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1

WaterPipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. Using a water pipe to smoke tobacco is increasing in prevalence among US college students, and it may also be common among younger adolescents. The purpose of this study of Arizona middle and high school students was to examine the prevalence of water-pipe tobacco smoking, compare water-pipe tobacco smoking with other forms of tobacco use, and determine associations between

Brian A. Primack; Michele Walsh; Cindy Bryce; Thomas Eissenberg

2009-01-01

2

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)  

Cancer.gov

Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. It is also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

3

Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95% CI, 1.01-6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86-20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.38 and 4.45; 95% CI, 1.75-11.27, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking. PMID:25485959

Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

2015-01-01

4

Effects of type of smoking (pipe, cigars or cigarettes) on biological indices of tobacco exposure and toxicity.  

PubMed

Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to compare CYP1A2 activity in individuals smoking pipes or cigars only, cigarettes only and in non-smokers. We studied 30 smokers of pipes or cigars only, 28 smokers of cigarettes only, and 30 non-smokers male subjects matched for age. CYP1A2 activity was assessed as the caffeine metabolic ratio in plasma. One-day urine collection was used for determining exposure to products of tobacco metabolism. Nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adducts were measured in lymphocytes. CYP1A2 activity was greater (p<0.0001) in cigarette smokers (median: 0.61; interquartile range: 0.52-0.76) than in pipe or cigar smokers (0.27; 0.21-0.37) and non-smokers (0.34; 0.25-0.42) who did not differ significantly. Urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene levels were higher in cigarette smokers than in pipe or cigar smokers and higher in the later than in non-smokers. DNA adducts levels were significantly lower in pipe or cigar smokers than in cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity (p<0.0001) and of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in urine (p=0.0012). In this study, pipe or cigar smoking was associated with lower exposure to products of tobacco metabolism than cigarette smoking and to an absence of CYP1A2 induction. Cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity in smokers. However, inhalation behaviour, rather than the type of tobacco smoked, may be the key factor linked to the extent of tobacco exposure and CYP1A2 induction. Our results provide a reasonable explanation for the results of epidemiological studies showing pipe or cigar smoking to present fewer health hazards than cigarette smoking. PMID:16884817

Funck-Brentano, Christian; Raphaël, Mathilde; Lafontaine, Michel; Arnould, Jean-Pierre; Verstuyft, Céline; Lebot, Martine; Costagliola, Dominique; Roussel, Ronan

2006-10-01

5

Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

2014-01-01

6

Smoking and Tobacco Information  

Cancer.gov

Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting A fact sheet that lists some of the cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke and describes the health problems caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting.

7

Nicotine and tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

8

Smoked Tobacco Products  

MedlinePLUS

... referred to as clove cigarettes—are imported from Indonesia. They typically contain about 60% tobacco and 40% ... and other health conditions. Additionally, research studies from Indonesia show that kretek smoking is associated with lung ...

9

GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review Abstract This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

10

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

11

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

12

34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE  

E-print Network

, cigars, pipes, water pipes (hookah), bidis, kreteks, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, snuff Policy 34.05 Smoking. Tobacco means all forms of tobacco products including but not limited to cigarettes

13

Environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

1992-12-01

14

Environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

1992-01-01

15

Smoking and Tobacco Policy Effective Date: August 25, 2014  

E-print Network

also is prohibited. III. EXCEPTIONS Smoking Cessation Products and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking that contain tobacco or nicotine, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, hookahs, water pipes are permitted. Devices that simulate smoking through inhalation of vapor or aerosol from the device, including e-cigarettes

Ziurys, Lucy M.

16

Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics  

PubMed Central

Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of being stifled. PMID:25861403

Chaouachi, Kamal

2015-01-01

17

The Politics of the Pipe: Clay Pipes and Tobacco Consumption in Galway, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, clay pipes and the historical record are used to explore the illicit importation of tobacco in seventeenth-century Galway, Ireland. This is part of a wider tradition of the politics of smoking, including the proliferation of the clay pipe, the widespread smuggling of tobacco, and the overtly political nineteenth-century pipes that touted nationalist emblems. Here, the juxtaposition of

Alexandra Hartnett

2004-01-01

18

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

19

Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke condensate: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of mainstream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it has been tested, with the base\\/neutral fractions being the most mutagenic. In rodents, cigarette smoke induces sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in bone marrow and lung cells. In humans,

David M. DeMarini

2004-01-01

20

Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

1983-02-01

21

Smoking and oral tobacco use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Smoking has been causally associated with increased mortality from several diseases. This chapter provides global and regional estimates of premature mortality and disease burden in 2000 caused by tobacco use, including an analysis of uncertainty. It also describes a method for esti- mating the future burden of disease that could be avoided through smoking cessation or prevention. Comparable data,

Majid Ezzati; Alan D. Lopez

22

Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review  

SciTech Connect

Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. 18 references.

Godish, T.

1989-08-01

23

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

24

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease and lung cancer. WhilePortland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy Introduction In 2007 the PSU Tobacco Policy Committee conducted an extensive evaluation of the PSU smoking/tobacco policy. The evaluation consisted

Bertini, Robert L.

25

NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of e...

26

Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

Benignus, V.A.

1987-05-01

27

Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

28

Cooking smoke and tobacco smoke as risk factors for stillbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke from biomass combustion produces some of the same pollutants found in tobacco smoke and ambient air, yet only one study to date has linked cooking with biomass fuels to increased risk of stillbirth. The mechanisms by which biomass smoke may cause stillbirth are through exposure to CO and particulates in biomass smoke. Using information on 19,189 ever-married women aged

Vinod Mishra; Robert D. Retherford; Kirk R. Smith

2005-01-01

29

Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

30

Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

31

Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking  

SciTech Connect

Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

1988-01-01

32

Water pipe smoking among the young: the rebirth of an old tradition.  

PubMed

This article provides information on the growing threat of water pipe smoking (hookah) around the world and in the United States. Historically an activity of Middle Eastern older adults, the most recent growth in water pipe smoking (WPS) has been among adolescents and young adults. Associated with its use is a growing list of health problems. To date no interventions have been specifically designed for this form of tobacco use and they are sorely needed. Nurses must continue to teach No Tobacco Use in any form and that means no water pipe smoking must be part of every health message. PMID:22289404

Rice, Virginia Hill

2012-03-01

33

Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

34

Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking Gazel Youths The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking  

E-print Network

be at elevated risk of smoking themselves. However, the association between parental long-term smoking history.47, 95% 0.87-2.49). These results suggest that efforts to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking among; Adolescence; Young adulthood; Parental smoking history; Longitudinal study; Epidemiology inserm-00452800

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Youths' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youths' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a significant public health problem in the United States. This study examined the associations between health beliefs, social pressure, and exposure to ETS among high school youth. Data were collected in 65 schools in 18 California counties during the 1996–1997 school year as part of the Independent Evaluation of the California Tobacco

Chaoyang Li; Jennifer B Unger; Darleen Schuster; Louise A Rohrbach; Beth Howard-Pitney; Gregory Norman

2003-01-01

36

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

37

Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Tobacco smoking has been linked to the development of rheumatic diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been shown to interact with genetic factors to create a significant combined risk of disease. Smoking also affects both the course and the outcome of rheumatic

Michal Harel-Meir; Yaniv Sherer; Yehuda Shoenfeld

2007-01-01

38

Measuring Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are needed to identify infants at highest risk for ETS-related health problems. The purpose of this study was to validate measures sensitive to changes in levels of infant exposure to ETS and to develop a predictive model of infant exposure to ETS. Fifteen infants of smoking mothers were followed from

Mary Beth Flanders Stepans; Sara G. Fuller

1999-01-01

39

University of California Policy Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment  

E-print Network

procedures are intended to provide a healthier, safe and productive work and learning environment;University of California ­ Policy Smoking Policy Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment 2 of 5 Agriculture or an exclusive lease interest. Smoke/Tobacco-Free means that smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products

Talley, Lynne D.

40

Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:10224986

Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

1999-01-01

41

CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free Campus Survey Results 2013 Presented by: Julie Chobdee and Cassandra Greenawalt UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free Policy Implementation Committee #12;Background In a letter Riverside, effective January 2nd, 2014, is prohibiting smoking and the use of tobacco products at all

Mills, Allen P.

42

Tobacco smoking and the sex mortality differential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of tobacco smoking on the sex mortality differential in the United States. It is found that\\u000a all forms of smoking combined account for about 47 percent of the female-male difference in 50\\u000a e\\u000a 37 (life expectancy between ages 37 and 87) in 1962,and about 75 percent of the increase in the female-male difference in 50

Robert D. Retherford

1972-01-01

43

Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-01-01

44

Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-07-01

45

Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Current Draft: November 2010  

E-print Network

Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) 1 Current Draft: November 2010 Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Christopher Carpenter*, Sabina Postolek, and Casey Warman ABSTRACT Public-place smoking restrictions are the most

Silver, Whendee

46

RURAL LICENSED TOBACCO MERCHANTS' SMOKING STATUS AND THE SALE OF TOBACCO TO YOUTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the sale of tobacco to youth between smoking and nonsmoking merchants in a rural county. Licensed tobacco merchants were mailed surveys regarding their personal smoking status, and the returned surveys (75.9 %, N=44) were matched with tobacco compliance results which indicated if the business sold tobacco to youth during a county compliance

Jeanine E. Gangeness; Loretta J. Heuer; Tracy Evanson

47

Controlling environmental tobacco smoke in offices  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a case study on the effectiveness of supplemental air cleaning to control environmental tobacco smoke in a single-level office building. A study to assess the effectiveness of supplemental air cleaning to control airborne levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was conducted in a single-level office building in Redmond, Wash. Three air cleaners were integrated into the HVAC systems serving the offices. Smoking is permitted throughout the offices with the exception of one designated nonsmoking room that is physically separated from the remaining space. The objectives of the research were to assess the effectiveness of the air cleaners in providing acceptable indoor environmental conditions and to determine the impact of the air cleaning equipment on nonsmokers` exposure to ETS in the designated nonsmoking room.

Ross, J.A.; Sterling, E.; Collett, C. [Theodor D. Sterling and Associates, Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kjono, N.E. [System IV Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

1996-05-01

48

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

2010-04-01

49

Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer

J M Carstensen; G Pershagen; G Eklund

1987-01-01

50

Clemson University Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

), kreteks, bidis, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff and any non-FDA approved and smoke-related products, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, water pipes (hookah

Duchowski, Andrew T.

51

Syncope associated with water pipe smoking  

PubMed Central

The water pipe (narghile) in particular is widely used in the Arabian Peninsula and the Turkish world, and has also recently become an increasingly popular way of consuming tobacco in Europe. Contrary to popular belief, it contains more tar, carbon monoxide (CO) and toxic gases than cigarettes. This report describes a patient presenting to the emergency department with syncope as a result of water pipe use, with tests revealing toxically high CO levels. PMID:23606397

Karaca, Yunus; Eryigit, Umut; Aksut, Nurhak; Turkmen, Suha

2013-01-01

52

Drug interactions with tobacco smoking. An update.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking remains highly prevalent in most countries. It can affect drug therapy by both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms. Enzymes induced by tobacco smoking may also increase the risk of cancer by enhancing the metabolic activation of carcinogens. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke are believed to be responsible for the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP1A2 and possibly CYP2E1, CYP1A1 is primarily an extrahepatic enzyme found in lung and placenta. There are genetic polymorphisms in the inducibility of CYP1A1, with some evidence that high inducibility is more common in patients with lung cancer. CYP1A2 is a hepatic enzyme responsible for the metabolism of a number of drugs and activation of some procarcinogens. Caffeine demethylation, using blood clearance or urine metabolite data, has been used as an in vivo marker of CYP1A2 activity, clearly demonstrating an effect of cigarette smoking, CYP2E1 metabolises a number of drugs as well as activating some carcinogens. Our laboratory has found in an intraindividual study that cigarette smoking significantly enhances CYP2E1 activity as measured by the clearance of chlorzoxazone. In animal studies, nicotine induces the activity of several enzymes, including CYP2E1, CYP2A1/2A2 and CYP2B1/2B2, in the brain, but whether this effect is clinically significant is unknown. Similarly, although inhibitory effects of the smoke constituents carbon monoxide and cadmium on CYP enzymes have been observed in vitro and in animal studies, the relevance of this inhibition to humans has not yet been established. The mechanism involved in most interactions between cigarette smoking and drugs involves the induction of metabolism. Drugs for which induced metabolism because of cigarette smoking may have clinical consequence include theophylline, caffeine, tacrine, imipramine, haloperidol, pentazocine, propranolol, flecainide and estradiol. Cigarette smoking results in faster clearance of heparin, possibly related to smoking-related activation of thrombosis with enhanced heparin binding to antithrombin III. Cutaneous vasoconstriction by nicotine may slow the rate of insulin absorption after subcutaneous administration. Pharmacodynamic interactions have also been described. Cigarette smoking is associated with a lesser magnitude of blood pressure and heart rate lowering during treatment with beta-blockers, less sedation from benzodiazepines and less analgesia from some opioids, most likely reflecting the effects of the stimulant actions of nicotine. The impact of cigarette smoking needs to be considered in planning and assessing responses to drug therapy. Cigarette smoking should be specifically studied in clinical trials of new drugs. PMID:10427467

Zevin, S; Benowitz, N L

1999-06-01

53

Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed

This report summarises the epidemiological evidence on the association between tobacco smoking and cancer, which was reviewed by an international group of scientists convened by IARC. Studies published since the 1986 IARC Monograph on "Tobacco smoking" provide sufficient evidence to establish a causal association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, stomach, liver, kidney (renal cell carcinoma) and uterine cervix, and for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and myeloid leukaemia. These sites add to the previously established list of cancers causally associated with cigarette smoking, namely cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder and renal pelvis. Other forms of tobacco smoking, such as cigars, pipes and bidis, also increase risk for cancer, including cancer of the lung and parts of the upper aerodigestive tract. A meta-analysis of over 50 studies on involuntary smoking among never smokers showed a consistent and statistically significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk. Smoking is currently responsible for a third of all cancer deaths in many Western countries. It has been estimated that every other smoker will be killed by tobacco. PMID:15552776

Sasco, A J; Secretan, M B; Straif, K

2004-08-01

54

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke.

Robert Melamede

2005-01-01

55

Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

56

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 15: Those

57

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 11: State

58

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 9: Cigars:

59

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 3: Major

60

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 14: Changing

61

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 7: The

62

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 12: Population

63

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 1: Strategies

64

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 13: Risks

65

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 8: Changes

66

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 6: Community-Based

67

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 2: Smokeless

68

Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often a social activity. There are a variety of names for hookahs, including narghile, argileh,  

E-print Network

Hookah Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often. Using a hookah to smoke tobacco poses a serious potential health hazard to smokers and others exposed to the smoke emitted. Hookah tobacco and smoke contain many toxicants that are known to cause lung cancer

Oregon, University of

69

Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases.  

PubMed

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Tobacco smoking has been linked to the development of rheumatic diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been shown to interact with genetic factors to create a significant combined risk of disease. Smoking also affects both the course and the outcome of rheumatic diseases. Smoking increases the risk of dermatologic features and nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid nodules and multiple joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis and digital ischemia in systemic sclerosis, as well as further increasing the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in these diseases. Smoking is known to modulate the immune system through many mechanisms, including the induction of the inflammatory response, immune suppression, alteration of cytokine balance, induction of apoptosis, and DNA damage that results in the formation of anti-DNA antibodies. No sole mechanism, however, has been linked to any of the autoimmune illnesses, which therefore complicates full comprehension of the 'smoking effect'. Further studies, perhaps using animal models, are needed to analyze the exact effect of smoking on each disease separately. PMID:18037930

Harel-Meir, Michal; Sherer, Yaniv; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2007-12-01

70

Tobacco Smoke Mediated Induction of Sinonasal Microbial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke are more susceptible to life threatening infection than non-smokers. While much is known about the devastating effect tobacco exposure has on the human body, less is known about the effect of tobacco smoke on the commensal and commonly found pathogenic bacteria of the human respiratory tract, or human respiratory tract microbiome. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common medical complaint, affecting 16% of the US population with an estimated aggregated cost of $6 billion annually. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate a correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and rhinosinusitis. Although a common cause of CRS has not been defined, bacterial presence within the nasal and paranasal sinuses is assumed to be contributory. Here we demonstrate that repetitive tobacco smoke exposure induces biofilm formation in a diverse set of bacteria isolated from the sinonasal cavities of patients with CRS. Additionally, bacteria isolated from patients with tobacco smoke exposure demonstrate robust in vitro biofilm formation when challenged with tobacco smoke compared to those isolated from smoke naïve patients. Lastly, bacteria from smoke exposed patients can revert to a non-biofilm phenotype when grown in the absence of tobacco smoke. These observations support the hypothesis that tobacco exposure induces sinonasal biofilm formation, thereby contributing to the conversion of a transient and medically treatable infection to a persistent and therapeutically recalcitrant condition. PMID:21253587

Goldstein-Daruech, Natalia; Cope, Emily K.; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Vukovic, Katarina; Kofonow, Jennifer M.; Doghramji, Laurel; González, Bernardo; Chiu, Alexander G.; Kennedy, David W.; Palmer, James N.; Leid, Jeffery G.; Kreindler, James L.; Cohen, Noam A.

2011-01-01

71

Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

72

Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.  

PubMed

Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies. PMID:24217845

Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

2013-01-01

73

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

74

"Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

75

THE EFFECTS OF SHAM SMOKING AND TOBACCO SMOKING ON HAND BLOOD FLOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in hand blood flow induced by sham smoking and tobacco smoking were studied in 15 normal subjects. The data were analysed by techniques that took full account of intra- and inter-subject variance. A reduction of 16-27% was observed during tobacco smoking, with little difference between an inhalation rate of one or three per minute. No significant fall in

J Ludbrook; Annette H Vincent; JA Walsh

1974-01-01

76

Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

77

Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles with surfaces highly adsorbent to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Calcic mineral particles are two orders of magnitude more abundant in smokers' lungs compared with non-smoking controls in residents of Vancouver. Such particles may thus be potential agents for the delivery of PAH carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene, to the lungs. None of the potential hazards listed above has yet been properly evaluated.

Stephens, W. E.

2003-12-01

78

Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk  

E-print Network

and breast cancer and answer the following questions: WhatWhat further research is needed to better understand the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer?What further research is needed to better understand the relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer?

2009-01-01

79

Attitudes of Senegalese schoolgoing adolescents towards tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results show that tobacco smoking is a widespread phenomenon among Senegalese adolescents for several important reasons: economic (the intensive advertisement campaigns in favor of tobacco smoking), cultural (the ambivalence of traditional attitudes of Western urbanization, and the attractiveness of the Western way of life), psychological (the traumas of modernism on a basically poor developing country). Despite this alarming picture, signs

Walter D'Hondt I; Michel Vandewiele

1983-01-01

80

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think

K Danishevski; A Gilmore; M McKee

2008-01-01

81

Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

82

How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).DATA SOURCESInternal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.STUDY SELECTIONElectronic searches of the

Gregory N Connolly; Geoffrey D Wayne; Denise Lymperis; Melissa C Doherty

2000-01-01

83

Adolescent Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Predicts Academic Achievement Test Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral prob- lems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken

Bradley N. Collins; E. Paul Wileyto; Michael F. G. Murphy; Marcus R. Munafò

2007-01-01

84

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs\\/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship

Anne Landman; Daniel K. Cortese; Stanton Glantz

2008-01-01

85

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees  

PubMed Central

Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

86

[Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].  

PubMed

Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and tobacco smoking. The higher self-evaluation, the smaller tobacco smoking prevalence. PMID:21360937

Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

2010-01-01

87

Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians, 1960-98  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To measure the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, as estimated by smoking in spouses, and long term mortality from tobacco related disease. Design Prospective cohort study covering 39 years. Setting Adult population of California, United States. Participants 118 094 adults enrolled in late 1959 in the American Cancer Society cancer prevention study (CPS I), who were followed until 1998.

