Science.gov

Sample records for pipe tobacco smoking

  1. Tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L; Hoffmann, D

    1976-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a causal relation between smoking of cigarettes and cancer of the lung in man. Women smokers, cigar, and pipe smokers also face an increased risk for lung cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies have found a correlation between smoking of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus and for cigarette smokers increased risks to develop cancer of the pancreas, kidney, and urinary bladder. Dose responses have been established between number of cigarettes smoked and cancer of the respiratory and upper digestive tract. Tobacco chewers face an increased risk for cancer of the mouth and esophagus. Tobacco smoke has induced tumors of the lung in the dogs and of the larynx of hamsters. The particulate matter of the smoke is carcinogenic to the skin of mice and rabbits, and the bronchi and connective tissue of rats. In tobacco smoke were identified tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens and organ specific carcinogens. Chewing tobacco is a tumor promoting agent and contains traces of tobacco specific and carcinogenic nitrosamines. Ten to 15 yr after giving up smoking the ex-smoker faces the same low risk to develop cancer of the upper digestive tract, the lung, the pancreas, and the urinary tract as the nonsmoker. It should be our goal, therefore, to prevent young people from starting the smoking habit and to convince the smoker to quit smoking. So far, we can report no success in terms of decreasing smoking habits among younger people. On the other hand, we can take satisfaction from the fact that antismoking propaganda has had an effect on college educated males, that among the population as a whole, there is a considerable number of exsmokers; that smoking cessation clinics do prove cost effective and if they were to become part of every health care center, they could help a large number of heavy smokers who cannot seem to stop smoking on their own. We can also report that there has been a significant reduction in the tar yield of American cigarettes, a reduction which we hope will continue; that the tumorigenic activity of tobacco as measured in animal studies, has decreased; and that as a consequence of the above, the risk of lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers among smokers of these cigarettes is lower than in years past. It is unlikely that man will ever be able to inhale smoke components as harmless as unpolluted air, but as long as we have a society which accepts this habit and as long as people find satisfaction in smoking, we must work towards the day when tobacco-related cancers and other diseases will be reduced to a minimum. With the world wide coperation of the scientific community, the Departments of Agriculture, and the tobacco industry, it is our hope that this goal will be achieved. PMID:982079

  2. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Cancer.gov

    Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. It is also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  3. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  4. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand. PMID:25677592

  5. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  6. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... referred to as clove cigarettes—are imported from Indonesia. They typically contain about 60% tobacco and 40% ... and other health conditions. Additionally, research studies from Indonesia show that kretek smoking is associated with lung ...

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  9. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  12. CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free

    E-print Network

    related to tobacco use and second-hand smoke. Total # of survey participants: 1,693 #12;Demographic;Second-Hand Smoke Second-hand smoke is smoke from someone else's cigarette, cigar or pipe that you breathe. How often would you say you are exposed to second-hand smoke on campus? Frequency Response Count

  13. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of being stifled. PMID:25861403

  14. [Biomarkers of tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wardas, W?adys?aw; Zieli?ska-Danch, Wioleta; Szo?tysek-Bo?dys, Izabela

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the exposure of passive and active smokers to tobacco smoke one can use the questionnaire method or laboratory examination of chemical compounds being widely accepted exposure biomarkers. Substances that make such biomarkers include some of the tobacco smoke components and its metabolites formed in the body. The study discusses two groups of biomarkers. First, includes substances that serve as exposure markers of carcinogenous properties (metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, trans,transmuconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid). Second group includes substances which role is limited to the evaluation of exposure to tobacco smoke (nicotine, cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, carbon monoxide). Sensitivity and specificity of biomakers used were evaluated, their concentration ranges in physiological fluids in non-smokers, passive-, and active smokers. The simplicity of the examination method was evaluated. Articles published during last two decades indicate that the substance that have all features that make it the most appropriate biomarker is cotinine. It can be assessed in plasma and in urine of smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:16521990

  15. Smoking and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Of Yourself Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing Emergency Preparedness Travel Abroad Employment Smoking & Tobacco Use Potential Related Health ...

  16. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

  18. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking. PMID:25735858

  19. Questions about Smoking, Tobacco, and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Questions About Smoking, Tobacco, and Health Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En ... here. We also answer some questions about how smoking and tobacco can affect a person’s health, including ...

  20. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  1. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of e...

