sub 2/ by a bank of high speed process gas analyzers. Burner flameouts could be detected in less than 2 minutes. Also the system allowed burner (air/fuel) ratios to be determined on a real time basis. These ratios were used for (1) setting the proper air-fuel mixtures for ignition and steady state operation, (2) leak detection, (3) estimation of burner deterioration after extended use, and (4) study of the burner's steady state and transient response characteristics.

VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

1980-08-01

71

Low NOX Burner Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operatio...

C. R. Krishna T. Butcher

2004-01-01

72

Different fuels combustion burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a burner for simultaneous combustion of liquid and solid fuels comprising: a liquid-fuel combustion nozzle having a liquid fuel injection port for injecting liquid fuel into the burner circumferentially of the liquid fuel nozzle along an arc subtending a predetermined angle; and a solid-fuel combustion nozzle having a solid fuel injection port for injecting a solid fuel

S. Miyamae; T. Abe

1987-01-01

73

Combustor burner vanelets  

SciTech Connect

The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Loveland, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

2012-02-14

74

Variable capacity gasification burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

Saxon

1985-01-01

75

Development of a coal-water slurry burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the development and testing of a large scale (80 MMBTU/Hr) burner for coal-water slurry. The development path included atomizer and burner register performance evaluations in a non-combustion environment. This was followed by extensive combustion testing. The program was successful in developing a burner for coal-water slurry which would permit ignition in a cold furnace, operate stably over a 4 to 1 turndown range, employ atomizing conditions (pressure and flow) similar to oil, and produce carbon conversion efficiency comparable to oil.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; LaFlesh, R.C.; Marion, J.L.; Rini, M.J.; Smith, D.A.

1983-01-01

76

Low NOx Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of operating a gas burner to reduce the NO[sub x], emissions produced thereby, said burner having a passageway therein terminating in an outlet portion, said portion having a substantially constant cross-sectional area, said method comprising the steps of: (a) positioning flame stabilizing means comprising a non-perforated member having a convex surface facing upstream and located within

P. Flanagan; K. M. Gretsinger

1993-01-01

77

Low NOx coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved burner for reducing formation of nitric oxide in pulverized fuel furnaces, particularly coal furnaces is described. Aerodynamic spoilers extend into the wake of the primary air and fuel line to produce fuel-rich and air-rich zones near the burner. Less nearburner adiabatic combustion occurs and that which does occur, occurs fuel-rich. This reduces both the thermal formation of NOX

A. W. Bell; B. P. Breen

1980-01-01

78

Burner swirls NO away  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cleaner boilers that will help reduce acid rain, photochemical smog and tropospheric ozone are now coming on-line, partly as a result of a new burner design for power-generation boilers based on MIT research and now commercialized under exclusive license to ABB C-E Services Inc. The rapidly stratified flame core (RSFC) burner achieved very large nitrogen oxide reductions of up to

Zink

1997-01-01

79

Pioneer 6 Through 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 6, 7 and 8 are summarized. The primary objective of these Pioneer missions is to collect scientific data relative to interplanetary phenomena within a range of approximately 0.8 to 1.2 ...

D. Lozier R. Fimmel

1991-01-01

80

Study of heat transfer between an over-bed oil burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up: Determination of the flame to bed convection coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the heat transfer processes between an over-bed burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up as been conducted. Owing to the difficulty of estimating the flame to bed convection coefficient in an industrial boiler, convection coefficients were determined using a laboratory bench scale unit. Such convection heat transfer coefficients are obtained for 3kg, 4kg and 5.5kg initial

Vijay Jain; Dominic Groulx; Prabir Basu

2010-01-01

81

Ultralean low swirl burner  

DOEpatents

A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

Cheng, R.K.

1998-04-07

82

Low NOx burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method of heating a furnace with a gas burner located adjacent to a furnace wall, to provide a reduced percentage of nitrogen oxide components in the furnace flue gas. It comprises burning a mixture of primary gaseous fuel and primary air in the furnace; guiding the products of combustion to form a combustion gas screen directed

J. J. Van Eerden; C. F. Gottschlich; W. C. Gensler

1991-01-01

83

Burner for liquid fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disclosed is a burner for liquid fuels which includes a combustion tube havng an inner surface defining a cocombustion chamber, an end bell which mounts a nozzle for introducing the liquid fuel into the combustion chamber in th form of a fine spray, and an auxiliary air introduction means, also mounted to the end bell, which produces an auxiliary vortex

1978-01-01

84

Burner for Gaseous Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A burner for gaseous fuel, which claims to obtain a stoichiometric and stable combustion is disclosed. It consists of an admission chamber provided with a perforated cover treaded into a body. Terminal part of the cover and the curvilinear extremity of th...

H. Coanda G. Muresan

1982-01-01

85

Low loss duct burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded

H. M. Mar; S. B. Reider

1985-01-01

86

Fan atomized burner design advances to commercial development stage  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oilfired appliances. The Fan Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized, the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzle, the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. The FAB is described.

Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1996-07-01

87

Are low NOx burners really low NOx?  

Microsoft Academic Search

All low NOx burners are susceptible to system changes and upsets. Segregation of coal and air into what has been termed 'coal ropes' is one such condition. Coal roping in the burner fuel piping creates areas of very high air\\/fuel ratios allowing premature ignition inside the burner or at the very burner tip. The ability of any burner to lower

Blankinship

2005-01-01

88

Dark Matter Burners  

SciTech Connect

We show that a star orbiting close enough to an adiabatically grown supermassive black hole (SMBH) can capture weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, essentially WIMP burners, in the vicinity of a SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WDs); such WDs may have a very high surface temperature. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and can possibly be used to establish its density profile. On the other hand, the lack of such unusual stars may provide constraints on the WIMP density near the SMBH, as well as the WIMP-nucleus scattering and pair annihilation cross-sections.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Wai, Lawrence L.; /SLAC

2007-02-28

89

CIH honors pioneers.  

PubMed

Attendees paid tribute to the contributions of four healthcare information management leaders during the 1993 Computers in Healthcare Pioneer Awards Banquet May 12. Marion Ball, Ed.D., presided over the celebration honoring Ralph Korpman, M.D., Warner V. Slack, M.D., Donald Lindberg, M.D., and John E. Gall, Jr. PMID:10127721

1993-08-01

90

The New Pioneers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2012 National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Digital Principals are pioneers in digital technology and social media in the principalship. In this question and answer session, these principals share their philosophies and practices. Patrick Larkin discusses what else a principal must invest time and resources in for tech

Farrace, Bob

2012-01-01

91

The Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of 6 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 1.33) 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.

2010-09-01

92

Ultra low NOx industrial burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for combusting a gaseous fuel with preheated air to products of combustion substantially free of NO[sub x] compounds comprising the steps of: providing a refractory burner block with a throat passage extending there through, a burner housing having a longitudinally extending annular entrainment passage adjacent said block and a swirl plate interposed between said housing and

K. H. Hemsath; A. C. Thekdi

1993-01-01

93

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from

Veljko Dragojlovic; Richard F. Jones

1999-01-01

94

Demonstration of B and W 100-MBtu\\/h burner for coal-water slurry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Babcock and Wilcox Co. (B and W), under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has completed performance testing of its 100-MBtu\\/h coal-water-slurry-fuel (CWSF) burner. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that full-scale CWSF burners are commercially available for CWSF boiler retrofits. The 100-MBtu\\/h, multiple-fuel (CWSF, oil, and gas) burner tested was a direct scale-up of a

G. A. Farthing; D. H. Markert

1986-01-01

95

High-temperature burner  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for burning a fuel. It comprises: a burner comprising a generally cylindrical housing, the housing having a central longitudinal bore and two annular regions disposed around the bore and being concentric with the bore, one of the annular regions being connected to a supply of fuel, the other annular region being connected to a supply of combustion air, wherein the annular regions and the central bore do not communicate with each other within the housing, and means for supplying two streams of substantially pure oxygen, one stream being connected to a lance inserted within the central bore, and the other stream being connected a flow line carrying the combustion air, wherein the lance extends beyond the front face of the housing.

Brahmbhatt, S.R.; Young, C.R.

1990-06-05

96

Low loss duct burner  

SciTech Connect

A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded position to increase duct turbulence for mixing air flow therethrough with a fuel supply and into a retracted position against each other to reduce pressure drop under nonafterburning operation. Each of the flame stabilizer blades has a platform that controls communication between a hot air source and a duct for improving fuel vaporization during afterburner operation thereby to increase afterburning limits; the platforms close communication between the hot air source and the duct during nonafterburning operation when flame stabilization is not required.

Mar, H. M.; Reider, S. B.

1985-07-09

97

Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material  

SciTech Connect

Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant period in accomplishing these objectives. Our work in the area of Pd-based, methane oxidation catalysts has led to the development of highly active catalysts with relatively low loadings of Pd metal using proprietary coating methods. The thermal stability of these Pd-based catalysts were characterized using SEM and BET analyses, further demonstrating that certain catalyst supports offer enhanced stability toward both PdO decomposition and/or thermal sintering/growth of Pd particles. When applied to commercially available fiber mesh substrates (both metallic and ceramic) and tested in an open-air burner, these catalyst-support chemistries showed modest improvements in the NOx emissions and radiant output compared to uncatalyzed substrates. More significant, though, was the performance of the catalyst-support chemistries on novel media substrates. These substrates were developed to overcome the limitations that are present with commercially available substrate designs and increase the gas-catalyst contact time. When catalyzed, these substrates demonstrated a 65-75% reduction in NOx emissions across the firing range when tested in an open air burner. In testing in a residential boiler, this translated into NOx emissions of <15 ppm over the 15-150 kBtu/hr firing range.

Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

2012-06-29

98

Modernization of burner devices of gas- and liquid-fueled power boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes three types of low-toxic gas-fuel-oil burners that have up to now been implemented at several of Russia's power stations in the conversion of coal-fired boilers to natural-gas and fuel-oil combustion and modernization of gas-fuel oil boilers using known combustion technologies to suppress the formation of nitric oxides.

Shestakov, N. S.; Leikam, A. E.; Asoskov, V. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

2012-03-01

99

Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 3. Burner test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This is the third of three volumes describing a multi-phase, coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume summarizes the results of tests of a single, full-scale 15-million Btu/hr burner to be used in a multi-burner industrial boiler demonstration of CWS at a DuPont plant in Memphis, Tennessee. The burner was tested at the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. Data was taken and observations were made relative to the burner performance and firing stability of CWS as affected by the type of atomizing media (air versus steam), load variations, method of preheating combustion air (direct versus indirect), and excess air level. Base data was also obtained with No. 6 fuel oil. The burner performance was found to be acceptable. 10 figures, 3 tables.

Eckhart, C.F.; Lindstrom, G.D.

1984-11-01

100

Burner ignition system  

DOEpatents

An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

Carignan, Forest J. (Bedford, MA)

1986-01-21

101

Are low NOx burners really low NOx?  

SciTech Connect

All low NOx burners are susceptible to system changes and upsets. Segregation of coal and air into what has been termed 'coal ropes' is one such condition. Coal roping in the burner fuel piping creates areas of very high air/fuel ratios allowing premature ignition inside the burner or at the very burner tip. The ability of any burner to lower thermal NOx is diminished in these clean fuel areas. The Sure Alloy Steel Corp. has developed a blender to install just after the last elbow or connection leading to the burner pipes to overcome the problem. 2 figs.

Blankinship, S.

2005-08-01

102

Field Evaluation of Low-Emission Coal Burner Technology on Utility Boilers. Volume 2. Second Generation Low-NOx Burners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression ...

A. R. Abele G. S. Kindt R. Payne P. W. Waanders

1989-01-01

103

14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...during normal and emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells, regulators, control valves, and other related elements) must be substantiated by an endurance test of at...

2013-01-01

104

Low NOX radiant tube burner and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiant tube and burner assembly is described comprising: (a) a radiant tube having a burner leg and an exhaust leg; (b) a plenum positioned at least in part normal to and between the burner leg and the exhaust leg for mixing combustion air with at least a restricted quantity of products of combustion from the exhaust leg and for

Finke

1989-01-01

105

Flameless combustion burner and method of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comstock and Wescott Inc. has devised a flameless-combustion catalytic burner that provides a high heating intensity while producing less pollutants than open-flame burners. The burner (useful in applications such as cooking ranges) comprises a plenum, an ignition zone with a starting device, and a catalyst zone; each section is separated from the others by a foraminous member. The fuel and

R. E. Rice; C. W. Peterson

1980-01-01

106

Ceramic fuel cells to replace metal burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is thought to result from emissions largely caused by combustion reactions. Designs of burners and specifications of their materials are therefore of primary importance in restraining the warming phenomena. This paper proposes a new type of ceramic burner which incorporates many of the innovations which are needed to improve burner performance, including catalytic combustion, premixed fuel\\/air, recuperation of

K. Kendall; C. M. Finnerty; J. C. Austin; T. Alston

2001-01-01

107

Emission Characteristics of the Shell Low-NOx Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Koninklijke\\/Shell-Laboratorium in Amsterdam a low-NOx burner is being developed for the combustion of heavy fuel oil, asphalt, natural gas and refinery gas, as well as for combinations of liquid and gaseous fuels in dual fuel firing mode. The NOx reduction is accomplished by air staging, while the particulate emission is simultaneously kept low using intense steam atomisation (40%w

B. DE JONG

1993-01-01

108

Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fam powered, infrared, natural gas burners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (PIR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. This project consists of both experimental research and numerical analysis. To conduct the experiments, an experimental setup has been developed and installed in the Combustion Laboratory at Clerk Atlanta University (CAU). This setup consists of a commercial deep fat fryer that has been modified to allow in-situ radiation measurements on the surface of the infrared burner via a view port installed on the side wall of the oil vat. Proper instrumentation including fuel/air flow rate measurement, exhaust gas emission measurement, and radiation measurement has been developed. The project is progressing well. The scheduled tasks for this period of time were conducted smoothly. Specifically: 1. Baseline experimental study at CAU has been completed. The data are now under detailed analysis and will be reported in next quarterly report. 2. Theoretical formulation and analysis of the PIR burner performance model are continuing. Preliminary results have been obtained.

Bai, Tiejun

1996-10-01

109

Dual fuel low NOx burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dual fuel burner is described comprising: a divergent quarl having an entrance, and exit downstream from said entrance, and a plurality of axially extending staging air ports equally spaced around said exit; a wind pipe coaxially connected to said entrance of said quarl; a swirl generator coaxially received in said wind pipe, said swirl generator having a plurality of

Shyhching Yang; S. J. Bortz

1993-01-01

110

Burner Equipment and Operation Thereof.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel gas produced e.g. in a fluid bed gasifier and which comprises deposit-forming materials such as heavy hydrocarbons (e.g. tars) and non-combustible fines is passed via conduits and solid-removing cyclones to a burner for admixture with air and subsequ...

G. Moss G. L. Johnes J. William T. Craig

1977-01-01

111

Stefan Meyer: Pioneer of Radioactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stefan Meyer was one of the pioneers in radioactivity research and director of the Vienna Radium Institute, the first institution in the world devoted exclusively to radioactivity. I give here a biographical sketch of Meyer and of some of his colleagues and an overview of the research activities at the Radium Institute.

Reiter, Wolfgang L.

2001-03-01

112

Pioneer Venus results - an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the scientific results obtained during the first 120 days of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter mission are presented. Details of the composition and structure of the upper and lower atmosphere as well as of clouds, winds, net radioactive fluxes, solar-wind-ionosheath-atmosphere interactions and topographic information are given, noting that radio signals showed that atmospheric turbulence was not responsible for scintillations.

T. M. Donahue

1979-01-01

113

Pioneers in Leisure and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of brief biographies of people who have contributed to the field of leisure and recreation. The 26 pioneers chronicled span over two thousand years and cross many cultures. Some are theorists, others are practitioners, but all of them left their imprint on the leisure and recreation field. Arranged sequentially by dates, the

Ibrahim, Hilmi; And Others

114

Carl Thoresen: The Evolving Pioneer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This interview with Carl E. Thoresen highlights the experiences, relationships, and ideas that have influenced this pioneering psychologist throughout the past half century. His scholarly work, professional service, teaching, and mentorship have motivated many counseling psychologists to radically expand their areas of inquiry. He was among the

Harris, Alex H. S.

2009-01-01

115

Infrared and catalytic burner technology assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of the state of the art in infrared and catalytic burner development shows that four basic types of IR burners are currently in use. Eight commercial and/or residential appliances were characterized to assess the applicability of these burners. The refractory monolith tile and the fiber matrix burners appear most applicable for appliance use. Conceptual designs for the eight appliances with IR burners were prepared to evaluate the technical feasibility. These appliances are shown to have significant fuel efficiency increase and NOx and CO emission reduction benefits. Four appliances -- the commercial rangetop, deep fat fryer, commercial water heater, and warm air furnance -- also appear economically competitive, and recommended approaches for further development are presented. Lists of IR burner literature and patents are also presented.

Kesselring, J. P.; Krill, W. V.; Schreiber, R. J.

1981-02-01

116

Coal-oil slurry combustion demonstration, Phase I. Monthly report, October 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering and design activities have centered around completion of material procurement for installation of the air-atomized Forney Verloop burner system and associated fuel supply systems. Twelve existing burners will be removed from the boiler during a scheduled shutdown to permit the installation of the new burners along with three primary air fans, four fuel oil metering pumps, an ignition oil

Dunn

1977-01-01

117

Demonstration of B and W 100-MBtu/h burner for coal-water slurry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Babcock and Wilcox Co. (B and W), under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has completed performance testing of its 100-MBtu/h coal-water-slurry-fuel (CWSF) burner. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate that full-scale CWSF burners are commercially available for CWSF boiler retrofits. The 100-MBtu/h, multiple-fuel (CWSF, oil, and gas) burner tested was a direct scale-up of a 40-MBtu/h burner developed by B and W through extensive combustion trials in an oil- and gas-designed package boiler. The CWSF was produced from a high-volatile, eastern bituminous coal (containing 70% and 4% by weight, respectively, of coal and ash) and had a higher heating value of 10,270 Btu/lb. Approximately 500 tons of CWSF were consumed during the tests. Burner performance was good during combustion trials with all three main fuels. Full-load CWSF tests indicated that 99%+ carbon conversion efficiency could be achieved with 15% excess air, 300/sup 0/F combustion air preheat, steam atomization (0.15 pound of steam per pound of CWSF), and a burner draft loss of 6 inches (water column). Nitric oxide emissions under these conditions were a very low 233 ppM (at 3% oxygen). With 600/sup 0/F combustion air preheat, the burner could be turned down 4:1 with air atomization and 3:1 with steam atomization. A 12:1 turndown ratio was achieved during firing of No. 6 fuel oil using the CWSF burner and atomizer. Results indicate that the burner is ready for commercial application. 14 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

Farthing, G.A.; Markert, D.H.

1986-09-01

118

Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output  

DOEpatents

Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

Tong, Timothy W. (Tempe, AZ); Sathe, Sanjeev B. (Tempe, AZ); Peck, Robert E. (Tempe, AZ)

1990-01-01

119

Industrial Burner and Process Efficiency Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature ...

S. R. Huebner S. N. Prakash D. B. Hersh

1982-01-01

120

Silane-propane ignitor\\/burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process is described which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a

R. W. Hill; D. F. Skinner; Ch. B. Thorsness

1985-01-01

121

Silane-propane ignitor\\/burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of

R. W. Hill; D. F. Jr. Skinner; C. B. Thorsness

1983-01-01

122

Silane-propane ignitor\\/burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of

Richard W. Hill; Dewey F. Skinner; Charles B. Thorsness

1985-01-01

123

Flame Tests Using Improvised Alcohol Burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this demonstration, an improvised alcohol burner, with a methanol solution of a salt as fuel, produces a long-lasting brightly colored flame. A disadvantage when using a regular alcohol burner is that the burner has to be cleaned and a wick replaced, before a solution of a different salt can be used. For our demonstration, alcohol burners are made from small (5-mL) glass vials. The vials are filled with a methanol solution of the desired salt and a paper wick is added. Thus, a small amount of solvent (5 mL or less) provides a colored flame, which lasts for several minutes. Vials and paper wicks can be reused. Use of the described alcohol burner in a flame test demonstration has several advantages. It is inexpensive, a number of tests can be run simultaneously, and stock solutions of metal salts can be prepared in advance and stored for future demonstrations.

Dragojlovic, Veljko

1999-07-01

124

Eugen Snger: Eminent space pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In international literature on astronautics, three main space pioneers are mentioned: Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky, Robert H. Goddard and Hermann Oberth. There are other two space pioneers that are very rarely mentioned: Robert Esnault-Pelterie and Eugen Snger. Pelterie is known particularly in Europe, and Snger is mentioned in the second half of the 20th century normally only in connection with space shuttle flights. Taking a look at Snger's work and heritage, it is obvious that he greatly influenced the development of astronautics in terms of purely theoretical dissertations on achievable limits of space research as well as in terms of technical approaches to achieving the short- and long-term goals of astronautics, and in terms of setting tasks for organizing mankind to achieve these goals. Snger's book The Technology of Rocket Flight was the first study based not only on basic research, but also on the applied research that he conducted and the findings of which he published in various papers. Snger was clearly connected with and influenced the development of two experimental research groups in the US in the 1930s, which resulted in two of the most significant companies in the US in the 1950s that manufactured liquid propellant rocket engines. Basic and applied research in the field of space planes resulted in construction of rocket planes such as the US space shuttle and Soviet Buran shuttle. Snger's research on subsonic and supersonic ramjets in combination with a turbojet engine provided a basis for developing this promising propulsion for use in subsequent space planes designed for flights into low Earth orbits. His pioneering work on the photon rocket represents human achievements in reaching almost unimaginable limits of space research. By striving for a peaceful international approach to space research, Snger participated in establishing the non-governmental organization IAF (International Astronautical Federation) and realized his idea that space research is a concern for all mankind. He was therefore appointed the first president of the IAF. The paper presents how Snger influenced the development of rocket technology and astronautics, which definitely ranks him with the first three space pioneers.

Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago

2007-12-01

125

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high efficiency, low nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners with flame and heat transfer characteristics suitable for specific industrial processes was investigated. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) a high excess air burner used in direct air dryers for applications in the food

H. A. Abbasi; M. J. Khinkis; R. T. Waibel

1982-01-01

126

Study of a ceramic burner for shaftless stoves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-burner-port annular flameless ceramic burner (MAFCB) of the shaftless stove for blast furnaces was designed. The characteristics of pressure drop, homogeneousness of the flows at burner ports, and distribution of the flows in the chambers and joint were studied by cold model experiments. This type of ceramic burner was successfully applied in 6# blast furnace at Liuzhou Iron &

Fang-qin Dai; Su-yi Huang; Shao-hua Li; Ke Liu

2009-01-01

127

Pioneer saturn celestial mechanics experiment.  

PubMed

During the Pioneer Saturn encounter, a continuous round-trip radio link at S band ( approximately 2.2 gigahertz) was maintained between stations of the Deep Space Network and the spacecraft. From an analysis of the Doppler shift in the radio carrier frequency, it was possible to determine a number of gravitational effects on the trajectory. Gravitational moments ( J(2) and J(4)) for Saturn have been determined from preliminary analysis, and preliminary mass values have been determined for the Saturn satellites Rhea, Iapetus, and Titan. For all three satellites the densities are low, consistent with the compositions of ices. The rings have not been detected in the Doppler data, and hence the best preliminary estimate of their total mass is zero with a standard error of 3 x 10(-6) Saturn mass. New theoretical calculations for the Saturn interior are described which use the latest observational data, including Pioneer Saturn, and state-of-the-art physics for the internal composition. Probably liquid H(2)O and possibly NH(3) and CH(4) are primarily confined in Saturn to the vicinity of a core of approximately 15 to 20 Earth masses. There is a slight indication that helium may likewise be fractionated to the central regions. PMID:17833560

Anderson, J D; Null, G W; Biller, E D; Wong, S K; Hubbard, W B; Macfarlane, J J

1980-01-25

128

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

129

Pioneers in Space: The Story of the Pioneer Missions (Part II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the Pioneer satellites' explorations of Jupiter and Saturn. Includes discussions of engineering, the messenger program, and future projects. Provides pictures, diagrams, and a description of the Pioneer "message" plaques. (YP)|

Montoya, Earl J.; Fimmel, Richard O.

1988-01-01

130

Fuel burner control system with hot surface ignition  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in a fuel burner control system, a burner; valve means controlling the flow of fuel to the burner; an igniter for igniting the fuel at the burner, means for sensing flame at the burner; a circulator blower for distributing air; heated by the flame means for establishing a call for heat; and means responsive to a sensed flame during a time when there is no call for heat for effecting energizing of the circulator blower.

Donnelly, D.E.; Zikes, B.C.; Moore, D.F.; Price, J.E.; Toth, B.L.

1990-12-18

131

Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

1989-10-01

132

Coal conversion of a multiple burner lime kiln  

SciTech Connect

During 1982 Ash Grove Cement Company contracted with Wagester, Walker, Thornton and Company to convert a Calcimatic rotating hearth kiln at its Portland, Oregon lime plant from gas/oil to coal firing. Increasing costs of natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil made this conversion mandatory if the plant was to remain competitive. Unique features of this project are the distributors of pulverized coal to eighteen small burners around the inner and outer perimeters of the doughnut-shaped kiln, and the attrition-dryer-pulverizer mill. Ash Grove, a century-old lime and cement producer headquartered in Overland Park, Kansas (Kansas City area), looked at various schemes for multiple burner firing before employing Wagester, Walker, Thornton and Company. W.W.T. of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was formed in 1980 by acquiring the Solid Fuels Division of the Pullman Swindell Corporation. This division had been active in developing solid fuel firing for brick tunnel kilns, principally in the Southeast. They continue to supply such systems firing wood waste as well as coal to the brick industry and have also converted two Calcimatic lime kilns for Dixie Lime, Sumterville, Florida, a fluid bed calciner for Texas Gulf in Aurora, North Carolina, and a chrome concentrate kiln for Diamond Chemicals at Castle Hayne, North Carolina. Testing and a proposal have been made for INMETCO, Elwood City, Pennsylvania, on an annular hearth furnace for direct reduction of iron ore to metallic iron.