James E Enstrom; Geoffrey C Kabat; Davey Smith

2003-01-01

88

Human Resources Policy Guidelines 800.3 Tobacco Use  

E-print Network

, including, chewing tobacco, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes (that involve the use of tobacco and tobacco products) and the act of smoking or carrying a lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe or any other

Linhardt, Robert J.

89

Prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents.  

PubMed

Abstract Introduction: Widespread tobacco use, along with its induced diseases and subsequent deaths, comprise one of the biggest threats to public health in the world. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods: A total of 1524 adolescent students aged 14-18 years (764 boys and 760 girls) were randomly selected. The participants attended governmental, semi-governmental, and non-governmental schools in the city of Sanandaj, Iran in 2013. Data were collected using the "Sherer General Self-efficacy" and demographic questionnaire. Multivariate Logistic binary regresion analysis was conducted to determine the predictors. Results: The prevalence rates of cigarette and water pipe smoking were 9.5% and 10.4%, respectively. About 3.7% of the adolescents used both cigarette and water pipe and 16% used at least one of these. Compared with girls, prevalence of both cigarette (13.1% vs. 6.4%) and water pipe (13.7% vs. 7.1%) smoking was higher among the boys. Male sex, father's education of secondary school, and use of water pipe were identified as cigarette smoking risk factors, while technical and commercial educational fields and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Risk factors of the use of water pipe were currently working, higher age and cigarette smoking, father's education of high school, father's occupation of employee and mother's education of a diploma degree, while higher self-efficacy and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking in adolescents continues to rise. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further studies on effective factors on the onset and continuation of tobacco use. PMID:25470603

Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Tavananezhad, Nikta; Karkhaneh, Mahsa

2014-12-01

90

Local Tobacco Policy and Tobacco Outlet Density: Associations With Youth Smoking  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates the associations between tobacco outlet density, local tobacco policy, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. Methods 1,491 youth (51.9% male, M age = 14.7 years, SD =1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Results Using multilevel regression analyses controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past-12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared to the moderate and high levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. PMID:22626479

Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

2011-01-01

91

Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.  

PubMed

The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

2013-01-01

92

[The correlation between smoking, environmental tobacco smoke and preterm birth].  

PubMed

The rate of preterm births is very high in Hungary; it was 8.9% of the total livebirths in 2010. Preterm birth (<37 weeks) has a considerable health impact, because it is responsible for 85% of infant mortality and morbidity as well as for numerous chronic diseses in the long-term. Many maternal and fetal diseases can be identified in the background, but in a number of cases, preterm labor begins unexpectedly, without any prodrome. Presumably, the socioeconomic background and the presence of harmful lifestyle factors are related to preterm birth in these cases. Tobacco smoking is the most frequent harmful health behavior. At national level, the rate of smoking during pregnancy was 14.4% in the last 13 years, but in some counties, this proportion mounted to 25%. In these counties, the prevalence of preterm births also exceeds the national average. This summary highlights the factors related to disadvantaged socio-economic status that can be responsible for the higher number of preterm birth cases. PMID:22547463

Fogarasi-Grenczer, Andrea; Balázs, Péter

2012-05-01

93

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

94

A Comparison of Mainstream and Sidestream Marijuana and Tobacco Cigarette Smoke Produced under Two Machine Smoking Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for

David Moir; William S. Rickert; Genevieve Levasseur; Yolande Larose; Rebecca Maertens; Paul White; Suzanne Desjardins

2008-01-01

95

Scientific Quality of Original Research Articles on Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific quality of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke; to determine whether poor article quality is associated with publication in non-peer-reviewed symposium proceedings or with other article characteristics. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of original research articles on the health effects of environmental tobacco smoke published in peer reviewed journals and non-peer-reviewed

Deborah Barnes

1997-01-01

96

Are you ready to QUIT smoking or using other tobacco products? Help is now available on campus through Quit Smoking NOW (QSN). This FREE six-week tobacco  

E-print Network

Are you ready to QUIT smoking or using other tobacco products? Help is now available on campus through Quit Smoking NOW (QSN). This FREE six-week tobacco cessation program can assist you in becoming tobacco-free. With the help of a trained smoking cessation facilitator, you can learn how to: Combat

Weston, Ken

97

Tobacco smoking among school children in colombo district, sri lanka.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is an important problem among schoolchildren. The authors studied the patterns of tobacco smoking among schoolchildren in Colombo, Sri Lanka, using a self-administered questionnaire. Multistaged stratified random sampling was used to select 6000 students. Response rate was 90.7% (5446), out of which 53.4% were males. Prevalence rates for males and females, respectively, were as follows: having smoked at least 1 complete cigarette: 27.0% and 13.3%, smoked more than 100 cigarettes: 2.3% and 0.3%, daily smoking: 1.8% and 0.2%. Mean age of starting to smoke was 14.16 years. The tobacco products most used were cigarettes (91.5%) and bidis (3.8%). In univariate analysis, male gender, parental smoking, studying non-science subjects, peer smoking, and participating in sports were significantly associated with smoking of at least 1 complete cigarette (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the most significant correlates were having close friends (odds ratio = 3.29, confidence interval = 2.47-4.37) or parents who smoked (odds ratio = 1.86, confidence interval = 1.28-2.71). Female smoking has increased from previously reported values. These high-risk groups can be targets for preventive programs. PMID:22426558

Katulanda, Prasad; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Piyadigama, Indunil; Karunathilake, Indika M; Palmer, Paula H; Matthews, David R

2015-03-01

98

Smoking topography in tobacco chippers and dependent smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most cigarette smokers exhibit signs of tobacco dependence, a subset of this population, referred to as tobacco chippers, does not show characteristic signs of dependence. Few studies have attempted to characterize differences between these groups of smokers. The purpose of the present study was to examine smoking topography in chippers (CH) and dependent smokers (DS). Topographical variables including puff

Saul Shiffman

1996-01-01

99

Smoking and smokeless tobacco: increased risk for oral pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco has been linked with several pain conditions that include musculoskeletal pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia. This study documented associations between smoking and smokeless tobacco use and measures of orofacial pain and oral pain impacts (activity reduction and trouble with sleep) assessed during a 48-month time period. These data were collected as part of the Florida Dental Care Study, a

Joseph L Riley; Scott L Tomar; Gregg H Gilbert

2004-01-01

100

Family Rules About Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is detrimental to the health of children. It is important for families to implement rules that limit the exposure of children both within the home and in the community. The current study used a diverse sample of participants from pediatric clinics in a large metropolitan area to explore what restrictions families place on tobacco use in

Sara A. Pyle; C. Keith Haddock; Norman Hymowitz; Joseph Schwab; Sarah Meshberg

2005-01-01

101

[Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].  

PubMed

The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (?4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

Melkadze, N

2013-02-01

102

Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.  

PubMed

Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested. PMID:18855154

Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

2009-02-01

103

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

104

Texas state law authorizes higher health care premiums for people who use tobacco. The Texas Group Benefits Program (GBP) offers prescription drugs to help tobacco users quit using tobacco.  

E-print Network

tobacco. Electronic or e-cigarettes that do not contain tobacco and are designed expressly for smoking product? Cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or any other product that contains

Rock, Chris

105

Nursing students’ beliefs about smoking, their own smoking behaviors, and use of professional tobacco treatment intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the largest group of health care professionals, nurses are in a unique position to influence their patients who smoke. They also have more contact with patients than any other provider. The purpose of this survey study was to describe nursing students’ beliefs about cigarette smoking, their smoking behaviors, and use of evidence-based tobacco treatment intervention. Of 200 surveyed, undergraduate

Kimberly Jenkins; Karen Ahijevych

2003-01-01

106

The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

2013-01-01

107

The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.  

PubMed

Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. PMID:25130679

Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

2014-09-01

108

Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

1981-01-01

109

The effect of smoking tobacco on neonatal body composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to examine the differences in body composition in infants of women who smoke compared with those of nonsmokers. Study Design: Within 24 hours of birth anthropometric measurements and total body electrical conductivity estimates of body composition were obtained on 129 term infants (30 born to women who smoked tobacco during pregnancy and 99 born to women

Carol A. Lindsay; Alicia J. Thomas; Patrick M. Catalano

1997-01-01

110

Syracuse University Policy TOBACCO-FREE AND SMOKE-FREE CAMPUS  

E-print Network

Page 1 Syracuse University Policy TOBACCO-FREE AND SMOKE-FREE CAMPUS I. General Policy Statement University is committed to providing a smoke- and tobacco-free campus, effective July 1, 2015. While smoking of tobacco use, and eliminating the risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke. The University

Mather, Patrick T.

111

Sidestream tobacco smoke exposure acutely alters human nasal mucociliary clearance.  

PubMed Central

Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) is a biomarker of nasal mucosal function. Tobacco smokers have been shown to have abnormal NMC, but the acute effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on nonsmokers is unknown. This study evaluated acute tobacco smoke-induced alterations in NMC in 12 healthy adults. Subjects were studied on 2 days, separated by at least 1 week. Subjects underwent a 60-min controlled exposure at rest to air or sidestream tobacco smoke (SS) (15 ppm CO) in a controlled environmental chamber. One hour after the exposure, 99mTc-sulfur colloid was aerosolized throughout the nasal passage and counts were measured with a scintillation detector. Six out of 12 subjects showed more rapid clearance after smoke exposure than after air exposure, and 3/12 had rapid clearance on both days. However, substantial decreases in clearance occurred in 3/12 subjects, all of whom had a history of ETS rhinitis. In two subjects, more than 90% of the tracer remained 1 hr after tracer administration (2 hr after smoke exposure). Understanding the basis for biologic variability in the acute effect of tobacco smoke on NMC may advance our understanding of pathogenesis of chronic effects of ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8605851

Bascom, R; Kesavanathan, J; Fitzgerald, T K; Cheng, K H; Swift, D L

1995-01-01

112

Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M.

2013-01-01

113

Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians 1960-98  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective To measure,the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, as estimated by smoking in spouses, and long term mortality from tobacco,related disease. Design Prospective cohort,study covering,39 years. Setting Adult population of California, United States. Participants 118 094 adults enrolled,in late 1959 in the American,Cancer Society cancer prevention,study (CPS I), who were followed until 1998. Particular focus is on the 35

James E Enstrom; Geoffrey C Kabat

114

Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmother’s pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) – odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.9) – and during the mother’ pregnancies – OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–3.3) – were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmother’s and mother’s pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

Ortega-García, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; López-Fernández, María T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaquín; López-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

2011-01-01

115

The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Rates: A Tobacco Control Scorecard  

Microsoft Academic Search

his article reviews studies of the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking rates with the aim of providing guidance on the importance of different policies. Based on past studies, we estimate the magnitude of effects of major tobacco control policies, how their effects depend on the manner in which the policies are implemented, the relationship between the different policies,

David T. Levy; Frank Chaloupka; Joseph Gitchell

2004-01-01

116

Reduction of secondhand tobacco smoke in public places following national smoke-free legislation in Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmoke-free legislation eliminating tobacco smoke in all indoor public places and workplaces is the international standard to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. Uruguay was the first country in the Americas and the first middle-income country in the world to enact a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in March 2006.ObjectiveTo compare air nicotine concentrations measured in indoor public places

Adriana Blanco-Marquizo; Beatriz Goja; Armando Peruga; Miranda R Jones; Jie Yuan; Jonathan M Samet; Patrick N Breysse; Ana Navas-Acien

2010-01-01

117

Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. Data Sources (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by ‘Google Alerts’ (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. Study Selection (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. Data Abstraction (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of “tobacco product” and/or “smoking”. Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. Data Synthesis (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. Conclusions A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. PMID:25550418

Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

2015-01-01

118

Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology  

PubMed Central

The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ? 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

2013-01-01

119

Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented. PMID:23113177

Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

2012-01-01

120

The Impact of Tobacco Control Programs on Adult Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether state tobacco control programs are effective in reducing the prevalence of adult smoking. Methods. We used state survey data on smoking from 1985 to 2003 in a quasi-experimental design to examine the association between cumulative state antitobacco program expenditures and changes in adult smoking prevalence, after we controlled for confounding. Results. From 1985 to 2003, national adult smoking prevalence declined from 29.5% to 18.6% (P<.001). Increases in state per capita tobacco control program expenditures were independently associated with declines in prevalence. Program expenditures were more effective in reducing smoking prevalence among adults aged 25 or older than for adults aged 18 to 24 years, whereas cigarette prices had a stronger effect on adults aged 18 to 24 years. If, starting in 1995, all states had funded their tobacco control programs at the minimum or optimal levels recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there would have been 2.2 million to 7.1 million fewer smokers by 2003. Conclusions. State tobacco control program expenditures are independently associated with overall reductions in adult smoking prevalence. PMID:18172148

Farrelly, Matthew C.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Thomas, Kristin Y.; Nelson, David

2008-01-01

121

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

2010-04-01

122

The Tobacco Industry's Role in the 16 Cities Study of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Do the Data Support the Stated Conclusions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency

Richard L. Barnes; S. Katharine Hammond; Stanton A. Glantz

2006-01-01

123

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

124

Think Hookahs Filter Out Tobacco Toxins? Think Again  

MedlinePLUS

... popular water pipes do not rid smoke of heavy metals (*this news item will not be available after ... pipes do not filter out most of the heavy metals in tobacco, a new study warns. Tobacco plants ...

125

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

126

Smoke & Tobacco -Free Policy For Comment 4/22/13 to 7/1/13  

E-print Network

Smoke & Tobacco - Free Policy For Comment 4/22/13 to 7/1/13 Effective Date: September 1, 2013-free environment: that smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products, and the use of unregulated nicotine products, research indicates that non-smokers who are regularly exposed to passive (second hand) tobacco smoke

Russell, Lynn

127

Attenuation of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by treatment with a soluble epoxide  

E-print Network

Attenuation of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by treatment with a soluble epoxide and progression of tobacco smoke-induced airway disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is involvedEH is known to diminish this activity. To examine whether acute tobacco smoke- induced inflammation could

Hammock, Bruce D.

128

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UCSan Diego will go completely smoke and tobacco-free on the main campus and other UCSan Diego property and facilities, whether owned or leased. Why? UC President Mark Yudof charged all UC campuses to go smoke and tobacco-free

Russell, Lynn

129

Different Genes Interact with Particulate Matter and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Affecting Lung Function  

E-print Network

stress related genes modify the effects of ambient air pollution or tobacco smoking on lung function genes and pathways potentially mediate PM10 and tobacco smoke effects on lung function decline. IgnoringDifferent Genes Interact with Particulate Matter and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Affecting Lung

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

131

Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

2014-01-01

132

Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 ?g/m3 to 612 ?g/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 ?g/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 ?g/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 ?g/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted. PMID:17956612

Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

2007-01-01

133

Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle  

PubMed Central

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful. PMID:19440270

Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

2009-01-01

134

Damage to DNA in cervical epithelium related to smoking tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether tobacco smoking causes increased DNA modification (adducts) in human cervical epithelium. DESIGN--Comparison of DNA adducts measured by the technique of postlabelling with phosphorus-32 in normal ectocervical epithelium of smokers and non-smokers. A questionnaire on smoking habit and a urinary cotinine assay were used to identify smokers and non-smokers. SETTING--Cytology unit in large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--39 women (11

A M Simons; D H Phillips; D V Coleman

1993-01-01

135

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the\\u000a commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public\\u000a transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main

Maria Cheraghi; Sundeep Salvi

2009-01-01

136

Tobacco smoking and oral clefts: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal smoking and non-syndromic orofacial clefts in infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy was carried out using data from 24 case-control and cohort studies. FINDINGS: Consistent, moderate and statistically significant associations were found between maternal smoking and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44) and between maternal smoking and cleft palate (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.35). There was evidence of a modest dose-response effect for cleft lip with or without cleft palate. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an association between maternal tobacco smoking and orofacial clefts is strong enough to justify its use in anti-smoking campaigns. PMID:15112010

Little, Julian; Cardy, Amanda; Munger, Ronald G.

2004-01-01

137

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

138

Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10–14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels—having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint. PMID:18948391

Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

2009-01-01

139

Predicting regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation exposure of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles may increase health risks, but only to the extent that the particles deposit in the respiratory tract. We describe a technique to predict regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles. Interpretation of particle size distribution measurements after cigarette combustion by a smoking machine in a test room yields an effective emissions profile. An aerosol dynamics model is used to predict indoor particle concentrations resulting from a specified combination of smoking frequency and building factors. By utilizing a lung deposition model, the rate of ETS mass accumulation in human lungs is then determined as a function of particle size and lung airway generation. Considering emissions of sidestream smoke only, residential exposures of nonsmokers to ETS are predicted to cause rates of total respiratory tract particle deposition in the range of 0.4-0.7 {mu}g/day per kg of body weight for light smoking in a well-ventilated residence and 8-13 {mu}g/day per kg for moderately heavy smoking in a poorly ventilated residence. Emissions of sidestream plus mainstream smoke lead to predicted deposition rates about a factor of 4 higher. This technique should be useful for evaluating health risks and control techniques associated with exposure to ETS particles. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Nazaroff, W.W.; Hung, W.Y.; Sasse, A.G.B.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gadgil, A.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-10-01

140

Smoking Behavior and Smoking History of Tobacco Chippers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine produces dependence in almost all cigarette smokers. Sixty-five chippers (anomalous smokers who smoke regularly but at very low levels, 1–5 cigarettes per day) were compared with 72 matched regular smokers (20–40 cigarettes per day). Despite having smoked an average of 46,000 cigarettes in 19 years of smoking, chippers demonstrated little sign of nicotine dependence. They reported frequent casual abstinence

Saul Shiffman; Jean A. Paty; Jon D. Kassel; Maryann Gnys; Monica Zettler-Segal

1994-01-01

141

US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

2012-01-01

142

ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

143

A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

144

Fox Chase scientists discover link between estrogen and tobacco smoke  

Cancer.gov

The hormone estrogen may help promote lung cancer— including compounding the effects of tobacco smoke on the disease—pointing towards potential new therapies that target the hormone metabolism, according to new research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3 by scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia.

145

Does breathing other people's tobacco smoke cause lung cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available epidemiological studies of lung cancer and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke, in which exposure was assessed by whether or not a person classified as a non-smoker lived with a smoker, were identified and the results combined. There were 10 case-control studies and three prospective studies. Overall, there was a highly significant 35% increase in the risk of

N J Wald; K Nanchahal; S G Thompson; H S Cuckle

1986-01-01

146

Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. METHODS: Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Evelyn P Davila; Wei Zhao; Margaret Byrne; Monica Webb; Yougie Huang; Kristopher Arheart; Noella Dietz; Alberto Caban-Martinez; Dorothy Parker; David J Lee

2009-01-01

147

Caught in the tapestry of tobacco: why I smoke.  

PubMed

Faced with the knowledge that smoking is dangerous, women continue to smoke cigarettes, and the number is growing. In contrast, breast cancer is being diagnosed earlier, and women are listening to the call for mammograms and examination screenings. Why then, are women not listening to the call to never start or stop smoking? In nursing today it has become necessary to put forth a greater effort to call attention to the toll of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. There is significant disparity in smoking groups targeted for research. One particular group has been ignored in past research, the middle-aged woman. Research is needed to understand why women use tobacco products in this group and to find what is needed to discourage smoking. In this article, we explore nursing research in the area of middle-aged women and tobacco use. Interlaced throughout the literature review is the story of a 57 year old female and her experiences with smoking. PMID:22724906

Treloar, Debbie; Gunn, Jennie

2012-04-01

148

[Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].  

PubMed

The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low. PMID:20069266

Lang, P; Strunk, M

2010-02-01

149

The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review  

PubMed Central

According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

2009-01-01

150

Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

151

Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. Design A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. Setting The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Participants One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Outcome measures Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Results Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13–25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56–70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Conclusions Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. PMID:24282242

Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

2013-01-01

152

Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

2009-02-01

153

Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

2014-07-01

154

The Fate of Maleic Hydrazide on Tobacco during Smoking  

PubMed Central

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process. PMID:23193377

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

155

The Fate of maleic hydrazide on tobacco during smoking.  