  2. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  3. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  4. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  5. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. PMID:26504135

  6. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Background Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. While many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Methods Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14-91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOC. Conclusion Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Impact Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:24836469

  7. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a...TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  8. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a...TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  9. Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

    This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

  10. Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

  11. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a...Products Packages § 40.216a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  12. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a...Packaging Requirements § 45.45a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  13. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a...Packaging Requirements § 45.45a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  14. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a...Products Packages § 40.216a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of pipe tobacco shall, before removal...

  15. [What are the markers of tobacco smoking?].

    PubMed

    Gourlain, H; Galliot-Guilley, M

    2005-04-01

    In this updated review of tobacco smoking markers (smokers non-smokers) in various biological environments, during varied circumstances of use, we present the parameters known to be detectable to date. The focus is placed on:--certain bio-markers used in routine practice: plasmatic, urinary or salivary cotinine end-expired carbon monoxide,--certain minor tobacco alkaloids such as anabasine and anatabine, as potential bio-markers, particularly for monitoring abstinence during nicotinic substitution therapy,-- use of superficial body growths (hair and nails) as a biological environment for measuring nicotine and cotinine to monitor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and fetal exposure. PMID:15980785

  16. Tobacco use in shisha: studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt

    E-print Network

    World Health Organization

    2006-01-01

    better picture of current smoking behaviour among female university students, and their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco,Tobacco use in shisha It is less harmful To decrease smoking hours It is fashionable It has a better

  17. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 5: Tobacco

  18. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax...classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  19. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco...PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax...classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  20. The chemistry of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.; Tomkins, B.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This book is a compilation of observations to date on the chemical properties and composition of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and on concentrations of its constituents in indoor air. It focuses on common natural indoor environments and environments associated with chronic exposure. Attention is also given to measurement methods and to competing sources of indoor air contaminants commonly attributed to ETS.

  1. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Popular IAQ Topics Air Duct Cleaning Asthma Climate Energy and Health Flood Cleanup Home Remodel Indoor airPLUS Moisture Mold Radon Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Main menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land ...

  2. Original Research Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    the effects of different forms of smoking (i.e. cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco and cigarette: smoking, cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, smoking cessation, non-cardiac vascular. Cannabis use and cardiovascular risk Cannabis use h

  3. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  4. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 14: Changing

  5. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 9: Cigars:

  6. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 13: Risks

  7. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 2: Smokeless

  8. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 1: Strategies

  9. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 10: Health

  10. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 6: Community-Based

  11. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 3: Major

  12. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 12: Population

  13. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 15: Those

  14. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 8: Changes

  15. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations. PMID:22525279

  16. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

  17. Anti-Tobacco Policies Cut Youth Smoking Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_154522.html Anti-Tobacco Policies Cut Youth Smoking Rates: Study Cigarette tax increases also seem to ... 2015 TUESDAY, Sept. 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- As smoking has become more expensive and inconvenient in the ...

  18. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  19. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  20. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining the best combination of counselling/support and pharmacological therapy; (v) setting a quit date and provide suitable resources and support; (vi) frequent follow-up as often as possible via text/telephone or in person; (vii) monitoring for side-effects, relapse and on-going cessation; and (viii) if relapse occurs, providing the necessary support and encourage a further attempt when appropriate.  PMID:24148176

  1. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  2. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  3. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

  4. Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco dependence starts in childhood. Tobacco exposure of children is common and causes illness and premature death in children and adults, with adverse effects starting in the womb. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians should screen for use of tobacco and other nicotine delivery devices and provide anticipatory guidance to prevent smoking initiation and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians need to be aware of the different nicotine delivery systems marketed and available.Parents and caregivers are important sources of children's tobacco smoke exposure. Because tobacco dependence is a severe addiction, to protect children's health, caregiver tobacco dependence treatment should be offered or referral for treatment should be provided (such as referral to the national smoker's quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW). If the source of tobacco exposure cannot be eliminated, counseling about reducing exposure to children should be provided.Health care delivery systems should facilitate the effective prevention, identification, and treatment of tobacco dependence in children and adolescents, their parents, and other caregivers. Health care facilities should protect children from tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco promotion. Tobacco dependence prevention and treatment should be part of medical education, with knowledge assessed as part of board certification examinations. PMID:26504137

  5. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

  7. Tobacco

    Cancer.gov

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of cancer and of death from cancer. People who use tobacco products or who are regularly around environmental tobacco smoke (also called secondhand smoke) have an increased risk of cancer because tobacco products and secondhand smoke have many chemicals that damage DNA.