Jones, G.; Thornton, L.W.

1984-02-01

133

Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

1999-01-01

134

Characterizing Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principle objective of this study is to identify and develop an understanding of the mechanisms whereby acoustic suppressants modify an acoustic wave. The experimental bases for the technical approach of this study is a Rijke burner which generates co...

J. C. Finlinson R. W. Nelson M. A. Nelson M. W. Beckstead

1987-01-01

135

Imaging photopolarimeter on pioneer saturn.  

PubMed

An imaging photopolarimeter aboard Pioneer 11, including a 2.5-centimeter telescope, was used for 2 weeks continuously in August and September 1979 for imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations of Saturn, its rings, and Titan. A new ring of optical depth < 2 x 10(-3) was discovered at 2.33 Saturn radii and is provisionally named the F ring; it is separated from the A ring by the provisionally named Pioneer division. A division between the B and C rings, a gap near the center of the Cassini division, and detail in the A, B, and C rings have been seen; the nomenclature of divisions and gaps is redefined. The width of the Encke gap is 876 +/- 35 kilometers. The intensity profile and colors are given for the light transmitted by the rings. A mean particle size less, similar 15 meters is indicated; this estimate is model-dependent. The D ring was not seen in any viewing geometry and its existence is doubtful. A satellite, 1979 S 1, was found at 2.53 +/- 0.01 Saturn radii; the same object was observed approximately 16 hours later by other experiments on Pioneer 11. The equatorial radius of Saturn is 60,000 +/- 500 kilometers, and the ratio of the polar to the equatorial radius is 0.912 +/- 0.006. A sample of polarimetric data is compared with models of the vertical structure of Saturn's atmosphere. The variation of the polarization from the center of the disk to the limb in blue light at 88 degrees phase indicates that the density of cloud particles decreases as a function of altitude with a scale height about one-fourth that of the gas. The pressure level at which an optical depth of 1 is reached in the clouds depends on the single-scattering polarizing properties of the clouds; a value similar to that found for the Jovian clouds yields an optical depth of 1 at about 750 millibars. PMID:17833555

Gehrels, T; Baker, L R; Beshore, E; Blenman, C; Burke, J J; Castillo, N D; Dacosta, B; Degewij, J; Doose, L R; Fountain, J W; Gotobed, J; Kenknight, C E; Kingston, R; McLaughlin, G; McMillan, R; Murphy, R; Smith, P H; Stoll, C P; Strickland, R N; Tomasko, M G; Wijesinghe, M P; Coffeen, D L; Esposito, L

1980-01-25

136

Coal distribution cone or pulverized coal burners  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a pulverized fuel distribution cone for use in a pulverized fuel burner having a tubular burner pipe with flanged inlet and furance ends and an elbow connector having a flanged end for connection thereof to the flanged end of the pipe. It comprises: an open base section; a planar flange extending outwardly the open base section and being retained between the flanged ends of the elbow connector and pipe; and an open outlet end portion extending into the pipe.

Nitz, M.G.; Taylor, R.S.

1990-06-19

137

Furnaces with multiple ?ameless combustion burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis three different combustion systems, equipped with either a single or multiple ?ameless combustion burner(s), are discussed. All these setups were investigated both experimentally and numerically, i.e., using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations.\\u000aFlameless combustion is a combustion technology capable of accomplishing the combination of high energy ef?ciency (by preheating of the combustion air) and low emissions, especially

B. Danon

2011-01-01

138

Pioneers' Venus - More than fire and brimstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from NASA's Pioneer Venus space mission are presented and studied. Pioneer radar equipment has uncovered the profile of a large rift extending east-west 1,400 km and exhibiting up to 7 km of relief between its floor and the surrounding hills. In addition, an area known as Maxwell seems to be 8 km higher than the adjacent Great Northern Plateau,

J. K. Beatty

1979-01-01

139

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of high efficiency, low nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners with flame and heat transfer characteristics suitable for specific industrial processes was investigated. Burners for three industrial processes were designed to achieve a reduction in NOx emissions compared with currently used standard burners: (1) a high excess air burner used in direct air dryers for applications in the food processing industry; (2) a hot air burner with high convective heat transfer for direct fired metal processing furnaces; and (3) a hot air burner with a long, luminous flame for direct fired process furnaces in the steel, aluminum, and glass industries. The high convective, hot air burner achieved NOx emission reduction of up to 50%. NOx emissions from the hot air burner with a long, luminous flame were 45 to 60% lower than the standard burner.

Abbasi, H. A.; Khinkis, M. J.; Waibel, R. T.

1982-05-01

140

Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production  

DOEpatents

The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

2013-02-05

141

Numerical investigation of burner positioning effects in a multi-burner flameless combustion furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper results are presented of a numerical study performed for four different burner configurations in a furnace equipped with three pairs of flameless combustion burners firing Dutch natural gas. The simulations have been validated against previously published results of an experimental study [1]. The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.3 was used for the calculations. Using

B. Danon; E.-S. Cho; W. de Jong; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts

2011-01-01

142

Untersuchung von Brenner-Kessel-Kombinationen unter den Bedingungen des Bundesumweltzeichens RAL-UZ 9 und RAL-UZ 46, Ausgabe Juli 1987. Abschlussbericht. T. 4. (Investigation of burner-boiler systems with regard to the Federal Environmental Badge standards as laid down in publication RAL-UZ 9 and RAL-UZ 46, as of July 1987. Final report. Pt. 4).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the beginning of 1988, new guidelines for the granting of the Federal Environmental Badge (Blue Angel) for oil-gas burners (RAL-UZ 9) and oil burner-boiler combinations (RAL-UZ 46) have come into force, which in comparison to the guidelines valid unt...

F. Rick

1987-01-01

143

Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H. [Harbin Institute for Technology, Harbin (China). School for Energy Science & Engineering

2008-07-01

144

Washington State Pioneer Life Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Like many other parts of the American West, the area that later became the state of Washington in 1889 was a place of great opportunity, both in terms of the existing natural resources, and in a more intangible fashion, a place that represented a new beginning for those persons venturing west from the Midwest and the East Coast. This recently developed online database presented by the University of Washington Library contains writings, diaries, letters, and recollections from those persons who moved to Washington in the 19th century. Visitors can search the collections, or elect to browse through the collection list, which contains over two dozen primary documents available for viewing. Some of the highlights here include the recollections of Lila Hannah Firth who lived on San Juan Island (located in Puget Sound) in the 1860s and an account of the first ascension of Mount Rainier, one Dr. William F. Tolmie. Rounding out the site is an online exhibition titled Northwest of the West: the Frontier Experience on the Northwest Coast., which serves as a nice introduction to the overall experience of these first pioneers moving west.

145

Establishment of design criteria for optimum burners for application to heavy-fuel-fired package boilers. Volume 2. Pilot scale tests. Final report, 1980-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy-oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies that defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a conceptual two-stage low-NOx burner design. Volume II gives results of pilot-scale experiments conducted in two test facilities with

G.. England; D. W. Pershing; M. P. Heap

1986-01-01

146

Establishment of design criteria for optimum burners for application to heavy-fuel-fired package boilers. Volume 1. Laboratory scale tests. Final report, 1980-1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report gives results of a research program to develop low-NOx heavy-oil burners for application to industrial package boilers. Volume I documents Phase 1 of the program, bench scale studies that defined optimum conditions for two-stage combustion. The information led to a conceptual two-stage low-NOx burner design. Volume II gives results of pilot-scale experiments conducted in two test facilities with

G. C. England; D. W. Pershing; M. P. Heap

1986-01-01

147

Multi-Fuel Low-NOx Burner Development, Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to develop high-efficiency, low-nitrogen-oxides producing multi-fuel industrial burners having flame and heat-transfer characteristics that are suitable for specific industrial processes in cooperation with burner manufac...

H. A. Abbasi M. J. Khinkis R. T. Waibel

1982-01-01

148

Multi-Fuel Low-NOx Burner Development, Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During Phase II of this program, three burner manufacturers, Eclipse, Inc., Hauck Manufacturing, and Bloom Engineering, are cooperating with IGT in the development of industrial burners that incorporate various NOx control techniques while maintaining the...

H. A. Abbasi M. J. Khinkis R. T. Waibel

1981-01-01

149

Low NO.sub.x burner system  

DOEpatents

A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

Kitto, Jr., John B. (North Canton, OH); Kleisley, Roger J. (Plain Twp., Stark County, OH); LaRue, Albert D. (Summit, OH); Latham, Chris E. (Knox Twp., Columbiana County, OH); Laursen, Thomas A. (Canton, OH)

1993-01-01

150

Flameless combustion burner and method of operation  

SciTech Connect

Comstock and Wescott Inc. has devised a flameless-combustion catalytic burner that provides a high heating intensity while producing less pollutants than open-flame burners. The burner (useful in applications such as cooking ranges) comprises a plenum, an ignition zone with a starting device, and a catalyst zone; each section is separated from the others by a foraminous member. The fuel and combustion air introduced into the plenum pass through a foraminous member and into the ignition zone. The flame initiated by the starting device heats the catalyst bed to the temperature required for flameless combustion. At this point, the flow of fuel is stopped momentarily to extinguish the flame; when the flow resumes, flameless combustion occurs. The preferred starting device is a spark igniter attached to a high-voltage source.

Rice, R.E.; Peterson, C.W.

1980-02-19

151

Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located inside the National Air and Space Museum, the Barron Hilton Pioneers of Flight Gallery highlights the world of aviation in the 1920s and 1930s. During this period, flight technology rapidly advanced, aviation records were made and broken in quick succession, and African Americans gained increasing prominence in the field. Visitors to this site will get a preview of the materials contained in the museum through four sections: "Military Aviation", "Black Wings", "Civilian Aviation", and "Rocket Pioneers". In the "Black Wings" area, visitors will learn about pioneers like Bessie Coleman and then view an interactive feature on the accomplishments of the Tuskegee Airmen. Moving on, the "Rocket Pioneers" section features the work of early innovators such as Robert Goddard, who created the world's first flying, liquid-fuel rocket.

152

Robert H. Goddard: American Rocket Pioneer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration Facts website presents a history of Dr. Robert H. Goddard, a pioneer of rocketry. The site describes Goddard's achievements and their relationships to advances in rocketry in Germany.

2009-12-30

153

Assessment of PWR plutonium burners for nuclear energy centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to explore the performance and safety characteristics of PWR plutonium burners, to identify modifications to current PWR designs to enhance plutonium utilization, to study the problems of deploying plutonium burners at Nuclear Energy Centers, and to assess current industrial capability of the design and licensing of such reactors. A plutonium burner is defined to

A. J. Frankel; N. L. Shapiro

1976-01-01

154

Selection of a suitable burner for industrial applications  

SciTech Connect

Design criteria and cost of auxilliaries pertaining to various types of burners viz. LAP, IIP, Mechanical, Rotary Cup and Ultrasonic, are discussed. Operating cost, energy requirement, fuel conservation, load factor and overall economics have been discussed for different burner applications. The article gives useful tips on the data to be referred for selecting suitable burners.

Bhambi, P.N.; Madan, H.K.; Gudzjuk, V.L.

1986-03-01

155

Emission Measurements in a Multi-Burner FLOX  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-industrial 300 kWth furnace equipped with three pairs of regenerative FLOX burners has been investigated. Three different burner configurations and two different firi ng configurations (staggered and parallel) have been com- pared based on their emissions (NO and CO) and furnace efficie ncy. Additionally, the excess air ratio (?) and the burner switching time (ts) have been varied. Placing

B. Danon; E.-S. Cho; L. Arteaga Mendez; W. de Jong; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts

156

Pioneer Anomaly: Evaluating Newly Recovered Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radio-metric tracking data received from the distances between 20-70 astronomical units from the Sun consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue frequency shift that can be interpreted as a sunward acceleration of aP = (8.74+/-1.33)10-10 m/s2 for each particular spacecraft. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. New Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-metric Doppler data recently became available. The much extended set of Pioneer Doppler data is the primary source for new upcoming investigation of the anomaly. We also have almost entire records of flight telemetry files received from the the Pioneers. Together with original project documentation and newly developed software tools, this additional information is now used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft. To that extent, a thermal model of the Pioneer vehicles is being developed to study possible contribution of thermal recoil force acting on the two spacecraft. In addition, to improve the accuracy of orbital reconstruction, we developed a new approach that uses actual flight telemetry data during trajectory analysis of radio-metric Doppler files. The ultimate goal of these efforts is to investigate possible contributions of the thermal recoil force to the detected anomalous acceleration.

Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

2008-03-01

157

Field evaluation of low-emission coal-burner technology on utility boilers. Volume 2. Second-generation low-NOx burners. Final report, September 1978June 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on the original Babcock and Wilcox DRB. Of particular interest was the identification of burner configurations which would be suitable for

A. R. Abele; G. S. Kindt; R. Payne; P. W. Waanders

1989-01-01

158

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

159

Low NOx gas burner apparatus and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved gas burner apparatus is described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom comprising: a housing having an open end attached to said furnace space; means for introducing a controlled flow rate of said air into said

R. E. Schwartz; S. O. Napier; A. P. Jones

1993-01-01

160

Gasifying device for liquid fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gasified liquid fuel combustion apparatus is disclosed for supplying a gaseous mixture of air and a gasified liquid fuel to a burner for combustion. The apparatus includes a gasifying device which comprises two spaced concentric tubes having a concentric inner tube therein. An electric heater is positioned in the space between the inner tube and the two concentric tubes

1983-01-01

161

LIQUID FUELS-FIRED POROUS BURNER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an experimental study of evaporation and combustion in porous media without atomization of the liquid fuel (kerosene). The concept is called a liquid fuels-fired porous burner (LFPB). This concept is based on the evaporation of the liquid fuel in an upstream porous matrix, a subsequent mixing with the combustion air in a swirling chamber and the final

S. JUGJAI; C. PONGSAI

2007-01-01

162

Cup Burner Flame Extinguishment by Brominated Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments and calculations have been performed for a methane-air cup-burner flame with added CF3Br or Br2. The time-dependent, two-dimensional numerical code, which includes a detailed kinetic model and diffusive transport, has predicted the flame extin...

F. Takahashi G. T. Linteris V. R. Katta

2006-01-01

163

Largest biomass burner solves environmental problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the efforts of provincial government, the local utility, the sawmill owners, and the general public to resolve air pollution problems caused by woodwaste burners at five sawmills in the Williams Lake community of British Columbia, Canada. The topics of the article include the challenges to the project, woodwaste handling, boiler and auxiliary systems design, and turbine generator

Ford

1994-01-01

164

CFD studies on burner secondary airflow  

SciTech Connect

In many fossil power plants operating today, there is insufficient means to assure the proper balancing of the secondary airflows between the individual burners of wall-fired units. This mismatch leads to decreased boiler efficiency and increased emissions. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of a fossil power plant wind box was performed. The model solved the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model. The CFD results were validated by the experimental data taken from a 1/8th scale model of a wall-fired fossil unit. Simulations under various mass flow rates specified at inlet, various baffle positions and two opening conditions of the burners were obtained to identify the optimum design in terms of the equalization of the secondary airflow through the burners. This study demonstrated that the combination of experimental and CFD approach can be an effective tool in the research of burner secondary airflow balancing.

Purimetla, A.; Cui, J. [Tennessee Technology University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2009-02-15

165

A numerical model for the Rijke burner  

SciTech Connect

Combustion instability often adversely effects the performance of solid rocket motors. Particulate suppressants have been added to rocket propellants to damp oscillations, but choice of suppressants is more of an art than a science. A basic theory for how suppressants function needs to be developed. A Rijke burner is being developed for studying the effects of distributed particle combustion on acoustic koscillations. The ultimate goal is to develop a tool for screening acoustic suppressants for use in solid propellant rocket motors. A mathematical model for the Rijke burner is being developed to aid in interpretation of experimental data. Varying temperature in the hot (burned gas) section and particle interactions are included in this model. Past models for the Rijke burner and related devices have ignored heat loss in the hot gas section. Without heat loss, the temperature in the hot section is constant. The ability to apply the constant temperature assumption is enticing. An analytical solution to the governing equations is possible when this assumption is valid. Neglect of heat loss makes a small impact on predicted frequency (generally less than 10 percent). Based on frequency alone, constant temperature appears to be a valid assumption. However, it will be shown that this assumption is not valid for the Rijke burner. Application of this assumption can lead to serious error in acoustic growth rate predictions.

Raun, R.L.; Beckstead, M.W.

1987-01-01

166

Solar Wind Data from the MIT Plasma Experiments on Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hourly averages are presented of solar wind proton parameters obtained from experiments on the Pioneer 6 and Pioneer 7 spacecraft during the period December 16, 1965 to August 1971. The number of data points available on a given day depends upon the space...

A. J. Lazarus M. A. Heinemann R. W. Mckinnis H. S. Bridge

1973-01-01

167

Pioneer Robot Testing Program and Status  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and Ukraine established a joint program in 1997 to address the need for remotely operated systems for unstructured environments in Ukraine such as the highly hazardous conditions inside the failed Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4, or Shelter Object. The environment inside Shelter Object is extremely hazardous due to ionizing radiation fields, high airborne contamination, and major industrial safety issues. Although Ukrainian workers have explored and mapped much of the internals of Unit 4 in the time since the accident during the morning hours of April 26, 1986, there remain areas where humans have not entered to this date. Based on the agreement between USDOE and Ukraine, the USDOE, in cooperation with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), developed the Pioneer Robot and has provided it to the ChNPP within the framework of international technical assistance. Pioneer is capable of mobile platform movement and manipulation under teleoperated control, 3-dimensional mapping, and environmental data collection. The Pioneer is radiation hardened for conditions like those of Shelter Object. Pioneer has been evaluated on site in Ukraine for use in both the Shelter Object environment and the more general conditions of ChNPP decommissioning. This paper summarizes the results of these testing activities and describes the status and near-term activities in support of the Pioneer Robot integration into Ukraine.

Herndon, J.N.

2001-02-02

168

Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

2011-10-01

169

PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

Robert States

2006-07-15

170

High efficiency furnaces and boilers (oil). Final report 28 Aug 81-1 May 82  

SciTech Connect

Residential, oil fired heating systems are excellent candidates for cost effective, energy conserving retrofits. Old systems may benefit from burner nozzle downsizing, burner replacement or replacement of the entire heating unit. Guidelines have been presented for selecting the most desirable retrofit for residential, oil fired heating units.

Hatten, M.

1982-05-01

171

Pioneer Venus Polarimetry and Haze Optical Thickness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pioneer Venus mission provided us with high-resolution measurements at four wavelengths of the linear polarization of sunlight reflected by the Venus atmosphere. These measurements span the complete phase angle range and cover a period of more than a ...

W. J. J. Knibbe W. M. F. Wauben L. D. Travis J. W. Hovenier

1992-01-01

172

Exploration of Saturn by the Pioneer probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary is presented of Pioneer data on the magnetosphere, atmosphere, internal structure, rings, and satellites of Saturn as well as on the atmosphere of Titan. Particular attention is given to the presence of jet streams in the atmosphere of Saturn, the formation of the Cassini division in Saturn's rings, and the optical properties of the Titan atmosphere.

T. Gehrels

1981-01-01

173

Atlas/Centaur Pioneer G Operations Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specifications of the Pioneer G and Atlas/Centaur 30 Launch Vehicle are provided, along with information concerning mission objectives. The Atlas/Centaur engine group will generate a 431,383 lb. thrust for an injection velocity of approximately 32,400 mil...

1973-01-01

174

The Pioneer Anomaly: A Deep Space Mystery  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Pioneer 10 and 11 head toward the farthest reaches of our solar system, something strange is happening-they are mysteriously slowing down. Scientists do not yet know why the spacecraft aren't acting as expected; however, The Planetary Society has stepped in to help fund the effort to analyze roughly 25 years of data in hopes of solving the mystery. Society

Bill Nye

2005-01-01

175

Pioneer game in collective actions: Experimental evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective actions are typical social and economic behavior, in which free riders exist objectively. Successful execution of collective actions is related to pioneer game, the value expectation and the follow-up sequence of followers. Through localized experiments, this paper verifies that: (i) collective actions are realizable, (ii) free riders can be weakened or relieved, and (iii) the realization probability of collective

Yichuan Wang

2011-01-01

176

Watch Microelectronics: Pioneer in Portable Consumer Electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, Mougahed Darwish, Marc Degrauwe, Thomas E. Gyger, Gunther Meusburger and Jean Claude Robert -- a group of Swiss engineers at ETA and EM Microelectronic, the semiconductor manufacturer of the Swatch Group -- describe the consraints of the watch-making industry that have shaped watch microelectronics, and relate how the pioneering skills and solutions of quartz watch-making have diffused

Mougahed Darwish; Marc Degrauwe; Thomas E. Gyger; Gnther Meusburger; Jean Claude Robert

2008-01-01

177

The imaging photopolarimeter experiment on pioneer 10.  

PubMed

A 2.5-centimeter telescope aboard Pioneer 10 is capable of making two-dimensional spin-scan maps of intensity and polarization in red and blue light at high spatial resolution. During the recent flyby of Jupiter, a large quantity of imaging and polarimetric data was obtained on Jupiter and the Galilean satellites over a wide range of phase angles. PMID:17821095

Gehrels, T; Coffeen, D; Tomasko, M; Doose, L; Swindell, W; Castillo, N; Kendall, J; Clements, A; Hmeen-Anttila, J; Knight, C K; Blenman, C; Baker, R; Best, G; Baker, L

1974-01-25

178

Pioneer medical missions in colonial Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protestant and Roman Catholic missions pioneered Western medicine and public health in much of Africa decades in advance of health services provided by colonial governments. A century later church-based hospitals and health care programs continue to account for 25% to 50% of available services in most African countries. In view of the important historical and continuing role of medical missions

Charles M. Good

1991-01-01

179

Bastiat: A Pioneer in Constitutional Political Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bastiat emphasized the institutional infrastructure of a market economy and the principle of spontaneous order. He began with first principles — the primacy of property and consent — and derived the legitimate functions of government. As a pioneer in constitutional political economy, he examined the relation between economics and politics, employed methodological individualism, and extended the exchange paradigm to collective

James A. Dorn

2001-01-01

180

Definitions from Pioneers in the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents classical definitions and explanations of distance education selected from pioneers of the field or those who have made seminal contributions to the conceptualization of distance education and related fields. Discusses definitions by Desmond Keegan, Michael G. Moore, Borje Holmberg, and Otto Peters. (AEF)|

Saba, Farhad, Ed.

1999-01-01

181

Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deuterium hydrogen abundance ratio in the Venus atmosphere was measured while the inlets to the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer were coated with sulfuric acid from Venus' clouds. The ratio is (1.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the minus two power. It was found that the 100 fold enrichment of deuterium means that Venus outgassed at

J. Hoffman

1982-01-01

182

Chemical Pump Study for Pioneer Venus Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two chemical pumps were designed for the Pioneer Venus large probe mass spectrometer. Factors involved in the design selection are reviewed. One pump is designed to process a sample of the Venus atmosphere to remove the major component, carbon dioxide, so...

M. Rotheram

1973-01-01

183

Pioneer III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the over-all objectives of the Pioneer III and IV experiments is presented. Included is an analysis of the payload design philosophy, a description of the flight hardware, and a synopsis of the results of the experiments.

H. Curtis; D. Schneiderman

1960-01-01

184

Numerical investigation of a pulverized-coal startup vortex burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a two-channel vortex pulverized-coal startup burner is proposed, in which fuel-air mixture is admitted through the burner's primary channel. Necessary and sufficient conditions for obtaining stable ignition of pulverized coal during operation of this burner are formulated. A procedure of using the Fluent software system for numerically studying the influence of fuel characteristics and operating parameters on the stability of flame ignition and formation is developed. The results of numerical investigations aimed at determining the effect the flowrate of a mixture of mechanically activated micropowdered coal with air has on the combustion process for a particular design of the startup burner installed in the central part of the main direct-flow round burner used in the PK-40-1 boiler at the Belovo district power station are presented. A conclusion is drawn from these results regarding the extent to which the flowrate of mixture affects the performance of this startup burner.

Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.

2013-06-01

185

Development of a coal-water slurry burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the development and testing of a large scale (80 MMBTU\\/Hr) burner for coal-water slurry. The development path included atomizer and burner register performance evaluations in a non-combustion environment. This was followed by extensive combustion testing. The program was successful in developing a burner for coal-water slurry which would permit ignition in a cold furnace, operate stably

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; R. C. LaFlesh; J. L. Marion; M. J. Rini; D. A. Smith

1983-01-01

186

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...Part 1633Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

2009-01-01

187

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...Part 1633Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

2010-01-01

188

The influence of near burner region aerodynamics on the formation and emission of nitrogen oxides in a pulverized coal-fired furnace  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that detailed measurements have been performed for two distinct pulverized-coal-fired burners in a large-scale laboratory furnace. Comparative in-flame data are archived and include gas temperature, O[sub 2], CO concentration, and an inventory of stable fuel nitrogen species and solids (HCN, NH[sub 3], N[sub 2]O, NO, nitrogen release, mass flux, and particle burnout). A significant decrease in the NO concentration in the near burner region and a substantial decrease in the furnace exit values are observed when the central tube from a single annular orifice burner jet (normally the location of a gas or oil burner for light-up purposes) is replaced with a single central orifice burner jet of same cross-sectional area. The latter burner exhibits the delayed combustion phenomena normally associated with a tangentially fired system. The particle burnout remains unaffected due to the longer particles' residence time in the all-important oxygen lean internal recirculation zone.