PubMed

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process. PMID:23193377

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

156

Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:19125149

Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

157

Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students  

PubMed Central

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior. PMID:22987864

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

158

Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750) was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17) and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18). For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44) and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32); for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19), respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of strategies that establish control measures to guarantee smoke-free places. PMID:17760974

Galán, Iñaki; Mata, Nelva; Estrada, Carmen; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Velázquez, Luis; Zorrilla, Belén; Gandarillas, Ana; Ortiz, Honorato

2007-01-01

159

Smokeless tobacco: a gateway to smoking or a way away from smoking.  

PubMed

Recently, tobacco companies have been marketing moist smokeless tobacco products that are 'spitless'. These products have lower concentrations of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and of other harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, but can deliver relatively high doses of nicotine. They are packaged in small sachets, similar to tea bags that are placed between cheek and gum. Global promotion of smokeless tobacco products is hotly debated among tobacco control and public health experts. Proponents point to the Swedish experience where snus (Swedish moist snuff) is widely used as an alternative to cigarette smoking among men. Meanwhile, Sweden has low rates of smoking and a lower rate of respiratory diseases and lung cancers by comparison to other developed countries. The opponents argue that snus has its own risks, that no form of tobacco should ever be promoted; and that 'snus is culture-bound and not transferable to other settings'. Critics also suspect that the tobacco industry will use snus marketing as a 'gateway' to promote cigarettes among young people. Research on the effects of marketing snus to smokers is too limited to support using snus as a harm-reduction tool, and the epidemiological data are not conclusive. PMID:19604066

Melikian, Assieh A; Hoffmann, Dietrich

2009-07-01

160

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks. PMID:19944918

Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2009-01-01

161

'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.  

PubMed

Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. PMID:22445156

Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

2012-05-01

162

The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

2009-01-01

163

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UC San Diego will go completely smoke and tobacco-free on the main campus and other UC San Diego property and tobacco-free by January 2014 to save lives, improve the environment and contribute positively

Russell, Lynn

164

Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

2014-02-01

165

Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.

2014-01-01

166

[Socioeconomic costs due to tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to calculate costs attributable to smoking from both a societal and a public finance perspective. The Cost-of-Illness analysis was based on incidence data from 1995 and 1996, estimated with the attributable fraction, based on English and Danish RR-estimates respectively. The indirect costs are calculated with both the friction and the human capital method. In 1995, smoking attributable costs in Denmark amounted to 4100 million DKK with the friction method and based on Danish RR-estimates, including 3600 million in direct costs and 500 million in indirect costs. A public cash flow analysis showed a net revenue of about 3900 to 5600 million DKK. Compared with previous results for Denmark (1983), the annual costs to society increased by about 118%. It is suggested that similar Cost-of-Illness analyses are carried out at regular intervals to monitor the economic consequences of smoking in society. PMID:10895600

Rasmussen, S R; Søgaard, J

2000-06-01

167

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?  

PubMed Central

Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

2015-01-01

168

Impact of tobacco control spending and tobacco control policies on adolescents' attitudes and beliefs about cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much is known about the impact of tobacco control policies on youth cigarette demand, very little is known about the impact of tobacco control policies on youth's attitudes and beliefs toward smoking. This paper is the first econometric study to examine the impact of state-level tobacco control spending, youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices on

John A Tauras; Frank J Chaloupka

2004-01-01

169

Minors' tobacco possession law violations and intentions to smoke: implications for tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test: (1) whether citation under the Minors in Possession (MIP) law, vicarious citation (knowing someone who was cited), and threat of driving licence suspension are associated with decreased intentions to smoke next year; and (2) whether the policy is differentially enforced. Subjects: 28 249 white, Hispanic, and African American students in grades 6–12 (11–18 years old) participated in the study. Method: The 86 item anonymous Texas Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by students attending 37 schools in 14 east and central Texas communities. Results: Hierarchical linear modelling showed that MIP citation was unrelated to the future smoking intentions of most youth. However, there was a negative association between citation and smoking intentions for ever daily smoking youth at four schools. Threat of licence suspension was associated with a lower likelihood of future smoking intentions among ever daily smoking youth and vicarious citation did not deter youth from future smoking. African American and Hispanic youth had a higher probability of being cited than their peers. Conclusions: Threat of driving licence suspension has the intended effect upon youth who are/were committed smokers and MIP citation has the intended effect upon committed smokers at only four schools. However, differential enforcement of the law based on ethnicity may be occurring. Before drawing firm conclusions, current findings must be replicated with longitudinal data to determine the consequences of citation on subsequent tobacco use. PMID:15333878

Gottlieb, N; Loukas, A; Corrao, M; McAlister, A; Snell, C; Huang, P

2004-01-01

170

Tobacco smoke chemistry. 2. Alkyl and alkenyl substituted guaiacols found in cigarette smoke condensate.  

PubMed

A series of alkyl and alkenyl substituted guaiacols, which comprise a group of biologically and organoleptically active compounds, have been synthesized. Mass spectra and GC retention times for these have been recorded and compared with those obtained for constituents of a weakly acidic fraction of smoke condensate derived from American blend type cigarettes. On the basis of these results, 25 guaiacols have been identified, 18 of which have not been detected in tobacco smoke condensate previously. PMID:2487785

Arnarp, J; Bielawski, J; Dahlin, B M; Dahlman, O; Enzell, C R; Pettersson, T

1989-01-01

171

ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

172

Plant extract reduces tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is a major factor responsible for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although the best solution to reduce the incidence of these diseases is to quit smoking, there are still a large number of smokers. Thus, given the immunoregulatory properties of plant extracts, their capacity to reduce tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was

Elyse Y. Bissonnette; Léa-Isabelle Proulx; Annie Spahr; Marie France Janelle; Stéphane Dupuis

2006-01-01

173

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effects on the Primary Lipids of Lung Surfactant  

E-print Network

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effects on the Primary Lipids of Lung Surfactant Frank Bringezu,, Kent. In Final Form: December 2, 2002 The effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on lung surfactant correlations between long-term exposure to ETS and lung cancer5,6 in never-smoking adults. Childhood and

Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

174

Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Megan Murray

2007-01-01

175

For Final Review & Approval Policy Title: Smoke/Tobacco-Free Environment  

E-print Network

to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs, electronic cigarettes, and all forms of smokeless tobacco. H. Tobacco of smokeless tobacco products, the use of unregulated nicotine products, and the use of e-cigarettes of smokeless tobacco products, e-cigarettes, and unregulated nicotine products are strictly prohibited

Mills, Allen P.

176

Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking  

SciTech Connect

The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

1987-01-01

177

Ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behaviors, sources of tobacco, knowledge and attitudes toward restriction policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behavior, sources of tobacco, knowledge of and attitudes toward youth tobacco restriction policies, and perceptions of tobacco availability by adolescents. The study is important as it will add to the growing body of literature regarding tobacco use by minors, and will help policymakers and public health professionals

Grace X Ma; Steve Shive; Patricia Legos; Yin Tan

2003-01-01

178

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

179

Environmental tobacco smoke effects on lung surfactant film organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of the clinical lung surfactants (LS) Curosurf or Survanta from aqueous suspension to the air–water interface progresses from multi-bilayer aggregates through multilayer films to a coexistence between multilayer and monolayer domains. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) alters this progression as shown by Langmuir isotherms, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After 12 h of LS exposure to ETS,

Patrick C. Stenger; Coralie Alonso; Joseph A. Zasadzinski; Alan J. Waring; Chun-Ling Jung; Kent E. Pinkerton

2009-01-01

180

About Electronic Magnetometers and Tobacco Smoking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, provides a non-mathematical introduction to modern magnetometers that depend on the saturation of magnetic materials. Applications include the observation the very weak magnetic fields in space and a 1979 experiment on the effects of cigarette smoking and the damage caused by asbestos. This is part of the site "The Great Magnet, the Earth". Also available in Spanish, German and French.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

181

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

2011-01-01

182

"Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Main results: The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "...prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". Conclusions: The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places. PMID:15564219

Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

2004-01-01

183

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

184

Environmental tobacco smoke and lung function in employees who never smoked: the Scottish MONICA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate the relation between lung function in employees and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work and elsewhere.METHODSNever smokers in employment (301) were identified from the fourth Scottish MONICA survey. They completed a self administered health record, which included details of exposure to ETS, and attended a survey clinic for physical and lung function measurements, and for venepuncture

R Chen; H Tunstall-Pedoe; R Tavendale

2001-01-01

185

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (?.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

2013-01-01

186

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

2004-01-01

187

Adolescent exposure to and perceptions of environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's cigarette smoke had little or no effect on their health. Most adolescents (56%) believed that smoking should not be allowed in restaurants without bars but were less supportive of prohibiting smoking in restaurants with bars (20%) or in bars (14%). Two thirds (69%) of adolescents believed that the government should be involved in making laws that protect the health of people who work in bars and restaurants. Almost one half (49%) believed that the government should be involved in passing laws that make it illegal for people to smoke in public places. Odds ratios revealed that females, nonwhites, younger students, nonsmoking students, and students who believed that ETS exposure had a moderate or major effect on health were statistically significantly more likely to support clean indoor air ordinances in select locations compared to males, whites, older students, students who smoke, and students who perceived that ETS exposure has little to no effect on health. PMID:15989087

Jordan, Timothy R; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Shah, Sapna

2005-05-01

188

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)], E-mail: ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Ryan, Michele B. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Lisa G. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)

2008-03-15

189

[Effect of tobacco smoking on glutathione concentration in the blood].  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking and age on reduced glutathione concentration in the blood. The study was performed in the blood of 65 subjects. The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material was divided into groups of non-smokers and smokers. Malonylodialdehyde concentration in the plasma was measured by reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Concentration of cadmium was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Reduced glutathione in the blood was measured using a previously developed method [11]. A significant increase of malonylodialdehyde concentration was observed in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Malonylodialdehyde level in the plasma of smokers <20 cigarettes per day did not differ with non-smokers. The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the whole blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day and it was about 4-fold higher compared to non-smoking people. Also smokers <20 cigarettes per day have higher cadmium concentration in the blood in comparison to non-smokers. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity on reduced glutathione concentration it was a statistically significant increase in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Non-smoking and smokers <20 cigarettes per day had comparable levels of this antioxidant in the blood. A significant elevation in reduced glutathione concentration was observed in the blood of smokers < 30 years of age in comparison to nonsmoking persons < 30 and > 30 years of age. Our study confirmed that the reduced glutathione concentration in the body affects tobacco smoking and aging. PMID:23421037

Bizo?, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

2012-01-01

190

Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

191

Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2012-01-01

192

Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union  

PubMed Central

Background The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Methods/Principal Findings Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work), and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp). Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35) and the UK had the highest one (93). The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (rsp?=??0.42, p?=?0.03) and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (rsp?=?0.47, p?=?0.01 in restaurants; rsp?=?0.5, p?=?0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and rsp?=?0.31, p?=?0.12 in other indoor workplaces). The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. Conclusions/Significance Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces). TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS. PMID:21079729

Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Gallus, Silvano; Martínez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Clancy, Luke

2010-01-01

193

Pediatricians’ Practices and Attitudes about Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Parental Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess pediatric resident and preceptor environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-reduction practices and attitudes to inform the development of resident tobacco intervention training. Study design Pediatricians in a teaching hospital anonymously completed a 65-item survey. Results Residents’ and preceptors’ (n = 93) ETS actions were generally similar. Pediatricians inconsistently intervened across treatment settings and when treating different ETS-related illnesses (eg, 60% “always” assessed during asthma visits, 13% during otitis visits). Less than 50% “always” explained ETS risks to smoking parents and less than 33% “always” advised about creating smoke-free homes. Most pediatricians reported negative attitudes toward smoking parents; however, attitudes were not related to actions. Most frequently cited barriers to ETS action were lack of time and low confidence in effectiveness. Conclusion Understanding barriers to ETS intervention could promote transdisciplinary (TD) training and intervention approaches that effectively promote pediatrician advice while offloading the time burden of intensive smoking intervention. ETS intervention training should foster pediatrician confidence and TD relationships with affiliated health professionals who could facilitate intervention, referral, and follow-up necessary to sustain smoking behavior change. PMID:17452234

Collins, Bradley N.; Levin, Kenneth P.; Bryant-Stephens, Tyra

2015-01-01

194

Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

2012-12-01

195

COPD phenotypes in biomass smoke- versus tobacco smoke-exposed Mexican women.  

PubMed

We hypothesised that biomass smoke exposure is associated with an airway-predominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotype, while tobacco-related COPD is associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype. In this cross-sectional study, female never-smokers with COPD and biomass exposure (n=21) and female ex-cigarette smokers with COPD without biomass exposure (n=22) completed computed tomography (CT) at inspiration and expiration, pulmonary function, blood gas, exercise tolerance, and quality of life measures. Two radiologists scored the extent of emphysema and air trapping on CT. Quantitative emphysema severity and distribution and airway wall thickness were calculated using specialised software. Women in the tobacco group had significantly more emphysema than the biomass group (radiologist score 2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.001; emphysema on CT 27% versus 19%, p=0.046; and a larger size of emphysematous spaces, p=0.006). Women in the biomass group had significantly more air trapping than the tobacco group (radiologist score 2.6 and 1.5, respectively; p=0.02) and also scored lower on the symptom, activities and confidence domains of the quality of life assessment and had lower oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise (p<0.05). Biomass smoke exposure is associated with less emphysema but more air trapping than tobacco smoke exposure, suggesting an airway-predominant phenotype. PMID:24114962

Camp, Pat G; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Sansores, Raul H; Alva, Luis F; McDougall, Jill E; Sin, Don D; Paré, Peter D; Müller, Nestor L; Silva, C Isabela S; Rojas, Carlos E; Coxson, Harvey O

2014-03-01

196

A European validation study of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking lung cancer cases and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to validate, in a case-control study, the reporting by lung cancer cases and controls of their own lifetime smoking habits and of the smoking habit of the spouse. Methods: In a multicenter (Sweden, Spain, Italy) case-control study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer, subjects were screened by repeated probing to exclude

Fredrik Nyberg; Antonio Agudo; Paolo Boffetta; Cristina Fortes; Carlos A. Gonzalez; Göran Pershagen

1998-01-01

197

Acute effects of smoking and high experimental exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversial results have been published on the immune response to cigarette smoking while the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have not yet been reported. In a controlled study, acute effects of smoking and of a high environmental exposure to ETS on immunological parameters have been investigated. The study consisted of four experimental days, two control and two

S. Hockertz; A. Emmendörffer; G. Scherer; T. Ruppert; H. Daube; A. R. Tricker; F. Adlkofer

1994-01-01

198

UO SMOKE-AND TOBACCO-FREE CAMPUS GUIDE for SUPERVISORS Change is in the air. Effective September 1, 2012, the University of Oregon campus is smoke-  

E-print Network

UO SMOKE- AND TOBACCO-FREE CAMPUS GUIDE for SUPERVISORS Change is in the air. Effective September 1, 2012, the University of Oregon campus is smoke- and tobacco-free, a step that confirms the institution, staff and visitors. As supervisors, you play an important role in the success of a smoke- and tobacco

Oregon, University of

199

Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe and understand the relationship between the tobacco and gambling industries in connection to their collaborative efforts to prevent smoke-free casinos and gambling facilities and fight smoke-free policies generally. Methods: Analysis of tobacco industry documents available online (accessed between February and December 2003). Results: The tobacco industry has worked to convince the gambling industry to fight against smoke-free environments. Representatives of the gambling industry with ties to the tobacco industry oppose smoke-free workplaces by claiming that smoke-free environments hurt gambling revenue and by promoting ventilation as a solution to secondhand smoke. With help from the tobacco industry, the gambling industry has become a force at the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers opposing smoke-free ventilation standards for the hospitality industry. Conclusion: Tobacco industry strategies to mobilise the gambling industry to oppose smoke-free environments are consistent with past strategies to co-opt the hospitality industry and with strategies to influence policy from behind the scenes. Tobacco control advocates need to be aware of the connections between the tobacco and gambling industries in relation to smoke-free environments and work to expose them to the public and to policy makers. PMID:15333883

Mandel, L; Glantz, S

2004-01-01

200

Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.  

PubMed

The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n?=?81) and in-depth interviews (n?=?38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large. PMID:23421341

Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

2013-01-01

201

DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

202

Cardiovascular disease and occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Results of chemical analysis, animal experiments, and human studies are reviewed, criticized, and found not to support claims of an association between workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and occupational coronary heart disease. This review also recommends refinement of the use of dose surrogates, as presently practiced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), for regulating indoor emissions from combustion engines, coal furnaces, tobacco leaf processing, rayon viscose manufacturing, and rubber curing. The work standards OSHA uses for regulation of these complex mixtures could also be used in evaluating ETS and relate to the following constituents of ETS: nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo[a]pyrene, and carbon disulfide. The data indicate that the levels of these substances potentially arising from ETS are many orders of magnitude below their respective PELs. Thus, based on the standards for exposure surrogates for other complex mixtures, the potential worker exposure from ETS does not require further regulation by OSHA, based on cardiovascular disease. PMID:8776200

Aviado, D M

1996-03-01

203

An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. Methods The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM2.5) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Results Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM2.5: more than 3,800 ?g/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM2.5 were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 ?g/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 ?g/m3). Discussion This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children. PMID:19351785

Sendzik, Taryn; Travers, Mark J.; Hyland, Andrew

2009-01-01

204

Association of water pipe smoking and traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSmokers are at risk for the chronic diseases, and they experience increased risk of road traffic crash (RTC), compared to non-smokers.Waterpipe smoking is sort of tobacco use with an estimated 100 million daily smokers through the world including the USA, UK, Australia, Germany, Canada and Middle East.The purpose of this research was to examine whether waterpipe smokers experience increased risk

S Saadat; M K Davari

2010-01-01

205

Brain Reactivity to Smoking Cues Prior to Smoking Cessation Predicts Ability to Maintain Tobacco Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background Developing means to identify smokers at high risk for relapse could advance relapse prevention therapy. We hypothesized that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reactivity to smoking-related cues, measured prior to a quit attempt, could identify smokers with heightened relapse vulnerability. Methods Twenty-one nicotine-dependent women underwent fMRI prior to quitting smoking, during which smoking-related and neutral images were shown. These smokers also were tested for possible attentional biases to smoking-related words using a computerized emotional Stroop (ES) task previously found to predict relapse. Smokers then made a quit attempt and were grouped based on outcomes (abstinence versus slip: smoking 1 cigarette after attaining abstinence). Pre-quit fMRI and ES measurements in these groups were compared. Results Slip subjects had heightened fMRI reactivity to smoking-related images in brain regions implicated in emotion, interoceptive awareness, and motor planning and execution. Smoking cue-induced insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) reactivity correlated with an attentional bias to smoking-related words. A discriminant analysis of ES and fMRI data predicted outcomes with 79% accuracy. Additionally, smokers who slipped had decreased fMRI functional connectivity between an insula-containing network and brain regions involved in cognitive control, including the dACC and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting reduced top-down control of smoking-related cue-induced emotions. Conclusions These findings suggest that the insula and dACC are important substrates of smoking relapse vulnerability. The data also suggest that relapse-vulnerable smokers can be identified prior to quit attempts, which could enable personalized treatment, improve tobacco-dependence treatment outcomes, and reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:20172508

Janes, Amy C.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Richardt, Sarah; Frederick, Blaise deB.; Chuzi, Sarah; Pachas, Gladys; Culhane, Melissa A.; Holmes, Avram J.; Fava, Maurizio; Evins, A. Eden; Kaufman, Marc J.