  8. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  9. Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Lennart; Szponar, Bogumila; Ridha, Beston; Pehrson, Christina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Sitkowska, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves) or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke). The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols. PMID:18822161

  10. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Pandeya, Nirmala; Wilson, Louise F; Bain, Christopher J; Martin, Kara L; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and numbers of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to tobacco smoking, both personal and by a partner. Methods We used a modified Peto-Lopez approach to calculate the difference between the number of lung cancer cases observed and the number expected assuming the entire population developed lung cancer at the same rate as never smokers. For cancers other than lung, we applied the standard PAF formula using relative risks from a large cohort and derived notional smoking prevalence. To estimate the PAF for partners' smoking, we used the standard formula incorporating the proportion of non-smoking Australians living with an ever-smoking partner and relative risks associated with partner smoking. Results An estimated 15,525 (13%) cancers in Australia in 2010 were attributable to tobacco smoke, including 8,324 (81%) lung, 1,973 (59%) oral cavity and pharynx, 855 (60%) oesophagus and 951 (6%) colorectal cancers. Of these, 136 lung cancers in non-smokers were attributable to partner tobacco smoke. Conclusions More than one in eight cancers in Australia is attributable to tobacco smoking and would be avoided if nobody smoked. Implications Strategies to reduce the prevalence of smoking remain a high priority for cancer control. PMID:26437733

  11. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke LXVIII. Analysis of volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Piade, J J; Hecht, S S

    1980-01-01

    The yields of volatile N-nitrosamines in cigarette smoke are primarily dependent upon the nitrate content of the tobacco and, to some extent, on the protein content. Cellulose acetate tips, such as those found on most commercial filter cigarettes, selectively remove at least 70% of the volatile N-nitrosamines, independently of the pH of the weakly acidic or weakly alkaline smoke. So far, three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines have been detected in tobacco and tobacco smoke. During tobacco processing and smoking, N'-nitrosonornicotine is formed by nitrosation of nicotine and, to a minor degree, by nitrosation of nornicotine, whereas 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone originates from oxidative nitrosation of nicotine. N'-Nitrosoanatabine is formed by nitrosation of the second most abundant tobacco alkaloid, anatabine. The tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in the smoke arise partly from the tobacco by transfer and partly by nitrosation of the alkaloids during smoking (pyrosynthesis). Preliminary results indicate that cellulose acetate filter tips may selectively remove considerable amounts of the nonvolatile nitrosamines from the smoke. PMID:7228275

  12. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30?years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  13. Persistent cigarette smoking and other tobacco use after a tobacco-related cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Julie S.; Tai, Eric; White, Arica; Davis, Shane P.; Fairley, Temeika L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People who continue to smoke after a cancer diagnosis have an increased risk for recurrences or development of new malignancies. These risks may be even higher among tobacco-related cancer survivors (TRCS). We describe tobacco use behaviors among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to describe demographic characteristics, smoking history, current smoking prevalence, and smokeless tobacco use among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use were calculated after adjusting for age, sex, race, and insurance status). Tobacco-related cancers were defined as lung/bronchial, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney/renal, urinary bladder, cervical, and acute myeloid leukemia. Results A total of 20 % of all cancer survivors were TRCS. TRCS were primarily female (68 %) and white (78 %). Smoking prevalence was higher among TRCS (27 %) compared with other cancer survivors (16 %) and respondents without a history of cancer (18 %). Smokeless tobacco use was higher among respondents without a history of cancer (4 %) compared with TRCS (3 %) and other cancer survivors (3 %). Conclusions The self-reported smoking prevalence among TRCS is higher than among other cancer survivors and people without a history of cancer. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation interventions are needed for cancer survivors, especially those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer. Implications for cancer survivors We recommend all cancer survivors be made aware of the health risks associated with smoking after a cancer diagnosis, and smoking cessation services be offered to those who currently smoke. Condensed abstract We provide the first population-based report on demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors among self-reported tobacco-related cancer survivors. PMID:22706885

  14. MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

  15. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections HIV / AIDS Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... 800-332-8615). Never smoke in your home, vehicles, or around nonsmokers, especially children, pregnant women, and ...

  17. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  18. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (?4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  19. The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

  20. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  1. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most often when I am comfortable and relaxed. ___ Q. I smoke when I am "blue" and want to ... of satisfaction to you when you smoke. 'Why Test' scorecard "It stimulates me." You feel that smoking ...