Abbas, T.; Costen, P.; Lockwood, F.C. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

189

Mathematical modeling of oil shale retorting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the horizontal retorting model, a scheme where there is an oil buildup and then at various times the oil is pushed down to account for the dripping, seems to be a better explanation than another scheme. In the optimization studies, the projected oil yield was considerably enhanced by increasing the heat input from the burner to about 10⁶ Btu\\/h.

J. H. George; H. G. Harris

1979-01-01

190

Chameleon effect and the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility that the apparent anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts may be due, at least in part, to a chameleon field effect is examined. A small spacecraft, with no thin shell, can have a more pronounced anomalous acceleration than a large compact body, such as a planet, having a thin shell. The chameleon effect seems to present a natural way to explain the differences seen in deviations from pure Newtonian gravity for a spacecraft and for a planet, and it appears to be compatible with the basic features of the Pioneer anomaly, including the appearance of a jerk term. However, estimates of the size of the chameleon effect indicate that its contribution to the anomalous acceleration is negligible. We conclude that any inverse square component in the anomalous acceleration is more likely caused by an unmodeled reaction force from solar radiation pressure rather than a chameleon field effect.

Anderson, John D.; Morris, J. R.

2012-04-01

191

Finding the origin of the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift can be interpreted as being due to a constant acceleration of aP = (8.74 1.33) 10-8 cm s-2 directed towards the

Michael Martin Nieto; Slava G. Turyshev

2004-01-01

192

The Pioneer Anomaly: A Deep Space Mystery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Pioneer 10 and 11 head toward the farthest reaches of our solar system, something strange is happening-they are mysteriously slowing down. Scientists do not yet know why the spacecraft aren't acting as expected; however, The Planetary Society has stepped in to help fund the effort to analyze roughly 25 years of data in hopes of solving the mystery. Society Vice President Bill Nye clearly explains this complicated problem in terms that everyone can understand.

Nye, Bill

2005-09-01

193

Comment on ``Pioneer Saturn results summarized''  

Microsoft Academic Search

On page 999 (EOS, 60(47), 998-999, 1979) of the very interesting summary of the Pioneer 11 results for Saturn, it is stated, `Gravity field analysis and temperature profile measurements suggest that the planet's core, extending out about 13,800 km from the center, is about twice the size of the earth but is so compressed by its huge mass that it

Francis Birch

1980-01-01

194

ULTRA LOW NOx BURNER WITH WIDENED STABILITY LIMITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burner designs utilizing premix combustion principles are able to achieve single digit NOx levels when firing natural gas with increased excess air or higher rates of flue gas recirculation (FGR). The main challenge for applying such burners to industrial boilers is the resultant limited stability range with respect to the deviations in the equivalence ratio and the rate of FGR.

Vladimir Lifshits

195

OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO burners

Jost O. L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

2001-01-01

196

40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...burners. 49.127 Section 49.127 Protection of Environment...Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.127 Rule for woodwaste burners...of this method is found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A. (2...this section are defined in § 49.123 General provisions:...

2013-07-01

197

Experimental investigation of combustion in porous heating burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas inside porous heating burners have been investigated experimentally under steady-state and transient conditions. Cooling tubes were embedded in the postflame region of the packed bed of a porous heating burner. The flame speed, temperature profile, and [NOx] and [CO] in the product gases were monitored during an experiment. Due to the heat removal

Jia F. Liu; Wen H. Hsieh

2004-01-01

198

30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57...Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection...shall be provided for the employee when lighting the...

2013-07-01

199

30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56... Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection...shall be provided for the employee when lighting the...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption...with CFCs that have been mixed with used oil from sources other than refrigeration units....

2010-07-01

201

40 CFR 279.63 - Rebuttable presumption for used oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Burners Who Burn Off-Specification Used Oil for Energy Recovery § 279.63 Rebuttable presumption...with CFCs that have been mixed with used oil from sources other than refrigeration units....

2009-07-01

202

Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels in Porous-Media Burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofuels, such as canola methyl ester (CME) and soy methyl ester (SME) derived from vegetable oil are alternative sources of energy that have been developed to reduce the dependence on petroleum-based fuels. In the present study, CME, SME, commercial Jet-A fuel were tested in a porous-media burner. The measured combustion characteristics at an initial equivalence ratio of 0.8 included NOx and CO emission indices, radiative fractions of heat release, and axial temperatures. The effects of fuel on the injector and porous media durability were also documented. The NOx emission index was higher for the SME and CME flames than that of the Jet-A flame. Furthermore, the axial temperature profiles were similar for all the flames. The prolonged use of CME and SME resulted in the solid-particle deposition on the metal walls of the injector and within the structure of the porous medium, thereby increasing the restriction to the fuel/air flow.

Barajas, Pablo E.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

2010-05-01

203

40 CFR 279.64 - Used oil storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Containers and aboveground tanks used to store oil at burner facilities must be: (1) In good condition (no severe rusting, apparent structural defects or deterioration); and (2) Not leaking (no visible leaks). (c) Secondary...

2013-07-01

204

Finding the Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at\\u000adistances between 20 - 70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently\\u000aindicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency\\u000adrift. The drift can be interpreted as being due to a constant acceleration of\\u000aa_P= (8.74 \\\\pm 1.33) x 10^{-8} cm\\/s^2 directed towards the Sun. Although

Michael Martin Nieto; Slava G. Turyshev

2003-01-01

205

The imaging photopolarimeter experiment on pioneer 11.  

PubMed

For 2 weeks continuous imaging, photometry, and polarimetry observations were made of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites in red and blue light from Pioneer 11. Measurements of Jupiter's north and south polar regions were possible because the spacecraft trajectory was highly inclined to the planet's equatorial plane. One of the highest resolution images obtained is presented here along with a comparison of a sample of our photometric and polarimetric data with a simple model. The data seem consistent with increased molecular scattering at high latitudes. PMID:17734364

Baker, A L; Baker, L R; Beshore, E; Blenman, C; Castillo, N D; Chen, Y P; Doose, L R; Elston, J P; Fountain, J W; Gehrels, T; Kendall, J H; Kenknight, C E; Norden, R A; Swindell, W; Tomasko, M G; Coffeen, D L

1975-05-01

206

Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas

Andrew Seltzer

2005-01-01

207

System and process for controlling the flow of air and fuel to a burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a flow controller system capable of controlling the flow of air and fuel to a burner in a plurality of operating modes throughout the firing range of the burner. The air and fuel are conducted to the burner by separate conduits fluidly connected to the burner. The system comprises: (a) an air flow indicating means including a

1987-01-01

208

Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, Jos; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodrguez, Pedro A.

2010-05-01

209

James Fenimore Cooper's Frontier: The Pioneers as History  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines aspects of American culture and society in Post-Revolutionary upstate New York through the lens of James Fenimore Coopers novel The Pioneers. While scholars have looked to The Pioneers as an object of literary criticism or for overarching American themes such as manners or authority, I examine The Pioneers value as a historical document.\\u000aSpecifically, I examine the

Thomas Berson

2004-01-01

210

Horton Falls named for Pioneer Hydrologist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beautiful 80-foot waterfall in the Catskill Mountains was recently named after Robert E. Horton (1875-1945), a pioneer hydrologist and active AGU member for many years. Officially named Horton Falls, the waterfall, located a few miles east of Voorheesville, N.Y., in Albany County, was an important part of Horton's hydrological laboratory. The U.S. Board on Geographic Names approved the name at its November 8, 1990 meeting.Horton lived close to the falls and operated his hydrological laboratory at its crest in the old La Grange Grist Mill, which used hydropower generated by the falling waters of the La Grange Mill Pond, originally impounded by a wooden log dam 100 feet upstream of the mill. As far as can be determined, the pioneer La Granges, who built and operated the mill, never used the 85-foot head made available to them by the waterfalls. Horton, however, did, and ran a vertical and a horizontal iron water wheel to spin a DC electricity-generating turbine, which he used for heat, light, and power in his home and laboratory.

Schaefer, Vincent

211

Raymond Dart as a pioneering primatologist.  

PubMed

Raymond Dart is best known today for his groundbreaking research in palaeoanthropology. It is often forgotten, however, that Dart was a scientist of many interests, who made significant contributions to various disciplines. One of these is the study of living non-human primates. Dart became aware of the importance of primate studies and their relevance for research in other disciplines early in his career. In the late 1920s Dart established a colony of captive baboons in the Anatomy Department, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. On these animals, members of his Department, most notably Joseph Gillman and Christine Gilbert, carried out a number of significant behavioural and endocrinological researches. In 1930, as a member of an Italian Scientific Expedition, Dart was involved in hunting a mountain gorilla (for research purposes). He was also active in primate field studies. In 1957 he and Phillip Tobias founded a Witwatersrand University Uganda Gorilla Research Unit for the study of the Virunga mountain gorillas. The unit produced pioneering studies, conducted by Jill Donisthorpe, on the behaviour of these primates in their natural habitat. At the same time Dart was actively engaged in conservation of the mountain gorillas. He also studied South African chacma baboons in the wild. In the field of primate studies Raymond Dart figures prominently as a pioneering catalyst as well as researcher and conservationist. PMID:18675977

Strkalj, G; Tobias, P V

2008-08-03

212

32. WILEY CITY LINE PIONEER CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT ANTANUM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. WILEY CITY LINE - PIONEER CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH AT ANTANUM, LOOKING SOUTH - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

213

Oil to soil fluorescence-a vital link  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aromatic component in oils may prove to be the key to defining oil traps in mature basins as well as pioneer areas. This is a direct indication of vertical oil migration and can precisely duplicate the oil signature in soil samples. This study traces the changes that occur in San Andres oils over the Permian basin. The sequence of

1994-01-01

214

Enhancement of thermal emission from porous radiant burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical study on using coatings to enhance the emittance of porous radiant burners is presented. Burners made of coated silica fibers are considered along with coating materials of silicon carbide, graphite, and platinum. The radiative properties of the fibers with and without coatings are computed using a radiative scattering theory and are used in a P-3 solution of the radiative transfer equation to predict the emittance of the burners. Graphite and platinum coatings are shown to enhance the emittance by a factor of three for a burner temperature of 1000 K, and by a factor of six for a temperature of 1500 K. It is also shown that it is possible to protect the graphite and platinum coatings from oxidation by applying a silica coating over them.

Tong, Timothy W.; Li, Weiming

1995-02-01

215

Developments in LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) Technology,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marb...

D. C. Drehmel

1988-01-01

216

Idealized radiation efficiency model for a porous radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

A simple, highly idealized radiation efficiency model has been developed for a porous radiant burner with or without a screen to assess the thermal performance of an ideal porous burner that yields the highest radiation efficiency and against which test results and/or more realistic model predictions could be benchmarked. The model is based on thermodynamics principles (first law of thermodynamics) with idealizations made for some of the physical processes. Empirical information, where necessary, is then used to close the model equations. The maximum radiation efficiency at a given firing rate is predicted. The effects of input parameters such as the firing rate, the equivalence ratio, and the effective emittance of the burner on the radiation efficiency of the porous radiant burner are reported.

Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

1999-07-01

217

Development of Low-NOx DME Multi-Port Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion, aiming at the development of low-NOx multi-port burner suitable for the tube-nested combustor. In the tube-nested combustion, the water tubes are moved into the furnace closely to the burner to cool the burning flame directly in the field of burning reaction leading to NOx reduction. To prevent the

Ryosuke Matsumoto; Mamoru Ozawa; Isao Ishihara; Shingo Sasaki; Masahiro Takaichi

2006-01-01

218

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF CUP-BURNER FLAME EXTINGUISHMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extinguishing limits of laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flames in a cup-burner apparatus in normal earth gravity have been determined experimentally and computationally. A gaseous fire-extinguishing agent (Ar, He, N2, CO2, CF3H, CF3Br, or Br2) was added gradually into the coflowing oxidizer until the flame extinguished. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in

Fumiaki Takahashi; Gregory T. Linteris; Viswanath R. Katta

219

Studies on low-intensity oxy-fuel burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental and computational results of oxy-fuel burner operating on classical flame and flameless mode for heat release rate of 26kW\\/m3. The uniqueness of the burner arises from a slight asymmetric injection of oxygen at near sonic velocities. Measurements of temperature, species, total heat flux, radiative heat flux and NOx emission were carried out inside the furnace and

Narayanan Krishnamurthy; P. J. Paul; Wlodzimierz Blasiak

2009-01-01

220

Experimental and modelling study of low-NOx industrial burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the application of a rapidly developing combustion technology (1) that has been given different names: high-temperature air combustion (HiTAC (2)), MILD (3-5), or FLAMELESS combustion (6). Aim is to present and discuss the effects of burner geometry and fuel\\/air inlets on NOx formation in an industrial burner using experimental and modeling activities. For this purpose

A. Frassoldati; A. Cuoci; T. Faravelli; E. Ranzi; D. Astesiano; M. Valenza; P. Sharma

221

Proceedings: 1991 fuel oil utilization workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics addressed at the Workshop were combustion and emission of coke particles formed from residual fuel oil and wall-fired electric utility boilers, the size distribution of particulate matter from combustion of low-sulfur residual fuel oils in a utility boiler, the results of an R D evaluation of low NO oil\\/gas burners, an update on residual fuel oil market conditions

B. L. McDonald; M. N. Miller

1992-01-01

222

Development of Low-NOx DME Multi-Port Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the fundamental characteristics of DME (Dimethyl Ether) combustion, aiming at the development of low-NOx multi-port burner suitable for the tube-nested combustor. In the tube-nested combustion, the water tubes are moved into the furnace closely to the burner to cool the burning flame directly in the field of burning reaction leading to NOx reduction. To prevent the unburned combustibles emission, the diffusion burner used in the tube-nested combustor needs a high performance of the fuel-air mixing. Multi-port burner consists of a fuel-port and surrounding multi-air-ports, which induce a strong re-circulation flow. Thus the fuel-air mixing is enhanced so that the thermal NOx and CO emissions are significantly reduced. The NOx emission of the DME from the co-axial diffusion burner was over 130ppm at 0% O2. On the other hand, NOx emission of DME from the multi-port burner was reduced to 60ppm at 0% O2. With the help of the tube-nested combustion, NOx emission of DME was further reduced to 20ppm at 0% O2.

Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishihara, Isao; Sasaki, Shingo; Takaichi, Masahiro

223

Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Gttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

Soffel, Heinrich

2006-06-01

224

A Cosmological Explanation to the Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An earlier paper introduced a new cosmological theory based on the proposition that all four metrical coefficients of space and time change with the cosmological expansion. Such a universal scale expansion would preserve the four-dimensional spacetime geometry and therefore by general relativity most physical relationships. In addition, if the scale expansion were exponential with time, all epochs would be equivalent. The theory resolves several outstanding problems with the standard model based on the Big Bang concept and better agrees with observations. Four independent observational programs support the SEC theory, which also provides an explanation to the Pioneer anomaly. A possible resolution to the recently discovered discrepancies between optical observations of the planets and their ephemerides is proposed.

Masreliez, C. Johan

2005-09-01

225

Diagnostics for Pioneer I imploding plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect

The Pioneer I series of imploding plasma experiments are aimed at collapsing a thin aluminum foil with a multimegampere, submicrosecond electrical pulse produced by an explosive flux compression generator and fast plasma compression opening switch. Anticipated experimental conditions are bounded by implosion velocities of 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/s and maximum plasma temperatures of 100 eV. A comprehensive array of diagnostics have been deployed to measure implosion symmetry (gated microchannel plate array and other time-resolved imaging), temperature of the imploding plasma (visible/uv spectroscopy), stagnation geometry (x-ray pinhole imaging), radiation emission characteristics at pinch (XRD's, fast bolometry), and electrical drive history (Rogowski loops, Faraday rotation current detectors, and capacitive voltage probes). Diagnostic performance is discussed and preliminary results are presented.

Lee, P.H.Y.; Benjamin, R.F.; Brownell, J.H.; Erickson, D.J.; Goforth, J.H.; Greene, A.E.; McGurn, J.S.; Pecos, J.F.; Price, R.H.; Oona, H.

1985-01-01

226

David Lasser: An American Spaceflight Pioneer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

David Lasser was one of the founders of the American Interplanetary Society (later known as the American Rocket Society) and author of the first English-language book (in 1931) on the prospects of human spaceflight. Yet his involvement in the fledgling spaceflight movement was short-lived as he soon moved on to pursue a distinguished career in the cause of workers rights. In lieu of an oral history, the author corresponded with Mr. Lasser on a regular basis in the years before his death in 1996 to gather Mr. Lasser's views on human spaceflight activities as viewed from his unique perspective. This paper will document that correspondence with one of America's original spaceflight pioneers.

Ciancone, Michael L.; Lasser, Amelia

2002-01-01

227

Testing for the Pioneer anomaly on a Pluto exploration mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Doppler-tracking data of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft show an unmodelled constant acceleration in the direction of the inner Solar System. An overview of the phenomenon, commonly dubbed the Pioneer anomaly, is given and the possibility for an experimental test of the anomaly as a secondary goal of an upcoming space mission is discussed using a putative Pluto

Andreas Rathke

2004-01-01

228

Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT), Pioneer 10/11 Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 1996 the electrical power on Pioneer 10 was no longer adequate to support the Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT). In March 1997 ground based operations for the mission were terminated. The 25 years of Pioneer 10 were a remarkable voyage of disco...

F. B. McDonald

1999-01-01

229

PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE SPACE PROBE PIONEER V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results obtained by Pioneer V are discussed. On March 31, ; 1960, a sudden galactic cosmic-ray intensity decrease occurred at the earth and ; at Pioneer V (5 x 10⁶ km from the earth) of about the same magnitude. The ; direct detection of particles accelerated in solar flares was observed. Evidence ; was found for the solar production

C. Y. Fan; P. Meyer; J. A. Simpson

1960-01-01

230

Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm are described. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled more than 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Persian Gulf

James H. Christner

1991-01-01

231

The pioneer 10 and 11 lessons for a mission to test the pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between 20-70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate a{sub t} = (2.92 {+-} 0.44) x 10 s\\/s. It can also be interpreted as a constant

S. G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; J. D. Anderson

2004-01-01

232

Lessons learned from the Pioneers 10\\/11 for a mission to test the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate 6 10-9 Hz\\/s. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP

Slava G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2007-01-01

233

Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner  

SciTech Connect

For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

2007-06-30

234

Crisis communications moves to front burner.  

PubMed

Crisis communications, or crisis management, moved to the front burner on a national basis following the Tylenol poisonings in the early '80s. It's a fact of life (or death) that day after day, incident after incident, hospital after hospital has to deal with internal problems that become external issues. Balancing disclosure and the media's relentless quest for every available detail with the legal implications involved can test the public relations skills of even the most experienced practitioner. So how do you learn how to handle a crisis situation? There are books available on the topic, there are experts in the field and then there are those who have "been there, done that" and have agreed to share the experiences. Enter Greg McGarry, public relations director at Albany Medical Center in Albany, N.Y. If any hospital PR director has had to deal with a more challenging series of tragic and unusual circumstances in a brutally short timeframe, we have yet to hear about it. As a result of his forthrightness and candidness, backed by a supportive and understanding senior management team, news articles were fair, balanced and included the hospital's position. Even critical editorials included words of praise. PMID:10144059

235

Research on Combustion Processes Relevant to Burners in HVAC Systems. Final Report, July 1 1991-July 31, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of the effects of using noncircular geometries for the fuel nozzles, primary-air venturi inlets, and burner exit ports in the inshot burners of residential natural gas heating systems is presented. These burners generally pro...

S. R. Gollahalli

1994-01-01

236

Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became something of a minor tourist attraction, he later recalled. Using electronics he designed and built that pushed the technical capabilities of the era, Reber succeeded in detecting "cosmic static" in 1939. In 1941, Reber produced the first radio map of the sky, based on a series of systematic observations. His radio-astronomy work continued over the next several years. Though not a professional scientist, his research results were published in a number of prestigious technical journals, including Nature, the Astrophysical Journal, the Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Journal of Geophysical Research. Reber also received a number of honors normally reserved for scientists professionally trained in astronomy, including the American Astronomical Society's Henry Norris Russell Lectureship and the Astronomical Society of the Pacific's Bruce Medal in 1962, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Jansky Lectureship in 1975, and the Royal Astronomical Society's Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1983. Reber's original dish antenna now is on display at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's site in Green Bank, West Virginia, where Reber worked in the late 1950s. All of his scientific papers and records as well as his personal and scientific correspondence are held by the NRAO, and will be exhibited in the observatory's planned new library in Charlottesville, Virginia. Reber's amateur-radio callsign, W9GFZ, is held by the NRAO Amateur Radio Club. This callsign was used on the air for the first time since the 1930s on August 25, 2000, to mark the dedication of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2002-12-01

237

Field evaluation of low-emission coal-burner technology on utility boilers. Volume 2. Second-generation low-NOx burners. Final report, September 1978-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on the original Babcock and Wilcox DRB. Of particular interest was the identification of burner configurations which would be suitable for application in the EPA LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology demonstration program at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, Unit 4. The retrofit requirements for this unit were used to establish burner performance criteria. The testing was conducted with nominal full-scale burner designs, having a capacity of 78 million Btu/hr (22.0 MW). Each burner was tested over a wide range of operating conditions and hardware configurations, and with different coals. However, the XCL burner was judged to have the best overall performance and to meet all the Edgewater boiler retrofit requirements. Additional brief tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of burner design on SO2 removal by injected sorbent materials.

Abele, A.R.; Kindt, G.S.; Payne, R.; Waanders, P.W.

1989-12-01

238

Alyeska pioneers new pipe line technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trans-Alaska pipeline system is being built for one purpose--to make the almost 10-billion-barrel crude oil reserve at Prudhoe Bay available to U. S. industry and consumers. When completed, the pipeline will traverse some of the most rugged terrain in North America. The 1,287-km (800-mi.) long system will transport crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Arctic Ocean coast, generally

McPhail

1976-01-01

239

Flow Field in Swirl-Type Tubular Flame Burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow field in swirl-type tubular flame burners was measured using a Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system with an easily controlled kerosene droplet tracer generator. Through characterization of the flow field in two burners with different swirl numbers, it was found that the flow is an axisymmetric vortex flow. The tangential component of the velocity is zero at the tube center, and increases proportionally with radius at first, and then falls slowly in a radial direction. The gradient of the tangential component near the vortex center depends significantly on the swirl number and the flow rate. The vortex center oscillates around the tube center in a roughly circular area, and this precession is significantly sensitive to the swirl number. The radius of the precession area shrinks as the swirl number increases. The radial distributions of the axial velocity take a plateau-shape for the weak swirl burner (swirl number S=0.21), whereas they take an M shape for the strong swirl burner (S=0.78) with reverse flow in the vicinity of the burner axis. The occurrence of the axial reverse flow is dominated by the swirl number, and is affected by the flow rate as well. Finally, a comparison was made between the swirl numbers calculated with the measured velocity profiles in a cross section and those calculated from the input angular momentum.

Zhang, Yuyin; Shimokuri, Daisuke; Mukae, Yoshihisa; Ishizuka, Satoru

240

Galen: a pioneer of spine research.  

PubMed

Galen of Pergamum AD (2nd century), the most eminent Greek physician after Hippocrates, marked the history of medicine for more than 14 centuries. His doctrines, expressed in his voluminous work, combined the medical heritage of the Hippocratic, the Alexandrian, and some of the most important medical schools of antiquity. The strong influence of the Hippocratic tradition can characteristically be traced in orthopaedics and particularly in Galen's presentation of the spine. Based on his observations, derived from dissection and vivisection of animals, Galen established a pioneer model for the study of human spine. His research ended in an accurate description of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. He also described the course and the distribution of the nerves emerging from the spine. In addition, he dealt with the diseases affecting these structures focusing on spinal tuberculosis and the injuries of the spine and the spinal marrow. Galen was the first physician to demonstrate the neurological implications following transection of the spinal cord at several levels. The predominant feature in Galen's reference to spine is its teleological perspective; the great physician tended to attribute the prodigious structure of the spine to nature's providence. Despite the inevitable anatomical errors, Galen's inspired experiments remained the only thorough approach of spinal anatomy and pathology until the recent centuries, when the evolution of sophisticated technical aids opened new pathways to spine research. PMID:10586461

Marketos, S G; Skiadas, P K

1999-11-15

241

[Auguste Lumire, pioneer of the modern cicatrization].  