2010-01-01

206

Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching

Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy; Sushil Suri; Ritesh G Menezes; HN Harsha Kumar; Mahbubur Rahman; Xavier V Pereira; Mohsin Shah; Brijesh Sathian; Ullasa Shetty; Vina R Vaswani

2010-01-01

207

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation PMID:23331271

Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2012-01-01

208

[Socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the workplace].  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking constitutes to be the main cause of health risk in Poland and is one of the most harmful elements of human's lifestyle. Workplace was recognized as a major source of tobacco smoke exposure for others. There should be keep in mind, that in present, it is a task of both employers and employees to create and maintain a safe work environment. The aim of the paper is to assess the prevalence of tobacco smoke among employees of one of the biggest works in Podkarpackie Region, with regard to age, gender, education and performed function. The study was carried out between January and March 2008 in the biggest works on Podkarpackie Region, within the programme "Smoke-free workplace". On the first stage of the study the prevalence of tobacco smoking was assessed, and the opinions of employees of 1291 about the problem of tobacco smoking were known. The survey was conducted by means of diagnostic survey with the use of questionnaire. The chi-square test was used in statistic analyzes. It results from the study, that the majority of studied employees never has smoked and do not smoke. The problem of tobacco smoking among studied group in general did not considered women. A large group of studied employees (smokers and non-smokers) indicated, that only occasionally is exposured on passive smoking, or this problem did not consider them at all. It was stated, that there are differences in gender, age, education and tobacco smoking. More than a half of studied men do not smoke, and represents younger and better educated group. A position also differentiated studied employees in the scope of tobacco smoking. People on high managing positions smoked slightly more frequent. PMID:20301927

Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Osuchowski, Filip; Mmar?, Ma?gorzata; Januszewicz, Pawe?

2009-01-01

209

75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...population groups, including youth and young adults...strategically important to the tobacco industry''; and...to post graphic anti-tobacco messages in order to...advertising restrictions on youth smoking behavior; ...advertising will start using tobacco products; The...

2010-03-19

210

The MSA and the McCain Tobacco Bill: Smoke without a Fire?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically examines the mandates of the McCain Tobacco Bill and the Master Settlement Agreement toward addressing the youth smoking crisis in the United States. An overview of teenage smoking trends is presented, followed by the legislative history of the McCain Tobacco Bill and the Master Settlement Agreement. Reactions to this legislation are discussed, as well as predicted consequences.

Michael J. McSkimming; Nora A. Smith

2002-01-01

211

Tobacco smoke diminishes neurogenesis and promotes gliogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain disorders and environmental factors can affect neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the hippocampus. These studies investigated the effects of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke on progenitor cell proliferation and the survival and phenotype of new cells in the dentate gyrus of adolescent rats. The rats were exposed to tobacco smoke for 4h\\/day for 14days. To investigate cell proliferation, the exogenous

Adrie W. Bruijnzeel; Rayna M. Bauzo; Vikram Munikoti; Gene B. Rodrick; Hidetaka Yamada; Casimir A. Fornal; Brandi K. Ormerod; Barry L. Jacobs

2011-01-01

212

An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking by physicians represents a contentious issue in public health, and regardless of what country it originates from, the need for accurate, historical data is paramount. As such, this article provides an international comparison of all modern literature describing the tobacco smoking habits of contemporary physicians. METHODS: A keyword search of appropriate MeSH terms was initially undertaken to

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2007-01-01

213

Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer  

E-print Network

Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid (354 women and 58 men) frequency matched by gender and five-year age group. Thyroid cancer was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but no inverse dose-response relationship

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco.  

PubMed

The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed. PMID:3428180

Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J; Shane, B S; Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D

1987-01-01

215

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

216

Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

2013-10-01

217

Effects of Cooking Smoke and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Acute Respiratory Infections in Young Indian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Reliance on biomass for cooking and heating exposes many women and young children in developing countries to high levels of air pollution indoors. Environmental tobacco smoke also contributes to this indoor air pollution. This study estimates the effects of these sources of air pollution on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children below 36 months of age in India.Methods  The analysis is based

Vinod Mishra; Kirk R. Smith; Robert D. Retherford

2005-01-01

218

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates?  

Cancer.gov

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates ? Karen Messer, JP Pierce et al Tobacco Control 2007; 16:85-90; In the 1990’s CA was the only US state to spend $3.67 per person per year on Tobacco Control. The

219

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. METHODS: A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. RESULTS: Some of the earliest surveys revealed

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2008-01-01

220

Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

221

Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

Hammond, S K

1999-01-01

222

A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

2014-04-01

223

Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.  

PubMed

Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 ?g/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 ?g/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 ?g/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 ?g/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

2012-09-01

224

What scientists funded by the tobacco industry believe about the hazards of cigarette smoking.  

PubMed Central

Despite overwhelming evidence documenting the hazards of cigarette smoking, the tobacco industry denies that smoking has been proven to cause disease. The industry professes a desire to clear up the smoking and health "question" and often points to its support of the Council for Tobacco Research (CTR) as evidence of its interest in investigating the health dangers of smoking. This paper presents results of a survey of CTR-funded scientists regarding their beliefs about the health dangers posed by smoking cigarettes. The vast majority of scientists funded by the CTR believe that cigarette smoking is an addiction that causes a wide range of serious, often fatal, diseases. This result suggests that the tobacco industry is unwilling to accept even the opinions of scientists it has deemed worthy of funding. Scientists should consider the ethical implications of accepting funds from the CTR and other tobacco industry-supported institutions. PMID:2053667

Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Gingrass, A; Davis, R

1991-01-01

225

Environmental tobacco smoke and its effect on the symptoms and medication in children with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) worsens asthmatic symptoms. We analyzed the relationship between levels of ETS and asthmatic symptoms and medication. We asked parents of 282 asthmatic children about the general condition, smoke exposure and medication. Patients were classified into three groups: no-ETS (no smoking), mild-ETS (smoking in the house but not in the same room as patient), and heavy-ETS (smoking

Akira Yamasaki; Keichi Hanaki; Katsuyuki Tomita; Masanari Watanabe; Yasuyuki Hasagawa; Ryota Okazaki; Tadashi Igishi; Kenta Horimukai; Kouji Fukutani; Yuji Sugimoto; Mitsunobu Yamamoto; Kazuhiro Kato; Toshikazu Ikeda; Tatsuya Konishi; Hirokazu Tokuyasu; Hiroki Yajima; Hitoshi Sejima; Takeshi Isobe; Eiji Shimizu

2009-01-01

226

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA from leukocytes of healthy adults: relationship with cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, alcohol and coffee consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been widely used as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in both animal and human studies. However, controversial data exist on the relationship between 8-OHdG formation and age, sex and tobacco smoking in humans, while few or no data are available on other exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption. We investigated the

Albert A van Zeeland; Anton J. L de Groot; Janet Hall; Francesco Donato

1999-01-01

227

The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center is committed to improving people's lives. That's why all Medical Center locations--inside and outside--are tobacco-free. This includes all  

E-print Network

products, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and pipe smoking. Driving Directions EM North tobacco and pipe smoking. Parking Directions North Not to Scale There are construction projects occurring's why all Medical Center locations--inside and outside--are tobacco-free. This includes all tobacco

228

The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center is committed to improving people's lives. That's why all Medical Center locations--inside and outside--are tobacco-free. This includes all  

E-print Network

products, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and pipe smoking. Driving Directions 315 KING AVE, including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and pipe smoking. Parking Directions North Not to Scale's why all Medical Center locations--inside and outside--are tobacco-free. This includes all tobacco

229

A Pilot Study of Concurrent Lead and Cotinine Screening for Childhood Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Effect on Parental Smoking  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether a biomarker screening approach for tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) conducted concurrently with lead screening at well-child visits would increase parental smoking cessation and implementation of home smoking restrictions. Design Observational, quasi-experimental. Setting Pediatric clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Subjects Eighty parents who smoked and their children presenting for well-child visits. Intervention Children in the intervention group had serum cotinine measured with lead screening. Laboratory results were sent to providers and parents and a counselor proactively contacted parents to offer an eight-session telephone intervention to help parents stop smoking. The comparison group, a historical control, received usual care. Measures Parental smoking, engagement in tobacco treatment, and home and car smoking policies 8 weeks later. Analysis Mean/standard deviation for continuous data or frequency/percentage for categorical data. Results Eighty-four percent of eligible parents agreed to have their child tested for TSE along with lead testing. Measurable cotinine was identified in 93% of children. More parents in the intervention group received tobacco treatment than in the comparison group (74% vs. 0%) and more parents reported 7-day point-prevalent abstinence from smoking at 8 weeks (29% vs. 3%). Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility of adding cotinine measurement to routine well-child lead screening to document TSE in small children. Data suggest providing this information to parents increases engagement in tobacco treatment and prompts smoking cessation. PMID:23971524

Joseph, Anne; Murphy, Sharon; Thomas, Janet; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Wang, Qi; Briggs, Anna; Doyle, Brandon; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

230

Environmental tobacco smoke as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in settled household dust.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Dust and surfaces may remain contaminated long after active smoking has ceased (called 'thirdhand' smoke). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke found in settled house dust (SHD). We investigated whether tobacco smoke is a source of PAHs in SHD. House dust was collected from 132 homes in urban areas of Southern California. Total PAHs were significantly higher in smoker homes than nonsmoker homes (by concentration: 990 ng/g vs 756 ng/g, p = 0.025; by loading: 1650 ng/m(2) vs 796 ng/m(2), p = 0.012). We also found significant linear correlations between nicotine and total PAH levels in SHD (concentration, R(2) = 0.105; loading, R(2) = 0.385). Dust collected per square meter (g/m(2)) was significantly greater in smoker homes and might dilute PAH concentration in SHD inconsistently. Therefore, dust PAH loading (ng PAH/m(2)) is a better indicator of PAH content in SHD. House dust PAH loadings in the bedroom and living room in the same home were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.468, p < 0.001) suggesting PAHs are distributed by tobacco smoke throughout a home. In conclusion, tobacco smoke is a source of PAHs in SHD, and tobacco smoke generated PAHs are a component of thirdhand smoke. PMID:22397504

Hoh, Eunha; Hunt, Richard N; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Chatfield, Dale A; Wittry, Beth C; Rodriguez, Edgar; Matt, Georg E

2012-04-01

231

Reported measures of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: trials and tribulations  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This report extends previous summaries of reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure measures, reviews the empirical evidence of their validity for children's exposure, and discusses future research.?DATA SOURCES—Studies were identified by computer search and from the authors' research.?STUDY SELECTION—Studies were selected for inclusion of nicotine and/or cotinine and quantitative reported measures of ETS exposure.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Five studies found significant associations between reported quantitative exposure of children to ETS and either environmental nicotine or urine cotinine assays. Correlation coefficients between parent reports and nicotine ranged from 0.22 to 0.75. Coefficients for cotinine ranged from 0.28 to 0.71. Correlations increased over time and were stronger for parents' reports of their own smoking as a source of children's exposure than for reports of exposure from others.?CONCLUSIONS—Empirical studies show general concordance of reported and either environmental or biological measures of ETS exposure. Relationships were moderate, and suggest sufficient validity to be employed in research and service programs. Future studies need to identify the differences in types of reported or objective measures, population characteristics, etc, contributing to observed variability in order to understand better the conditions under which more valid reported ETS exposure and other measures can be obtained. Reported and either environmental or biological measures should be used in combination, and existing measures should be directed to interventions that may reduce ETS exposure among children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; children; nicotine; cotinine PMID:10982901

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.; Emmons, K.

2000-01-01

232

Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin ? chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

2014-01-01

233

Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

234

Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

2014-01-01

235

Exploring the relationships between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia in first-degree relatives  

E-print Network

cessation programs and anti-smoking campaigns implemented in many countries, up to 90% of schizophrenic1 Exploring the relationships between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia in first-degree relatives with schizophrenia could help to better understand the relationship between smoking and schizophrenia while avoiding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Viewing Tobacco Use in Movies Does It Shape Attitudes that Mediate Adolescent Smoking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Social cognitive theory posits that children develop intentions and positive expectations (utilities) about smoking prior to initiation. These attitudes and values result, in part, from observing others modeling the behavior. This study examines, for the first time, the association between viewing tobacco use in movies and attitudes toward smoking among children who have never smoked a cigarette. Design\\/ Setting:

James D. Sargent; Madeline A. Dalton; Michael L. Beach; Leila A. Mott; Jennifer J. Tickle; M. Bridget Ahrens; Todd F. Heatherton

237

Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and

2005-01-01

238

Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C

2012-01-01

239

Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed Central

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C.

2012-01-01

240

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.?DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.?RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).?CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco on-screen are significantly more likely to have an advanced smoking status and more favourable attitudes toward smoking than adolescents who choose non-smoking stars. This finding supports the proposition that the portrayal of tobacco use in contemporary motion pictures, particularly by stars who are admired by adolescents, contributes to adolescent smoking.???Keywords: adolescent smoking; movies; media influences PMID:11226355

Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

2001-01-01

241

Evidence of early tobacco in Northeastern North America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

While tobacco use was a widespread and important social practice among Native Americans during the Historic Period, the prehistoric origins of the practice are poorly understood. Smoking pipes significantly predate botanical evidence of tobacco in Eastern North America. A promising technique for addressing this problem is gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy (GC\\/MS) analysis to identify nicotine or related compounds in smoking pipe

Sean M. Rafferty

2006-01-01

242

Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

2012-08-01

243

Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Results: Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14–0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43–1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04–1.34). Interpretation: Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level. PMID:23460630

Mecredy, Graham C.; Diemert, Lori M.; Callaghan, Russell C.; Cohen, Joanna E.

2013-01-01

244

Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discover how the tobacco industry considers social class and gender in its efforts to market cigarettes in the USA, particularly to socially disadvantaged young women. Methods: A systematic on-line search of tobacco industry documents using selected keywords was conducted, and epidemiological data on smoking rates reviewed. Results: The two largest cigarette manufacturers in the USA consider "working class" young adults to be a critical market segment to promote growth of key brands. Through their own market research, these companies discovered that socially disadvantaged young women do not necessarily desire a "feminine" cigarette brand. Conclusions: Considering the tobacco industry's efforts, alongside the persistent and growing disparities in cigarette smoking by social class, and the narrowing of differences in smoking by gender, it is concluded that additional tobacco control resources ought to be directed toward working class women. PMID:15175523

Barbeau, E; Leavy-Sperounis, A; Balbach, E

2004-01-01

245

Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertis- ing to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets, and to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth- targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n=103172) gathered from

Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath; Sherry Emery; Henry Saffer; Frank J. Chaloupka; Glen Szczypka; Brian Flay; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston

2006-01-01

246

Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

2014-01-01

247

Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

2014-01-01

248

Contribution of tobacco smoke to environmental benzene exposure in Germany  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 10.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking and smoking homes, respectively. The corresponding levels of 3.5 and 4.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} were considerably lower in the suburbs. Median time-integrated 1-week benzene concentrations in the city were 10.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking homes and 13.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in smoking homes. In the suburbs, the corresponding values were 3.2 and 5.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. No difference was found between smoking and nonsmoking households located either in the city or in the suburbs. There was no statistically significant difference between benzene exposure of non-smokers in smoking and nonsmoking homes. Nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households in the city had significantly higher exposure to benzene compared to their counterparts living in the suburban. Nonsmokers from all households with smokers were significantly more exposed to benzene than nonsmokers living in the nonsmoking households (personal samplers: 13.2 vs. 7.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05; benzene in exhalate: 2.6 vs. 1.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.01; trans-muconic acid excretion in urine: 73 vs. 62 {mu}g/g creatinine), but the contribution of ETS to the total benzene exposure was relatively low compared to that from other sources. Analysis of variance showed that at most 15% of the benzene exposure of nonsmokers living in smoking homes was attributable to ETS. For nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households benzene exposure from ETS was insignificant.

Scherer, G.; Ruppert, T.; Daube, H. [Analytisch-Biologisches Forschungslabor, Muenchen (Germany)] [Analytisch-Biologisches Forschungslabor, Muenchen (Germany)

1995-12-31

249

US Adult Attitudes and Practices Regarding Smoking Restrictions and Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Changes in the Social Climate From 2000 -2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smok- ing bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and non- smokers regarding smoking bans

Robert C. McMillen; Jonathan P. Winickoff; Jonathan D. Klein; Michael Weitzman

2010-01-01

250

Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.  

PubMed Central

Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

Gold, D R

2000-01-01

251

Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.?DESIGN—Paper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.?SETTING—25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San Jose, California.?SUBJECTS—571 seventh graders with an average age of 13 years and 8 months; 57% were female. Forty-five per cent of the students were Asian, 38% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 5% were black.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Exposure to social influences, receptivity to marketing strategies, susceptibility to start smoking.?RESULTS—About 70% of the participants indicated at least moderate receptivity to tobacco marketing materials. Children who are more receptive are also more susceptible to start smoking. In addition to demographics and social influences, receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility.?CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco companies conduct marketing campaigns that effectively capture teenage attention and stimulate desire for their promotional items. These marketing strategies may function to move young teenagers from non-smoking status toward regular use of tobacco. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear association between tobacco marketing practices and youngsters' susceptibility to smoke. The findings, along with other research, provide compelling support for regulating the manner in which tobacco products are marketed, to protect young people from the tobacco industry's strategies to reach them.???Keywords: adolescents; advertising; smoking initiation PMID:9789929

Feighery, E.; Borzekowski, D.; Schooler, C.; Flora, J.

1998-01-01

252

Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban  

PubMed Central

Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

2010-01-01

253

Jeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases,  

E-print Network

-related disease and disability; a more complete study would include the effects of smoking cigar and pipe tobacco that is attributable to smoking. (For example, about 90% of lung cancers in men are caused by smoking). The resultJeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases

Gabrieli, John

254

Encoded exposure to tobacco use in social media predicts subsequent smoking behavior.  

PubMed

Purpose. Assessing the potential link between smoking behavior and exposure to mass media depictions of smoking on social networking Web sites. Design. A representative longitudinal panel of 200 young adults in Connecticut. Setting. Telephone surveys were conducted by using computer assisted telephone interviewing technology and electronic dialing for random digit dialing and listed samples. Subjects. Connecticut residents aged 18 to 24 years. Measures. To measure encoded exposure, respondents were asked whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and about how often they had seen tobacco use on television, in movies, and in social media content. Respondents were also asked about cigarette use in the past 30 days, and a series of additional questions that have been shown to be predictive of tobacco use. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to test for our main prediction that reported exposure to social media tobacco depictions at time 1 would influence time 2 smoking behavior. Results. Encoded exposure to social media tobacco depictions (B = .47, p < .05) was a significant predictor of time 2 smoking, even after controlling for all the aforementioned predictors. Conclusion. Our results suggest that social media depictions of tobacco use predict future smoking tendency, over and above the influence of TV and movie depictions of smoking. This is the first known study to specifically assess the role of social media in informing tobacco behavior. PMID:24670071

Depue, Jacob B; Southwell, Brian G; Betzner, Anne E; Walsh, Barbara M

2015-01-01

255

Awareness of an obstetric population about environmental tobacco smoking  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The reported rate of women's smoking is typically low. However, many pregnant women are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which could affect their own health and the health of their growing fetus. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the problem of exposure to ETS and assess the awareness of postpartum women to ETS and its possible effects. Designs and Settings: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1182 postpartum women at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1st January and 30th June, 2012. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with the level of understanding of the possible effects of ETS exposure were analyzed. Results: The majority of the participating women knew that exposure to ETS had adverse effects on maternal and fetal health (>80%), but their knowledge of the specific effects on fetal health was limited. The level of mothers’ education was found to be associated with better knowledge of effects on mother and fetal health (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study revealed that pregnant women in our sample had limited knowledge of the specific effects of ETS on fetal health. This shortcoming in knowledge needs to be addressed by improving health. PMID:24696630

Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Alzeidan, Rasmieh A.; Mandil, Ahmed M. A.; Fayed, Amel A.; Marwa, Bilal; Wahabi, Hayfaa A.

2014-01-01

256

Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach  

PubMed Central

There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

257

Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.  