  2. Chemical studies on tobacco smoke LIX. Analysis of volatile nitrosamines in tobacco smoke and polluted indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1978-01-01

    Chemical-analytical data were presented illustrating that the mainstream smoke of tobacco products contains traces of volatile N-nitrosamines. The quantity of volatile nitrosamines in the sidestream smoke of cigarettes and cigars exceeds that in the mainstream smoke by at least a factor of 10. This observation led to model studies and analysis of air in bar cars of trains, in a local bar and other indoor atmospheres polluted by tobacco smoke. The results showed that, during one hour in a smoke-polluted indoor environment, one may inhale volatile nitrosamines in quantities equal to those in the mainstream smoke of 0.5-30 cigarettes. It is emphasized that there are, at present, no epidemiological data linking human respiratory cancers to volatile nitrosamines. PMID:680733

  3. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as “healthy” cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior. PMID:26339211

  4. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior. PMID:26339211

  5. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. Data Sources (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by ‘Google Alerts’ (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. Study Selection (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. Data Abstraction (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of “tobacco product” and/or “smoking”. Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. Data Synthesis (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. Conclusions A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. PMID:25550418

  6. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda M; Davis, Janiece N; McDermott, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs) from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations. PMID:26346473

  7. Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

  9. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  11. How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.?STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.?DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.?CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

  12. Attenuation of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by treatment with a soluble epoxide

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    by daily s.c. injection to spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to filtered air or tobacco smoke bronchoal- veolar lavage cell number by 37% in tobacco smoke-exposed rats with significant reductions noted

  13. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    ... e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco New NIH-funded study shows possible link ... grade are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products within ...

  14. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  15. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  16. 75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ...cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Elsewhere in this...cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to protect children...required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco...tobacco products. To best determine what...

  17. Science, policy, and ethics: the case of environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Gori, G B

    1994-04-01

    The successful campaign against smoking will long be celebrated as a landmark achievement of public health. Recently, a prominent component of this campaign has been the portrayal of environmental tobacco smoke as a major health risk. To this day, however, the scientific basis for this later contention remains speculative. The elevation of heuristic hypotheses into official precepts raises an intriguing ethical question: Should a claim of best intentions justify representing conjecture as scientific knowledge in public policy formulation? PMID:7730857

  18. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  19. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  20. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  1. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  2. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes...

  3. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10–14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels—having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint. PMID:18948391

  4. Allergic Sensitization, Rhinitis and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shargorodsky, Josef; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Galán, Iñaki; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lin, Sandra Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS) and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population. Methods Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20–85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels <10ng/ml, while active smoking was defined as self-reported smoking or serum cotinine concentrations > 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested. Results Almost half of the population (43%) had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.00–2.00). The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44–4.23). There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01). Conclusion Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization. PMID:26172447

  5. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  6. Tobacco Smoke in the Home and Child Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to determine the effects of tobacco smoke in the home on children's cognitive development. The study focused on 280 children, representing equal numbers of boys and girls and of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. When the participating children were 2 years old, their mothers were surveyed, interviewed, and tested to gather…

  7. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  8. US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

  9. Reproducibility of Reported In utero Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In studies of the fetal origins of disease and life course epidemiology, measures of fetal exposure may be based on information reported by the adults who were exposed in utero. In particular, the full spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking is now an area of active investigation, and the ability to report such exposure reproducibly is of interest. We evaluated the reproducibility of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, reported by the adult daughter during consecutive pregnancies. METHODS This study was based on 11,257 women who enrolled for more than one pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants completed a questionnaire around 17 weeks of gestation, which asked about their in utero exposure to tobacco smoke. Kappa statistics were calculated. Determinants of agreement were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS Weighted Kappa for in utero exposure for the first and second reports was 0.80. Determinants of agreement were higher education (better) and longer time between reports (worse). CONCLUSIONS Information on in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking provided by adult women was highly reproducible in this population. PMID:21130369

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

  11. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  12. [Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].

    PubMed

    Lang, P; Strunk, M

    2010-02-01

    The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low. PMID:20069266

  13. Caught in the tapestry of tobacco: why I smoke.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Debbie; Gunn, Jennie

    2012-04-01

    Faced with the knowledge that smoking is dangerous, women continue to smoke cigarettes, and the number is growing. In contrast, breast cancer is being diagnosed earlier, and women are listening to the call for mammograms and examination screenings. Why then, are women not listening to the call to never start or stop smoking? In nursing today it has become necessary to put forth a greater effort to call attention to the toll of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. There is significant disparity in smoking groups targeted for research. One particular group has been ignored in past research, the middle-aged woman. Research is needed to understand why women use tobacco products in this group and to find what is needed to discourage smoking. In this article, we explore nursing research in the area of middle-aged women and tobacco use. Interlaced throughout the literature review is the story of a 57 year old female and her experiences with smoking. PMID:22724906

  14. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  15. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

    2009-02-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  16. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. Design A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. Setting The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Participants One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Outcome measures Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Results Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13–25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56–70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Conclusions Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. PMID:24282242

  17. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (10?cig/day; N=286) attended two counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1-hour vs. 17-hours). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically-unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. PMID:25961814

  18. [Knowledge and behaviour concerning smoking tobacco among police officers].