PubMed

At the "Grand Caf" in Paris, on december 28, 1895 Louis and Auguste Lumiere displayed the cinematograph, a technical innovation that revolutionized the nascent motion picture. It was the first public projection of a film. While Louis continues his work on pictures and invents autochrome plates for colour photography, Auguste focused his interests on biology and medicine. Since Ambroise Par, few doctors have been interested in the healing process. Although Carrel and Lecomte Du Nouy published the first studies in the early twentieth century, Auguste Lumire was a pioneer in the modern research and treatment of wounds. He applied the principles of experimental medicine. In his research he used 44 dogs to study the healing speed and the scar quality in certain areas and under general conditions. In the winter of 1914-1915 he studied in Lyon several hundred wounds of war casualties. In 1922 he established and published in a marvellous book the principles of normal healing. In the department of Pr Leon Brard he was shocked by the fetidness of the wards where the dried bandages were changed once a week. In 1915 he perfected a revolutionary sterilized "treatment-bandage" consisting of 2 mm stitched gauze saturated with Vaseline and Perou's balsam: the "Tulle Gras. In order to disinfect wounds, he used an iodized solution, sprayed in little droplets. The lives of Auguste and Louis Lumire were full of projects and inventions. When Auguste died in 1954 he had registered more than one hundred patents. PMID:12837641

Salazard, B; Casanova, D; Zuleta, J; Desouches, C; Magalon, G

2003-06-01

242

Lessons learned from the Pioneers 10\\/11 for a mission to test the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with rate ?610?9Hz\\/s. It can also be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP=(8.741.33)10?8 cm\\/s2 directed towards

Slava G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2007-01-01

243

MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) project under the direction of DB Riley. This single-burner data was thus available for comparison with NOx emissions obtained while firing three burners at the same overall load and operating conditions. A range of operating conditions were explored that were compatible with single-burner data, and thus the emission trends as a function of air staging, burner swirl and other parameters will be described below. In addition, a number of burner-to-burner operational variations were explored that provided interesing insight on their potential impact on NOx emissions. Some of these variations include: running one burner very fuel rich while running the others fuel lean; varying the swirl of a single burner while holding others constant; increasing the firing rate of a single burner while decreasing the others. In general, the results to date indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NOx emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. At very fuel rich burner stoichiometries (SR < 0.75), the difference between multiple and single burners became indistinguishable. This result is consistent with previous single-burner data that showed that at very rich stoichiometries the NOx emissions became independent of burner settings such as air distributions, velocities and burner swirl.

E.G.Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

2001-06-01

244

Mission Planning for Pioneer Saturn/Uranus Atmospheric Probe Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mission planning for a series of atmospheric probe missions to Saturn and Uranus using a modified Pioneer spacecraft launched in 1979 and 1980 was examined. The operational options and the associated systems requirements consistent with the major scientif...

B. L. Swenson E. L. Tindle L. A. Manning

1973-01-01

245

Six Internet Pioneers Teach English to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six English-as-a-Second-or-Other-Language (ESOL) practitioners who are also Internet pioneers talk about their Internet work, share insights, and provide advice to teachers on creating online materials. (Author/VWL)

Oliver, Dennis; Davis, Randall; Hoter, Elaine; Kelly, Charles; Sperling, Dave; Vilmi, Ruth

2001-01-01

246

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, Vischer, artist, c. 1870) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FACADE OF MISSION AND CONVENTO, C. 1870 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

247

Curecanti Archeological Project: The Late Prehistoric Component at Pioneer Point.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mitigative archeological investigations were conducted at 5GN41 in advance of visitor facility construction in the Pioneer Point Development Area, Curecanti National Recreation Area, Colorado. Block excavations in two areas of the site in 1982 exposed pro...

J. L. Dial F. A. Calabrese C. Raish

1989-01-01

248

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Society of California Pioneers Original: 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 MISSION BUILDING OPPOSITE MISSION (NOW DESTROYED) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

249

13. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers) Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers) Photographer unknown, January 1940 EXTERIOR OF COMPLEX FROM THE SOUTHEAST - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

250

Operational use of the Pioneer unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer UAV system has seen operational use in every U.S. contingency operation since the system's original fielding in 1986. Originally procured as a non-developmental item, the Pioneer was selected for purchase after a successful fly-off competition which was conducted in late 1985. The Pioneer system is a Department of Defense joint system, having been flown by the U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, and U.S. Army. The system received extensive acclaim for outstanding performance in Operational Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Pioneers are currently being flown by the U.S. Navy from LPD class naval vessels and the U.S. Marine Corps from land based operations. Both services are currently supporting the NATO Joint Task Force in Bosnia.

Reid, Steve

1996-11-01

251

95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

95. Pioneer Plaza, 125 (movie theater), entrance to theater and building to left of theater - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

252

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

253

Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm are described. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled more than 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Persian Gulf is the first opportunity to demonstrate its true value in a combat scenario. In a relatively short time (42 days), 307 flights and 1,011 flight hours were completed on Operation Desert Storm. This, coupled with the accuracy of various weapons systems that Pioneer observed/cued for, resulted in timely target engagements. The Pioneer deployment and accomplishments on operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm are chronicled. Various employment methods, tactics, doctrine, and lessons learned are presented.

Christner, James H.

1991-12-01

254

Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center  

SciTech Connect

If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

2007-04-16

255

The Pioneer anomaly: seeking an explanation in newly recovered data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft yielded very accurate navigation that was\\u000alimited only by a small, anomalous frequency drift of their carrier signals\\u000areceived by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). This discrepancy, evident in the\\u000adata for both spacecraft, was interpreted as an approximately constant\\u000aacceleration and has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The origin of this

Viktor T. Toth; Slava G. Turyshev

2006-01-01

256

Pioneer Anomaly - Analysis of an extended data set  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of Doppler tracking data from the NASA satellites Pioneer 10 and 11 (Anderson et al., 2002) has detected an anomalous, constant, acceleration of magnitude 8 x 10-10 m\\/s2 directed toward the sun. The studied range corresponded to a heliocentric distance interval of 40.0 to 70.5 AU in the case of Pioneer 10 and of 22.4 to 31.7 AU

Hansjoerg Dittus; Benny Rievers; Eva Hackmann; Claus Laemmerzahl

2008-01-01

257

Could the Pioneer anomaly have a gravitational origin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the Pioneer anomaly has a gravitational origin, it would, according to the equivalence principle, distort the motions of the planets in the Solar System. Since no anomalous motion of the planets has been detected, it is generally believed that the Pioneer anomaly can not originate from a gravitational source in the Solar System. However, this conclusion becomes less obvious when considering models that either imply modifications to gravity over long distances or gravitational sources localized to the outer Solar System, given the uncertainty in the orbital parameters of the outer planets. Following the general assumption that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a spherically symmetric space-time metric, we derive the metric disturbance that is needed in order to account for the Pioneer anomaly. We then analyze the residual effects on the astronomical observables of the three outer planets that would arise from this metric disturbance, given an arbitrary metric theory of gravity. Providing a method for comparing the computed residuals with actual residuals, our results imply that the presence of a perturbation to the gravitational field necessary to induce the Pioneer anomaly is in conflict with available data for the planets Uranus and Pluto, but not for Neptune. We therefore conclude that the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft must be nongeodesic. Since our results are model-independent within the class of metric theories of gravity, they can be applied to rule out any model of the Pioneer anomaly that implies that the Pioneer spacecraft move geodesically in a perturbed space-time metric, regardless of the origin of this metric disturbance.

Tangen, Kjell

2007-08-01

258

Observatory Publishes Memoir of Pioneer Radio Astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pioneers of radio astronomy tells her story of the formative years of that science in a memoir published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Dr. Nan Dieter Conklin's book, Two Paths to Heaven's Gate, recounts her experiences making important scientific discoveries in an era when astronomy's "vision" was first extending beyond the light discernable to human eyes. Book Cover CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Conklin's story is remarkable not only because of her impressive scientific achievements, but also "because she was a woman who nevertheless pursued and succeeded in science -- the first U.S. woman whose Ph.D. thesis was based on her own radio astronomy research and the first U.S. woman to publish original radio astronomy research in a refereed journal -- and because she lived and worked with the degenerative disease multiple sclerosis," according to Claire Hooker of the University of Toronto. In the memoir, Conklin recounts her career and life from the awakening stirred by her first astronomy course at Goucher College in Baltimore, to junior research jobs in Washington, D.C., to graduate school at Harvard and ultimately to the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to providing an insider's view of the process of scientific discovery, Conklin also gives the reader a fascinating look at a scientific community and social structure that, though only a half-century removed from the present, was vastly different from today's. Along the way, Conklin candidly reveals the person behind the science -- the person who dealt with the joys and tragedies of life while remaining dedicated to unlocking the secrets of the Universe. "Nan was and remains an inspiration to myself and hundreds of others in the field, both for her scientific acumen and for her ability to overcome extraordinary personal challenges," said Miller Goss of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

2006-07-01

259

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other

Matt Jackson; Michelle L. Pantoya; Walt Gill

2008-01-01

260

Flame ionization control of a partially premixed gas burner with regulated secondary air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas burning furnace is described which consists of: a gas burner mounted in a combustion chamber, the combustion chamber having an exhaust outlet adapted to be connected to a flue, a gas inlet to the burner connected to a gas control adapted to receive gas from a gas source, a primary air inlet of the burner connected to an

Torborg

1986-01-01

261

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

262

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 3. GUIDELINE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

263

EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

264

Pioneer Venus orbiter search for Venusian lightning  

SciTech Connect

During the 1988 and 1990, the star sensor aboard the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) was used to search for optical pulses from lightning on the nightside of Venus. Useful data were obtained for 53 orbits in 1988 and 55 orbits in 1990. During this period, approximately 83 s of search time plus 7749 s of control data were obtained. The results again find no optical evidence for lightning activity. With the region that was observed during 1988, the results imply that the upper bound to short-duration flashes is 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for flashes that are at least 50% as bright as typical terrestrial lightning. During 1990, when the 2-Hz filter was used, the results imply an upper bound of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for long-duration flashes at least 1.6% as bright as typical terrestrial lightning flashes or 33% as bright as the pulses observed by the Venera 9. The upper bounds to the flash rates for the 1988 and 1990 searches are twice and one half the global terrestrial rate, respectively. These two searches covered the region from 60{degrees}N latitude to 30{degrees}S latitude, 250{degrees} to 350{degrees} longitude, and the region from 45{degrees}N latitude to 55{degrees}S latitude, 155{degrees} to 300{degrees} longitude. Both searches sampled much of the nightside region from the dawn terminator to within 4 hours of the dusk terminator. These searches covered a much larger latitude range than any previous search. The results show that the Beat and Phoebe Regio areas previously identified by Russell et al. (1988) as areas with high rates of lightning activity were not active during the two seasons of the observations. When the authors assume that their upper bounds to the nightside flash rate are representative of the entire planet, the results imply that the global flash rate and energy dissipation rate derived by Krasnopol'sky (1983) from his observation of a single storm are too high.

Borucki, W.J.; Dyer, J.W.; Phillips, J.R. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA)); Pham, P. (SETI Inst., Mountain View, CA (USA))

1991-07-01

265

Thomas Peel Dunhill: pioneer thyroid surgeon.  

PubMed

Thomas Peel Dunhill, a name by now almost completely forgotten in his native Australia, was born in 1876 near Kerang in the State of Victoria. Although he qualified as a pharmacist in 1898, Dunhill had already decided to study medicine and graduated in 1903 from the Clinical School of the Melbourne Hospital. He was regarded as an outstanding student. In 1905 Dunhill was invited to join the Senior Medical Staff at St Vincent's Hospital by Mother Berchmans Daly, the then Mother Rectress. In 1906 Dunhill was awarded the MD and in 1907 he performed his first thyroid lobectomy under local anaesthesia for toxic goitre. As early as 1908, Dunhill understood the essentials for successful surgery in thyrotoxicosis--enough thyroid had to be removed to cure the condition. To this end, he advocated a bilateral attack on the thyroid and advocated thyroidectomy in the thyrocardiac patient. He did this before Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted or George Crile. In 1911 Dunhill visited the USA and England and communicated his results to the thyroid surgeons in both countries (230 cases of exophthalmic goitre operated on with four deaths). The English could not, or would not, believe his results as the mortality of surgery for exophthalmic goitre at St Thomas's Hospital, London in 1910 was 33%. Dunhill served with distinction in the Great War and his abilities favourably impressed George Gask, who was to become the Professor of Surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Gask eventually invited Dunhill to join his Unit and Dunhill left St Vincent's Hospital in 1920. Between 1920 and Dunhill's retirement at the age of 60 in 1935, he became the outstanding general surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Dunhill and Cecil Joll, were regarded as the leading thyroid surgeons in the UK. Knighted in 1933, Dunhill was appointed surgeon to the Royal Household, serving four British monarchs. In addition to his brilliant surgical career, Dunhill maintained a love for the land. He was an expert fly fisherman. Dunhill retired from surgical practice in 1949 and died at the age of 80 in 1957 at his London home. Many eulogies were delivered, especially by Sir James Paterson Ross and Sir Geoffrey Keynes, his former pupils. Dunhill's exploits as a thyroid surgeon in the development of a safe and effective treatment for thyrotoxicosis and in operating on the thyrocardiac enables this modest, courteous and loyal Australian to be included with Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile in the pantheon of pioneer thyroid surgeons. PMID:10353556

Vellar, I D

1999-05-01

266

Characterization of a method for aerosol generation from heavy fuel oil (HFO) as an alternative to emissions from ship diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a laboratory method to synthesize aerosols with properties similar to those emitted by ocean going ships. In this method, an oxy-hydrogen flame burner nebulizes and combusts heavy fuel oil (HFO). The oil was fed to the burner via a syringe pump at a maximum rate of 15ml\\/h. Adjusting the feed temperature of the oil and the use

Zhongqing Zheng; Xiaochen Tang; Akua Asa-Awuku; Heejung S. Jung

2010-01-01

267

LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: GASEOUS FUEL RESULTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency. Both deep air staging, resulting in a three-stage configuration, and boiler front wall fuel staging of undo...

268

Low NOx rotary kiln burner technology: design principles & case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coming years, numerous cement plants in USA could be forced to comply with tightening air emission regulations especially with regard to nitrogen oxides (NOx). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is currently considering low NO x rotary kiln burners as a cost effective and efficient choice for NOx reduction in cement kilns. This paper discusses the principles

M. H. Vaccaro

2002-01-01

269

How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and

Jansen, Michael P.

1997-01-01

270

Liquid fuel burner for burning liquid fuel in gasified form  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fuel burner for burning liquid fuel in gasified form including a cylindrical main body having a flame blowoff nozzle and an inner bottom wall at opposite ends, a gas chamber, a combustion plate formed with a multitude of gasified fuel blowing openings, a fuel gasifying member, a fuel diffusing member, an air supply duct, a fuel supply line,

Miyahara

1981-01-01

271

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

272

Update of full scale catalytic burner testing for combustion turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

As described previously in ASME papers, an effort has been underway to apply the emission reduction advantages of catalytic oxidation to practical burners for the large combustion turbines used in electrical power generation. A two-stage design is used to cover the operating range. Results are presented for high pressure combustion rig tests in the primary, secondary, and combined modes, as

Pillsbury

1984-01-01

273

Turbojet and Turbofan Engine Performance Increases Through Turbine Burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional turbojet and turbofan engine, fuel is burned in the main combustor before the heated high- pressure gas expands through the turbine. A turbine-burner concept was proposed in a previous paper in which combustion is continued inside the turbine to increase the ef ciency and specic thrust of the turbojet engine. This concept is extended to include not

F. Liu; W. A. Sirignano

2001-01-01

274

Nitric Oxide Emissions From a Cooled Porous Disk Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide emissions from a premixed propane-air flame were controlled by extracting energy from a steady state reaction zone using a cooled flat flame porous metal disk burner. Energy flux variations and, hence, nitric oxide formation rate changes were obtained for specific mixtures by changing the fuel-air inlet velocity. It was possible to stabilize flames for inlet flow velocities of

BRUCE D. PETERS; GARY L. BORMAN

1973-01-01

275

Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements

G. G. Szegoe; B. B. Dally; G. J. Nathan

2009-01-01

276

Current progress in coal-water slurry burner development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burner\\/atomizer combination has been developed by Combustion Engineering which will burn coal-water slurries (CWS) with satisfactory combustion efficiency over a wide load range. A detailed description of the atomizer design was included. In an attempt to reduce viscosity, the temperature of the slurry was raised and the temperature of the atomizing air was raised. Neither had a significant effect

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; D. A. Smith; M. J. Rini; R. C. LaFlesh; J. L. Marion

1983-01-01

277

SOX OUT ON A LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, covering results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and of calcium-lignosulfonate-mo...

278

Evaluation of Low Emission Coal Burner Technology on Industrial Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixin...

B. A. Folsom L. P. Nelson A. R. Abele J. L. Reese J. Vatsky

1984-01-01

279

EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

280

Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

Clark Atlanta University

2002-12-02

281

FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

282

FIELD EVALUJATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

283

BURNER CRITERIA FOR NOX CONTROL. VOLUME I. INFLUENCE OF BURNER VARIABLES ON NOX IN PULVERIZED COAL FLAMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the first phase of an investigation to specify burner design criteria to control NOx in natural gas and pulverized coal flames. The two parameters found to have major influence on NO formation were the method of fuel injection and the degree of swirl. ...

284

An explanation of the Pioneer anomaly involving accelerated atomic clocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer anomaly stands for unexplained frequency shifts of the Doppler radio-tracking signals received at the ground stations from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft in disagreement with expectations based on model calculations. We consider here observations of Pioneer 10 at heliocentric distances between 40 ua and 70.5 ua over a time interval of 11.55 years from 1987 to 1998. The anomaly has been interpreted in the literature either as a Doppler shift caused by an apparent spacecraft deceleration not accounted for by known effects, or as an unexpected clock acceleration of the frequency standards at the ground stations. The reasons for the anomalous behaviour are not understood in both cases. Based on a gravitational impact model - requiring a secular mass increase of all massive bodies - a solution is proposed that implies a clock acceleration with a value close to that of the Hubble constant.

Wilhelm, K.; Dwivedi, B. N.

2011-11-01

285

Brans-Dicke theory and the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalar-tensor theory offers the possibility of a modification of Newtonian gravity due to the presence of a 4d scalar dilaton field. The prototypical version of such a theory, massless Brans-Dicke theory, is considered here in the Einstein frame representation. The acceleration of a test mass is obtained from the exact 4d Xanthopoulos-Zannias solutions with spherical symmetry. The deviation of this acceleration from the pure Newtonian gravitational acceleration is examined to see if it can account for the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, while satisfying solar system constraints. Theoretical considerations, along with limits inferred from Pioneer 10 data, suggest that Brans-Dicke gravity could account for no more than a small fraction of the Pioneer anomaly, so that a complete explanation of the anomaly must lie elsewhere.

Anderson, John D.; Morris, J. R.

2012-09-01

286

Scientific results from the Pioneer Saturn encounter - Summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific results of the Pioneer Saturn encounter with Saturn are summarized. The Pioneer mission was designed to image the planet, its satellites and rings, and measure its particulate environment and the magnetic field and photon and charged particle radiation by means of 11 operational scientific instruments and its 2.293-GHz telemetry carrier signal. Principle results of the mission include the discovery of an additional ring and a previously unidentified satellite, the further characterization of the physical properties of Saturn and its magnetic field, and the description of the planetary magnetosphere. The successful completion of the mission demonstrated the ability of spacecraft such as Voyager 1 and 2 to survive the particle environments of Saturn's rings and trapped radiation environments, and Pioneer Saturn is expected to continue transmitting information on the interplanetary medium and the solar wind interaction with the interstellar medium until the mid-1980's.

Opp, A. G.

1980-01-01

287

Combustion tests of beneficiated and micronized coal-water fuels: use of internal-mix atomizer and rotary-cup burner  

SciTech Connect

Combustion tests were conducted in an oil-designed 100-hp firetube boiler using a burner with an internal-mix atomizer to determine the effect of coal beneficiation and coal particle size-consist on combustion properties of coal-water fuels (CWF). Samples of Eastern Kentucky bituminous coal, beneficiated to ash levels of 2.5%, 7.8%, and 10.3%, were used to prepare CWF's containing approx. 90% (by weight) minus 75 microns (200 mesh), and 80 to 90% minus 19 microns (micronized). The viscosity of the micronized CWF increased significantly with shear rate. Combustion test results indicated that the use of the micronized CWF did not result in a significant improvement in either carbon conversion or boiler efficiency compared to the use of the CWF made with coal containing the same percent ash but having the coarser particle size-consist. It appears that atomization quality and the resultant CWF droplet size, and not the coal particle size, determine the rate of fuel burnout and the carbon conversion efficiency. On the other hand, increased levels of coal beneficiation resulted in improvement in the combustion of CWF's. A rotary-cup burner designed and fabricated in-house at PETC was also tested in the 100-hp firetube boiler with both 200-mesh CWF and micronized CWF. Results with both the 200-mesh CWF and the micronized CWF indicate that the rotary-cup burner performs as well as a commercial internal-mix atomizer while giving advantages of lower fuel pressure requirements at the burner, elimination of the need for high pressure atomizing air, and reduced burner erosion problems.

Fu, Y.C.; Bellas, G.T.; Brown, T.D.; Joubert, J.I.; Walbert, G.F.

1985-01-01

288

Potential for reducing oil shale mining costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cliffs Engineering, located in Rifle, Colorado, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company. Cliffs has had a pioneering involvement in oil shale going back to 1964, at which time, in conjunction with Standard Oil Company of Ohio and TOSCO, Cliffs became a participant in Colony. This paper deals with ideas to reduce the capital and operating costs for

De Gabriele

1982-01-01

289

Support for Temporally Varying Behavior of the Pioneer Anomaly from the Extended Pioneer 10 and 11 Doppler Data Sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pioneer anomaly is a small sunward anomalous acceleration found in the trajectory analysis of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. As part of the investigation of the effect, the analysis of recently recovered Doppler data for both spacecraft has been completed. The presence of a small anomalous acceleration is confirmed by using data spans more than twice as long as those that were previously analyzed. We examine the constancy and direction of the Pioneer anomaly and conclude that (i) the data favor a temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (210-11m/s2/yr) with an over 10% improvement in the residuals compared to a constant acceleration model, (ii) although the direction of the acceleration remains imprecisely determined, we find no support in favor of a Sun-pointing direction over the Earth-pointing or along the spin-axis directions, and (iii) support for an early onset of the acceleration remains weak in the pre-Saturn Pioneer 11 tracking data. We present these new findings and discuss their implications for the nature of the Pioneer anomaly.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Ellis, Jordan; Markwardt, Craig B.

2011-08-01

290

The Pioneer Anomaly in the Light of New Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radio-metric tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from the distances between 20-70 astronomical units from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted Doppler frequency drift that limited the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction for these vehicles. This drift was interpreted as a sunward acceleration of a P =(8.741.33)10-10 m/s2 for each particular spacecraft. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly is still being investigated. Recently new Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-metric Doppler and flight telemetry data became available. The newly available Doppler data set is much larger when compared to the data used in previous investigations and is the primary source for new investigation of the anomaly. In addition, the flight telemetry files, original project documentation, and newly developed software tools are now used to reconstruct the engineering history of spacecraft. With the help of this information, a thermal model of the Pioneers was developed to study possible contribution of thermal recoil force acting on the spacecraft. The goal of the ongoing efforts is to evaluate the effect of on-board systems on the spacecrafts trajectories and possibly identify the nature of this anomaly. Techniques developed for the investigation of the Pioneer anomaly are applicable to the New Horizons mission. Analysis shows that anisotropic thermal radiation from on-board sources will accelerate this spacecraft by 4110-10 m/s2. We discuss the lessons learned from the study of the Pioneer anomaly for the New Horizons spacecraft.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.

2009-12-01

291

Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly  

SciTech Connect

Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G. [Ottawa, Ontario K1N 9H5 (Canada); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

2009-02-15

292

Pioneering Pedagogic Publications: Algorithms, Student Understanding, and Chemical Knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first ten years of J. Chem. Educ. (1924 to 1934), several pioneering chemical educators expressed the need for students to understand chemical knowledge rather than to use "algorithms" or to memorize factual material. Some of them expressed the pedagogic need for students to link the solving of quantitative problems to the corresponding underlying chemical principles. Overall, many of the articles written by these pioneering educators reveal a focus upon the fundamental pedagogic ideas in chemical education. Awareness of these "ancient ideas" could help modern educators sift through the more enriched/cluttered educational ideas currently being promoted. Some suggestions are made on how these relevant ideas could be integrated together.

Suits, Jerry P.

2001-08-01

293

VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and the future European Extremely Large Telescope," says Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Director General. At the heart of VISTA is a 3-tonne camera containing 16 special detectors sensitive to infrared light, with a combined total of 67 million pixels. Observing at wavelengths longer than those visible with the human eye allows VISTA to study objects that are otherwise impossible to see in visible light because they are either too cool, obscured by dust clouds or because they are so far away that their light has been stretched beyond the visible range by the expansion of the Universe. To avoid swamping the faint infrared radiation coming from space, the camera has to be cooled to -200 degrees Celsius and is sealed with the largest infrared-transparent window ever made. The VISTA camera was designed and built by a consortium including the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the UK ATC and the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. Because VISTA is a large telescope that also has a large field of view it can both detect faint sources and also cover wide areas of sky quickly. Each VISTA image captures a section of sky covering about ten times the area of the full Moon and it will be able to detect and catalogue objects over the whole southern sky with a sensitivity that is forty times greater than that achieved with earlier infrared sky surveys such as the highly successful Two Micron All-Sky Survey. This jump in observational power - comparable to the step in sensitivity from the unaided eye to Galileo's first telescope - will reveal vast numbers of new objects and allow the creation of far more complete inventories of rare and exotic objects in the southern sky. "We're delighted to have been able to provide the astronomical community with the VISTA telescope. The exceptional quality of the scientific data is a tribute to all the scientists and engineers who were involved in this exciting and challenging project," adds Ian Robson, Head of the UK ATC. The first released image shows the Flame Nebula (NGC 2024), a spectacular star-forming cloud of gas and du

2009-12-01

294

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER  

SciTech Connect

A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

Ala Qubbaj

2005-03-01

295

Matematical modelling of straw bale combustion in cigar burners  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a computer model for the calculation of the steady and non-steady behaviour of straw bales subject to surface combustion in cigar burners. The mathematical formulation is one-dimensional and the flow of gas through the straw bales is described by means of Darcy`s law for flow through a porous medium. The computer model is able to predict flow rate, temperature and composition of gas and straw as function of axial length and time. Calculated results are compared to measurements of temperature and gas composition profiles within the burning straw bales. It is observed that the straw bale temperatures as well as the outlet gas composition are predicted reasonably well. Calculations have been carried out in order to assess the implication of a straw bale feed stop in a 3 MW district heating plant fueled with Heston straw bales. The results indicate serious disturbances in the performance of the burner.