PubMed

The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke. PMID:12198849

Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

2002-07-26

258

Early Age at Smoking Initiation and Tobacco Carcinogen DNA Damage in the Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: DNA adducts formed as a consequence of exposure to tobacco smoke may be involved in carcinogen- esis, and their presence may indicate a high risk of lung cancer. To determine whether DNA adducts can be used as a \\

John K. Wiencke; Sally W. Thurston; Karl T. Kelsey; Andrea Varkonyi; John C. Wain; Eugene J. Mark; David C. Christiani

259

Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

260

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

261

Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to ?0.01

Jibao Cai; Baizhan Liu; Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su

2002-01-01

262

Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM 10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM 10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM 2.5) and even smaller particles (PM 1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information on fine particles is needed. Aiming to evaluate the impact of tobacco smoke on public health, this work evaluates the influence of tobacco smoke on the characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 considering concentration and elemental composition. Samples were collected at sites influenced by tobacco smoke, as well as at reference sites, using low-volume samplers; the element analyses were performed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE); Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, I, Ba, La, Ce and Pb were quantified. At the sites influenced by tobacco smoke concentrations were 270-560% higher for PM 10 and 320-680% higher for PM 2.5 than at reference sites. Tobacco smoke increased the total concentrations of five carcinogenic elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb) 1100-2400% for PM 10 and 840-2200% for PM 2.5. The elements associated with tobacco smoke (S, K, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were predominantly present in the fine fraction; the elements mostly originating from building erosion (Mg, Al, Si and Ca) predominantly occurred in the coarse particles. The analysis of enrichment factors confirmed that tobacco smoking mainly influenced the composition of the fine fraction of particles; as these smaller particles have a strong influence on health, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

Slezakova, K.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

263

Narghile (water pipe) smoking influences platelet function and (iso-)eicosanoids.  

PubMed

The biological effects of smoking water pipe on haemostasis and the eicosanoid system is unknown. Water pipe smoking is familiar to approximately 1 billion people around the world. Considering this quite impressive number, we investigated the potential effect of smoking the Narghile on oxidation injury by monitoring parameters of the (iso)eicosanoid system. Patients were allowed to smoke a water pipe once daily for 14 days. Blood was drawn from 7 healthy adult non-cigarette smoking male volunteers before and immediately after the first smoking of the water pipe and additionally after 6 hours. One and 2 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn again before and after smoking. A total of 7 blood samples was drawn during the study, and parameters of in vivo oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha, malondialdehyde [MDA]) and haemostasis (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-DH-TXB2]) were investigated. A single smoking session increased oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha: p=0.03; MDA: p=0.001) and 11-DH-TXB2 (p=0.00003) significantly, and repeated daily smoking induced a persistent long-lasting oxidation injury reflected by elevated prevalues but a smaller response to the actual water pipe smoke. These findings indicate a significant increase of in vivo oxidative stress by regular water pipe smoking. PMID:14575812

Wolfram, Roswitha M; Chehne, Fahdi; Oguogho, Anthony; Sinzinger, Helmut

2003-11-21

264

Beliefs about Tobacco Industry (mal)Practices and Youth Smoking Behaviour: Insight for Future Tobacco Control Campaigns (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine how student beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to occasional and regular\\u000a smoking among 9th to 12th graders. These findings can provide insight for developing new tobacco industry denormalization\\u000a messages for youth smoking populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional data were collected from 14,767 grade 9 to 12 students attending 22 secondary schools within one Public Health\\u000a Region

Scott T. Leatherdale; Robert Sparks; Victoria A. Kirsh

2006-01-01

265

Reversible and permanent effects of tobacco smoke exposure on airway epithelial gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the US. The risk of dying from smoking-related diseases remains elevated for former smokers years after quitting. The identification of irreversible effects of tobacco smoke on airway gene expression may provide insights into the causes of this elevated risk. Results Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we measured gene expression in large airway epithelial cells obtained via bronchoscopy from never, current, and former smokers (n = 104). Linear models identified 175 genes differentially expressed between current and never smokers, and classified these as irreversible (n = 28), slowly reversible (n = 6), or rapidly reversible (n = 139) based on their expression in former smokers. A greater percentage of irreversible and slowly reversible genes were down-regulated by smoking, suggesting possible mechanisms for persistent changes, such as allelic loss at 16q13. Similarities with airway epithelium gene expression changes caused by other environmental exposures suggest that common mechanisms are involved in the response to tobacco smoke. Finally, using irreversible genes, we built a biomarker of ever exposure to tobacco smoke capable of classifying an independent set of former and current smokers with 81% and 100% accuracy, respectively. Conclusion We have categorized smoking-related changes in airway gene expression by their degree of reversibility upon smoking cessation. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms leading to reversible and persistent effects of tobacco smoke that may explain former smokers increased risk for developing tobacco-induced lung disease and provide novel targets for chemoprophylaxis. Airway gene expression may also serve as a sensitive biomarker to identify individuals with past exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:17894889

Beane, Jennifer; Sebastiani, Paola; Liu, Gang; Brody, Jerome S; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

2007-01-01

266

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in

Norbert Hirschhorn; Stella Aguinaga Bialous

2001-01-01

267

Survival of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Due to Biomass Smoke and Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Women exposed chronically to biomass develop airflow limitation, as tobacco smokers do, but their clinical profile and survival have not been described in detail. Objective: To determine the clinical profile, survival, and prognostic factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with biomass exposure and tobacco smoking. Methods: During a 7-yr period (1996-2003), a consecutive series of 520 patients were

Alejandra Ramirez-Venegas; Raul H. Sansores; Rogelio Perez-Padilla; Justino Regalado; Alejandra Velazquez; Candelaria Sanchez; Maria Eugenia Mayar

2005-01-01

268

QUESTIONNAIRE ASSESSMENT OF LIFETIME AND RECENT EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a sample of 140 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1966, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire response on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. hey also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports of environmental tobacco smo...

269

Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strat- egy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10 035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to

James F. Thrasher; Jeffrey D. Niederdeppe; Christine Jackson; Matthew C. Farrelly

2006-01-01

270

Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

271

Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

2006-01-01

272

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on the effects of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and ill health in Sweden.Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden.Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner

J Foulds; L Ramstrom; M Burke; K Fagerstro?m

2003-01-01

273

Is smoking tobacco an independent risk factor for HIV infection and progression to AIDS? A systemic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To systematically review the evidence of the relation between smoking tobacco and HIV seroconversion and progression to AIDS.Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of studies to look at tobacco smoking as a risk factor for either HIV seroconversion or progression to AIDS.Results: Six studies were identified with HIV seroconversion as an outcome measure. Five of these indicated that smoking

A S Furber; R Maheswaran; J N Newell; C Carroll

2007-01-01

274

Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to

Leslie K Jacobsen; Theodore A Slotkin; W Einar Mencl; Stephen J Frost; Kenneth R Pugh

2007-01-01

275

Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

Jiang, Nan

2011-01-01

276

THE ROLE OF TOBACCO SMOKE INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE IN VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals chronically exposed to tobacco smoke will eventually succumb to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, despite the major cardiovascular health implications of tobacco smoke exposure, concepts of how such exposure specifically results in cardiovascular cell dysfunction that leads to CVD development are still being explored. Moreover, surprisingly little is known about the effects of prenatal and childhood tobacco smoke exposure on adult CVD development. Herein, it is proposed that the mitochondrion is a central target for environmental oxidants, including tobacco smoke. By virtue of its multiple, essential roles in cell function including energy production, oxidant signaling, apoptosis, immune response, and thermogenesis, damage to the mitochondrion will likely play an important role in the development of multiple common forms of human disease, including CVD. Specifically, this review will discuss the potential role of tobacco smoke and environmental oxidant exposure in the induction of mitochondrial damage which is related to CVD development. Furthermore, mechanisms of how mitochondrial damage can initiate and/or contribute to CVD are discussed, as are experimental results that are consistent with the hypothesis that mitochondrial damage and dysfunction will increase CVD susceptibility. Aspects of both adult and developmental (fetal and childhood) exposure to tobacco smoke on mitochondrial damage, function and disease development are also discussed, including the future implications and direction of studies involving the role of the mitochondrion in influencing disease susceptibility mediated by environmental factors. PMID:17428506

Yang, Zhen; Harrison, Corey M.; Chuang, Gin; Ballinger, Scott W.

2007-01-01

277

The tobacco industry’s past role in weight control related to smoking  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson and British American Tobacco) that were Defendants in tobacco litigation settled in 1998. Findings are dated from 1949 to 1999. Results: The documents revealed the strategies planned and used by the industry to enhance effects of smoking on weight and appetite, mostly by chemical modifications of cigarettes contents. Appetite-suppressant molecules, such as tartaric acid and 2-acetylpyridine were added to some cigarettes. Conclusion: These tobacco companies played an active and not disclaimed role in the anti-appetite effects of smoking, at least in the past, by adding appetite-suppressant molecules into their cigarettes. PMID:21474548

Jacot-Sadowski, Isabelle; Diethelm, Pascal A.; Barras, Vincent; Cornuz, Jacques

2012-01-01

278

Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.  

PubMed

Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups. PMID:24871250

Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskink?l?ç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Ta?t?, Enver; Er?ahin, Y?lmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

2014-05-30

279

Regional cerebral blood flow and plasma nicotine after smoking tobacco cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis for this research is that only in some brain areas, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after tobacco smoking is correlated with arterial plasma nicotine concentrations. Twenty-one healthy adult tobacco smokers of both genders were studied after overnight tobacco abstinence. H215O water was used to measure rCBF. Six separate scans were taken about 12 min apart with the subjects'

Edward F. Domino; Lisong Ni; Yanjun Xu; Robert A. Koeppe; Sally Guthrie; Jon-Kar Zubieta

2004-01-01

280

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic and Myeloid Leukemias by Cytogenetic Subtype  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens known to damage somatic and germ cells. We investigated the effect tobacco smoke on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML), especially subtypes of pre-natal origin like ALL with translocation t(12;21) or high-hyperdiploidy (51–67 chromosomes). Methods We collected information on exposures to tobacco smoking before conception, during pregnancy, and after birth in 767 ALL cases, 135 AML cases, and 1,139 controls (1996–2008). Among cases, chromosome translocations, deletions, or aneuploidy were identified by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Results Multivariable regression analyses for ALL and AML overall showed no definite evidence of associations with self-reported (yes/no) parental prenatal active smoking and child's passive smoking. However, children with history of paternal prenatal smoking combined with postnatal passive smoking had a 1.5-fold increased risk of ALL (95% CI: 1.01–2.23), compared to those without smoking history (ORs for pre- or postnatal smoking only were close to one). This joint effect was seen for B-cell precursor ALL with t(12;21) (OR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.04–4.16), but not high hyperdiploid B-cell ALL. Similarly, child's passive smoking was associated with an elevated risk of AML with chromosome structural changes (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.01–7.58), but not aneuploidy. Conclusions our data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoking before were associated with increased risks of childhood ALL and AML; and risks varied by timing of exposure (before and/or after birth) and cytogenetic subtype, based on imprecise estimates. Impact Parents should limit exposures to tobacco smoke before and after the child's birth. PMID:23853208

Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bartley, Karen; Schiffman, Joshua; Ma, Xiaomei; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Chang, Jeffrey S.; Selvin, Steve; Fu, Cecilia H.; Ducore, Jonathan; Smith, Martyn T.; Buffler, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

281

Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.  

PubMed

This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

Ribisl, Kurt M

2012-01-01

282

Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives  

PubMed Central

Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

2015-01-01

283

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute presents this 19th monograph in the Tobacco Control Monograph Series, The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Monograph 19 provides a critical, scientific review and synthesis of the current evidence regarding the power of the media, both to encourage and to discourage tobacco use. It is the most current and comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on media communication in tobacco promotion and tobacco control.

284

Threshold of Biologic Responses of the Small Airway Epithelium to Low Levels of Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Epidemiologic data demonstrate that individuals exposed to low levels of tobacco smoke have decrements in lung function and higher risk for lung disease compared with unexposed individuals. Although this risk is small, low-level tobacco smoke exposure is so widespread, it is a significant public health concern. Objectives: To identify biologic correlates of this risk we hypothesized that, compared with unexposed individuals, individuals exposed to low levels of tobacco smoke have biologic changes in the small airway epithelium, the site of the first abnormalities associated with smoking. Methods: Small airway epithelium was obtained by bronchoscopy from 121 individuals; microarrays were used to assess genome-wide gene expression; urine nicotine and cotinine were used to categorize subjects as “nonsmokers,” “active smokers,” and “low exposure.” Gene expression data were used to determine the threshold and induction half maximal level (ID50) of urine nicotine and cotinine at which the small airway epithelium showed abnormal responses. Measurements and Main Results: There was no threshold of urine nicotine without a small airway epithelial response, and only slightly above detectable urine cotinine threshold with a small airway epithelium response. The ID50 for nicotine was 25 ng/ml and for cotinine it was 104 ng/ml. Conclusions: The small airway epithelium detects and responds to low levels of tobacco smoke with transcriptome modifications. This provides biologic correlates of epidemiologic studies linking low-level tobacco smoke exposure to lung health risk, identifies the genes most sensitive to tobacco smoke, and defines thresholds at which the lung epithelium responds to low levels of tobacco smoke. PMID:20693378

Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Omberg, Larsson; O'Mahony, Michael; Gordon, Cynthia; Hollmann, Charleen; Tilley, Ann E.; Salit, Jacqueline; Mezey, Jason; Harvey, Ben-Gary; Crystal, Ronald G.

2010-01-01

285

Urinary Tobacco Smoke Constituent Biomarkers for Assessing Risk of Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco constituent biomarkers are metabolites of specific compounds present in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Highly reliable analytical methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed for quantitation of these biomarkers in both urine and blood specimens. There is substantial inter-individual variation in smoking-related lung cancer risk that is determined in part by individual variability in the uptake and metabolism of tobacco smoke carcinogens. Thus, by incorporating these biomarkers in epidemiological studies we can potentially obtain a more valid and precise measure of in vivo carcinogen dose than by using self-reported smoking history, ultimately improving the estimation of smoking-related lung cancer risk. Indeed, we have demonstrated this by using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in urine samples collected from smokers many years prior to their development of cancer, versus those in their smoking counterparts without a cancer diagnosis. The following urinary metabolites were associated with lung cancer risk, independent of smoking intensity and duration: cotinine plus its glucuronide, a biomarker of nicotine uptake; 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); and r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results provide several possible new directions for using tobacco smoke constituent biomarkers in lung cancer prevention, including improved lung cancer risk assessment, intermediate outcome determination in prevention trials and regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24408916

Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M.; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S.

2014-01-01

286

Smoking causes blindness: time for eye care professionals to join the fight against tobacco.  

PubMed

Sight is an important indicator of health and quality of life. Approximately, 3.4 million Americans 40 years of age and older are visually impaired or blind. Evidence suggests that smoking increases the risk of the most common sight-threatening conditions of eye disease. Half a century after the release of the 1964 landmark Surgeon General's report on smoking and health, tobacco smoking continues to be the leading public health problem in the United States, and nearly half a million adults annually die prematurely from smoking-related diseases. On the historic occasion of the 50(th) anniversary of the 1964 report, the 2014 Surgeon General's report is devoted to smoking and health. This report provides new evidence about the link between cigarette smoking and eye disease, which signifies a new role for eye-care professionals in tobacco control on two levels. First, on a clinical level, eye care professionals should integrate smoking cessation treatment in the standard care of patients' management in eye-care settings in order to motivate and help smoking patients in quitting smoking. Second, on a political level, eye care providers can serve as powerful public advocates against tobacco use, thereby significantly enhancing public awareness about the link between smoking and eye disease. PMID:25680974

Asfar, Tahgrid; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J

2015-02-01

287

Correlates of Continued Tobacco Use and Intention to Quit Smoking Among Russian Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tobacco use among cancer patients is associated with adverse health outcomes. Little attention has been paid to tobacco use\\u000a among cancer patients in developing countries, including Russia, where tobacco use is extremely high, and there is little\\u000a public health infrastructure to address this issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined medical, socio-demographic, and psychological correlates of smoking status and intention to quit smoking

Robert A. Schnoll; Somasundaram Subramanian; Elisa Martinez; Paul F. Engstrom

288

Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

1985-05-01

289

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2013-01-01

290

Bladder cancer, tobacco smoking, coffee and alcohol drinking in Brescia, northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between tobacco smoking, the consumption of coffee and alcohol and bladder cancer was investigated in a hospital-based case-control study in Brescia, northern Italy. A total of 172 incident cases (135 men and 37 women) and 578 controls (398 men and 180 women) were enrolled. As expected, cigarette smoking was strongly associated with bladder cancer. The odds ratios (OR)

Francesco Donato; Paolo Boffetta; Raffaella Fazioli; Vito Aulenti; Umberto Gelatti; Stefano Porru

1997-01-01

291

Prevalence of and Associations with Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among U.S. University Students  

PubMed Central

Background Although waterpipe tobacco smoking seems to be increasing on U.S. university campuses, these data have come from convenience samples. Purpose We aimed to determine the prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among a random sample of students. Methods We surveyed a random sample of graduate and undergraduate students at a large, urban university. We used multivariate modeling to determine independent associations between belief-related predictors and waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Of the 647 respondents, waterpipe smoking was reported in 40.5%, over the past year in 30.6%, and over the past 30 days in 9.5%. Over half of the sample (52.1%) perceived that tobacco smoking from a waterpipe was less addictive than cigarette smoking. In fully adjusted multivariate models, 1-year waterpipe smoking was associated with low perceived harm (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.68, 3.83), low perceived addictiveness (OR=4.64, 95% CI=3.03, 7.10), perception of high social acceptability (OR=20.00, 95% CI=6.03, 66.30), and high perception of popularity (OR=4.72, 95% CI=2.85, 7.82). Conclusions In this sample, lifetime waterpipe use was as common as lifetime cigarette use. Perception of harm, perception of addictiveness, social acceptability, and popularity were all strongly related to waterpipe smoking. PMID:18719977

Primack, Brian A.; Sidani, Jaime; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Shadel, William G.; Donny, Eric C.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

292

State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

2010-01-01

293

Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

2012-01-01

294

Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to

Theodore A Slotkin

2004-01-01

295

Changes in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: The Beaver Dam Experience  

PubMed Central

Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Our goal was to determine if ETS exposure changed between 1998–2000 and 2003–2005 among participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Methods ETS exposure was ascertained using a cotinine-validated questionnaire at the 5-year (1998–2000) and 10-year follow-up examinations (2003–2005). Non-smoking participants with data from both visits were included (n=1898; ages 53–96 years at 5-yr follow-up). McNemar’s test was used to test differences in ETS exposure overall and in three settings: home, work, and social settings. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for multivariate logistic regression models of exposure. Results The proportion of nonsmokers with no or little ETS exposure increased from 80% to 88% (p<0.0001). The percent living in a home with no indoor smokers increased from 94% to 97% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting no exposure at work increased from 91% to 95% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting the lowest frequency of social exposure increased from 65% to 77% (p<0.0001). In the GEE model, age was inversely associated with exposure (Odds Ratio (OR) per 5 yr=0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=0.76, 0.86), as was education (OR for college vs

Wichmann, Margarete A; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Chappell, Richard; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Fischer, Mary E

2013-01-01

296

Public Health Under Attack: The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

We describe the tobacco industry’s response to the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Tobacco industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco/Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and industry Web sites were analyzed. LexisNexis and the Library of Congress’s Thomas Web site were searched for legislative history. We found that the tobacco industry considered ASSIST a major threat because of its emphasis on policy and creation of local tobacco control infrastructures. The industry mobilized resources for a well-coordinated attack on ASSIST. Although industry executives were sometimes frustrated in their efforts, they ultimately had a chilling effect on ASSIST. This evidence suggest that tobacco control advocates should expect a vigorous response from the tobacco industry to policy advocacy efforts, particularly at the local level. PMID:14759933

White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

297

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

298

Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in tobacco smoke, and pathways for formation of OH and peroxyl species. Tobacco smoke provides a new perspective of radical generation in a relatively well-defined biomass burning process.

Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

2012-12-01

299

The impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke on hospitality workers.  