    PubMed

    Rze?nicki, Adam; Stelmach, W?odzimierz; Plocek, Katarzyna; Kowalska, Alina

    2009-01-01

    Job of a policeman belongs to the group of jobs with highest factor of psychological load. Working under high stress results in police officers reaching out for a cigarette, regardless of their knowledge about how harmful it is, believing--quite wrongly--that this will lower the stress level. The aim of the research was to determine the behaviour of policemen concerning smoking tobacco and evaluating their knowledge about its influence on health. In Poland in March and April 2008, there was research carried out using an auditory survey among 315 police officers of City Police Station in a city of almost 80 thousand people. The survey was completed by 102 people, which makes up for 32.4% of the total number of employed. Among the respondents there were 86 men (84.3%) and 16 women (15.7%). Age average of the surveyed was 37. The highest number, 76 people (74.5%) were graduates of high schools. Majority, 50 people (56.9%) had been in police service for over 15 years. Answering the questions included in the survey, concerning smoking cigarettes during two months prior to the questionnaire, 40 people (39.2%) admitted to smoking. This number included 28 people (27.4% of the total number of the studied cases) who claimed they had smoked every day, seven people (6.9%) responded they smoked almost every day and 5 people (4.9%) smoked from time to time. In the group of 30 smoked men, majority, that is 16 people answered they had smoked everywhere they wished to, disregarding signs prohibiting smoking. Evaluating the influence of smoking on health, 88 people (86.3%) claimed it was very harmful. Vast majority of the studied cases, that is 78 people (76.5%) thought their knowledge about negative effects of smoking was high enough, but almost half of the studied cases, that is 48 people (47.1%) claimed they had never heard about actions or antinicotine campaigns in Poland. Popularizing smoking among police officers who agreed to take part grounds to claim that police officers who did not agree to take part in completing the survey also smoked cigarettes. Majority of police officers who smoked, inhaled tobacco smoke disregarding their knowledge about the damaging effect of smoking. PMID:20301939

  19. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... preventable death and disease in the United States, killing more than 480,000 Americans each year. Smoking ... file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  20. Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior. PMID:22987864

  1. Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:19125149

  2. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks. PMID:19944918

  3. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

  4. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

  5. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

  6. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

  7. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

  8. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    PubMed

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. PMID:22445156

  9. Tobacco smoking in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brott, K

    1981-12-01

    The consumption of cigarettes in Papua New Guinea appears to have increased tenfold over the past twenty years, largely as a result of massive advertising campaigns. It is recommended that legislation be introduced to enforce restrictions on the levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes sold here, and to make it compulsory to print health warnings on cigarette packets. It is also recommended that the advertising of tobacco products be restricted or banned. PMID:6951348

  10. Reigniting Tobacco Ritual: Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Establishment Culture in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Chang, Judy; Sidani, Jaime E.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Soule, Eric; Balbach, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an increasingly prevalent form of tobacco use in the United States. Its appeal may stem from its social, ritualistic, and aesthetic nature. Our aim in this study was to understand WTS as a social ritual with the goal of informing prevention efforts. Methods: We conducted a covert observational study consisting of 38 observation sessions in 11 WTS establishments in 3 U.S. cities. Data collection was based on an established conceptual framework describing ritualistic elements of tobacco use. Iterative codebook development and qualitative thematic synthesis were used to analyze data. Results: Atmospheres ranged from quiet coffee shop to boisterous bar party environments. While some children and older adults were present, the majority of clientele were young adults. Men and women were evenly represented. However, there were 19 occurrences of a male smoking by himself, but no women smoked alone. The vast majority (94%) of the clientele were actively smoking waterpipes. All 83 observed groups manifested at least 1 of the ritual elements of our conceptual framework, while 41 of the 83 observed groups (49%) demonstrated all 4 ritual elements. Conclusions: Despite its heterogeneity, WTS is often characterized by 1 or more established elements of a tobacco-related social ritual. It may be valuable for clinical and public health interventions to acknowledge and address the ritualistic elements and social function of WTS. PMID:24972889

  11. Low birth weight and prenatal exposure to indoor pollution from tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke: a matched case-control study in Gaza Strip.