Bech, N. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Germann, L. [Danish Technological Inst., Arhus (Denmark); Wolff, L. [I/S Vestkraft, Esbjerg (Denmark)

1995-12-31

296

The zero age main sequence of WIMP burners  

SciTech Connect

We modify a stellar structure code to estimate the effect upon the main sequence of the accretion of weakly-interacting dark matter onto stars and its subsequent annihilation. The effect upon the stars depends upon whether the energy generation rate from dark matter annihilation is large enough to shut off the nuclear burning in the star. Main sequence weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMP) burners look much like proto-stars moving on the Hayashi track, although they are in principle completely stable. We make some brief comments about where such stars could be found, how they might be observed and more detailed simulations which are currently in progress. Finally we comment on whether or not it is possible to link the paradoxically hot, young stars found at the galactic center with WIMP burners.

Fairbairn, Malcolm; Scott, Pat; Edsjoe, Joakim [PH-TH, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland and King's College London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cosmology, Particle Astrophysics and String Theory, Physics, Stockholm University and High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology Centre (HEAC), AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2008-02-15

297

Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner  

SciTech Connect

We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

Cloutman, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brookshaw, L. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-09-01

298

Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate  

SciTech Connect

A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

Garcia, Eugenio [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, c/ Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gancedo, J. Ramon [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gracia, Mercedes, E-mail: rocgracia@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Quimica Fisica 'Rocasolano', CSIC, c/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-11-15

299

Confined spaced infrared burner system and method of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas-fired infrared heating device is described comprising: a burner plenum; an air-gas mixer means for introducing a combustible air\\/gas mixture into the plenum at a pressure P1 which is greater than ambient pressure, the mixer means comprising first means for controlling gas flow, second means for providing air flow at above ambient pressure and third means for controlling air

1987-01-01

300

FLAME EXTINGUISHMENT IN A CUP-BURNER APPARATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsteady extinguishment phenomena of laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed in a cup-burner apparatus at normal earth gravity have been studied experimentally and computationally. A gaseous fire-extinguishing agent (CO2, N2, He, Ar, or CF3H) was introduced gradually into a coflowing oxidizer stream until blowoff-type extinguishment occurred. The agent concentration in the oxidizer required for extinguishment was nearly independent of a

Fumiaki Takahashi; Gregory T. Linteris; Viswanath R. Katta

301

How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a laboratory (or Bunsen) burner is used to heat water, all of the energy liberated by the burning fuel is not absorbed by the water. This article describes a procedure for determining the percentage efficiency of this common apparatus. This experiment is suitable for secondary school students who are familiar with stoichiometry , simple calorimetry, heats of reaction, collection of gas by downward displacement of water. Extensive pre- and post- laboratory questions (and answers) are included.

Jansen, Michael P.

1997-02-01

302

Developments in LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the most-recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of calcium-lignosulfonate-modified Ca(OH). Performance of the modified sorbent was slightly better than that of the commercial sorbent. Both sorbents easily provided 50% capture of SO

Drehmel

1988-01-01

303

Multistaged burner design for in-furnace NOx control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of an evaluation of a multistage combustion-modification design, combining two advanced NOx control technologies, on a pilot-scale (0.9 MW) package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control of high-nitrogen fuel-combustion applications. A low-NOx precombustion chamber burner, reduced in size (to provide a 350-msec bulk gas residence time) to improve commercial applicability, is being used with 10-20% natural

J. A. Mulholland; R. K. Srivastava

1986-01-01

304

Development of a fuel rich methane-air burner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lately, it has become clear that several new energy conversion systems are needed in order to use fossil fuel more efficiently. Included among these are technologies which will develop an advanced high-efficiency energy conversion system using a gas turbine, operating at higher temperatures and higher pressures. To develop this system, a new burner with low emission of nitrogen oxides is indispensable. This paper discusses a fuel rich methane-air burner which produces (a) a distinctly low level of nitrogen oxide emission and (b) combustion gas containing few oxygen mole fractions. The burner is small in scale because of limitations in the gas supply system, and employs a coaxial injector owing to higher combustion chamber pressures in the specifications (4 MPa). Design materials, such as characteristics of stable ignition and flame stability, are studied experimentally using several geometrical parameters and several operating conditions. Characteristics under lean fuel condition is also examined. As a result, stable combustion characteristics are obtained for an equivalence ratio between 0.7 and 1.5.

Hashimoto, T.; Yoshino, T.; Takakusaki, T.; Arai, N.; Teramae, N.; Kobayashi, N.; Kataoka, A.; Hasatani, M.

1993-06-01

305

Flame characteristics in a novel petal swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional (360 deg) body-fitted coordinate mathematical model to simulate pulverized coal particle combustion in a petal swirl burner (PSB) is first set up to analyze the flame stability and its characteristics. The studies on the flow pattern, the temperature distribution, and the flue gas composition of the flame, the ignition location, and the combustion efficiency of the pulverized coal particle are conducted. The results show that owing to the special geometric design of the PSB, some of the pulverized coal particles leaving the burner can directly enter the radial recirculation zone (RRZ) behind the petal flame stabilizer (PFS) and are immediately ignited and burned in the RRZ, producing a sort of flame that is always on duty behind each petal, which is called the permanent flame. The flame pattern, which is a combination of the main flame and several permanent flames, provides a sufficient heat source for reliable ignition and steady combustion even for the low-volatile coal-firing and turndown capacity operation, and is advantageous to lower NO{sub x} emission. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the special flame pattern of PSB can be existed are analyzed. A PSB test was undertaken in a 210-MW power plant boiler to investigate the performance of the PSB with firing of low-volatile pulverized coal. The temperature measurement value along the burner axis is given, in which the temperature distribution and the ignition location are clearly shown. (author)

Zhao, Lingling; Zhou, Qiangtai; Zhao, Changsui [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210-096 (China)

2008-10-15

306

Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park

Simpson, Jean

2012-01-01

307

Alexander I. Ignatowski: a pioneer in the study of atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

In 1908, Alexander I. Ignatowski (1875-1955) published his pioneering work that first revealed a relationship between cholesterol-rich food and experimental atherosclerosis. This early experimental work paved a way to the metabolic study of the mechanism of atherosclerosis. Herein, we present a brief account of Ignatowski's work and life. PMID:23914012

Konstantinov, Igor E; Jankovic, Gradimir M

2013-01-01

308

Pioneer 11'S Encounter with Jupiter and Mission to Saturn.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plans for Pioneer 11's approach to Saturn are described. A flyby somewhat parallel to the ring plane is being proposed as an interim target, with a future option held for a possible high risk (or suicide) plunge through the nearly transparent space betwee...

J. W. Dyer

1975-01-01

309

Historic Resource Study: Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To place the Mormons and the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail in historical perspective is difficult, for they were both unique as well as uniquely American. Most Mormons tend to emphasize that which is unique in their history. In no way do Mormons ...

S. B. Kimball

1991-01-01

310

Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations of the disturbed nightside ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observed the ionosphere and atmosphere of Venus for almost 14 years. The PVO contained a vast array of experiments including: Radar Mapper, Magnetometer, Electric Field Detector, Plasma Analyzer, Ion Mass Spectrometer, Langmuir Probe, Retarding Potential Analyzer, Neutral Mass Spectrometer, Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Infrared radiometer, Cloud Photopolarimeter, Gamma Burst Detector, and Radio Science. For analyzing the Venus ionosphere,

Walter Hoegy; Joseph Grebowsky; Richard Hartle

2008-01-01

311

Educational Technology Dissemination Through Pioneering Partners: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pioneering Partners provides K-12 educators in the Great Lakes Region--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Wisconsin--with educational technology development opportunities, coalition-building opportunities, dissemination skills training, connection to Greatlinks Net/Internet, and financial support to defray

Hawkes, Mark; And Others

312

The Pioneer 10 anomalous acceleration and Oort cloud comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anderson et al. [Phys. Rev. D 65 (2002) 082004] recently reported new evidence that both Pioneer 10 and 11 are experiencing nearly the same unmodeled anomalous acceleration directed toward the Sun. Numerous mechanisms, both internal and external to the spacecraft, have been proposed to explain this unmodeled acceleration. If we assume that the cause of the anomalous acceleration is (1)

Daniel P. Whitmire; John J. Matese

2003-01-01

313

Hybrid modelling the Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetic field observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents comparisons between the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) magnetometer (OMAG) observations and the HYB-Venus hybrid simulation code. The comparisons are made near periapsides of four PVO orbits using the full resolution PVO\\/OMAG data. Also, the statistics of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions at Venus are studied using the PVO interplanetary dataset. The statistics include

R. Jarvinen; E. Kallio; I. Sillanp; P. Janhunen

2008-01-01

314

Racing bodies: dress and pioneer women aviators and racing drivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the dress of pioneer women racing drivers and aviators in the period 190039. It traces how they transformed their dress and appearance from the amateur improvisations of the Edwardian period to the streamlined speed queens of the 1930s. It argues that their various clothing strategies represented and embodied their determined negotiation of boundaries and frontiers of culture

Barbara Burman

2000-01-01

315

Pioneer Women in Manitoba: Evidence of Servant-Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Leadership was characterized as patriarchal and hierarchical during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Pioneer women were often not credited with leadership qualities although many, including school teachers, journalists, suffragettes, healthcare workers, and social activists played an important role in the development of Manitoba communities.

Crippen, Carolyn L.

2004-01-01

316

Pioneer round of translation occurs during serum starvation  

SciTech Connect

The pioneer round of translation plays a role in translation initiation of newly spliced and exon junction complex (EJC)-bound mRNAs. Nuclear cap-binding protein complex CBP80/20 binds to those mRNAs at the 5'-end, recruiting translation initiation complex. As a consequence of the pioneer round of translation, the bound EJCs are dissociated from mRNAs and CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E. Steady-state translation directed by eIF4E allows for an immediate and rapid response to changes in physiological conditions. Here, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), which restricts only to the pioneer round of translation but not to steady-state translation, efficiently occurs even during serum starvation, in which steady-state translation is drastically abolished. Accordingly, CBP80 remains in the nucleus and processing bodies are unaffected in their abundance and number in serum-starved conditions. These results suggest that mRNAs enter the pioneer round of translation during serum starvation and are targeted for NMD if they contain premature termination codons.

Oh, Nara; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Cho, Hana; Choe, Junho [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Ki [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yk-kim@korea.ac.kr

2007-10-12

317

Reconstruction of the Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer, northeast Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oligocene vegetation at Pioneer was closed temperate rainforest dominated by Nothofagus johnstonii Hill, which probably produced N. menziesii-type pollen. However, other angiosperms (Quintinia, Cupaniae, Ilex, Cunoniaceae, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Winteraceae) were also present, as well as several conifers (Athrotaxis, Phyllocladus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Dacrycarpus and Araucariaceae). This rainforest was floristically more complex that the modern Tasmanian Nothofagus cunninghamii rainforests but

Robert S. Hill; Michael K. Macphail

1983-01-01

318

Pioneer 10 studies of interplanetary shocks at large heliocentric distances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer 10 Ames plasma analyzer data collected in the 6.1 to 12.6 AU range of heliocentric distances (November 1974 to April 1977) have been examined for interplanetary shock waves. Eighteen shock signatures have been identified, with four of these being of the reverse type and the remainder the forward type. Sonic Mach numbers in the range from 3 to 10

J. D. Mihalov; J. H. Wolfe

1979-01-01

319

Venus lower atmospheric composition - Preliminary results from Pioneer Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial examination of data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus sounder probe indicates that the abundances of argon-36, argon-38, and neon-20 in the Venus atmosphere are much higher than those of the corresponding gases in Earth's atmosphere, although the abundance of radiogenic argon-40 is apparently similar for both planets. The lower atmosphere of Venus includes significant concentrations

J. H. Hoffman; M. B. McElroy; T. M. Donahue; M. Kolpin; R. R. Hodges

1979-01-01

320

Design And Operation of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Ultraviolet Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Colorado's Ultraviolet Spectrometer instrument carried on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft is a 125 mm f\\/5 Ebert-Fastie design with a 250-mm Cassegrainian telescope. The instrument has extensive logic to control the grating motor drive and to adapt the basic spectrometer to the constraints and opportunities of the mission. Success has been achieved in reconciling the confficting requirements

A. I. F. Stewart

1980-01-01

321

"Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone

Kenney, Keith

322

New information recovered from the Pioneer 11 meteoroid experiment data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data of the Pioneer 11 meteoroid experiment are re-evaluated. A probabilistic model of the dust detector is constructed with no assumption on the flux of particles, using built-in redundancy of the instrument only. The analysis of redundant data strongly suggests that the instrument had suffered a failure at launch that disabled a significant part of its impact sensors. This failure

V. Dikarev; E. Grn

2002-01-01

323

Oneida Cockrell: Pioneer in the Field of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article the author profiles Oneida Cockrell, a pioneer in the field of early childhood education. She was the founder and director of the Garden Apartments Nursery School and Kindergarten, located in the prestigious Michigan Boulevard Garden Apartments building (commonly known as the Rosenwald Apartments) in Chicago's West Hyde Park

Simpson, Jean

2012-01-01

324

A British Intellectual Pioneers a New Model for College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article profiles A.C. Grayling, a British intellectual who pioneers a new model for college. In his role as founder of the New College of the Humanities, Britain's newest and most controversial institution of higher education, A.C. Grayling could have chosen among several titles. The senior academic officer at most English higher-education

Labi, Aisha

2013-01-01

325

Older People and Their Families: The New Pioneers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Old people are the new pioneers of our era. Their proportion has increased threefold; their status has not. Old people have a safe haven within the family, although this safe harbor is constantly under siege. Family and kinship ties will continue to provide safe harbor for members however long they live. (Author/BEF)|

Shanas, Ethel

1980-01-01

326

Aerodynamics of an isolated slot-burner from a tangentially-fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic development of fully turbulent isothermal jets issuing from rectangular slot-burners was modelled by obtaining a solution to the Reynolds averaged NavierStokes equations. A finite-volume method was used with the standard k?, RNG k? and Reynolds stress turbulence models. The slot-burners were based on physical models, which were designed to be representative of typical burner geometries found in tangentially-fired

J. T. Hart; J. A. Naser; P. J. Witt

2009-01-01

327

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner, Phase II Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers progress made during Phase 2 of a three-phase DOE-sponsored project to develop and demonstrate the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux burner (also referred to as the Radiation Stabilized Burner, or RSB) for use in industrial watertube boilers and process heaters. The goal of the DOE-sponsored work is to demonstrate an industrial boiler burner with NOx emissions below 9

A. Webb; J. D. Sullivan

1997-01-01

328

Coal-water-slurry technology development. Volume 1. Burner technology. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS) burner was developed and test fired. This atomizer and burner system was developed in three steps: (1) Atomizer development and optimization using optical measurement techniques; (2) Burner air register development using cold flow modeling, and (3) Full scale (80 MBtu\\/h) combustion testing of the atomizer and air register. Approximately 20,000 gallons of CWS were fired,

D. A. Smith; M. J. Rini; R. C. LaFlesh; J. L. Marion

1984-01-01

329

Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 3. Burner test results. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third of three volumes describing a multi-phase, coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume summarizes the results of tests of a single, full-scale 15-million Btu\\/hr burner to be used in a multi-burner industrial boiler demonstration of CWS at a DuPont plant in Memphis, Tennessee. The burner was tested at the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W)

C. F. Eckhart; G. D. Lindstrom

1984-01-01

330

Behavior of a 300 kW th regenerative multi-burner flameless oxidation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of heat transfer and emissions in a semi-industrial 300kWth natural gas fired furnace with three pairs of regenerative flameless oxidation burners was studied. The furnace offers unique possibilities for varying burner positions and firing modes (parallel and staggered). The operational behavior of two burner configurations have been compared regarding emissions (NO, CO) and temperature uniformity, for both parallel

E.-S. Cho; B. Danon; W. de Jong; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts

2011-01-01

331

Premixed burner studies of NO{sub x} formation and control  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary reasons for using this type of premixed, flat flame burner is that it is essentially one-dimensional (1-D), i.e., that important parameters such as temperature are nearly constant in regions near the central vertical axis of the burner for a fixed height above the burner surface. As a result of this 1-D nature, computer codes such as Sandia National Laboratory`s PREMIX can be used to model the important chemical interactions involved in the combustion processes. These predictions can be compared with experimental measurements to gain valuable insight into the formation of nitrogen oxides. The bulk of the burner experiments performed to date have been focussed primarily toward characterization of burner and the sample extraction and analysis system. All experiments thus far have been for methane/air flames at one atmosphere pressure. Figure 2 shows the burner centerline temperature profile for an equivalence ratio of {Phi} = 0.87. The sharp peak in temperature near 0.3 cm corresponds to the luminous zone of the flame. The high temperature in the luminous zone shows an abrupt decay with increasing height above the burner. The temperature gradient in the non-luminous post-flame zone is much smaller, approximately 2.5{degree}C decrease in temperature for each millimeter increase in height over the range of 1.3 to 4 cm above the burner. Radial temperature profiles have also been measured to assess the onedimensional nature of this burner.

Casleton, K.H.; Straub, D.L.; Moran, C. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). Morgantown Energy Technology Center; Stephens, J.W. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-11-01

332

Turbulent-flame characterization for improved gas-burner performance. Final report, November 1983-June 1986  

SciTech Connect

Flame-diagnostic measurements were made on practical burner flames and on idealized bluff-body burner flames to identify flame characteristics to be used in improving burner designs. For the practical burner, flame-visualization studies were made with direct photography, short-exposure schlieren and high-speed schlieren movies for radial, coaxial, and bluff-fuel injector configurations with and without divergent quarls and combustion-air swirl. The coaxial and radial injector flames were stabilized away from the burner face and had small-scale inner flow structures on large-scale outer structures. The bluff-body flame was stabilized by the recirculation zone and showed smaller substructures in the non-jet region. For the idealized bluff-body burner, visualization was made by photographs of light scattered from laser-illuminated alumina seed particles, and concentration profiles were obtained with Raman scattering and laser-induced fluorescence. Flame visualization showed a wide variety of flame types resulting from varying air and fuel flow. With low air flow, flames were stabilized at the burner face by 3-D vortices. At high air flow, flames were stabilized by a stagnation zone on the burner axis. Both flames showed large-scale intermittent structures. Laser-concentration imaging was very effective in revealing flame initiation and propagation. At low air flow, flames propagate by periodic bursts of near burner vortices. At high air flow, diffusion flames are established in the vicinity of the stagnation zone.

Kelly, J.; Namazian, M.

1986-06-01

333

DESIGN NOTE: An opposed jet burner for the study of high-intensity combustion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

bla***An opposed jet burner for the study of high-intensity combustion in the distributed reaction regime is described. The Kolmogorov microscale of turbulence is smaller than the laminar flame thickness. This burner can be applied to both premixed and diffusion flame studies. A stable annular turbulent premixed or diffusion flame can be stabilized between two ceramic plates, which ensure the adiabaticity of the flame. A characteristic feature of this burner is its easy optical access and probe measurements. The NOx emission characteristics of this burner are described in relation to the high-intensity combustion.

Yoshida, Akira

1999-12-01

334

Pioneer and voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and lattitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer 10, 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft are well suited for exploring spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Between 1984 and 1986 Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 were located at nearly the same heliocentric distance (approx. =20 AU) and longitude but were widely separated in latitude; Pioneer 11 was at a heliographic latitude of greater than or equal

P. R. Gazis; J. D. Mihalov; A. Barnes; A. J. Lazarus; E. J. Smith

1989-01-01

335

Radio occultation measurements of turbulence in the Venus atmosphere by Pioneer Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in the cases of Mariner 5 and 10 and Venera 9, the Pioneer Venus radio occultation measurements of Venus show an upper region of turbulence located in the vicinity of 60 km. Estimates of the deduced intensity of turbulence are consistent with the upper bound obtained earlier from the complementary Pioneer Venus probe measurements. Comparison with the Pioneer Venus

Richard Woo; J. W. Armstrong; Akira Ishimaru

1980-01-01

336

Celebrating 400 Years of Pioneer Spirit: From Jamestown to the Wild West  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this questions and answer interview with Rachel Dickinson, author of "Great Pioneer Projects You Can Build Yourself", the writer discusses her interest in the American pioneer movement, her research, and her goals in introducing readers to the day-to-day life of an American pioneer. Dickinson's book offers a hands-on look at what life was like

Curriculum Review, 2007

2007-01-01

337

76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2011-06-28

338

78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its...

2013-06-20

339

76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a...Petition Number 08-338-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc....

2011-01-03

340

78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0031] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...determination regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a...Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., of...

2013-05-29

341

75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...that a soybean line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, designated as transformation...evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International in its petition...

2010-06-08

342

Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies  

SciTech Connect

The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.

Mumford, J.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Hall, R.E.; Jackson, M.A.; Merrill, R.G. Jr.; Lewtas, J.

1986-07-01

343

16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices...Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment...

2013-01-01

344

Pioneer Girls: Mid-Twentieth-Century American Evangelicalism's Girl Scouts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Founded in 1939, in the mid-twentieth century, Pioneer Girls was a vital Christian youth movement providing an explicitly evangelical alternative to Girl Scouts. Using David Bebbington's classic four-point definition, this article will explore the evangelical identity of the organization, including its continuities and discontinuities with fundamentalism as part of the new evangelicalism of the post-World War II era. While 1950s

Timothy Larsen

2008-01-01

345

Polar Cloud Structure as Derived From the Pioneer Venus Orbiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pioneer Venus orbiter radio occultation data taken on orbits 9, 18, and 19 at S band (13.06 cm) are used to obtain vertical absorption coefficient profiles of the Venus clouds in the north polar regions. Resulting profiles show dense cloud decks at the 1.5- to 4.7-bar level in the Venus atmosphere. The cloud decks are lower in altitude and more

J. B. Cimino; C. Elachi; A. J. Kliore; D. J. McCleese; I. R. Patel

1980-01-01

346

Using early data to illuminate the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20 70 AU from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an unmodelled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift drift of order 6 10-9 Hz s-1. After accounting for systematics, this drift can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP = (8.74

Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2005-01-01

347

Study of the Pioneer anomaly: A problem set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft at distances between 20 and 70 astronomical units from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, and constant Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blueshift, uniformly changing at the rate of (5.99+\\/-0.01)10-9 Hz\\/s. The signal also can be interpreted as a constant

Slava G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2005-01-01

348

A Route to Understanding of the Pioneer Anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, while at heliocentric distance of ~ 20-70 AU, the accuracies of their orbit reconstructions were limited by a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. This drift can be interpreted as a sunward constant acceleration of aP = (8.741.33)10-8 cm\\/s2 which is now commonly known

Slava G. Turyshev; Michael Martin Nieto; John D. Anderson

2005-01-01

349

New Horizons and the onset of the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10\\/11 spacecraft at distances between about 2070 AU from the Sun has indicated the presence of an unmodeled, small, constant, Doppler blue shift which can be interpreted as a constant acceleration of aP=(8.741.33)10?8cm\\/s2 directed approximately towards the Sun. In addition, there is early (roughly modeled) data from as close in as

Michael Martin Nieto

2008-01-01

350

Pioneer Venus radar results - Geology from images and altimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unimodal distribution of relief for Venus was obtained from the Pioneer Venus altimetry measurements. The 'upland' rolling plains constituting 65% of the surface show dark circular lava-filled impact basins; highlands in the 8% of the area comprise Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra; and the lowlands consist of crudely circular surfaces with low relief within the highlands. The complex ridge-and-trough

Harold Masursky; Eric Eliason; P. G. Ford; G. E. McGill; G. H. Pettengill; Gerald G. Schaber; Gerald Schubert

1980-01-01

351

THE EXPERIMENTAL V4X STIRLING ENGINE - A PIONEERING DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Swedish double-acting 35 kW V4 Stirling engine was developed in a pioneering effort with a number of simplified and novel design features. The overall design was made with the intention to fit a passenger car. The engine used standard automotive journal bearing technology, a new robust crosshead design, and sliding seals. A balancing shaft was used to remove first-order

Gunnar Lundholm

352

Pioneer Venus gas chromatography of the lower atmosphere of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatograph mounted in the Pioneer Venus sounder probe measured the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Venus at three altitudes. Ne, N, O, Ar, CO, HO, SO, and CO were measured, and upper limits set for H, COS, HS, CH, Kr, NO, CH, CH, and CH. Simulation studies have provided indirect evidence for sulfuric acid--like droplets and support

V. I. Oyama; G. C. Carle; F. Woeller; J. B. Pollack; R. T. Reynolds; R. A. Craig

1980-01-01

353

Design and operation of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Colorado's ultraviolet spectrometer instrument carried on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft is a 125-mm f\\/5 Ebert-Fastie design with a 250-mm Cassegrain telescope. The instrument has extensive logic to control the grating motor drive and to adapt the basic spectrometer to the constraints and opportunities of the mission. Success has been achieved in reconciling the conflicting requirements of

A. I. F. Stewart

1980-01-01

354

The Evolution of Web Art-One Pioneer's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the winter of 2002, the Whitney Museum of American Art invited digital media artist Yoshi Sodeoka to contribute a project to Artport, the museum's online portal to the world of Web art (see http:\\/\\/www.whitney.org\\/artport). Sodeoka, an early Web art and design pioneer, had the idea to create a fantasy scanning machine that would, through visual and audio readouts, track

Matthew Mcgregor-mento

2003-01-01

355

Preannouncing pioneering versus follower products: what should the message be?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the high practical relevance, prior research does not provide a clear picture whether the effectiveness of new product\\u000a preannouncements is contingent upon order of entry and whether the message content of preannouncements for pioneering products\\u000a should be different from those for followers. Drawing on diffusion research, the authors examine how preannouncements that\\u000a focus on risk reduction and the products

Christian Homburg; Torsten Bornemann; Dirk Totzek

2009-01-01

356

REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS  

SciTech Connect

This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and controlled and as a result increase durability and efficiency of the gasifier. To accomplish goals set for Task 2 GTI will utilize the CANMET Coal Gasification Research facility. The Entrained Coal Gasifier Burner Test Stand has been designed and is currently under construction in the CANMET Energy Technology Center (CETC), the research and technology arm of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). This Gasifier Burner Stand (GBS) is a scaled-down mock-up of a working gasifier combustion system that can provide the flexible platform needed in the second year of the project to test the flame sensor. The GBS will be capable of simulating combustion and gasification processes occurring in commercial gasifiers, such as Texaco, Shell, and Wabash River.