PubMed

Tobacco use has a substantial impact on hospitality industry employees because of the disproportionate prevalence of smoking among these workers and because of the high levels of secondhand smoke to which they are exposed. The severity of this impact is evidenced by the high mortality rates observed among hospitality industry workers from diseases related to tobacco smoke exposure. Several states and localities have begun to enact laws to protect these workers from secondhand smoke exposure. Such policies seem to be effective in reducing exposure and improving health among these workers without causing any adverse impact on business. Occupational clinicians can play a significant role in protecting the health of hospitality workers by supporting laws to create smoke-free workplaces, including bars and restaurants, and promoting smoking cessation in these worksites. PMID:16446252

Siegel, Michael; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Osinubi, Omowunmi Y

2006-01-01

300

Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

301

Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z. [Rovinj Crotia J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01

302

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure  

SciTech Connect

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-06-01

303

Sex Differences in Nicotine Reinforcement and Reward: Influences on the Persistence of Tobacco Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors that acutely reinforce tobacco smoking behavior can be divided into nicotine and non-nicotine contributions. Substantial\\u000a laboratory-based research suggests that the smoking behavior of women, relative to that of men, is less sensitive to manipulations\\u000a of nicotine and more sensitive to manipulations of non-nicotine factors, such as smoking-associated environmental stimuli\\u000a (e.g., cues). This chapter examines controlled human research on

Kenneth A. Perkins

304

Tobacco Use and Interest in Smoking Cessation Among Latinos Attending Community Health Fairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health fairs are vital for reaching underserved Latinos providing access to health services including smoking cessation. The\\u000a purpose of this study is to describe tobacco use and interest in smoking cessation among Latino smokers attending community\\u000a health fairs. We surveyed 262 self-identified Latinos attending health fairs; we assessed smoking behavior and attitudes of\\u000a 53 (20.2%) current smokers. Smokers were mostly

A. Paula Cupertino; Lisa Sanderson Cox; Susan Garrett; Natalia Suarez; Hannah Sandt; Irazema Mendoza; Edward F. Ellerbeck

305

Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and available through http:// roswell.tobaccodocuments.org, supplemented with documents obtained from http://www.tobaccodocuments.org. Results: Tobacco company documents provide clear evidence on the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette smoking, describing how tax related and other price increases lead to significant reductions in smoking, particularly among young persons. This information was very important in developing the industry's pricing strategies, including the development of lower price branded generics and the pass through of cigarette excise tax increases, and in developing a variety of price related marketing efforts, including multi-pack discounts, couponing, and others. Conclusions: Pricing and price related promotions are among the most important marketing tools employed by tobacco companies. Future tobacco control efforts that aim to raise prices and limit price related marketing efforts are likely to be important in achieving reductions in tobacco use and the public health toll caused by tobacco. PMID:11893816

Chaloupka, F; Cummings, K; Morley, C.; Horan, J.

2002-01-01

306

Drugs on the internet, part III: tobacco and smoking on the web.  

PubMed

This study examines the types of tobacco- and smoking-related websites that are available on the Internet. The search terms used were nicotine, tobacco, and cigarette. These terms were searched in the engines Google and Yahoo as well as video-sharing website YouTube and analyzed based on the search engine results pages (SERPs) that were produced. The results returned the following categories of websites: health information and news, smoking cessation, product ads/sales, history of tobacco and smoking, prosmoking/pleasure, smoking prevention/control, and miscellaneous. Results showed fluctuations in the number of search engine results by search term and date. There also was variable quality and availability of informative resources for Internet users due to lack of quality control criteria and regulation. PMID:23050592

Morgan, Melissa; Montagne, Michael

2013-01-01

307

Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

2014-01-01

308

Is prenatal tobacco exposure a risk factor for early adolescent smoking? A follow-up study.  

PubMed

Recent reports indicate a relation between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and offspring smoking. Many of these reports have been retrospective or have not included important variables such as other prenatal substance exposures, maternal and child psycho-social characteristics, mother's current smoking, and friends' smoking. No prior study has examined the timing of PTE. In this prospective study of a birth cohort of 567 14-year-olds, we examined the relation between trimester-specific PTE, offspring smoking, and other correlates of adolescent smoking. Average age of the adolescents was 14.8 years (range: 13.9-16.6 years), 51% were female, 54% were African-American. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected both prenatally and postnatally, 51% of the mothers were prenatal smokers and 53% smoked when their children were 14 years. PTE in the third trimester significantly predicted offspring smoking (ever/never, smoking level, age of onset) when demographic and other prenatal substances were included in the analyses. PTE remained a significant predictor of the level of adolescent smoking when maternal and child psychological characteristics were added to the model. When more proximal measures of the child's smoking were included in the model, including mother's current smoking and friends' smoking, PTE was no longer significant. Significant predictors of adolescent smoking at age 14 were female gender, Caucasian race, child externalizing behavior, maternal anxiety, and child depressive symptoms. Although direct effects of PTE on offspring smoking behavior have previously been reported from this study and by others, by early-adolescence, this association is not significant after controlling for the more proximal covariates of adolescent smoking such as mother's current smoking and peer smoking. PMID:16014324

Cornelius, Marie D; Leech, Sharon L; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

2005-01-01

309

[Women and smoking. A challenge for the tobacco control policy in Germany].  

PubMed

In Germany, smoking rates among women have been slightly declining since 2003. However, smoking rates among young women and girls are high and are reaching the smoking rates of their male counterparts. Only about half of pregnant smokers below the age of 25 stop smoking. Women and girls with low education and low level jobs, those who are unemployed, as well as single parents have the highest smoking rates. The tobacco industry promotes smoking behavior of women and girls through marketing campaigns, thus, systematically counteracting smoking prevention activities. Within the framework of the annual conference 2008 of the Federal Drug Commissioner on the theme of "Women and Smoking", recommendations for a gender-specific tobacco control policy in Germany were developed. The main demands relate to the necessity of a targeted policy approach which takes into account the needs and life circumstances of women and girls, the development of integrated prevention programs for pregnant women, improved medical and preventive care, the involvement of women from the media and culture, from health professions and politics to promote a smoke-free culture, gender-specific research, and the improvement of tobacco control legislation. FACT (Frauen aktiv contra Tabak e.V.) actively supports the implementation of these policy recommendations. PMID:20069267

Fleitmann, S; Dohnke, B; Balke, K; Rustler, C; Sonntag, U

2010-02-01

310

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of solanesol was compromised--as it had been in the chamber experiments.

Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

2004-03-02

311

Cardiovascular effects of nose-only water-pipe smoking exposure in mice.  

PubMed

Water-pipe smoking (WPS) is a major type of smoking in Middle Eastern countries and is increasing in popularity in Western countries and is perceived as relatively safe. However, data on the adverse cardiovascular effects of WPS are scarce. Here, we assessed the cardiovascular effects of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS generated by commercially available honey-flavored "moasel" tobacco in BALB/c mice. The duration of the session was 30 min/day for 1 mo. Control mice were exposed to air. WPS caused a significant increase of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in vivo (+13 mmHg) and plasma concentrations of IL-6 (+30%) but not that of TNF-?. Heart concentrations of IL-6 (+184%) and TNF-? (+54%) were significantly increased by WPS. Concentrations of ROS (+95%) and lipid peroxidation (+27%) were significantly increased, whereas those of GSH were decreased (-21%). WPS significantly shortened the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles (-46%) and venules (40%). Plasma von Willebrand factor concentrations were significantly increased (+14%) by WPS. Erythrocyte numbers (+15%) and hematocrit (+17%) were significantly increased. Blood samples taken from mice exposed to WPS and exposed to ADP showed significant platelet aggregation compared with air-exposed mice. WPS caused a significant shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time (-45%) and prothrombin time (-13%). We conclude that 1-mo nose-only exposure to WPS increased SBP and caused cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, and prothrombotic events. Our findings provide plausible elucidation that WPS is injurious to the cardiovascular system. PMID:23812392

Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; John, Annie; Raza, Haider; Ali, Badreldin H

2013-09-01

312

Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.  

PubMed

A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis. PMID:22392377

Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

2012-04-01

313

Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoke is one of the greatest sources of indoor particles, which has been linked with serious health effects. Consequently, there has been a widespread interest in analysing tobacco related indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, the majority of performed studies focused on bulk chemical composition of tobacco related PM, but the knowledge of individual tobacco smoke particles is still limited. Therefore, more information on PM should be provided, namely concerning morphological and chemical characterisation of individual particles. Aiming to further understand the impact of tobacco smoke on human health, this work studied the influence of tobacco smoke on chemical and morphological characteristics of PM 10 and PM 2.5, collected at one site influenced by smoking and at one reference (non-smoking) site. Chemical and morphological characteristics of 4000 individual particles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray microanalysis (by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer - EDS). Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify different particle groups that occurred in PM, aiming the identification of the respective emission sources. The results showed that tobacco smoke influenced the characteristics of both fine and coarse particles, this influence being stronger for fine fraction. The abundance of particles associated with tobacco smoke was 27% and 5% for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, respectively; as expected, those particles were not identified in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 of the reference (non-smoking) site. The results showed that at both sites PM was also influenced by outdoor sources. For PM 2.5-10, outdoor particles essentially originated from natural sources accounting for 35% and 15% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively. For PM 2.5, outdoor particles account for 38% and 29% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively; these particles showed considerable contribution (13% and 17%) from anthropogenic sources (mainly from traffic emissions). In general SEM-EDS showed to be a useful technique to complement characterisation of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, and to identify the respective emission sources.

Slezakova, K.; Pires, J. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

2011-02-01

314

The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the smoking areas compared to the non-smoking areas of pubs that contained both smoking and non-smoking sections. Median concentrations of RSP and nicotine were reduced by 18% and 68%, respectively, in non-smoking areas. UVPM, FPM and SolPM median concentrations were reduced by 27%, 34% and 39%, demonstrating the increased tobacco-specificity of the particulate markers and the impact of non-smoking areas. Levels of particulate phase ETS markers were also found to be higher in the smoking sections of pubs that allowed smoking throughout compared to the smoking sections of pubs with other areas where smoking was prohibited. The presence of a non-smoking section has the effect of reducing concentrations even in the smoking areas. This may be caused by migration of smoke into the non-smoking section thereby diluting the smoking area or by smokers tending to avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

315

Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. Results We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women’s use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Conclusions Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit. PMID:23816366

2013-01-01

316

Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider  

PubMed Central

Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

2011-01-01

317

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

2011-05-01

318

Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

2013-06-01

319

Waterpipe smoking: analysis of the aroma profile of flavored waterpipe tobaccos.  

PubMed

In the last years the habit of smoking waterpipes has spread worldwide, especially among young people and emerged as global health issue. Although research is now under way for no less than 40 years in the field of waterpipe smoking, in comparison to cigarette smoking there is still insufficient knowledge on the real composition and the toxicity of the smoke inhaled and the resulting levels of exposure against particular hazardous ingredients. In most cases for waterpipe smoking a highly flavored tobacco called "moassel" is used. However, the number, quantity and toxicity of the added flavorings are widely unknown. In this study the static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) was used to identify 79 volatile flavor compounds present in waterpipe tobacco. Among these eleven compounds were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that waterpipe tobacco contains high amounts of the fragrance benzyl alcohol as well as considerable levels of limonene, linalool and eugenol, all of which are known as being allergenic in human skin. The proposed SHS-GC-MS method has been validated and found to be accurate, simple and characterized by low limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.016 to 4.3 µg/g tobacco for benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, respectively. The identification and characterization of waterpipe tobacco ingredients indeed reveals crucial for the assessment of potential health risks that may be posed by these additives in smokers. PMID:24054646

Schubert, Jens; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

2013-10-15

320

Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans). Overall, 144 (38.7%) self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9%) of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1?mg/dL; P < 0.01) and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P = 0.03). There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent. PMID:25114801

Rubinstein, Mark L.; Harris, D. Robert; Rudy, Bret J.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Mulligan, Kathleen

2014-01-01

321

Environmental Tobacco Smoke as Risk Factor in School Children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is defined as a human cancerogen class A, due daily exposure is responsible for health hazards consider as almost equal as smoking of tobacco. Goal: Monitoring of exposure of school children to ETS as indicator of enforcement of ban of smoking in public places as tobacco control measure in the Federation of BiH. Methods: Analysis of surveys findings performed in the Federation of BiH in period 2008-2013, with particular focus on ETS exposure in school children. Results: A survey findings indicates decrease of exposure to ETS in school children ate home from 79.0% in 2008 to 62.1% in 2013, as well decrease of exposure to ETS in public places from 85.0% in 2008 to 59.8% in 2013. However, 65.8% of school children in the Federation of BiH are daily expose to ETS in school premises and only 54.6% of school children have been taught in school about health consequences of tobacco smoke. Over three quarter of school children or 80.1% are in favor of ban of smoking in public places. Conclusions: Exposure to ETS in school children considers as significant evidence for more efficient enforcement of tobacco control legislation in the Federation of BiH. PMID:25648163

Ramic-Catak, Aida; Maksumic-Dizdarevic, Adnana

2014-01-01

322

The Philippines is Marlboro country for youth smoking: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000 to 2007 Marlboro clearly became the most preferred brand in both boys and girls. Further, Marlboro smokers were found to exhibit a stronger commitment to smoking, to smoke more frequently, and to hold more positive images of smoking compared to other brand smokers. Tobacco control efforts in the Philippines may benefit from educational and policy initiatives that lead to aggressive counter marketing efforts to address the industry's efforts to portray positive images of smoking. PMID:23185836

Page, Randy M; West, Joshua H

2012-01-01

323

Evaluation of In Vitro Assays For Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vitro toxicology studies of tobacco and tobacco smoke have been used to understand why tobacco use causes cancer and to assess the toxicological impact of tobacco product design changes. The need for toxicology studies has been heightened given that the FDA’s newly granted authority over tobacco products requires mandating performance standards for tobacco products and evaluate manufacturers’ health claims. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps. Methods PubMed database searches were used to identify tobacco-related in vitro toxicology studies published since 1980. Articles published prior to 1980 with high relevance also were identified. The data was compiled to examine: 1) goals of the study; 2) methods for collecting test substances; 3) experimental designs; 4) toxicological endpoints, and; 5) relevance to cancer risk. Results A variety of in vitro assays are available to assess tobacco and tobacco smoke that address different modes of action, mostly using non-human cell models. Smokeless tobacco products perform poorly in these assays. While reliable as a screening tool for qualitative assessments, the available in vitro assays have been poorly validated for quantitative comparisons of different products. Assay batteries have not been developed, although they exist for non-tobacco assessments. Extrapolating data from in vitro studies to human risks remains hypothetical. Conclusions In vitro toxicology methods are useful for screening toxicity, but better methods are needed for today’s context of regulation and evaluation of health claims. PMID:19959677

Wan, J.; Johnson, M.; Schilz, J.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Rice, J.R.; Shields, P.G.

2009-01-01

324

An inter-machine comparison of tobacco smoke particle deposition in vitro from six independent smoke exposure systems.  

PubMed

There are several whole smoke exposure systems used to assess the biological and toxicological impact of tobacco smoke in vitro. One such system is the Vitrocell® VC 10 Smoking Robot and exposure module. Using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) installed into the module, we were able to assess tobacco smoke particle deposition in real-time. We compared regional deposition across the module positions and doses delivered by six VC 10s in four independent laboratories: two in the UK, one in Germany and one in China. Gauge R&r analysis was applied to the total data package from the six VC 10s. As a percentage of the total, reproducibility (between all six VC 10s) and repeatability (error within an individual VC 10) accounted for 0.3% and 7.4% respectively. Thus Gauge R&r was 7.7%, less than 10% overall and considered statistically fit for purpose. The dose-responses obtained from the six machines across the four different locations demonstrated excellent agreement. There were little to no positional differences across the module at all airflows as determined by ANOVA (except for one machine and at three airflows only). These results support the on-going characterisation of the VC 10 exposure system and suitability for tobacco smoke exposure in vitro. PMID:24997294

Adamson, J; Thorne, D; Errington, G; Fields, W; Li, X; Payne, R; Krebs, T; Dalrymple, A; Fowler, K; Dillon, D; Xie, F; Meredith, C

2014-10-01

325

A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m(3) of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m(3) of LPS and 87.5 ng/m(3) of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

Markowicz, P; Löndahl, J; Wierzbicka, A; Suleiman, R; Shihadeh, A; Larsson, L

2014-11-15

326

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and brain development: the case of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke, inhaled by active firsthand smokers and their entourage, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many children are passively exposed to secondhand smoke worldwide. Infants and young children account for the largest global disease burden associated with prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke, probably due to underdeveloped neurological, immune, and respiro-circulatory systems. There is an increasingly robust association between tobacco smoke exposure, before and after birth, and executive function problems in children, adding to current and future disease burden estimates in public health. This review summarizes research advancements which address the link between environmental tobacco smoke and the development of attention deficits and hyperactive behavior, both as symptoms and as part of a mental health disorder in childhood. The multiple effects of tobacco smoke inhalation are best understood in terms of disruptions in normative processes involving cellular communication, structural development, and epigenetic influences which have the potential to become intergenerational. It is concluded that public health efforts be directed toward increasing parental awareness and compliance with existing guidelines that recommend no safe level of exposure. PMID:23545330

Pagani, Linda S

2014-07-01

327

Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

Hirshbein, Laura

2012-01-01

328

Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a “healthy” tobacco-free alternative  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for “health-conscious” users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. PMID:23059956

Cobb, Caroline O.; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2012-01-01

329

Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample (N = 4100) of intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. The data were collected using a pretested modified version of the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 3923 students from 72 intermediate and secondary schools for males and females in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ever having smoked prevalence was 17.3%, and the current smoking prevalence was 10.7%. The most important independent predictors of smoking were academic performance (odds ratio [OR]: 5.32), having friends who used khat (OR: 3.23), and having friends who used tobacco (OR: 2.88). Conclusions: Understanding the factors and predictors associated with tobacco use are crucial to identifying high-risk groups to design tobacco prevention and control programs. For the first time, a strong and statistically significant association was identified between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. Because the use of khat is increasingly spreading outside of its traditional areas to Europe and America, this finding may have an important impact on tobacco control efforts internationally. PMID:24159909

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

330

Smoking Stinks!  

MedlinePLUS

... more about cigarettes and tobacco. Continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ... damage becomes. Back Continue The Other Cost of Smoking Using tobacco eats up a lot of money, ...

331

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. Methods A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. Results Some of the earliest surveys revealed that around one-quarter of Australian physicians were smoking in the mid twentieth century, a rate which rapidly declined in the 1970s and 1980s, with reductions beyond that achieved by the general population. Conclusion Overall, our review suggests that not only do contemporary Australian physicians smoke at very low rates when compared internationally, but that an active professional community can also make a real difference to the lifestyle choices of its own members. PMID:19114012

Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

2008-01-01

332

Multiwavelength absorbance of filter deposits for determination of environmental tobacco smoke and black carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiwavelength optical absorption technique has been developed for Teflon filters used for personal exposure sampling with sufficient sensitivity to allow apportionments of environmental tobacco smoke and soot (black) carbon to be made. Measurements on blank filters show that the filter material itself contributes relatively little to the total absorbance and filters from the same lot have similar characteristics; this makes retrospective analysis of filters quite feasible. Using an integrating sphere radiometer and multiple wavelengths to provide specificity, the determination of tobacco smoke and carbon with reasonable accuracy is possible on filters not characterized before exposure. This technique provides a low cost, non-destructive exposure assessment alternative to both standard thermo-gravimetric elemental carbon evaluations on quartz filters and cotinine analyses from urine or saliva samples. The method allows the same sample filter to be used for assessment of mass, carbon, and tobacco smoke without affecting the deposit.

Lawless, Phil A.; Rodes, Charles E.; Ensor, David S.

333

Residual tobacco smoke pollution in used cars for sale: air, dust, and surfaces.  