    PubMed

    Abusalah, Akram; Gavana, Magda; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Papadakis, Nikos; Papanikolaou, Alexis; Benos, Alexis

    2012-11-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major health hazard as it contains lower doses of the toxins that smokers' inhale. Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke has been linked to delivering low birth weight (LBW) infants. The study aims to assess the association between prenatal exposure to ETS and wood fuel smoke and LBW. A case-control study in ratio 1:1 was conducted in two hospitals with obstetric services in Gaza Strip. Subjects were selected during May-June and July-August 2007 from attenders of Mbarak Hospital and Shifa Medical Centre, respectively. 184 (41.2%), and 79 (17.7%) out of 446 participants were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke, respectively. Adjusted maternal exposure to ETS (especially the number of cigarettes smoked, water pipe and wood fuel smoke) was associated with LBW infants. Cigarette smoke exhibits an independent dose-response risk of LBW after adjusting for confounders. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke indoors is related to a reduction in birth weight of infants of -237 g (95% CI: -415, -58) for pregnant women exposed to 1-20 cigarettes per day and -391 g (95% CI: -642, -140) for exposure to more than 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to wood fuel smoke exhibits a reduction of infants' adjusted mean birth weight by -186 g (95% CI: -354, -19). Prenatal exposure to passive smoking and wood fuel smoke are independently associated with LBW. Both these factors are modifiable exposures that could possibly lead to a reduction of delivering LBW infants. PMID:21842400

  12. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

  13. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  14. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  15. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  16. ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

  17. From never to daily smoking in 30?months: the predictive value of tobacco and non-tobacco advertising exposure

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the specificity of the association between tobacco advertising and youth smoking initiation. Design Longitudinal survey with a 30?month interval. Setting 21 public schools in three German states. Participants A total of 1320 sixth-to-eighth grade students who were never-smokers at baseline (age range at baseline, 10–15?years; mean, 12.3?years). Exposures Exposure to tobacco and non-tobacco advertisements was measured at baseline with images of six tobacco and eight non-tobacco advertisements; students indicated the number of times they had seen each ad and the sum score over all advertisements was used to represent inter-individual differences in the amount of advertising exposure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Established smoking, defined as smoked >100 cigarettes during the observational period, and daily smoking at follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were any smoking and smoking in the last 30?days. Results During the observation period, 5% of the never-smokers at baseline smoked more than 100 cigarettes and 4.4% were classified as daily smokers. After controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, school performance, television screen time, personality characteristics and smoking status of peers and parents, each additional 10 tobacco advertising contacts increased the adjusted relative risk for established smoking by 38% (95% CI 16% to 63%; p<0.001) and for daily smoking by 30% (95% CI 3% to 64%; p<0.05). No significant association was found for non-tobacco advertising contact. Conclusions The study confirms a content-specific association between tobacco advertising and smoking behaviour and underlines that tobacco advertising exposure is not simply a marker for adolescents who are generally more receptive or attentive towards marketing. PMID:23794549

  18. "Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Main results: The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "...prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". Conclusions: The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places. PMID:15564219

  19. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  20. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  2. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. PMID:25962373

  3. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes. PMID:21910781

  4. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

  5. Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  7. School smoking policy characteristics and individual perceptions of the school tobacco context: are they linked to students' smoking status?

    PubMed

    Sabiston, Catherine M; Lovato, Chris Y; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K Stephen

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10-11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-level modeling results revealed that the school a student attended was associated with his/her smoking behavior. Individual-level variables that were associated with student smoking included lower school connectedness, a greater number of family and friends who smoked, higher perceptions of student smoking prevalence, lower perceptions of student smoking frequency, and stronger perceptions of the school tobacco context. School-level variables associated with student smoking included weaker policy intention indicating prohibition and assistance to overcome tobacco addiction, weaker policy implementation involving strategies for enforcement, and a higher number of students smoking on school property. These findings suggest that the school environment is important to tobacco control strategies, and that various policy dimensions have unique relationships to student smoking. School tobacco policies should be part of a comprehensive approach to adolescent tobacco use. PMID:19779813

  8. The Relationship of Cognitive and Behavioral Skills to Adolescent Tobacco Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrist, Lewayne D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study examined an assumption commonly held by many smoking prevention programs that social skills can affect the onset of tobacco smoking. Data from 129 sixth graders were used to predict smoking behavior 15 months later. Five skill variables emerged as the best predictors of future smoking. (Author/CB)