James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

2003-10-01

357

Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated\\u000a combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3\\/Ni-16.2Cr5.6Al-0.6Y (composition in weight percent unless stated otherwise) NASA thermal barrier coating system which was\\u000a developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such

Philip E. Hodge; Stephan Stecura; Michael A. Gedwill; Isidor Zaplatynsky; Stanley R. Levine

1980-01-01

358

Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed conditions. However, the results also indicate that element-to-element fuel maldistribution of the array remains significant such that additional efforts to resolve manufacturing difficulties should be made in future applications. Elimination of maldistribution will reduce NO emissions even further as well as improve stability characteristics of the array.

Lee, Sunyoup

359

Destruction of halogenated VOCs using premixed radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the destruction of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a premixed radiant burner. Alzeta Corporation has developed a natural-gas-fired thermal oxidizer to provide emission control for industrial exhaust streams where stringent emisson limits of VOCs are required. Measurements, made with assistance of the U.S. EPA at Research Triangle Park, NC, show destruction efficiencies (DEs) between 99.9766 and 99.999% for eight common halogenated compounds. A brief discussion of pertinent regulations and emissions of concern is presented. The EPA test program is presented with results. Three similarly designed commercial thermal oxidizers are described, including emission test results.

Bartz, D.F.; Marshall, B.N.; Bruce, K.; Lombardo, A.; Lee, C.W.

1996-06-01

360

Low NOx high temperature burner. Final report, April 1990December 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the steel reheat and aluminum melting markets was conducted to assess the technical and economic requirements and the potential for acceptance for a low NOx high performance burner. An experimental burner was developed at Altex Technologies and shipped to Eclipse for an independent evaluation. Tests at Eclipse showed NOx less than 100 ppm at 3% O2 (dry

S. Erickson; V. Smirnoff

1993-01-01

361

Plasma-Assisted Combustion Technology for NOx Reduction in Industrial Burners.  

PubMed

Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

2013-09-13

362

PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NO BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR CAPTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale combustion tests of a Riley Stoker second-generation low-NOx burner combined with dry sorbent injection for SO2 control. The burner design is based on the distributed mixing concept. Combustion tests were conducted at 100 million Btu/hr in ...

363

Multi-fuel low-NOx burner development, phase II. Annual report Jan-Dec 80  

Microsoft Academic Search

During Phase II of this program, three burner manufacturers, Eclipse, Inc., Hauck Manufacturing, and Bloom Engineering, are cooperating with IGT in the development of industrial burners that incorporate various NOx control techniques while maintaining the heat-transfer characteristics of the flames suitable for the particular process application. NOx control by catalytic combustion, staged combustion, and\\/or recirculation is being incorporated in the

H. A. Abbasi; M. J. Khinkis; R. T. Waibel

1981-01-01

364

Industrial pulverized coal low-NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., jointly with its university partner, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and its industrial partner, Hauck Manufacturing Corporation, is developing a low NO{sub x} pulverized coal burner for use in industrial processes, including those which may require preheated air or oxygen enrichment. The design of the burner specifically addresses the critical performance requirements of industrial systems, namely: high heat release rates, short flames, even heat flux distribution, and high combustion efficiency. The design is applicable to furnaces, industrial boilers, and cement kilns. The development program for this burner includes a feasibility analysis, performance modelling, development of the burner prototype design, and assessment of the economic viability of the burner. The Phase 1 activities covered by this report consisted of three principal tasks: preliminary burner design; fluid flow/combustion modelling and analyses; and market evaluation. The preliminary design activities included the selection of a design coal for the Phase 1 design, preliminary design layout, and preliminary sizing of the burner components. Modelling and analysis were conducted for the coal pyrolysis zone, the rich combustion zone and the lean bumout zone. Both chemical kinetics and one-dimensional coal combustion modelling were performed. The market evaluation included a review of existing industrial coal use, identification of potential near- and long-term markets and an assessment of the optimum burner sizes.

Not Available

1993-12-01

365

Effect of different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of considering different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner is studied numerically. A 3D numerical model based on a unit cell was implemented to correctly predict the momentum, heat and mass transfer at the interface of the two layers. Two operating modes are simulated corresponding to the burner radiating to cold and hot environments.

T. C. Hayashi; I. Malico; J. C. F. Pereira

2010-01-01

366

Ceramic Fiber Burner Cost Reduction Investigation and Implementation. Final Report, January 1994-October 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to reduce the manufacturing cost of the Pyrocore ceramic fiber burner in order to make the product more competitive in a broad range of applications. The Pyrocore burner has been available commercially since the early 198...

J. D. Sullivan S. E. Schweizer

1995-01-01

367

Slagging tendencies of wood pellet ash during combustion in residential pellet burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ash related problems have more than occasionally been observed in pellet burners during the last years. These problems can lead to reduced accessibility of the combustion systems as well as bad publicity for the market. The objectives of the present work were to; (i) evaluate how different raw materials for pellets affect the accessibility of the existing burner equipment, (ii)

M. hman; C. Boman; H. Hedman; A. Nordin; D. Bostrm

2004-01-01

368

16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part...MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner...

2013-01-01

369

Low NO premixed combustion of MBtu fuels in a research burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical part of IGCC plants is the combustor which must burn syngas. The paper reports on the development and testing of a premix research burner for MBtu fuels. The burner has a quartz glass annular mixing section and a quartz glass flame tue to allow visualization of the flame. A central lance is used to mount modules for fuel

K. Doebbeling; A. Eroglu; D. Winkler; T. Sattelmayer; W. Keppel

1997-01-01

370

Investigation of the structural and reactants properties on the thermal characteristics of a premixed porous burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous burners offer attractive features such as competitive combustion efficiency, high power ranges, and lower pollutant emissions. In the present study, the thermal characteristics of a porous burner are numerically investigated for a range of operating conditions and design specifications within a practical range. The premixed flame propagation of a methane\\/air mixture in a ceramic porous medium is simulated through

M. H. Akbari; P. Riahi

2010-01-01

371

Effects of inclined jets on turbulent oxy-flame characteristics in a triple jet burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactants are generally injected into the industrial furnaces by jets. An effective method to act on combustion in such systems is to control the way injection jets. The present study concerns the control of turbulent flames by the jets deflection in a natural gas-oxygen burner with separated jets. The burner of 25 kW power is constituted with three aligned

T. Boushaki; M. A. Mergheni; J. C. Sautet; B. Labegorre

2008-01-01

372

Development of low-pollutant pre-mixed burner for residential gas furnaces with cylindrical combustion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruhrgas developed the Thermomax burner system (TBS) to reduce nitrogen oxide pollution by residential gas burners. The burners, designed for maximum heat inputs of approx. 50 kW, are premixed fuel-lean units developed for laminar combustion. The flame is retained by a temperature-resistant orifice plate. The burners developed for different gas appliances excel by their sample design, outstanding heat transfer properties

H. Berg; T. Jannemann

1988-01-01

373

Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT), Pioneer 10/11 Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 1996 the electrical power on Pioneer 10 was no longer adequate to support the Cosmic Ray Telescope Experiment (CRT). In March 1997 ground based operations for the mission were terminated. The 25 years of Pioneer 10 were a remarkable voyage of discovery as it ventured into a vast new unexplored region of space. These observations by the Pioneer experiments led in the development of a new discipline of space science - heliospheric physics. For cosmic ray studies it was an incredible era, leading to the identification of new energetic particle populations and processes and initiating the study of the dynamics and large-scale structure and began the study of the dynamics and large-scale structure of the outer heliosphere. A summary of some of the principal scientific findings of the CRT experiment over this period is given in the next section. Even with the cessation of data from the Pioneer 10/11 mission there remained a great deal of scientific analysis and data archiving that required on the order of an additional three years of effort on the part of the CRT team. We have tried to select those tasks where the P10/11 CRT data have an important role to play. Special emphasis is placed on long-term synoptic studies that make use of the extended temporal and spatial coverage of the missions and the full capabilities of the CRT experiment. The major scientific objectives of this study are: (1) A phenomenological study of the modulation process in the heliosphere, thereby laying the foundation for developing a unified model of cosmic ray modulation over a complete 22 year heliomagnetic cycle; (2) These modulation studies and the temporal changes in the cosmic ray intensities also provide information on the large-scale structure and dynamics of the outer heliosphere; (3) use the galactic and anomalous cosmic ray data from Pioneer 10 to obtain a more accurate estimate of the distance to the modulation boundary and to the termination shock; (4) Use the results from (2) and from temporal variations to determine whether significant modulation occurs in the region of the heliosphere; (5)study the acceleration and transport of low energy solar interplanetary energetic particles and their relation to solar activity and interplanetary phenomena.

McDonald, Frank B.

1999-07-01

374

Occurrence of benzo(a)pyrene in combustion effluents of kerosene and diesel burners  

SciTech Connect

Due to limited Jordanian resources, kerosene and diesel burners have been widely used for heating homes and water, warming bread, grilling meat and cooking food. Jordan annually imports and average of 204 tons of burners which corresponds to approximately 20,400 burners. Considerable amounts of combustion products are produced such as gases, aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially benzo(a)pyrene (Bp), the well known carcinogen for man and animal. Since most Jordanians use burners more than five months a year, a considerable amount of combustion effluents accumulate indoors. Some of these materials can enter the human body via various routes, and are potential health hazards. Little information is available about the chemical nature and amount of the combustion effluents produced by these burners; therefore the present study was designed to screen for benzo(a)pyrene in the indoor-accumulated combustion effluent.

Gharaibeh, S.H.; Abuirjeie, M.A.; Hunaiti, A.A.

1988-09-01

375

Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

1999-12-01

376

Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A. [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Building, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

377

Response of burner-stabilized flat flames to acoustic perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of burner-stabilized flat flames to acoustic velocity perturbations is studied numerically and analytically. The numerical setup involves the set of one-dimensional transport equations for the low-Mach number reacting flow using a simple and a more complex reaction mechanism. The physical background of the phenomena observed numerically is explained by a simple analytical model. The model uncouples the unsteady transport equations into two parts: the first part describes the flame motion through the G-equation and the second flamelet part describes the inner flame structure and mass burning rate of the flame. The G-equation can be solved exactly in the case of a quasi-steady flame structure. The mass burning rate is assumed to be directly related to the flame temperature. Relations for the fluctuating heat release and heat loss to the burner are derived, from which the coupling between the velocity fluctuations at both sides of the flame is found. Comparison of the numerical and analytical results with earlier work of McIntosh and with primary experimental results on a lean methane/air flame shows the validity of the models. The origin of the differences encountered is discussed. The resulting transfer function for the velocity perturbation can be applied to the acoustic stability analysis of combustion systems. The most interesting application is the acoustic behaviour of central heating boilers.

Rook, R.; de Goey, L. P. H.; Somers, L. M. T.; Schreel, K. R. A. M.; Parchen, R.

2002-06-01

378

Effect of energetic electrons on combustion of premixed burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many studies of plasma-assisted combustion, authors superpose discharges onto flames to control combustion reactions. This work is motivated by more fundamental point of view. The standpoint of this work is that flames themselves are already plasmas. We irradiated microwave power onto premixed burner flame with the intention of heating electrons in it. The microwave power was limited below the threshold for a discharge. We obtained the enhancement of burning velocity by the irradiation of the microwave power, which was understood by the shortening of the flame length. At the same time, we observed the increases in the optical emission intensities of OH and CH radicals. Despite the increases in the optical emission intensities, the optical emission spectra of OH and CH were not affected by the microwave irradiation, indicating that the enhancement of the burning velocity was not attributed to the increase in the gas temperature. On the other hand, we observed significant increase in the optical emission intensity of the second positive system of molecular nitrogen, which is a clear evidence for electron heating in the premixed burner flame. Therefore, it is considered that the enhancement of the burning velocity is obtained by nonequilibrium combustion chemistry which is driven by energetic electrons. By irradiating pulsed microwave power, we examined the time constants for the increases and decreases in the optical emission intensities of N2, OH, CH, and continuum radiation.

Sasaki, Koichi

2011-11-01

379

Current progress in coal-water slurry burner development  

SciTech Connect

A burner/atomizer combination has been developed by Combustion Engineering which will burn coal-water slurries (CWS) with satisfactory combustion efficiency over a wide load range. A detailed description of the atomizer design was included. In an attempt to reduce viscosity, the temperature of the slurry was raised and the temperature of the atomizing air was raised. Neither had a significant effect on the atomizing of CWS. The preliminary combustion testing results indicate that, with the proper combination of burner and atomizer design, coal-water slurry can be successfully burned with carbon conversion efficiencies in the range of 96 to 99%. This compares with a consistent 99/sup +/% carbon conversion efficiency for the base coal fired under similar conditions. Additional improvements in CWS combustion efficiency may be possible through further firing system development and refinement. This project has also successfully demonstrated that coal-water slurry could be reliably ignited in a cold furnace using conventional ignitors and low air preheat temperatures (250/sup 0/F). There were 23 illustrations and six tables of data also included.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; Smith, D.A.; Rini, M.J.; LaFlesh, R.C.; Marion, J.L.

1983-01-01

380

Fundamental Scaling of NOx Emissions from Burners and Furnaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of experiments at five different scales having near-uniform geometric, aerodynamic, and thermal similarity and uniform measurement protocols have yielded the first NOx scaling data from burners and furnaces over the range of thermal scales from 30 kW to 12 MW. Detailed in-flame measurements of NO, NOx, CO, O2, unburned hydrocarbons, temperature, and velocities at each scale allow identification of various sources of NOx production. The underlying physics of each of these NOx sources leads to scaling laws for their respective contributions to the overall NOx emissions performance. It is found that the relative importance of each sources depends on thermal input scale and burner operating conditions; simple furnace residence time scalings commonly used by industry are shown to be comparatively irrelevant. The scalings for these NOx sources are combined in a unified scaling model for NOx emission performance. Results are compared against experimental data from all scales, including effects of turndown, staging, preheat, and excess air dilution. Good agreement is found between predictions from the scaling model and measurements, with correlations generally exceeding 90%. (Supported by GRI Contract No. 5093-260-2728.)

Hsieh, Adrian T.-C.; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Driscoll, James F.

1996-11-01

381

78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026] Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability...Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., (Pioneer...Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.,...

2013-02-27

382

Effects of enclosure on the performance of the weak-swirl burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a study of the velocity and scalar characteristics of the weak-swirl burner in enclosures. WSB utilizes a unique aerodynamic mechanism to stabilize lean burning premixed combustion over a wide range of equivalence ratios ({phi}) and power inputs. As the WSB was developed for fundamental research, previous works focused only on open WSBs. Recent success in adapting the WSB to practical use suggests that a better understanding of the WSB in enclosures is required for further development. Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and Mie scattering of oil droplets (MSOD), are used to measure the flame flowfields and flame crossing spectra of the WSB with an open flame, enclosed within a quartz cylinder and within a cylinder with a restricted exit. The flame of the enclosed WSB remained extremely stable and did not develop recirculation zones or audible characteristics. The only change observed was a greater divergence of the flowfield upstream of the reaction zone. Neither lengthening the enclosure nor restricting the flow downstream caused any noticeable difference in the operation of the WSB. This work has demonstrated that the WSB should be amenable for adaptation to a wide variety of low NO{sub x} applications.

Yegian, D.K.; Cheng, R.K.

1995-10-01

383

Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse - Treesearch  

Treesearch

This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the ... available to restart the burner, and all water pipes would freeze very quickly. ... Keywords: alternative fuel, wood-burning stove, oil-burning stove, heat exchange .

384

Cloud-tracked winds from Pioneer Venus OCPP images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented on the analysis of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter (OCPP) UV images, covering 80-day periods from 1979 to 1985. The analysis provides a method for determining wind speeds at the cloud level, from the motions of cloud UV features. Data used for tracking the cloud feature motions are described along with the analysis method. The results identified four wave modes: a diurnal solar tide, a semidiurnal solar tide, a '4-day equatorial' wave, and a '5-day midlatitude' wave. The features of these wave modes are described.

Rossow, William B.; del Genio, Anthony D.; Eichler, Timothy

1990-09-01

385

Study of the Pioneer anomaly: A problem set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the radio-metric tracking data from the Pioneer 10 and 11\\u000aspacecraft at distances between 20--70 astronomical units from the Sun has\\u000aconsistently indicated the presence of an anomalous, small, and constant\\u000aDoppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing at the\\u000arate of (5.99 +\\/- 0.01) x 10^{-9} Hz\\/s. The signal also can be interpreted as

Slava G. Turyshev; John D. Anderson

2005-01-01

386

Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere  

DOEpatents

According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

Coolidge, Dennis W. (Katy, TX); Rinker, Franklin G. (Perrysburg, OH)

1994-01-01

387

Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner  

SciTech Connect

''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

Ala Qubbaj

2004-09-01

388

Feasibility of burning refuse derived fuel in institutional size oil-fired boilers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the feasibility of retrofitting existing oil-fired boilers of institutional size, approximately 3.63 to 36.3 Mg steam/h (8000 to 80,000 lbs steam/h) for co-firing with refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Relevant quantities describing mixtures of oil and RDF and combustion products for various levels of excess air are computed. Savings to be realized from the use of RDF are derived under several assumptions and allowable costs for a retrofit are estimated. An extensive survey of manufacturers of burners, boilers, and combustion systems showed that no hardware or proven design is yet available for such retrofit. Approaches with significant promises are outlined: the slagging burner, and a dry ash double vortex burner for low heat input from RDF. These two systems, and an evaluation of a small separate RDF dedicated combustor in support of the oil-fired boiler, are recommended as topics for future study.

None

1980-10-01

389

Optimization of burners for firing solid fuel and natural gas for boilers with impact pulverizers  

SciTech Connect

The design of a burner with preliminary mixing of fuel and air for alternate or joint firing of coal and natural gas on a boiler is described. The burner provides steady ignition and economical combustion of coal, low emission of NOx in both operating modes, and possesses an ejecting effect sufficient for operation of pulverizing systems with a shaft mill under pressure. The downward inclination of the burners makes it possible to control the position of the flame in the furnace and the temperature of the superheated steam.

G.T. Levit; V.Ya. Itskovich; A.K. Solov'ev (and others) [ORGRES Company (Russian Federation)

2003-01-15

390

Catalytically supported combustion on a surface burner: Modelling and NO{sub x} formation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of methane on a surface burner is investigated numerically for both an active and a catalytically inactive surface. Results are compared with experiments performed on a small-scale model of a production household burner. A global approach is used to model surface processes, whereas gas-phase chemistry is described in terms of a detailed reaction mechanism. The simulation shows the importance of radical desorption from the surface. In order to reveal further NO{sub x} reduction potentials, a NO{sub x} formation analysis indicated the mechanisms important in surface burner systems. The results reveal the importance of NNH reactions for NO{sub x} formation.

Niehoerster, C.; Arends, G.; Schreiber, M. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

1997-07-01

391

Developments in LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the most-recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)/sub 2/--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of calcium-lignosulfonate-modified Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Performance of the modified sorbent was slightly better than that of the commercial sorbent. Both sorbents easily provided 50% capture of SO/sub 2/ at a calcium to sulfur molar ratio of 2.0 or less, which is the goal of the LIMB program. The paper also lists the major conclusions from the LIMB program to date.

Drehmel, D.C.

1988-08-01

392

Optimum compositions for thermal insulation of burners and regenerators  

SciTech Connect

The thermal and mechanical properties of thermal insulation compositions applied by spraying were evaluated to determine the optimum composition for the parameters posed by the burners and regenerators of glass-melting furnaces. The effects of varying spray parameters on these properties were also assessed. Changes were made in the binder density while leaving the amount of filler unaltered. With an increase in binder density there was an increase in the apparent density of the insulation. Kaolin wool with an aluminoborophosphate concentrate binder was tested for thermal conductivity, apparent density, and bending, shear, and compression strength against asbestos with water glass as a binder. For walls of the regenerators and a single-layer heat insulation, insulation made from an asbestos-perlite mixture with water glass was recommended.

Zasypkin, V.I.; Popov, O.N.

1988-07-01

393

Support for the thermal origin of the pioneer anomaly.  

PubMed

We investigate the possibility that the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer10 and 11 spacecraft is due to the recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the vehicles. To this end, relying on the project and spacecraft design documentation, we constructed a comprehensive finite-element thermal model of the two spacecraft. Then, we numerically solve thermal conduction and radiation equations using the actual flight telemetry as boundary conditions. We use the results of this model to evaluate the effect of the thermal recoil force on the Pioneer10 spacecraft at various heliocentric distances. We found that the magnitude, temporal behavior, and direction of the resulting thermal acceleration are all similar to the properties of the observed anomaly. As a novel element of our investigation, we develop a parametrized model for the thermal recoil force and estimate the coefficients of this model independently from navigational Doppler data. We find no statistically significant difference between the two estimates and conclude that, once the thermal recoil force is properly accounted for, no anomalous acceleration remains. PMID:23004253

Turyshev, Slava G; Toth, Viktor T; Kinsella, Gary; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lok, Shing M; Ellis, Jordan

2012-06-12

394

Doomed pioneers: Event deposition and bioturbation in anaerobic marine environments  

SciTech Connect

Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows, in exclusive association with gravity flow deposits within otherwise unbioturbated sediments, indicate that event deposition in oxygen-depleted sedimentary environments may be accompanied by the appearance of allochthonous infauna. In the Miocene Monterey Formation of Alta California and in the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California Sur, the authors observe compelling evidence that some turbulent sedimentation events entrain living decapod crustaceans. Upon deposition in anaerobic environments, these imported burrowers rework substantial quantities of laminated, commonly organic-rich sediment, in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of oxygen-depleted environmental conditions limits the survival time of these transported infaunal dwellers and renders them doomed pioneers. The occurrence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes, ichnogenera that are generally observed in normal-marine, neritic environments, in anoxic hemipelagic host sediments have been problematic for paleoenvironmental interpretation; in some cases, these features have been incorrectly interpreted to indicate bottom water ventilation and reoxygenation on a basin-wide scale. Accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace fossil assemblages will permit more precise understanding of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

Grimm, K.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA)); Follmi, K.B. (Geologisches Institut, Zurich (Switzerland))

1990-05-01

395

Biogenic sedimentary fabrics associated with pioneering polychaete assemblages  

SciTech Connect

Organically-enriched terrigenous marine sediments are commonly associated with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen near the bottom and sulfidic pore waters. Today, such habitats are typically dominated by dense aggregations of opportunistic polychaetes. Laboratory study of one species, Capitell capitata, indicates that these polychaete aggregations, and associated agglutinated tubes, have a low probability of being directly preserved in the sedimentary column. However, pioneering polychaetes intensively pelletize surface sediment while deposit-feeding, producing laminated pelletal sedimentary fabrics which have a high preservation potential. These fabrics were identified in thin-sections made from Capitella-bearing sediments compacted in the laboratory. Fissile black shales from the Upper Devonian Catskill Shelf and Basin facies were examined in wedge-shaped thin-section which facilitated the recognition of fabrics similar to those found in the synthetically compacted samples. Few pellet-shaped objects were found in the heavily bioturbated sediment sections, while some non-bioturbated laminated sections contained numerous pellets. It is suggested that these pellets represent the presence of a pioneering polychaete assemblage on the slope sediments of the Devonian Catskill Basin. Recognition of such pelletal facies in otherwise barren shales may allow reconstruction of the dysaerobic zone in ancient hypoxic basins.

Cuomo, M.C.; Rhoads, D.C.