PubMed

Regular tobacco use in the enclosed environment of a car raises concerns about longer-term contamination of a car's microenvironment with residual secondhand smoke pollutants. This study (a) developed and compared methods to measure residual contamination of cars with secondhand smoke, (b) examined whether cars of smokers and nonsmokers were contaminated by secondhand smoke, and (c) how smoking behavior and restrictions affected contamination levels. Surface wipe, dust, and air samples were collected in used cars sold by nonsmokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 87) and analyzed for nicotine. Sellers were interviewed about smoking behavior and restrictions, and car interiors were inspected for signs of tobacco use. Cars of smokers who smoked in their vehicles showed significantly elevated levels of nicotine (p < .001) in dust, on surfaces, and in the air compared with nonsmoker cars with smoking ban. When smokers imposed car smoking bans, air nicotine levels were significantly lower (p < .01), but dust and surface contamination levels remained at similar levels. Smoking more cigarettes in the car and overall higher smoking rate of the seller were significantly associated with higher secondhand smoke contamination of the car (p < .001). Use of a cutpoint for nicotine levels from surface wipe samples correctly identified 82% of smoker cars without smoking bans, 75% of smoker cars with bans, and 100% of nonsmoker cars. Surface nicotine levels provide a relatively inexpensive and accurate method to identify cars and other indoor environments contaminated with residual secondhand smoke. Disclosure requirements and smoke-free certifications could help protect nonsmoking buyers of used cars. PMID:19023838

Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Chatfield, Dale; Ma, Debbie S; Romero, Romina; Uribe, Anna

2008-09-01

334

Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

2001-01-01

335

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

2005-01-01

336

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results revealed that sex, belonging to a

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Donna Bacchi; Joel West

2005-01-01

337

Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

2013-01-01

338

Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

339

Policy #3220 Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes and Vaporizers 1  

E-print Network

Policy #3220 ­ Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes-RELATED PRODUCTS AND ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES AND VAPORIZERS Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President's restrictions on the use of tobacco and smoking-related products and electronic cigarettes and vaporizers. B

340

NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.

Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Pinkerton, Kent E. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: kepinkerton@ucdavis.edu

2008-07-15

341

Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. Methods: A case–control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. Results: The social environment (odds ratio [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco. PMID:25317292

Afanador, Laura del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro

2014-01-01

342

Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

343

“Quitting Smoking Will Benefit Your Health”: The Evolution of Clinician Messaging to Encourage Tobacco Cessation  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Illnesses that are caused by smoking remain as the world's leading cause of preventable death. Smoking and tobacco use make up approximately 30% of all cancer deaths and nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths. Thus, improving smoking cessation interventions is crucial to reduce tobacco use and assist in minimizing the burden of cancer and other diseases in the United States (US). This review focuses on the existing research on framed messages to promote smoking cessation. Consistent with the tenets of Prospect Theory and recent meta-analysis, gain-framed messages emphasizing the benefits of quitting appear to be preferable when working with adult patients who smoke tobacco products. The evidence also suggests that moderators of treatment should guide framed statements made to patients. Meta-analyses have provided consistent moderators of treatment such as need for cognition, but future studies should further define the specific framed interventions that would be most helpful for sub-groups of smokers. In conclusion, instead of using loss-framed statements like “Smoking will harm your health by causing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke,” as a general rule, physicians should use gain-framed statements like “Quitting smoking will benefit your health by preventing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke.” PMID:24436474

Toll, Benjamin A.; Rojewski, Alana M.; Duncan, Lindsay; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Boyer, Julie L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Salovey, Peter; Herbst, Roy S.

2013-01-01

344

Reduction in Ames Salmonella mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke condensate by tobacco protein removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic activity of cigarette smoke condensates (CSC) made from tobacco before and after removal of protein was assessed by the Ames Salmonella assay in bacterial strains TA98 and TA100. Removal of protein and peptides from flue-cured tobacco via water extraction followed by protease digestion reduced the mutagenicity of the resultant CSC by 80% in the TA98 strain and 50%

William L Clapp; Barry S Fagg; Carr J Smith

1999-01-01

345

Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. Design Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. Setting Twenty-nine European countries. Participants A total of

Anne Hublet; Holger Schmid; Els Clays; Emmanuelle Godeau; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Luk Joossens; Lea Maes

2009-01-01

346

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.DESIGN AND SETTING632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10–19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent

Jennifer J Tickle; James D Sargent; Madeline A Dalton; Michael L Beach; Todd F Heatherton

2001-01-01

347

Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents. Design Cross sectional survey of 4919 schoolchildren aged 9-15 years, and assessment of occurrence of smoking in 601 films. Setting Randomly selected middle schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Main outcome measure Number of schoolchildren who had ever tried smoking a cigarette. Results The films contained a median of 5 (interquartile range 1-12) occurrences of smoking. The typical adolescent had seen 17 of 50 films listed. Exposure to smoking in films varied widely: median 91 (49-152) occurrences. The prevalence of ever trying smoking increased with higher categories of exposure: 4.9% among students who saw 0-50 occurrences of smoking, 13.7% for 51-100 occurrences, 22.1% for 101-150, and 31.3% for >150. The association remained significant after adjustment for age; sex; school performance; school; parents' education; smoking by friend, sibling, or parent; and receptivity to tobacco promotions. The adjusted odds ratios of ever trying smoking for students in the higher categories of exposure, compared with students exposed to 0-50 occurrences of smoking in films, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.4), and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.8). These odds ratios were not substantially affected by adjustment for parenting style or for personality traits of the adolescent. Conclusion In this sample of adolescents there was a strong, direct, and independent association between seeing tobacco use in films and trying cigarettes, a finding that supports the hypothesis that smoking in films has a role in the initiation of smoking in adolescents. What is already known on this topicSmoking is often depicted in films, and watching films is a favourite activity of adolescentsAdolescents whose favourite actors smoke in films are more likely to have tried smokingWhat this study addsAdolescents' exposure to smoking in films varies widelyAdolescents with higher exposure are significantly more likely to have tried smoking, even when other factors linked with adolescent smoking have been taken into accountThis study supports the hypothesis that depictions of smoking in films influence adolescents to smoke PMID:11744562

Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Mott, Leila A; Tickle, Jennifer J; Ahrens, M Bridget; Heatherton, Todd F

2001-01-01

348

Economic effect of a smoke?free law in a tobacco?growing community  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether Lexington, Kentucky's smoke?free law affected employment and business closures in restaurants and bars. On 27 April 2004, Lexington?Fayette County implemented a comprehensive ordinance prohibiting smoking in all public buildings, including bars and restaurants. Lexington is located in a major tobacco?growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the US and was the first Kentucky community to become smoke?free. Design A fixed?effects time series design to estimate the effect of the smoke?free law on employment and ordinary least squares to estimate the effect on business openings and closings. Subjects and settings All restaurants and bars in Lexington?Fayette County, Kentucky and the six contiguous counties. Main outcome measures ES?202 employment data from the Kentucky Workforce Cabinet; Business opening/closings data from the Lexington?Fayette County Health Department, Environmental Division. Results A positive and significant relationship was observed between the smoke?free legislation and restaurant employment, but no significant relationship was observed with bar employment. No relationship was observed between the law's implementation and employment in contiguous counties nor between the smoke?free law and business openings or closures in alcohol?serving and or non?alcohol?serving businesses. Conclusions No important economic harm stemmed from the smoke?free legislation over the period studied, despite the fact that Lexington is located in a tobacco?producing state with higher?than?average smoking rates. PMID:17297077

Pyles, Mark K; Mullineaux, Donald J; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hahn, Ellen J

2007-01-01

349

Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter?writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

2006-01-01

350

Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke on Human Lung Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOUSE lung explants exposed to smoke from cigarettes to which marijuana was added have been reported to display more cellular abnormalities than those exposed to smoke from cigarettes without marijuana1. We report here a study designed to test the effects of smoke from cigarettes made of marijuana only on human lung explants, and to compare these effects with those obtained

Cecile Leuchtenberger; Rudolf Leuchtenberger; Andrée Schneider

1973-01-01

351

An international review of tobacco smoking among dental students in 19 countries.  

PubMed

This study was conducted as a systematic review of all modern literature describing the prevalence of tobacco smoking among dental students. An electronic keyword search of appropriate terms was initially undertaken to identify relevant material, after which the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to locate additional publications. A total of 27 studies from 19 countries were identified. The earliest manuscripts appeared in 1970, with the most recent being published in 2006. From a global perspective, our review suggests that tobacco smoking is relatively uncommon among contemporary dental students in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. This is not surprising however, as it has previously been noted that dentists generally smoke at one of the lowest rates among all health professionals, and much lower than that of the communities in which they live. Somewhat discouragingly, we did find that smoking remains quite common among dental students in countries such as Greece, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. Given the fact that some of the student body continue to smoke tobacco, it is clear that more aggressive tobacco-specific measures should become a mandatory component of global dental education in future years. PMID:18265779

Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

2007-12-01

352

Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

2012-01-01

353

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.?DATA SOURCES—Medline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated were categorised using a typology with seven categories (school based, community interventions, mass media/public education, advertising restrictions, youth access restrictions, tobacco excise taxes, and direct restrictions on smoking). Novel and largely untested interventions were described using nine categories.?CONCLUSIONS—Youth smoking prevention and control efforts have had mixed results. However, this review suggests a number of prevention strategies that are promising, especially if conducted in a coordinated way to take advantage of potential synergies across interventions. Several types of strategies warrant additional attention and evaluation, including aggressive media campaigns, teen smoking cessation programmes, social environment changes, community interventions, and increasing cigarette prices. A significant proportion of the resources obtained from the recent settlement between 46 US states and the tobacco industry should be devoted to expanding, improving and evaluating "youth centred" tobacco prevention and control activities.???Keywords: youth smoking prevention; teen cessation programmes; community interventions; policy PMID:10691758

Lantz, P.; Jacobson, P.; Warner, K.; Wasserman, J.; Pollack, H.; Berson, J.; Ahlstrom, A.

2000-01-01

354

Tobacco smoking effect on HIV-1 pathogenesis: role of cytochrome P450 isozymes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among the HIV-1-infected population. In addition to diminished immune response, smoking has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication and decrease response to antiretroviral therapy, perhaps through drug–drug interaction. However, the mechanism by which tobacco/nicotine increases HIV-1 replication and mediates drug–drug interaction is poorly understood. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss the effects of smoking on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Since they propose a role for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, the authors briefly converse the role of CYP enzymes in tobacco-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Finally, the authors focus on the role of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2A6, in tobacco/nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress in HIV-1 model systems monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and neurons, which may be responsible for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Expert opinion Recent findings suggest that CYP-mediated oxidative stress is a novel pathway that may be involved in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, including HIV-1 replication and drug–drug interaction. Thus, CYP and CYP-associated oxidative stress pathways may be potential targets to develop novel pharmaceuticals for HIV-1-infected smokers. Since HIV-1/TB co-infections are common, future study involving interactions between antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs that involve CYP pathways would also help treat HIV-1/TB co-infected smokers effectively. PMID:23822755

Ande, Anusha; McArthur, Carole; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

2014-01-01

355

Dating the Domestic Ceramics and Pipe Smoking Related Artifacts from Casselden Place, Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the dates of manufacture obtained for the domestic ceramic and pipe smoking related artifact assemblages\\u000a from Casselden Place, Melbourne. It has previously been argued that ceramic items, because of their potentially long use-lives,\\u000a may be deposited many years after their date of manufacture and purchase. This is in contrast to pipe smoking related items,\\u000a which tend to

Christine Williamson

2006-01-01

356

Science, Politics, and Ideology in the Campaign Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

The issue of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the harms it causes to nonsmoking bystanders has occupied a central place in the rhetoric and strategy of antismoking forces in the United States over the past 3 decades. Beginning in the 1970s, anti-tobacco activists drew on suggestive and incomplete evidence to push for far-reaching prohibitions on smoking in a variety of public settings. Public health professionals and other antismoking activists, although concerned about the potential illness and death that ETS might cause in nonsmokers, also used restrictions on public smoking as a way to erode the social acceptability of cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This strategy was necessitated by the context of American political culture, especially the hostility toward public health interventions that are overtly paternalistic. PMID:12036788

Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

2002-01-01

357

Risks of tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Risks of tobacco ... cancer-causing chemicals (most are called "tar.") HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR SMOKELESS TOBACCO There are many ...

358

[The influence of tobacco-smoke toxic components on glucosaminoglycans in biologic tissues].  

PubMed

The aim of the work is detailed analysis of glucosaminoglikans and glukuronic acid in chisel tooth and molars of tobacco-smokers and non-smokers. The total number of 140 patients (tobacco-smokers - 60) by acute serous pulpit is investigated. The conducted quantative and qualitative analyzes show that tobacco-smokers tooth contains les glucosaminoglikans (chondroitinsulfats A and C) and more glucuronic acid than non-smokers individuals. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more glucuronic acid as compared with molars. These studies support the hypothesis of important role of cigarette smoke toxical components in the tooth support mechanisms. The studies are necessary to be held in different directions. PMID:20495222

Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturiia, I R; Kapanadze, L R; Kikalishvili, B Iu; Daneliia, G G

2010-04-01

359

Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to overcome them through an appropraite communication strategy.  

PubMed

This paper rigourolys analyses literature on tobacco smoking and provides a historical perspective of tobacco smoking and the prevalence of smoking in different parts of the world. The dangerous chemical ingredients in cigarettes and their associated health effects are indentified and rigouroulsy analysed. Later, this paper suggests a communication strategy which can be adopted to convey scientific evidence to the public about the dangers of smoking. The analyse of literature shows that today, tobacco is one of the greatest causes of preventable deaths in the world. Smoking causes various diseases like various types of cancer (Lung, Oral, Stomach, Kidney, Breast, Larynx, Pancreas, and Eophagus cancers). Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD), heart diseases, miscarriages, poor sperm quality, impotence, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and low birth weight. Significant evidence of such diseases has been observed in United States and South Africa which is one of the top smoking countries in Africa. Despite the existence of World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as well as national laws restricting tobacco use in various countries, the rate of smoking is increasing at a tremendous state especially in developing countries among the adolescents. This means that many tobacco's future victims are today's children. The reason for the high rates of smoking is attribute to the complex marketing skills and strategies of tobacco companies which hinder tobacco smoking control programs. Therefore, if we are to achieve sustainable development as well as the Mellinium Development Goals, we should stand up jointly to stop the smoking habits among the people through collective efforts and collaborative campaigns. An appropriate communication strategy as suggested in this paper is required to counteract the persuasive smoking evil adverts of tobacco companies. PMID:21413590

Semakula, Henry M; Haq, Shah Md Atiqul

2010-06-01

360

Smoking and adolescence: exploring tobacco consumption and related attitudes in three different adolescent groups in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for differences in attitude and social and cognitive dimensions. We present both descriptive and

Marlène Bosson; Christian Maggiori; Pascal Mark Gygax; Christelle Gay

2011-01-01

361

Smoking and adolescence: exploring tobacco consumption and related attitudes in three different adolescent groups in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for differences in attitude and social and cognitive dimensions. We present both descriptive and

Marlène Bosson; Christian Maggiori; Pascal Mark Gygax; Christelle Gay

2012-01-01

362

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Malignant Lymphoma in Pet Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline malignant lymphoma occurs commonly in domestic cats and may serve as a model for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Several studies have suggested that smoking may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To evaluate whether exposure to household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may increase the risk of feline malignant lymphoma, the authors conducted a case-control study of this relation in

Elizabeth R. Bertone; Laura A. Snyder; Antony S. Moore

363

Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

Wiener, R. Constance

2014-01-01

364

Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

2009-01-01

365

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities  

PubMed Central

Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC. PMID:19091045

Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

2008-01-01

366

Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364

Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

2012-01-01

367

Puffing behavior during the smoking of a single cigarette in tobacco-dependent adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Adult and adolescent smokers regulate their nicotine and smoke intake by smoking low-yield cigarettes more intensely than high-yield cigarettes. One likely mechanism of nicotine regulation is altered puffing topography, which has been demonstrated in adult smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of puffing behavior during the smoking of a single cigarette in adolescents. Methods: Tobacco-dependent adolescents (n = 89) were enrolled in a treatment trial testing the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy. About 1 week before their quit date, participants smoked ad libitum one of their usual brand of cigarettes during a laboratory session. Smoking topography measures included puff volume, puff duration, puff velocity, and interpuff interval. Results: Controlling for sex, race, and number of puffs, puff volume and puff duration decreased 12.8% and 24.5%, respectively, from the first 3 to the last 3 puffs. Puff velocity and interpuff interval increased 14.8% and 13.5%, respectively. Puff volume was positively correlated with puff duration and puff velocity, whereas puff duration and puff velocity were negatively correlated. However, none of the topography measures were correlated with smoking history variables. Discussion: These results suggest that adolescent smokers, like adults, are able to regulate smoke and nicotine intake on a puff-by-puff basis, therefore indicating that this aspect of smoking control is acquired early in the tobacco-dependence process. PMID:19969556

Collins, Charles C.; Epstein, David H.; Parzynski, Craig S.; Zimmerman, Debra; Moolchan, Eric T.

2010-01-01

368

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Open and Semi-Open Settings: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to review research on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. Data sources: We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. Study selection: Our search terms included combinations of “secondhand smoke,” “environmental tobacco smoke,” “passive smoking” OR “tobacco smoke pollution” AND “outdoors” AND “PM” (particulate matter), “PM2.5” (PM with diameter ? 2.5 µm), “respirable suspended particles,” “particulate matter,” “nicotine,” “CO” (carbon monoxide), “cotinine,” “marker,” “biomarker” OR “airborne marker.” In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. Results: Almost all studies used PM2.5 concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM2.5 concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 to 124 µg/m3 at hospitality venues, and 4.60 to 17.80 µg/m3 at other locations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 to 120.51 µg/m3. SHS levels increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. Conclusions: The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings. PMID:23651671

Sureda, Xisca; López, María J.; Nebot, Manel

2013-01-01

369

Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Its role in neoplasm, lung and cardiovascular diseases has been well established for years.However it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 GM-CSF and to decrease

Yoav Arnson; Yehuda Shoenfeld; Howard Amital

2010-01-01

370

Minority women and tobacco: Implications for smoking cessation interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quitting smoking is the single most important preventive health behavior a woman can perform to significantly reduce her chances\\u000a of morbidity and premature mortality. Minority women are an extremely important population to target for smoking cessation\\u000a intervention. Rates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are markedly higher among women of certain minority\\u000a groups. In addition, smoking prevalence rates

Teresa K. King; Belinda Borrelli; Carolyn Black; Bernardine M. Pinto; Bess H. Marcus

1997-01-01

371

Detection of nicotine as an indicator of tobacco smoke by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.

Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

2015-01-01

372

Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR?=?1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR?=?1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking. PMID:23700202

Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

2013-12-01

373

The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

2012-01-01

374

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We

1999-01-01

375

Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.DATA SOURCESLiterature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California,

Melanie Wakefield; Frank Chaloupka

2000-01-01

376

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Induces Oxidative Stress in Distinct Brain Regions of Infant Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) leads to the death of 600,000 nonsmokers annually and is associated with disturbances in antioxidant enzyme capacity in the adult rodent brain. However, little is known regarding the influence of ETS on brain development. The aim of this study was to determine levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), as well as enzymatic antioxidant activities of

Larissa Helena Lobo Torres; Wallace Luiz Moreira; Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Raquel Annoni; Ana Laura Nicoletti Carvalho; Simone Aparecida Teixeira; Maurílio Pacheco-Neto; Marcelo Nicolas Muscará; Rosana Camarini; Ana Paula de Melo Loureiro; Mauricio Yonamine; Thais Mauad; Tania Marcourakis

2012-01-01

377

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.DATA SOURCESMedline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.DATA SYNTHESISInterventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated

Paula M Lantz; Peter D Jacobson; Kenneth E Warner; Jeffrey Wasserman; Harold A Pollack; Julie Berson; Alexis Ahlstrom

2000-01-01

378

MICROENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO CALIFORNIANS POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Using the 1987-88 California Activity Pattern (CAP) Survey, this report examines various microenvironmental aspects of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that were not explored in earlier reports. hese topics include: (1) predictors of those individuals with t...