  9. An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars

    PubMed Central

    Sendzik, Taryn; Travers, Mark J.; Hyland, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. Methods The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM2.5) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Results Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM2.5: more than 3,800 ?g/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM2.5 were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 ?g/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 ?g/m3). Discussion This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children. PMID:19351785

  10. Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, L; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe and understand the relationship between the tobacco and gambling industries in connection to their collaborative efforts to prevent smoke-free casinos and gambling facilities and fight smoke-free policies generally. Methods: Analysis of tobacco industry documents available online (accessed between February and December 2003). Results: The tobacco industry has worked to convince the gambling industry to fight against smoke-free environments. Representatives of the gambling industry with ties to the tobacco industry oppose smoke-free workplaces by claiming that smoke-free environments hurt gambling revenue and by promoting ventilation as a solution to secondhand smoke. With help from the tobacco industry, the gambling industry has become a force at the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers opposing smoke-free ventilation standards for the hospitality industry. Conclusion: Tobacco industry strategies to mobilise the gambling industry to oppose smoke-free environments are consistent with past strategies to co-opt the hospitality industry and with strategies to influence policy from behind the scenes. Tobacco control advocates need to be aware of the connections between the tobacco and gambling industries in relation to smoke-free environments and work to expose them to the public and to policy makers. PMID:15333883

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and the sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, M J

    1989-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke is of serious concern in ventilated spaces both for comfort because of its odor properties and for health reasons. Although it has not been demonstrated as the primary cause in complaints, it is frequently seen as a contributing factor. Recirculation of air with ETS, without filtration or air-washing, may in fact lead to complaints, although at an unknown frequency. Finally, the contributions of ETS to the sick building syndrome is documented, although its extent is currently unknown. PMID:2690384

  12. The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  14. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  15. Respiratory effects of tobacco smoking on infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Carlsen, Karin Cecilie Lødrup

    2008-03-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) and tobacco smoke products (TSPs) are recognised global risks for human health. The present article reviews the causal role of SHS and TSPs for respiratory disorders in infants and young children. Several studies have shown an effect of TSPs exposure during pregnancy upon lung function in the newborn infant and of SHS on symptoms and lung function after birth. From 1997 to 1999 a set of systematic reviews concerning the relationship between second-hand exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory health in children was published in Thorax by Cook and Strachan, covering hundreds of published papers. The evidence for a causal relationship between SHS exposure and asthmatic symptoms and reduced lung function is quite strong, whereas the evidence related to the development of allergy is much weaker. There is recent evidence relating to an interaction between TSP exposure and genetic ploymorphisms, demonstrating that certain individuals are more susceptible to the effect of TSP exposure on lung health. In the present review, an overview is given for the effects of TSP exposure and SHS upon lung health in children, with a focus on infants and young children. There is a need for intervention to reduce TSP exposure in young children, by educating parents and adolescents about the health effects of TSP exposure. Recent legislation in many European countries related to smoking in the workplace is of great importance for exposure during pregnancy. Studies are needed to identify possible critical periods for TSPs to induce harmful effects upon lung health in young children and on environment-gene interactions in order to prevent harm. PMID:18280975

  16. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  17. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation PMID:23331271

  18. Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S K

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

  19. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  20. Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates?

    Cancer.gov

    Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates ? Karen Messer, JP Pierce et al Tobacco Control 2007; 16:85-90; In the 1990’s CA was the only US state to spend $3.67 per person per year on Tobacco Control. The

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    PubMed

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 ?g/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 ?g/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 ?g/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 ?g/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

  2. Association of tobacco smoke exposure and atopic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Christina E.; DiDonna, Anita C.; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S.; Portnoy, Jay M.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Forty million children are regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) each year, increasing their risk for premature death and middle ear and acute respiratory infections. Early life exposure to ETS also is clearly associated with wheezing. However, there is no clear understanding of the influence of ETS on the development of allergic sensitization. Objective To determine the association of combined exposure to ETS and indoor allergens on IgE sensitization to aeroallergens in children. Methods This case–control study enrolled 116 cases and 121 controls from low-income families from Kansas City, Missouri. The adjusted odds ratio was calculated using a logistic model to assess the association between ETS and allergic sensitization using dust allergen levels as a covariate. Results Thirty-six percent of atopic children and 39% of controls were exposed to ETS (P < .05). Unadjusted analyses showed no significant influence of ETS on IgE sensitization to indoor allergens. Logistic regression analyses also showed no significant influence of ETS on sensitization when adjusted for levels of allergens in the home dust and family history of allergic rhinitis. Conclusion These data suggest that ETS exposure was not associated with IgE sensitization to indoor allergens, even when home allergen levels were taken into consideration. Further understanding of how components of tobacco smoke influence the immune response is necessary to interpret the disparate findings across studies. PMID:24125146