1985-01-01

396

Support for the Thermal Origin of the Pioneer Anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the possibility that the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is due to the recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the vehicles. To this end, relying on the project and spacecraft design documentation, we constructed a comprehensive finite-element thermal model of the two spacecraft. Then, we numerically solve thermal conduction and radiation equations using the actual flight telemetry as boundary conditions. We use the results of this model to evaluate the effect of the thermal recoil force on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft at various heliocentric distances. We found that the magnitude, temporal behavior, and direction of the resulting thermal acceleration are all similar to the properties of the observed anomaly. As a novel element of our investigation, we develop a parametrized model for the thermal recoil force and estimate the coefficients of this model independently from navigational Doppler data. We find no statistically significant difference between the two estimates and conclude that, once the thermal recoil force is properly accounted for, no anomalous acceleration remains.

Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Kinsella, Gary; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lok, Shing M.; Ellis, Jordan

2012-06-01

397

Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion  

SciTech Connect

This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

Jackson, Matt [Engineering Department, West Texas A and M University, Canyon, TX 79016 (United States); Pantoya, Michelle L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Gill, Walt [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

2008-04-15

398

ANALYSIS OF UTILITY CONTROL STRATEGIES USING THE LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an evaluation of the impact of proposed acid rain legislation on the potential application of limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) technology incorporating recent research and development findings. Several regulatory strategies and emission red...

399

Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

400

EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

401

Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

Not Available

1991-01-01

402

Computational Modelling of Swirling Diffusion Flame in Air-Staged Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents an application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulating an industrial-scale low NOx burner. The main aim of the performed research is to provide the experimentally validated computational prediction of turbulent, non-premixed swirling gas flame in an air-staged burner. Computations are performed using the k-?, k-? and Reynolds-stress turbulence models in order to examine the relative

P. B?lohradsk; V. Kermes; P. Stehlk

403

Extinguishment mechanisms of coflow diffusion flames in a cup-burner apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extinguishment processes of methaneair coflow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner in earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. As a gaseous fire-extinguishing agent (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, CF3Br, or Br2) was introduced gradually into a coflowing oxidizer stream, the base (edge) of the flame detached from the burner rim, oscillated, and eventually extinguished. This extinguishment

Fumiaki Takahashi; Gregory T. Linteris; Viswanath R. Katta

2007-01-01

404

Effects of inclined jets on turbulent oxy-flame characteristics in a triple jet burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactants are generally injected into the industrial furnaces by jets. An effective method to act on combustion in such systems is to control the way injection jets. The present study concerns the control of turbulent flames by the jets deflection in a natural gasoxygen burner with separated jets. The burner of 25kW power is constituted with three aligned jets,

T. Boushaki; M. A. Mergheni; J. C. Sautet; B. Labegorre

2008-01-01

405

Parametric optimization study of a multi-burner flameless combustion furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parametric study on a 300 kWth furnace equipped with three pairs of regenerative flameless combustion burners has been performed. Each burner pair has a rated thermal power of 100 kWth firing Dutch natural gas. The objective of the study was to optimize the furnace performance, i.e., to maximize the cooling tube efficiency and minimize the CO and NO emissions.

B. Danon; E.-S. Cho; W. de Jong; D. J. E. M. Roekaerts

2011-01-01

406

Experimental investigations and numerical simulations of methane cup-burner flame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsation frequency of the cup-burner flame was determined by means of experimental investigations and numerical simulations. Simplified chemical kinetics was successfully implemented into a laminar fluid flow model applied to the complex burner geometry. Our methodical approach is based on the monitoring of flame emission, fast Fourier transformation and reproduction of measured spectral features by numerical simulations. Qualitative agreement between experimental and predicted oscillatory behaviour was obtained by employing a two-step methane oxidation scheme.

Bitala, P.; Kozubkov, M.; Kade?bek, P.; Nevrl, V.; Dlabka, J.; Kozubek, E.; t?pnek, O.; Bojko, M.; Kubt, P.; Zelinger, Z.

2013-04-01

407

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum

Gianfranco Scribano; Giulio Solero; Aldo Coghe

2006-01-01

408

Prediction of the Ignition Phases in Aeronautical and Laboratory Burners using Large Eddy Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many aeronautical gas turbine manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are two phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work presents on-going and past Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this specific subject and as investigated at CERFACS (European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) located in Toulouse, France. Validation steps and potential difficulties are underlined to ensure reliability of LES for such problems. Preliminary LES results on simple burners are then presented, followed by simulations of a complete ignition sequence in an annular helicopter chamber. For all cases and when possible, two-phase or purely gaseous LES have been applied to the experimentally simplified or the full geometries. For the latter, massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform the computation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times and the rate at which the flame progresses from burner to burner. The propagation speed characteristic of these phenomena is much higher than the turbulent flame speed. Based on an in-depth analysis of the computational data, the difference in speed is mainly identified as being due to thermal expansion and the flame speed is strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics issued by the swirled injection.

Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.; Sanjose, M.; Boileau, M.

2009-12-01

409

Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner  

SciTech Connect

Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)

Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

2011-01-15

410

Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers  

SciTech Connect

The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

1991-05-01

411

A primitive cyanobacterium as pioneer microorganism for terraforming Mars.  

PubMed

The primitive characteristics of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis suggest that it represents a very ancient type of the group. Its morphology is simple but shows a wide range of variability, and it resembles certain Proterozoic microfossils. Chroococcidiopsis is probably the most desiccation-resistant cyanobacterium, the sole photosynthetic organism in extreme arid habitats. It is also present in a wide range of other extreme environments, from Antarctic rocks to thermal springs and hypersaline habitats, but it is unable to compete with more specialized organisms. Genetic evidence suggests that all forms belong to a single species. Its remarkable tolerance of environmental extremes makes Chroococcidiopsis a prime candidate for use as a pioneer photosynthetic microorganism for terraforming of Mars. The hypolithic microbial growth form (which lives under stones of a desert pavement) could be used as a model for development of technologies for large-scale Martian farming. PMID:11539232

Friedmann, E I; Ocampo-Friedmann, R

1995-03-01

412

Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

Bohn, Willy L.

2005-03-01

413

Hippocrates: a pioneer in the treatment of head injuries.  

PubMed

Hippocrates' treatise On Wounds in the Head represents an excellent source of information regarding the extent of experience with head injuries in classical antiquity. On the basis of clinical observation, the great physician gives an accurate description of the external appearance and consistency of the cranium. Fractures of the cranium are divided into six main categories, each of which is discussed separately, regarding its mechanism, clinical assessment, and treatment. The medical history and clinical evaluation are considered the most important factors when dealing with cranial trauma. Trepanation, a neurosurgical procedure still in practice today, is presented in detail. As a whole, the treatise, the first written work in medical history dealing exclusively with cranial trauma, reveals that Hippocrates was a pioneer in treating head injuries. PMID:15987554

Panourias, Ioannis G; Skiadas, Panayiotis K; Sakas, Damianos E; Marketos, Spyros G

2005-07-01

414

Ren Kss (1913-2006)-a transplant pioneer in Paris.  

PubMed

Ren Kss (1913-2006), an outstanding urologic surgeon, was one of the leading pioneers in kidney transplantation. He suggested and perfected the retroperitoneal placement of the donor kidney into the iliac fossa and its anastomosis to the iliac vessels in the early 1950s. He was one of the first to introduce an immunosuppressive regimen in kidney transplantation a decade later. Kss established the first multiple department of urology at the Paris hospitals, served as General Secretary and later as President for the Socit Internationale d'Urologie from 1952 until 1985, and founded "La Socit Francaise de Transplantation" as the first scientific society dedicated to transplantation medicine in Europe in 1971. Moreover, Kss was an art connoisseur and collector, an automobiliste, and a medical historian. PMID:23622664

Schultheiss, D; Jardin, A

2013-04-01

415

The Clifford Space Geometry Behind the Pioneer and Flyby Anomalies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is rigorously shown how the extended relativity theory in Clifford spaces (C-spaces) can explain the variable radial dependence ap(r) of the Pioneer anomaly; its sign (pointing towards the Sun); why planets do not experience the anomalous acceleration and why the present day value of the Hubble scale RH appears. It is the curvature-spin coupling of the planetary motions that hold the key. The difference in the rate at which clocks tick in C-space translates into the C-space analog of Doppler shifts which may explain the anomalous redshifts in cosmology, where objects which are not that far apart from each other exhibit very different redshifts. We conclude by showing how the empirical formula for the flybys anomalies obtained by Anderson et al.17 can be derived within the framework of Clifford geometry.

Castro, Carlos

416

Venus lower atmospheric composition: preliminary results from pioneer venus.  

PubMed

Initial examination of data from the neutral mass spectrometer on the Pioneer Venus sounder probe indicates that the abundances of argon-36, argon-38, and neon-20 in the Venus atmosphere are much higher than those of the corresponding gases in Earth's atmosphere, although the abundance of radiogenic argon-40 is apparently similar for both planets. The lower atmosphere of Venus includes significant concentrations of various gaseous sulfur compounds. The inlet leak to the mass spectrometer was temporarily blocked by an apparently liquid component of the Venus clouds during passage through the dense cloud layer. Analysis of gases released during the evaporation of the droplets shows the presence of water vapor to some compound or compounds of sulfur. PMID:17833003

Hoffman, J H; Hodges, R R; McElroy, M B; Donahue, T M; Kolpin, M

1979-02-23

417

History of pancreaticoduodenectomy: early misconceptions, initial milestones and the pioneers  

PubMed Central

Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya

2011-01-01

418

Public health nursing pioneer: Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock 1863-1939.  

PubMed

Jane Elizabeth Hitchcock was one of many distinguished nursing leaders of the 19th and early 20th centuries who attended a women's college before enrolling in a nurse training school. Like many of her contemporaries with equally impeccable family credentials, Hitchcock was something of an enigma to her family for choosing nursing over teaching, the most common acceptable career for women of her social class. Hitchcock's endowment of character, according to contemporary Lavinia Dock, exemplified the best of her Puritan roots. Her contributions to the evolution of public health nursing and the integration of public health nursing content into curriculums of training schools rivalled the achievements in higher education of her famous father, grandfather, and brother but garnered no comparable recognition. Her life presents an interesting case for analysis of an independent woman, a characteristic shared by many pioneers in the early years of public health nursing: 1893 to 1920. PMID:12716396

Hawkins, Joellen W; Watson, John Charles

419

ATOC\\/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)\\/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on

Irina Kogan; Charles K. Paull; Linda A. Kuhnz; Erica J. Burton; Susan Von Thun; H. Gary Greene; James P. Barry

2006-01-01

420

ATOC\\/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)\\/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied

Irina Kogan; Charles K. Paull; Linda A. Kuhnz; Erica J. Burton; Susan von Thun; H. Gary Greene; James P. Barry

2006-01-01

421

Radiation Instrumentation Electronics for the Pioneers III and IV Space Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the devices carried aboard lunar payloads, Pioneer III and Pioneer IV, was a radiation measurement instrument. Its purpose was to detect and process information on particle flux rates encountered along the nominal cis-lunar trajectory to be followed by those payloads. Radiation data were collected by two different Geiger-Mueller tubes. One tube registered particle counts and the resultant accumulation

Conrad Josias

1960-01-01

422

Looking for (and Finding) Modern Day Pioneers in Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For most people, the word "pioneer" conjures up romantic visions of sturdy, courageous people who crossed physical frontiers of land and/or water alone, or who took their families, communities, and cultures with them into those uncharted territories. Once settled, their pioneering efforts shifted to starting new societies with new laws and new

Metzler, Mike

2007-01-01

423

Emissions from refinery process heaters equipped with low-Nox burners. Final report Oct 80Jan 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes an investigation of the performance of commercial low-NOx burners in refinery process heaters. Refineries in Southern and Central California were surveyed to determine the number of existing or planned low-NOx burners. Tests on 10 process heaters equipped with low NOx burners measured gaseous emissions, particulates, and efficiencies at normal operating conditions. As-found NOx emissions increased from 58

R. J. Todona; H. J. Buening; J. R. Hart

1981-01-01

424

Flame structure and flame stability characteristics of interacting 2D and circular laminar jets in a linear triple burner array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cluster burners, where large numbers of burners are grouped closely together, are emerging as a new technology in the gas turbine industry. The interactions between the burners help to increase combustion stability and reduce harmful pollutant emissions. In addition to the gas turbine industry, multiple-port burners are also found in common cooking ranges, space heaters, and industrial burners. Due to the wide application of this technology, an attempt must be made to fundamentally understand the flame interaction process and to identify the physical parameters that govern it. In the work presented here, a simple apparatus consisting of three burners placed in a linear array was constructed to fundamentally study the flame interaction process. The linear array and limited number of burners allows the physics to remain tractable. Measurements of the temperature, flame structure (flame height, width, etc.) and the flame stability (lift off height and blow off velocity) characteristics of the flames under interactive modes were made as a function of Reynolds number, interburner spacing, fuel composition, and burner exit plane geometry. Also, in an attempt to validate the experimental results, a theoretical model, based on the solutions to the governing equations of mass, momentum, and species was developed for an isolated jet and was modified to include multiple burner effects. Specifically, the extrapolated multiple burner model was used to define the stages of interaction as isolated (no interaction), individual (weak to moderate interaction), group (strong interaction), and sheath (strongest interaction), similar to the terminology used in droplet combustion. Results showed that the theoretical model qualitatively predicted the magnitude and trends of the flame structure and flame stability characteristics of the isolated 2D and circular burners. Under multiple flame conditions, flame interaction increased flame height, decreased the maximum flame width to visible flame height ratio, increased blow off velocity, and increased the temperature in the interstitial space surrounding the central flame in the triple burner array.

Tillman, Steven Todd

2000-11-01

425

Influence of primary air ratio on flow and combustion characteristics and NO x emissions of a new swirl coal burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold airflow experiments on a small-scale burner model, as well as in situ experiments on a centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner were conducted. Measurements were taken from within a 300MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler installed with eight of centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Various primary air ratios, flow characteristics,

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Qunyi Zhu; Zhichao Chen; Feng Ren

2011-01-01

426

Research on combustion processes relevant to burners in hvac systems. Final report, July 1 1991July 31, 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of the effects of using noncircular geometries for the fuel nozzles, primary-air venturi inlets, and burner exit ports in the inshot burners of residential natural gas heating systems is presented. These burners generally produce partially-premixed laminar flames. For global characterization, primary-air entrainment and exhaust emission indices of NO, NOx, and CO were measured. For detailed flame structure,

Gollahalli

1994-01-01

427

33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147...ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage,...

2010-07-01

428

33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147...ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage,...

2013-07-01

429

Energy efficient high static pressure fluid fuel burner  

SciTech Connect

A gun-type fluid fuel burner having a blast tube with a fuel dispensing nozzle therein includes a blower housing having a scroll side wall and opposite end walls. The housing side wall has an upwardly facing air discharge opening therein which communicates with the blast tube, and one of the end walls has an air inlet opening therein. A squirrel cage blower wheel having a diameter more than twice its width is mounted for rotation in the housing and is directly driven by a two pole single phase alternating current motor mounted on one of the housing end walls, the blower drawing air through the input opening and discharging the air under pressure through the discharge opening. A damper plate is mounted on the housing for movement between an open position and a position closing the discharge opening, the damper being moved to its open position in response to air pressure from the blower and returning to its closed position under the influence of biasing force.

Kaplan, R.A.; Wellman, J.E.

1983-06-14

430

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

SciTech Connect

A burner is described for atomizing and directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber comprising: a fuel delivery tube into which the carbonaceous material-water slurry is introduced and displaced therealong toward a first end thereof; an atomizing air tube coaxially positioned about the fuel delivery tube, the atomizing air tube coupled to an atomizing air source wherein the atomizing air source directs atomizing air under pressure into the atomizing air tube toward a first end thereof; a fixed generally cylindrical nozzle mounted to the combustion chamber and coupled to the respective first ends of the fuel delivery tube and the atomizing air tube. The nozzle has outer channels continuous with the atomizing air tube at the first end thereof through which the atomizing air is directed and an inner, aft center fuel channel is coupled to and continuous with the fuel delivery tube at the first end thereof. The nozzle further includes forward inner diverging fuel channels coupled to and continuous with the aft center fuel channel and forming relatively small acute angles therewith and through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed toward the outer periphery of a forward end portion of the nozzle and exits therefrom.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1987-02-24

431

Commercial/industrial: The downside of a high turndown burner  

SciTech Connect

A few years ago I wrote an article titled {open_quotes}The Benefits of a High Turndown Burner.{close_quotes} Normally speaking, we want to try to match firing rate to boiler load. This will lessen cycling, thus cutting back on the losses due to prepurge, post purge, and standby loss. Theoretically speaking, if we are using 1,000,000 btuh we want to be firing at 1,000,000 btuh. If our load drops to 500,000 btuh then we want to fire at 500,000 btuh. In many applications, usually process and industrial, we have a rapid large load variation. In the heating business we have a slower variation, as the seasons change If we have a load which constantly varies, for example, from 200,000 btuh to 1,000,000 btuh, a standard boiler, with a 4-1 turndown, would be cycling continuously. Thus our cycling losses appear! In this situation, a 10-1 turndown would conserve considerable energy. In some applications such as hotels, restaurants, and even some apartment buildings, where there is a large intermittent domestic water load, there can be considerable savings.

McAuley, J.A. Jr.

1996-02-01

432

Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.  

PubMed

The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning. PMID:21951331

Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

2011-10-01

433

Method and apparatus for reducing nitrous oxides and CO emissions in a gas-fired recuperated radiant tube burner  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A radiant tube burner assembly and method is provided to reduce nitrous oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The burner assembly comprises a burner section, exhaust section, radiant tube, plenum and a jet pump assembly. A volume of exhaust gas drawn from the stream of exhaust gases into the jet pump assembly by way of a motive gas is flowed into a stream of combustion air so as to vitiate the oxygen content of the combustion mixture. When the combustion mixture is combusted with fuel in the burner section, the production of nitrous oxides and other harmful emission is mitigated.

2001-02-20

434

Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.  

PubMed

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet. PMID:21806201

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

2011-07-01

435

Design of ``model-friendly'' turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H2, CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20 000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.

2011-07-01

436

[Axel Strm--pioneer of social medicine and administrator].  

PubMed

Dr Axel Strm (1901-85), professor in the University of Oslo from 1940 to 1970, was a leader in Norwegian medicine in the latter half of the 20th century. He qualified in 1926 and in 1936 gained a doctorate with a dissertation on the toxin production of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae. His first appointment as a professor was in hygiene. In 1951 he moved on to public health, a field that he pioneered in Norway and the other Scandinavian countries. As a professor during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War, he joined the university's resistance against the Nazi authorities' attempts at taking control. When the war was over he became deeply involved in research on the impact of war on health. At a time when the study of the impact of lifestyle factors was still in its infancy, he suggested that the war-induced reduction in dietary fat consumption might be the cause of observed lower cardiovascular mortality. Of more practical importance were the studies he initiated of the mainly psychological late-onset effects of traumas suffered by prisoners in German camps, seamen, soldiers and other exposed groups. In this area, too, he was an early explorer, of what has come to be known as post-traumatic stress disorder. His efforts led to improved war pension entitlements for the victims. Over the years, exposed groups became his major professional interest as a public health specialist. In his academic work, dr Strm also pioneered medical ethics, care for the elderly, legislation on abortion, and the rapidly expanding field of the medical basis for social security benefits. As a practising physician he was in the vanguard of occupational medicine and other kinds of preventive medicine. What brought him most recognition was, however, his leading role over many years in the Norwegian Medical Association and in the University of Oslo. He served as chairman of the Junior Hospital Doctors Association, president of the Norwegian Medical Association and chairman of the Federation of Norwegian Professional Associations. He was elected dean of the Faculty of Medicine and vice-rector of the University of Oslo, in addition to a host of other expert assignments and official roles: He was renowned for his hard work and exerted great influence in many quarters. PMID:11851299

Sundby, Per

2002-01-10

437

Chimney related energy losses in oil-fired heating systems: Configuration effects and venting alternatives  

SciTech Connect

Conventional venting systems for oil-fired residential heating equipment include the flue connector, a barometric damper, and the chimney. This venting arrangement is directly responsible for some of the annual energy losses associated with these heating installations. In the work described in this report a study of the relevant characteristics of burners and dampers was done to permit these energy losses to be estimated as a function of the installation details. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential energy savings which might be realized from alternative venting methods in a wide range of situations. The basic draft/flow characteristics of barometric dampers were measured using a flow tunnel arrangement under cold (no combustion) conditions. A range of damper diameters and draft settings were used. Off-cycle draft/flow relations for several burners and heating units with the burner ports sealed were also measured over a range of conditions. Recently, oil burners have become available which have significantly higher static pressure fans. The excess air level provided by these burners is much less sensitive to variations in draft and burners of this type might be operated without a barometric damper. Burner fan performance curves for both high and low static pressure units have been measured. Flows through the heating unit and barometric damper flows have been calculated during the on- and off-cycle for a range of configurations as a function of outdoor temperature. The annual energy losses due to the venting system were calculated using a bin method. The calculated flows were compared with available field data. To supplement the available data some additional field measurements were taken during this project and are described in this report. 19 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

Butcher, T.; McDonald, R.; Krajewski, R.; Batey, J.

1990-12-01

438

A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

Mahan, J. R.

1984-06-01

439

Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.  

PubMed

Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology. PMID:20000525

Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

2009-12-15

440

Another Potential Explanation for Pioneer Anomaly Cosmic Drag of an Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the radio tracking data from the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft at distances between about 20-70 AU from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of a constant acceleration of 8.6 10-8 cm/s-2 directed towards the Sun. This has been one of the most interesting and intriguing astrophysical problems in the last decade. Currently, an independent research rises from the planetary long-term orbital evolution study and may be helpful to understand the nature of Pioneer Anomaly. Furthermore, calculation shows that the Pioneer data match with the new discoverys prediction very well.

Zhang, Weijia

2012-01-01

441

Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics?  

PubMed

Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics. PMID:16180199

Liu, Yongsheng

442

Erich Frank (1884-1957): unsung pioneer in nephrology.  

PubMed

The period between the 2 World Wars was a time of budding interest in renal studies and one that closed in major geopolitical unrest, culminating in World War II. The life of Erich Frank (1884-1957) and his contributions to chronic kidney disease provide considerable insight into this period. Frank began his career in Breslau, Germany. His medical thesis and first publication were on the benign nature of orthostatic proteinuria. He went on to define and differentiate essential from renal hypertension, presented evidence for the role of the posterior pituitary in diabetes insipidus, and studied the first oral hypoglycemic agent. As all clinical scientists then, Frank also contributed to other fields of medicine. When Germany turned to Nazism, Frank moved to Turkey, where he was appointed co-chair of the Department of Medicine of the newly established Istanbul University. For the next 23 years, he trained a new generation of modern physicians and laid the foundation of several medical disciplines in Turkey. As author of the first Turkish textbook of nephrology and a teacher who inspired his students, some of whom went on to become the first generation of Turkish nephrologists, Frank was a pioneer in nephrology who helped establish the discipline in his adopted country. PMID:21864962

Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Namal, Arin; Eknoyan, Garabed

2011-08-23

443

Ira Maximilian Altshuler: psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the life of Ira Maximilian Altshuler, psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist. In 1938, Dr. Altshuler initiated one of the first large-scale music therapy programs for mentally ill persons in the country at Detroit's Eloise Hospital. His innovative programs combined psychoanalytic techniques and music therapy methods specifically designed for use with large groups of clients. He later trained some of the first music therapy interns in the country, including Carol Collins, who served for many years as Professor of Music Therapy at Wayne State University, and Esther Goetz Gilliland, who later became President of NAMT. Dr. Altshuler promoted the practice and profession tirelessly, speaking to numerous audiences over the years and writing 19 articles about music therapy. Altshuler participated in the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) organizational meeting held in New York City in 1950. An active member of the organization for many years, he served on the Research Committee and hosted the 1955 national NAMT conference in Detroit. Even after Altshuler's retirement from Eloise Hospital in 1963, he remained active in numerous civic, music, and music therapy activities until his death 5 year later. Ira Altshuler should be remembered along with other music therapists from the time-Willem Van de Wall, Harriet Ayer Seymour and others-who vigorously embraced and advanced the status of the profession. PMID:14567731

Davis, William B

2003-01-01

444

A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluorosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion of fluoride during early childhood leading to the formation of defective enamel. The increased fluoride content is thought to result in a metabolic alteration of ameloblasts, which results in defective matrix, and improper calcification of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 6244 patients between the ages of 6yrs to 60yrs, who presented to our outpatient clinic from October 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped according to their age into the following groups- 6-14 yrs, 15-25 yrs, 26-40 yrs, and 40-60yrs. Only permanent dentition was taken into consideration in this study. Results: The overall prevalence of fluorosis in this study was 63.34% (3955 of 6244 patients). Men had a slightly higher prevalence of 64.27% compared to 62.28% among women. Conclusion: Prevention of fluorosis would require efforts at raising awareness among the people about the harmful effects of their dietary choices on their teeth. They also need to be educated about adequate and proper oral hygiene, such as brushing their teeth at least two times daily. How to cite this article: Sunil T K L, Shetty S, Annapoorna B M, Pujari S C, Reddy P S, Nandlal B. A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):67-72.

L, Sunil Tejaswi K; Shetty, Suneeth; M, Annapoorna B; Pujari, Sudarshan C; P, Sarveshwar Reddy; Nandlal, B

2013-01-01

445

Hybrid modelling the Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents comparisons between the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) magnetometer (OMAG) observations and the HYB-Venus hybrid simulation code. The comparisons are made near periapsides of four PVO orbits using the full resolution PVO/OMAG data. Also, the statistics of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions at Venus are studied using the PVO interplanetary dataset. The statistics include the histograms and the probability density maps of the selected upstream parameters. The confidence intervals derived from the upstream statistics demonstrate the nominal simulation input parameter space. Moreover, the probability density maps give the dependencies between the upstream parameters. The comparisons between the simulation code and the data along the spacecraft trajectory show that the basic, large scale, trends seen in the magnetic field can be understood by the current simulation runs. The discrepancies between the simulation and the data were found to arise at low altitudes close to the planetary ionosphere in the region which cannot be resolved in detail by the grid size of the runs.