379

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

380

Alterations in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity are associated with tobacco smoking in humans  

PubMed Central

Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking) is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers. PMID:25805986

Viswanath, Humsini; Velasquez, Kenia M.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy Gemma Yan; Savjani, Ricky; Carter, Asasia Q.; Eagleman, David; Baldwin, Philip R.; De La Garza, II, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

2015-01-01

381

Reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure. Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from

Mary Jane Ashley; Roberta Ferrence

1998-01-01

382

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

383

Adolescents' Responses to Anti-tobacco Advertising: Exploring the Role of Adolescents' Smoking Status and Advertisement Theme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-smoking media directed at adolescents use many different message themes, but little evidence exists as to which is most effective. Additionally, little is known about how teens who smoke respond to anti-tobacco ads. This study examined smoking and nonsmoking adolescents' responses to three popular thematic approaches: (1) endangering others, (2) negative life circumstances, and (3) industry manipulation. Sixteen groups of

Erin L. Sutfin; Lisa R. Szykman; Marian Chapman Moore

2008-01-01

384

Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. METHODS: We used data from

Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson S Muula

2008-01-01

385

Adolescent gender differences in the determinants of tobacco smoking: a cross sectional survey among high school students in São Paulo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diverse psychosocial factors have been associated with the use of cigarettes by adolescents. We investigated gender differences in tobacco smoking, and factors correlated with smoking among boys and girls. METHODS: Data was collected on recent cigarette smoking (CS) and related factors, with a focus on religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure, relationships and parental monitoring from 2,691 private school-attending

Zila M Sanchez; Emerita S Opaleye; Silvia S Martins; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Ana R Noto

2010-01-01

386

Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

1999-01-01

387

Effect of counselling mothers on their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the efficacy of behavioural counselling for smoking mothers in reducing young children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Design Randomised double blind controlled trial. Setting Low income homes in San Diego county, California. Participants 108 ethnically diverse mothers who exposed their children (aged <4 years) to tobacco smoke in the home. Intervention Mothers were given seven counselling sessions over three months. Main outcome measures Children's reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from mothers in the home and from all sources; children's cotinine concentrations in urine. Results Mothers' reports of children's exposure to their smoke in the home declined in the counselled group from 27.30 cigarettes/week at baseline, to 4.47 at three months, to 3.66 at 12 months and in the controls from 24.56, to 12.08, to 8.38. The differences between the groups by time were significant (P=0.002). Reported exposure to smoke from all sources showed similar declines, with significant differences between groups by time (P=0.008). At 12 months, the reported exposure in the counselled group was 41.2% that of controls for mothers' smoke (95% confidence interval 34.2% to 48.3%) and was 45.7% (38.4% to 53.0%) that of controls for all sources of smoke. Children's mean urine cotinine concentrations decreased slightly in the counselled group from 10.93 ng/ml at baseline to 10.47 ng/ml at 12 months but increased in the controls from 9.43 ng/ml to 17.47 ng/ml (differences between groups by time P=0.008). At 12 months the cotinine concentration in the counselled group was 55.6% (48.2% to 63.0%) that of controls. Conclusions Counselling was effective in reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar counselling in medical and social services might protect millions of children from environmental tobacco smoke in their homes. PMID:10926589

Hovell, Melbourne F; Zakarian, Joy M; Matt, Georg E; Hofstetter, C Richard; Bernert, J Thomas; Pirkle, James

2000-01-01

388

Tobacco expenditure, smoking-induced deprivation, and financial stress: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) four country survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Aims While higher tobacco prices lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence, there is a concern that paying more for cigarettes can lead to excess financial burden. Our primary aim was to examine the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking induced deprivation (SID) and financial stress (FS). Design and Methods We used data from wave 7 (2008–2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey which is a survey of smokers in Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia (n=5887). Logistic regressions were used to assess the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation and financial stress. Results In multivariate analyses, a one standard deviation increase in daily cigarette expenditure was associated with an increase of 24% (p = 0.004) in the probability of experiencing SID. While we found no association between daily cigarette expenditure and FS, we found that SID is a strong predictor of FS (OR: 6.25; P < 0.001). This suggests that cigarette expenditure indirectly affects FS through SID. Results showed no evidence of an interaction between cigarette expenditure and income or education in their effect on SID or FS. Conclusions Our results imply that spending more on tobacco may result in SID but surprisingly has no direct effect on FS. While most smokers may be adjusting their incomes and consumption to minimize FS, some fail to do so occasionally as indexed by the SID measure. Future studies need to prospectively examine the effect of increased tobacco expenditure on financial burden of smokers. PMID:22404640

Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

2015-01-01

389

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

390

Physiological Effects of Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Passive Observation Study  

PubMed Central

This study explored infant physiologic responses of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a longitudinal passive observation study with a control group. Fifteen smoking and 15 non-smoking mothers were initially contacted in hospital maternity units, with home visits made when their infants were 2, 4, and 6 weeks old. Exposure to ETS was measured using infant urinary nicotine and cotinine levels. The physiologic effects of infant ETS exposure were measured by rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. The smoking mothers in this sample were poorer, had less education, and were less likely to be married than the mothers who did not smoke. At birth, the infants of smoking mothers had higher diastolic blood pressure than infants of non-smoking mothers (p < .008). Mothers who smoke cigarettes should be educated that maternal smoking behavior can affect an infant's cardiovascular function. Parents should also be counseled about the risks of smoking in close proximity and/or in an enclosed space with an infant, especially in a motor vehicle. PMID:22945973

Flanders-Stepans, Mary Beth; Fuller, Sara G

1999-01-01

391

Heart rate and blood pressure responses to tobacco smoking among African-American adolescents.  

PubMed Central

Ethnic differences in both physiological response to and health consequences of tobacco smoking-some of which have been attributed to ethnic preferences for menthol cigarettes-have been described in the literature. We compared acute physiological responses to smoking in African-American and European-American adolescent menthol cigarette smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. One-hundred- twenty-eight adolescents (32% African-American, 71% female; mean age 15.16 +/- 1.32 years, mean Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score 6.73 +/- 1.53, cigarettes per day (CPD) 16.9 +/- 2.64) participated in an experimental session during which they smoked one menthol cigarette of their usual brand. Blood pressure, heart rate, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured before and after smoking; mean puff volume (mL), puff duration (sec) and maximal puff velocity (mL/sec) during smoking were also determined. Two sample t-tests were performed to assess ethnic differences in smoking topography; analysis of covariance was used to determine whether heart rate and blood pressure after smoking one menthol cigarette varied by ethnicity, after controlling for baseline physiological measures. No significant ethnic differences were observed in either smoking topography or acute cardiovascular response to smoking. These preliminary findings warrant extension to a broader group of nontreatment-seeking adolescent smokers of both ethnicities. PMID:15233486

Moolchan, Eric T.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Sehnert, Shelley S.

2004-01-01

392

TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT: SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Cigarette smoking is unrivaled among developmental toxicants in terms of total adverse impact on the human population. According to the American Lung Association, smoking during pregnancy is estimated to account for 20 to 30 percent of low-weight babies, up to 14 per...

393

Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

2009-01-01

394

Perceptions of smoking prevalence by youth in countries with and without a tobacco advertising ban.  

PubMed

This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children's exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki. PMID:20812125

Burton, Dee; Graham, John W; Johnson, C Anderson; Uutela, Antti; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F

2010-09-01

395

The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: A pathway to complete tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This article outlines a theoretical framework for research concerning secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevention as a means to curtail the tobacco industry. Methods: The Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) assumes interlocking social contingencies of reinforcement (i.e., rewards or punishments) from the highest level of society (e.g., taxing cigarette sales) to physiological reactions to nicotine that influence smoking and SHSe. We review selected research concerning both policy and clinical efforts to restrict smoking and/or SHSe. Results: Research to date has focused on smoking cessation with modest to weak effects. The BEM and empirical evidence suggest that cultural contingencies of reinforcement should be emphasized to protect people from SHSe, especially vulnerable children, pregnant women, the ill, the elderly, and low-income adults who have not “elected” to smoke. Doing so will protect vulnerable populations from industry-produced SHSe and may yield more and longer-lasting cessation. Conclusions: Interventions that reduce SHSe may serve as a Trojan horse to counter the tobacco industry. Future studies should: (a) guide policies to restrict SHSe; (b) develop powerful community and clinical interventions to reduce SHSe; (c) test the degree to which policies and other contexts enhance the effects of clinical interventions (e.g., media programs disclosing the disingenuous marketing by the industry); and (d) investigate the effects of all health care providers’ ability to reduce SHSe and generate an antitobacco culture, by advising all clients to avoid starting to smoke, to protect their children from SHSe, and to quit smoking. PMID:19776346

Hughes, Suzanne C.

2009-01-01

396

Tobacco smoking in mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a national NCDs knowledge, attitudes and practices survey focusing, among other things, on NCD risk factors was implemented in Mongolia in late 2010 to complement the previous WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance Survey (STEPS) findings from 2009. This publication explores the smoking-related findings of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS). Methods A nationally representative sample size was calculated using methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPS surveys. As a result, 3450 people from across Mongolia were selected using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method from permanent residents aged between 15 and 64 years. The KAP survey questionnaire was interviewer-administered on a door-to-door basis. Results In Mongolia at 2010, 46.3% of males and 6.8% of females were smokers. This practice was especially dominant among males and urban dwellers (MOR 2.2), and more so among the middle-aged (45–54) (MOR 2.1) while still displaying a high prevalence among Mongolian youth (15.5%). The probability of smoking was independent of the level of education. Although the level of awareness of the health hazards related to tobacco smoking was generally very high in the population, this was influenced by the level of education as more people with a primary and secondary level of education believed that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day was required to harm one’s health (MOR 5.8 for primary education and 2.5 for secondary). Finally, this knowledge did not necessarily translate into a behavioural outcome as 15.5% of the population did not object to people smoking in their house, and especially so among males (MOR 4.1). Conclusion The findings of this KAP survey corroborate the 2009 WHO STEPS Survey findings with regards to the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Mongolia. It identifies males, urban dwellers and Mongolian youth as groups that should be targeted by public health measures on tobacco consumption, while keeping in mind that higher levels of awareness of the harms caused by tobacco smoking do not necessarily translate into behavioural changes. PMID:24580834

2014-01-01

397

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Conclusions: Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence. PMID:14660766

Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerstrom, K

2003-01-01

398

Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Background: There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). Objectives: We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption–desorption dynamics, and transformations of THS; distribution and persistence of THS in residential settings; implications for pathways of exposure; potential clinical significance and health effects; and behavioral and policy issues that affect and are affected by THS. Discussion: Physical and chemical transformations of tobacco smoke pollutants take place over time scales ranging from seconds to months and include the creation of secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). THS persists in real-world residential settings in the air, dust, and surfaces and is associated with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. Much still needs to be learned about the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, health risks, and policy implications of THS. Conclusion: The existing evidence on THS provides strong support for pursuing a programmatic research agenda to close gaps in our current understanding of the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, and health effects of THS, as well as its behavioral, economic, and sociocultural considerations and consequences. Such a research agenda is necessary to illuminate the role of THS in existing and future tobacco control efforts to decrease smoking initiation and smoking levels, to increase cessation attempts and sustained cessation, and to reduce the cumulative effects of tobacco use on morbidity and mortality. PMID:21628107

Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Destaillats, Hugo; Gundel, Lara A.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Singer, Brett C.; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rehan, Virender; Talbot, Prue; Schick, Suzaynn; Samet, Jonathan; Wang, Yinsheng; Hang, Bo; Martins-Green, Manuela; Pankow, James F.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2011-01-01

399

Predictors of hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity in vocational school students  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking, hazardous drinking and physical inactivity during adolescence are risk factors that are associated with poorer health in adulthood. The identification of subgroups of young people with a high prevalence of one or more of these risk factors allows an optimised allocation of preventive measures. This study aimed at investigating hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity as well as their associations and demographic predictors in vocational school students. Methods Out of 57 contacted vocational schools in Switzerland, a total of 24 schools participated in a survey assessing gender, age, immigrant background, educational attainment and vocational field as well as the above mentioned health risk factors. Out of the 2659 students present in 177 included vocational school classes, 2647 (99.5%) completed the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the demographic predictors of each health risk factor and a multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate predictors of different risk factor combinations. Results Of the surveyed students, 79.4% showed at least one risk factor, 43.6% showed two or more and 9.6% showed all three health risk factors. Hazardous drinking was more prevalent in male, physical inactivity was more prevalent in female vocational school students. The proportion of students with low physical activity and tobacco smoking increased with increasing age. While the combination of hazardous drinking and tobacco smoking was higher in males, the other risk factor combinations were observed particularly among females. Conclusions Multiple risk factors were ascertained in a significant proportion of vocational school students. Specifically, tobacco smoking and hazardous drinking were coexistent. The study underlines the need for preventive measures in specific subpopulations of adolescents and young adults with lower educational level. PMID:23672294

2013-01-01

400

Young adults’ support for adult-ratings for movies depicting smoking and for restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising  

PubMed Central

Introduction Smoking images in movies and tobacco advertisements in magazines are influential on adolescent smoking behaviors, and restrictions of these advertising strategies can reduce the prevalence of adolescent smoking. We assessed young adults’ level of support for adult ratings for movies depicting smoking and for restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Methods Young adults from the U.S. Midwest were surveyed between 2010–2011 (n=2622). We assessed their level of support for (a) adult-rating all movies depicting smoking, and (b) restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Multivariate regression models were used to investigate the characteristics associated with higher level of support for these policies. Results Overall, 34% of the participants favored adult ratings for movies with smoking images, and 68% favored restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising. Characteristics associated with higher level of support differed somewhat by policy. Conclusion Further educating young adults about the influence of smoking images in movies on adolescent smoking may be necessary to gain more support for the policy. With the majority supporting restrictions on tobacco magazine advertising, it may be possible to tighten these restrictions to further protect adolescents. Future research is needed to identify how tobacco control advocates can frame these issues to gain further public support. PMID:25485169

Choi, Kelvin; Fabian, Lindsey; Jansen, Jim; Lenk, Kathleen; Forster, Jean

2014-01-01

401

The influence of societal individualism on a century of tobacco use: modelling the prevalence of smoking  

E-print Network

Smoking of tobacco is predicted to cause approximately six million deaths worldwide in 2014. Responding effectively to this epidemic requires a thorough understanding of how smoking behaviour is transmitted and modified. Here, we present a new mathematical model of the social dynamics that cause cigarette smoking to spread in a population. Our model predicts that more individualistic societies will show faster adoption and cessation of smoking. Evidence from a new century-long composite data set on smoking prevalence in 25 countries supports the model, with direct implications for public health interventions around the world. Our results suggest that differences in culture between societies can measurably affect the temporal dynamics of a social spreading process, and that these effects can be understood via a quantitative mathematical model matched to observations.

Lang, John C; De Sterck, Hans

2014-01-01

402

Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.  

PubMed

This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside. PMID:22921198

Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

2012-11-01

403

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system. PMID:19570267

Scott, J Elliott

2004-01-01

404

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system.

Scott, J Elliott

2004-01-01

405

Smoking among Lao medical doctors: challenges and opportunities for tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is an increasing threat to health in low-income and middle-income countries and doctors are recognised as important role models in anti-smoking campaigns. Objectives The study aimed to identify the smoking prevalence of medical doctors in Laos, their tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, and their involvement in and capacity for tobacco prevention and control efforts. Methods This was a cross-sectional national survey by a researcher-administered, face-to-face questionnaire implemented at provincial health facilities throughout the central (including national capital), northern and southern regions of Laos in 2007. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results Of the 855 participants surveyed, 9.2% were current smokers and 18.4% were ex-smokers; smoking was least common in the central region (p<0.05) and far more prevalent in males (17.3% vs 0.4%; p<0.001). Smoking was concentrated among older doctors (p <0.001). Over 84% of current smokers wanted to quit, and 74.7% had made a recent serious attempt to do so. Doctors had excellent knowledge and positive attitudes to tobacco control, although smokers were relatively less knowledgeable and positive on some items. While 78% of doctors were engaged in cessation support, just 24% had been trained to do so, and a mere 8.8% considered themselves ‘well prepared’. Conclusion The willingness of doctors to take up their tobacco control role and the lower smoking rates among younger respondents offers an important window of opportunity to consolidate their knowledge, attitudes, skills and enthusiasm as cessation advocates and supports. PMID:21106548

Morrow, Martha; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Tomson, Tanja

2010-01-01

406

Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status  

PubMed Central

Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

2012-01-01

407

Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102). We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005) and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007) in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5) in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2) in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p < 0.01). The hospitals with greater improvement were general hospitals (48% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with > 300 beds (41.1% increase; p < 0.01), hospitals with employees' tobacco consumption prevalence 35–39% (72.2% increase; p < 0.05) and hospitals that had recently implemented smoke-free policies (74.2% increase; p < 0.01). Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network. PMID:19473549

Martínez, Cristina; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Puig, Montse; García, Montse; Carabasa, Esther; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

2009-01-01

408

Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change. PMID:21943400

2011-01-01

409

Rural-Urban Differences in the Social Climate Surrounding Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Report From the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Objective: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. Design: Data were…

McMillen, Robert; Breen, Julie; Cosby, Arthur G.

2004-01-01

410

Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States) [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ali, Nawal N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States) [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2012-09-01

411

Did youth smoking behaviors change before and after the shutdown of Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: No previous studies document the effects of both comprehensive tobacco control and its defunding on youth smoking. This study tests the effect of the youth-focused Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative (MYTPI) and its shutdown on youth smoking and determines whether these effects differed by age. Methods: The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort is a population-based, observational study designed to evaluate the MYTPI. The sample included cohorts of youth aged 12–16 years at baseline in Minnesota (N?=?3,636) and a comparison group in six other Midwestern states (n?=?605). Biannual surveys assessed youth smoking from October 2000, 5 months after the MYTPI launch, through October 2005, 2 years postshutdown. Adjusted piecewise linear trajectories predicted smoking stage (measured on a 1–6 continuum) comparing Minnesota with a comparison group during the MYTPI (Slope 1) and postshutdown (Slope 2) for each baseline age cohort. Analysis then compared baseline age cohorts with each other by centering their intercepts on age 16. Results: Neither slope of smoking stage differed between Minnesota and comparison groups, showing no period effects for the MYTPI or shutdown. However, younger cohorts, with early teen experience of MYTPI, smoked less than older cohorts by the same age. Mean smoking stage at age 16 differed by almost a half stage from the youngest (2.04) to the oldest (2.46) age cohort. Discussion: The study offers no evidence of period effects for the MYTPI or its shutdown. Design limitations, national or continued post-MYTPI statewide tobacco control efforts, or program flaws could explain the findings. PMID:19633274

Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

2009-01-01

412

Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students  

PubMed Central

Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Weglicki, Linda S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

2014-01-01

413

Tobacco industry research and efforts to manipulate smoke particle size: implications for product regulation.  

PubMed

Over the past half-century of cigarette design, tobacco manufacturers have prioritized efficiency of delivery alongside ease of inhalation and use. As a result, the modern cigarette is uniquely effective at facilitating the absorption of nicotine as well as carcinogens and other toxins. The present study draws on internal tobacco company documents to assess industry consideration of the role of smoke particle size as a potentially controllable influence over inhalation patterns and lung exposure. Tobacco manufacturers evaluated particle size manipulation both as a means of controlling physical and sensory product attributes and as a possible approach to reducing health hazards related to exposure. Industry scientists concluded that the smoke aerosol particle distribution of conventional cigarettes, constructed within common parameters, falls within a narrow and effective inhalation range. However, the internal findings suggest that differences in smoke particle size distribution are possible through less conventional approaches to product design. We propose that particle size be included among the many design features to be considered in emerging tobacco product regulation. However, the present review does not address whether particle size regulation would be a plausible means of substantially reducing addictiveness or harmfulness of cigarettes, and therefore we do not propose it as a high-priority target for regulation. PMID:18418784

Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N; Henningfield, Jack E; Farone, William A

2008-04-01