Jarvinen, R.; Kallio, E.; Sillanp, I.; Janhunen, P.

446

Ludwig Haberlandt--A pioneer in hormonal contraception.  

PubMed

Ludwig Haberlandt (1 February 1885 - 22 July 1932), pioneer in hormonal contraception, was born in Graz, where he graduated from the university in 1909 in medicine summa cum laude and began his career as a physiologist. The idea of temporary hormonal contraception in the female body entered his mind in February 1919, when he was already Professor of Physiology in Innsbruck. He pursued his project ambitiously and by 1921 demonstrated temporary hormonal contraception in a female animal by transplanting ovaries from a second, pregnant, animal. From 1923, after further successful scientific work in this field, he began highlighting the importance of clinical trials in presentations. From then, he was criticized by his colleagues, who accused him of hindering unborn life. His idea was contradictory to the moral, ethic, religious and political agendas of that time in Europe. In 1927 official reports escalated, his family was ostracized by the local population, and Ludwig Haberlandt refused any further interviews. Against all opposition, in 1930 he began clinical trials after successful production of a hormonal preparation, Infecundin, by the G. Richter Company in Budapest, Hungary. Although at the peak of his scientific career, he was unable to pursue other scientific agendas because of the disputed contraception project. After he committed suicide, on 22 July 1932, scientific discussion about hormonal contraception ceased until 1970 when scientists began referring to his earlier medical and scientific work. PMID:20047112

Haberlandt, Edda

2009-01-01

447

A pioneering study of dental fluorosis in the libyan population.  

PubMed

Background: Fluorosis is a condition resulting from excessive ingestion of fluoride during early childhood leading to the formation of defective enamel. The increased fluoride content is thought to result in a metabolic alteration of ameloblasts, which results in defective matrix, and improper calcification of teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 6244 patients between the ages of 6yrs to 60yrs, who presented to our outpatient clinic from October 2009 to December 2010 were included in the study. The study subjects were grouped according to their age into the following groups- 6-14 yrs, 15-25 yrs, 26-40 yrs, and 40-60yrs. Only permanent dentition was taken into consideration in this study. Results: The overall prevalence of fluorosis in this study was 63.34% (3955 of 6244 patients). Men had a slightly higher prevalence of 64.27% compared to 62.28% among women. Conclusion: Prevention of fluorosis would require efforts at raising awareness among the people about the harmful effects of their dietary choices on their teeth. They also need to be educated about adequate and proper oral hygiene, such as brushing their teeth at least two times daily. How to cite this article: Sunil T K L, Shetty S, Annapoorna B M, Pujari S C, Reddy P S, Nandlal B. A Pioneering Study of Dental Fluorosis in the Libyan Population. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):67-72. PMID:24155605

L, Sunil Tejaswi K; Shetty, Suneeth; M, Annapoorna B; Pujari, Sudarshan C; P, Sarveshwar Reddy; Nandlal, B

2013-06-23

448

Constraining an expanding locally anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work it is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards a given central mass by considering a background described by an expanding locally anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter, either gravitational interaction corrections. In particular are analysed the possible measurable effects on the outskirts of the Solar system, for heliocentric distances above 20AU, and are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity on Schwarzschild backgrounds imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of ap?+0.4-2.0+2.110-10(ms). It is also computed the mass-energy density for the ELA metric within the bounds obtained and are discussed the respective contributions to the cosmological density parameter which, for compatibility with the ?CDM model, are included in the cosmological relative density of cold dark matter ? (?c).

Castelo Ferreira, P.

2013-04-01

449

The structure of triple flames stabilized on a slot burner  

SciTech Connect

A triple flame is a partially premixed flame that contains two premixed reaction zones (one fuel-lean and the other rich) that form exteriors wings and a nonpremixed reaction zone that is established in between these wings. Herein, laminar triple flames stabilized on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner are investigated. The flow consists of a rich mixture of methane and air emerging from the inner slot and a lean mixture from two symmetric outer slots. In this configuration the three reaction zones that characterize a triple flame can be clearly distinguished. The loci of the triple points for a triple line in this planar configuration. The velocity field is characterized using laser Doppler velocimetry, and the temperature distribution using laser interferometric holography. In addition, C{sub 2}*-chemiluminescence images of the three reaction zones are obtained. A detailed numerical model is employed to completely characterize the flame. It is based on a 24-species and 81-reaction mechanism. The numerical results are validated through comparison with the experimental measurements. Results focus on the detailed structure, the interaction between the three reaction zones, the dependence of the flame structure on the initial velocities and mixture equivalence ratios, and the dominant chemical pathways. The lean premixed reaction zone (external wing) exhibits different features from the rich premixed reaction zone. In particular, it is characterized by strong HO{sub 2} formation and consumption reactions, and by relatively weak methane consumption reactions. Radical activity is higher in the nonpremixed reaction zone than in the other reaction zones. Overall, radicals from the nonpremixed reaction zone are transported to both the rich and lean premixed reaction zones where they attack the reactants. Simplifying the chemical mechanism by removing the C{sub 2}-containing species produces significant differences in the predicted results only for the inner rich premixed reaction zone.

Azzoni, R.; Ratti, S.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Puri, I.K.

1999-10-01

450

Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Infrared burner is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. Applications of radiant burners includes boilers, air heaters, deep fat fryers, process heaters, and immersion heaters. On reason for the present interest in this type of burner is its low NO{sub x} emissions, which is attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the combustion heat is given out as radiation from the burner surface, which results in relatively low gas temperature in the combustion zone compared to that of a conventional free-flame burner. As a consequence, such burners produce less NO{sub x}, mainly by the so-called prompt-NO mechanism. A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of spectral radiance as well as flue gas composition measurements. Measurement capabilities were tested using methane; results were consistent with literature.

Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

1996-01-01

451

COMPARISON OF EMISSIONS AND ORGANIC FINGERPRINTS FROM COMBUSTION OF OIL AND WOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents data from an Integrated Air Cancer Project (IACP) pilot study on the total carbon, organics, and particulate emissions from oil furnaces with both gun-type and retention head burners. hese data are compared to results of a similar IACP study on woodstoves condu...

452

SIMULATION MODELING OF AN ENHANCED LOW-EMISSION SWIRL-CASCADE BURNER  

SciTech Connect

Based on the physical and computational models outlined in the previous technical progress reports, Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirlcascade burners were numerically modeled. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The temperature, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations, as well as the axial and radial velocity profiles were computed and analyzed. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''.

Ala Qubbaj

2004-04-01

453

Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

1999-07-07

454

Reconsideration of natural-gas immersion burners to melt recycled aluminum  

SciTech Connect

The best open flame reverberatory aluminum melting furnaces are approximately 45% efficient. Furnace efficiency can be increased by using immersed tube burners. Currently, recuperated tube burners with capacities to remelt aluminum are available. Tube burners would allow remelt furnaces to operate at lower temperatures, reduce dross formation, reduce particulate emissions, and provide clean flue gas to other energy intensive processes. Babcock and Wilcox, under GRI (now GTI Gas Technology Institute) contract in the late-1980s, demonstrated the technically feasibility of immersion melting of aluminum. However, tube reliability was problematic due to metal penetration, dross build-up, thermal shock, and mechanical failure. Also, the concept of cold start melting was not addressed. The Albany Research Center (U.S. DOE) is cooperating with Secat, E3M Inc., the University of Kentucky, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an ITP-sponsored program to combine emerging technologies in a retrofitable furnace package targeting improved remelt efficiency ranging from 55% to 75%.

Clark, John A., III; Thekdi, Arvind (E3M, Inc., North Potomac, MD); Ningileri, S. (Secat Inc, Lexington KY); Han, Q. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2005-09-01

455

40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners...it may be difficult to separately monitor emissions from the turbine and duct burner, so sources are allowed to meet the...

2012-07-01

456

The Influence of Air Distribution on the Single-Phase Flow Field of Central Fuel Rich Swirl Burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic study of the cold flow characteristics of a central fuel rich swirl burner. Flow fields at the burner outlet corresponding to various primary and inner secondary air ratios were measured. With decreasing primary air ratio and increasing inner secondary air ratio, the swirl intensity of the jet increases, mixing between primary and secondary air is

Yong Liu; Zhengqi Li; Jing Li; Zhiyong Hu; Zhichao Chen; Yan Zhang; Shanping Shen

2011-01-01

457

The Pioneer Fund, the Behavioral Sciences, and the Media's False Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The president of the Pioneer Fund, a nonprofit foundation that makes grants into studies of individual and racial differences, addresses some of the media attacks on the fund in the context of the nature-nurture controversy. (SLD)

Weyher, Harry F.

1998-01-01

458

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopy of drawing (from Society of California Pioneers, H.C. Ford, artist, 1883) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION FROM A DISTANCE, 1883 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

459

System Design of the Pioneer Venus Spacecraft. Volume 13: Preliminary Development Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Pioneer Venus Study final report describes the following baseline configurations: (1) Thor/Delta Spacecraft Baseline is the baseline presented at the midterm review on 26 February 1973, (2) Atlas/Centaur Spacecraft Baseline is the baseline resulting ...

M. S. Mixon

1973-01-01

460

San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 19071915.  

PubMed

The 19071915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality. PMID:22826896

Frink, Brenda D

2012-01-01

461

Pioneer Venus: Report of a Study by the Science Steering Group, June 1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976/77 multiple probe mission of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft is discussed, along with the 1978 and 1980 missions. Various questions about Venus are answered; velocities and temperatures expected in the atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, magnetic mea...

1974-01-01

462

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2006-07-05

463

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of photograph (from Society of California Pioneers, 1850's) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF MISSION COMPLEX IN 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

464

The Pioneer Fund, the Behavioral Sciences, and the Media's False Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The president of the Pioneer Fund, a nonprofit foundation that makes grants into studies of individual and racial differences, addresses some of the media attacks on the fund in the context of the nature-nurture controversy. (SLD)|

Weyher, Harry F.

1998-01-01

465

Pioneer Family Cemeteries at Scott Air Force Bse, St. Clair County, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Summer and Fall of 1994, the National Park Service conducted archeological and geophysical investigations of the Middlecoff and Perschbacher pioneer family cemeteries located on Scott Air Force Base, St. Clair County, Illinois. The investigatio...

S. L. DeVore B. W. Bevan

1995-01-01

466

Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, via La Masa, 34, 20156 Milano (Italy)

2006-07-15

467

Genetic Consequences of Multigenerational and Landscape Colonisation Bottlenecks for a Neotropical Forest Pioneer Tree, Vochysia ferruginea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation and abandonment of neotropical agricultural land has led to rapid exploitation by pioneer species. As recolonised\\u000a populations may be founded by a limited number of individuals, there is significant potential for genetic bottlenecks. Previous\\u000a studies of pioneer tree dynamics have failed to consider population density interactions (by sampling populations with different\\u000a densities) and the multigenerational consequences of recolonisation. In

Sam J. Davies; Stephen Cavers; Bryan Finegan; Carlos Navarro; Andrew J. Lowe

2010-01-01

468

Thermal analysis of the Pioneer anomaly: A method to estimate radiative momentum transfer  

SciTech Connect

We present a methodology based on pointlike Lambertian sources that enables one to perform a reliable and comprehensive estimate of the overall thermally induced acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. We show, by developing a sensitivity analysis of the several parameters of the model, that one may achieve a valuable insight into the possible thermal origin of the so-called Pioneer anomaly.

Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Francisco, F.; Gil, P. J. S. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2008-11-15

469

Pioneer10 observation of the solar wind proton temperature heliocentric gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar wind isotropic proton temperatures as measured out to 12.2 AU heliocentric distance by the Ames plasma analyzer aboard Pioneer-10 are presented as consecutive averages over three Carrington solar rotations and discussed. The weighted least-squares fit of average temperature to heliocentric radial distance, R, yields the power law R-0.52. These average proton temperatures are not correlated as well with Pioneer-10's

J. D. Mihalov; J. H. Wolfe

1978-01-01

470

An underestimated onboard generated recoil force contributing to the Pioneer anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pioneer anomaly, an unexpected acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft of ?8.510?10ms?2 directed towards the inner Solar System, has been of great interest for the physics community during the past decade: considered explanations range from new physical concepts to conventional mechanism. It is shown that non-isotropic outgassing of the complete spacecraft structure is comparable in magnitude and

Bernhard Schlppi; Kathrin Altwegg; Timm Riesen; Martin Rubin

471

Flame stabilizing NO/sub x/ reduction device for pulverized coal burner  

SciTech Connect

A burner nozzle is described comprising: an outer elongated tubular housing secured downstream of a burner elbow and having a fuel entrance and a fuel exit; an inner elongated tubular member concentrically secured within the housing having upstream and downstream openings; mixing members intermediate the inner member and the outer housing; whereby combustible fuel passing through the elbow and into the housing is divided into an outer fuel-rich stream and an inner fuel-lean stream with the outer fuel-rich stream passing around the inner tubular member.

LaRue, A.D.

1987-03-31

472

Carbottom furnace retrofitted with burner-ceramic recuperator system to save energy in heat treating castings  

SciTech Connect

A carbottom pusher type heat treating furnace at Bucyrus Erie in Milwaukee, Wis., was retrofitted with ceramic recuperators mounted on medium velocity tempered air burners to save energy in the heat treatment of castings (components of heavy construction and mining equipment). The heat treat furnace at Bucyrus Erie is one of 41 different types of industrial furnaces being retrofitted under the DOE program. The basis for retrofitting this furnace was maximum energy efficiency through improved fuel-air ratio, more effective burners, improved insulation and heat recovery for preheating combustion air through recuperation.

Bartkowski, F.J.; Kohnken, K.H.

1982-06-01

473

COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR  

SciTech Connect

Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

2003-07-01

474

Numerical and experimental investigation of burner device for anode gas reburning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex numerical and experimental investigation of burner devices for a reburning of the anode gas of aluminum production was carried out. The chosen mathematical model of the processes of aerodynamics, heat exchange, and gas burning was identified and adapted on the basis of data of real-scale measurements. Basing on computational experiments the optimization of the design of elements of the system for anode gas detoxication and transport was carried out. A new system was proposed and tested for reburning the anode gases of electrolysis production, which consists of an improved burner device and a dust-sedimenting chamber with a possibility of regulating the amount of gas suction.

Neobyavlyayushchy, P. A.; Dekterev, A. A.; Gavrilov, A. A.; Storozhev, Yu. I.

2007-03-01

475

Individual burner control for combustion optimization in industrial boilers. [Spectral flame analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Combustion of fuels in large industrial boilers is monitored by measuring CO, CO/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ in the flue gas exiting the boiler. Thermo Electron Corporation has under development an instrument called Spectral Flame Analyzer for monitoring the combustion conditions in individual burners in a multi-burner boiler. The instrument is presently being tested in an industrial boiler. This paper describes the principle of operation of the Spectral Flame Analyzer, the results of the tests carried out at the M.I.T. Combustion Research Facility and the proposed test program for an industrial boiler at the Polaroid Company.

Batra, S.K.; Cole, W.; Metcalfe, C.

1986-11-01

476

Commercial potential of a burner developed for investigating laminar and turbulent premixed flames in ?g  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple ring flame-stabilizer developed for microgravity combustion research has excellent potential for use as a new environmental technology for commercial heating appliances. It is designed to support lean premixed combustion that emits low levels of pollutants, in particular oxides of nitrogen, NOx. The laboratory experiments have confirmed that burners using this ring stabilizer can exceed the most stringent California air quality standard. The large operating range of these burners, their adaptability to input power of up to 75 kW, and their stable operation under intense turbulent flow situations have been established. These results also show the critical parameters for optimizing the design for commercial use.

Cheng, R. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Kostiuk, L. W.

1998-01-01

477

Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods.

Li, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1998-04-01

478

Karl Kleist (1879-1960)- a pioneer of neuropsychiatry.  

PubMed

Karl Kleist (1879-1960) was instrumental in pioneering German neuropsychiatry and neuropsychology, including the description of frontal, constructional, limb-kinetic (innervatory) and psychomotor apraxias, frontal akinesia and aspontaneity, as well as object and form blindness. Besides isolating episodic twilight states, involutional paranoia and symptomatic (especially influenza) psychoses, he was particularly involved in applying Wernicke's syndromatic and Kraepelin's prognostic and aetiological principles to classify "neurogenous" psychoses by refuting the assumption of mixed entities whenever possible. Thus, has phasophrenias denoted manic-depressive illness, unipolar affective disorders and marginal, i.e., atypical psychoses. The rather benign cycloid psychoses form the most prominent examples of the latter. Schizophrenias, on the other hand, were limited to poor long-term catamnestic outcomes. Kleist conceptualized the core group of schizophrenic illness as psychic system diseases-hence the origin of the term "systematic schizophrenias" within the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard School. Kleist was mainly influenced by Wernicke and his psychic reflex arc, but Ernst Mach's empiriocriticism, Theodor Meynert's cerebral connectionism, and associationism also shaped his outlook. Kleist's localization of cerebral functions by lesion analyses was indeed the best available at the time and continues to reveal insights to the interested reader. From his Frankfurt School, which may have been the last of a completely unified neuropsychiatry, came sound representatives of psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery. His technical mastery and achievements seem indisputable, but his balancing acts during the Third Reich may today be questioned. Despite joining the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) and the local Court of Genealogical Health (Erbgesundheitsgericht), Kleist was, however, one of the few German physicians who continued to treat Jewish patients, to employ Jewish colleagues and to voice evident criticism of the policies of "eugenics" and "euthanasia". This paper attempts to illuminate Kleist's biography and life's work in the relevant historical context. PMID:14740633

Neumrker, Klaus-Jrgen; Bartsch, Andreas Joachim

2003-12-01

479

Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851-1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Strmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education - not a university - he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

Moss, K.; Stauning, P.

2012-03-01

480

Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations of the disturbed nightside ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observed the ionosphere and atmosphere of Venus for almost 14 years. The PVO contained a vast array of experiments including: Radar Mapper, Magnetometer, Electric Field Detector, Plasma Analyzer, Ion Mass Spectrometer, Langmuir Probe, Retarding Potential Analyzer, Neutral Mass Spectrometer, Ultraviolet Spectrometer, Infrared radiometer, Cloud Photopolarimeter, Gamma Burst Detector, and Radio Science. For analyzing the Venus ionosphere, data from a subset of these instruments is available in the Planetary Data System, http://pds.nasa.gov/; also available is the NASA GSFC Unified Abstract Data Set. Using these PVO data sets, we reanalyzed the disturbed nightside ionosphere, and reexamine the relationship of the distinct nightside ionosphere states (normal, holes/troughs, or disappeared) with a number of parameters: solar wind pressure (Psw) at the bowshock and the history of Psw outside of the shock, IMF orientation, ionopause height at the terminator, local time, latitude, solar activity level, ion flow, plasma beta, magnetic field orientation in the ionosphere, ion composition, and neutral densities. The nightside ionosphere states are characterized by the behavior of the plasma density along a perigee pass, along with the ion composition and neutral densities. It is found that the dependence of the distinct states on parameters such as IMF, Psw, and magnetic field orientation in the nightside does not follow a direct one-to-one relationship, but rather a more fuzzy dependence, brought about by the somewhat chaotic dynamical processes of the Venus/solar wind interaction. For example, the disturbed states do not necessarily exhibit a memory of previous states on successive orbits; details of the analysis will be presented.

Hoegy, Walter; Grebowsky, Joseph; Hartle, Richard

481

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table...Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator...JOPPA 1 ELECTRIC ENERGY INC. ILLINOIS... Table 3Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

2013-07-01

482

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table...Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator...JOPPA 1 ELECTRIC ENERGY INC. ILLINOIS... Table 3Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

2009-07-01

483

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A...Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table...Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator...JOPPA 1 ELECTRIC ENERGY INC. ILLINOIS... Table 3Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

2010-07-01

484

Are heating-system retrofit and tune-up programs really increasing the efficiency of oil-fired systems?  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a two-year field test involving over 300 homes to evaluate the US Department of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program for low-income fuel-oil-heated houses. One conclusion was that houses receiving oil-burner clean and tune-ups did not increase in system steady-state efficiency any more than a similar group of weatherized and control houses not receiving clean and tune-ups. A set of oil-burner performance goals proposed by the Alliance to Save Energy were not attained by most of the tuned-up oil systems, thereby not achieving a major benefit of heating-system programs from current implementation methods. Whole-system replacements produced higher-than-average savings and systems with flame-retention burners had higher steady-state efficiencies and used less fuel than normal burners. Other space-heating-system measures including setback thermostats were not statistically significant in reducing fuel-oil consumption. Secondary benefits of improved safety (such as lowering carbon monoxide concentrations in flue gases and inside houses) and reliability were present in weatherized houses, although not in as high a quantity as is often espoused.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-07-01

485

Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft,

Cullison

1997-01-01

486

Tracking and Data System Support for the Pioneer Project. Pioneers 6-9, Extended Missions: 1 July 1972 - 1 July 1973, Volume 12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tracking and Data System supported the deep space phases of the Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9 missions, with two spacecraft in an inward trajectory and two spacecraft in an outward trajectory from the earth in heliocentric orbits. During the period of this r...

R. B. Miller

1974-01-01

487

Denver's Pioneer Astronomer: Herbert Alonso Howe (1858-1926)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herbert A. Howe arrived at Denver University (DU) to teach autumn 1880 classes, in math, astronomy and surveying. Howe established himself with clever solutions to the Kepler problem for orbit determinations in thesis work at Cincinnati Observatory. Riding the economic expansion of Colorado gold and silver mining in 1888, the University accepted a proposed gift of a major observatory, offered by Denver real estate baron, Humphrey Chamberlin. The result features a 20 inch aperture Alvan Clark refractor, which still ranks among the largest telescopes of the era. With the observatory building ready, the Silver Panic of 1893 -- when the US Congress dropped silver reserves from the currency basis -- burst the Denver economic bubble. Chamberlin was unable to complete payments on the balances due. Clark and G.N.Saegmuller (Fauth and Co.) at personal expense, delivered on the optics and telescope assemblies in 1894, but would wait for repayment. Sadly, this fiscal crisis affected DU for over a decade. Professor Howe, while observatory director, found himself consumed as Dean and Acting Chancellor for a young, struggling university, at the expense of the astronomy future that had looked so bright in 1892. Absent the Silver Panic, Howe would have probably been given an endowed chair in astronomy, as promised by Chamberlin. The complexion of American astronomy at the time of the birth of the American Astronomical Society in 1899 might have been different, in terms of US observing sites, etc. We are fortunate to have extensive Prof.Howe's daily diaries now in the University archives. These describe Howe's view of progress on the observatory, meetings with astronomy notables, plus vignettes of the life and times of Denver and the nation. Grandson, Herbert Julian Howe rediscovered their existence and is summarizing them in the form of a biography entitled: The Pioneer Astronomer. DU archival records contain numerous original letters from late 19th century astronomy luminaries like Hale, Barnard, Pickering, Clark, Saegmuller, etc and may constitute an important historical resource. Contact University Archivist, Steven Fisher, sfisher@du.edu for access. We remain grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for helping to fulfill the dream that partially eluded Mr.Chamberlin.

Howe, H. J.; Stencel, R. E.; Fisher, S.

1999-05-01

488

Development of a Lean Premixed Low-Swirl Burner for Low NOx Practical Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating

D. T. YEGIAN; R. K. CHENG

1998-01-01

489

Method to improve the performance of low-NOx burners operating on difficult to stabilize coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an improved combustion method for reducing NO emissions from a coal burner of the type having an ignition zone and a primary flame, where pulverized coal having volatile matter which is low in heat content is injected into one of the ignition zone and primary flame zone. It comprises: the addition of flammable fuels, other than coal,

B. P. Breen; J. H. Pohl; H. B. Lange

1990-01-01

490

Non dimensional numbers dependency on a Dry Low NOx Annular Burner Analysed with PIV Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental data, relative to instantaneous flames evolving downstream a conical bluff body burner , have been carried out through a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Instantaneous and mean properties of the flame are the results of multiple post processing methods applied on Mie scattering images (digital processing) and velocity fields. All these kinds of information are used to determine

D. Giordano; S. Giammartini; F. Manfredi; G. Guj

491

COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS FOR O2 ENRICHED, LOW NOx BURNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past year, the hot flow studies have focused on the validation of a novel 2M near-flame combustion furnace. The 2M furnace was specifically designed to investigate burner aerodynamics and flame stability phenomena. Key accomplishments include completion of coal & oxygen mass balance calculations and derivation of emission conversion equations, upgrade of furnace equipment and flame safety systems, shakedown

Jennifer L. Sinclair

2001-01-01

492

BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW-NOX BURNERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of boiler design criteria for application of dry sorbent control technology with low-NOx burners on tangentially fired pulverized-coal-burning boilers. A comprehensive review of past and current research in the area of sorbent SOx control prov...

493

The influence of combustion liner holes on noise production by ducted burners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermoacoustic energy conversion process in a turbulent flame is not yet sufficiently well understood to allow accurate prediction of the sound pressure field of even the simplest of laboratory burners. The present contribution is intended to be a step toward fuller understanding of this process. In particular, the possibility is explored that the source structure, in the form of

J. R. Mahan; J. D. Jones

1984-01-01

494