  3. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  4. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Materials and Methods: Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Results: Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. Conclusion: This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies PMID:26288479

  5. Oxidation of carotenoids by heat and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Hurst, John S; Contreras, Janice E; Siems, Werner G; Van Kuijk, Frederik J G M

    2004-01-01

    The stability to autoxidation of the polar carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, was compared to that of the less polar carotenoids, beta-carotene and lycopene at physiologically or pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of 2 and 6 microM, after exposure to heat or cigarette smoke. Three methodological approaches were used: 1) Carotenoids dissolved in solvents with different polarities were incubated at 37 and 80 degrees C for different times. 2) Human plasma samples were subjected to the same temperature conditions. 3) Methanolic carotenoid solutions and plasma were also exposed to whole tobacco smoke from 1-5 unfiltered cigarettes. The concentrations of individual carotenoids in different solvents were determined spectrophotometrically. Carotenoids from plasma were extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Carotenoids were generally more stable at 37 than at 80 degrees C. In methanol and dichloromethane the thermal degradation of beta-carotene and lycopene was faster than that of lutein and zeaxanthin. However, in tetrahydrofuran beta-carotene and zeaxanthin degraded faster than lycopene and lutein. Plasma carotenoid levels at 37 degrees C did not change, but decreased at 80 degrees C. The decrease of beta-carotene and lycopene levels was higher than those for lutein and zeaxanthin. Also in the tobacco smoke experiments the highest autoxidation rates were found for beta-carotene and lycopene at 2 microM, but at 6 microM lutein and zeaxanthin depleted to the same extent as beta-carotene. These data support our previous studies suggesting that oxidative stress degrade beta-carotene and lycopene faster than lutein and zeaxanthin. The only exception was the thermal degradation of carotenoids solubilized in tetrahydrofuran, which favors faster breakdown of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin. PMID:15096658

  6. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  7. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Secondhand smoke (SHS), also known as environmental tobacco smoke, is a mixture of the sidestream smoke released by a smoldering cigarette, pipe, or cigar, and the mainstream smoke exhaled by a smoker. Like mainstream smoke, SHS is a complex mixture containing thousands of chemicals, including formaldehyde, cyanide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and nicotine. More than 250 of the chemicals in tobacco smoke are known to be harmful, and at least 69 are known to cause cancer.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

  9. The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Godefroy Emmanuel

    2014-03-01

    The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known. Existing reviews clearly demonstrate that increasing the prices of tobacco products reduces smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. However, only a small number of studies included in existing reviews have examined smoking onset (the transition between never smoking and smoking). Moreover, existing reviews provide limited quality assessment of the data and methods utilised. This paper systematically searches for and critically reviews studies that examine the impact of tobacco prices or taxes on smoking onset. Most studies reviewed have important methodological limitations, including recall bias; a general failure to apply diagnostic tests, to discuss the choice of estimators and distributional assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analysis; and a reliance on empirical approaches that are methodologically weak. On the whole, existing studies do not provide strong evidence that tobacco prices or taxes affect smoking onset. PMID:23475754

  10. Removal and leakage of environmental tobacco smoke from a model smoking room.

    PubMed

    Wan, Man-Pun; Wu, Chi-Li; Chan, Tsz-Tung; Chao, Christopher Y H; Yeung, Lam-Lung

    2010-10-01

    Experimental studies on the removal of accumulated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the effectiveness of ETS leakage control were carried out in a model smoking room using carbon monoxide, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particulates, and ultrafine particles (UFP) as the ETS tracers. The study investigated the effectiveness of the designated smoking room, equipped with a displacement ventilation system under different ventilation rates (10-58 L/sec per person,) in removing the ETS tracers. The extent of ETS leakage through different door operating scenarios under various ventilation rates was intensively studied. In particular, a manikin installed on a motorized rail was used to study the effect of human movement on the leakage of the ETS tracers. A double-door anteroom design was incorporated into the smoking room to study its effectiveness in ETS leakage prevention. It shows that at least 5 Pa of negative pressure, a fresh air supply rate 3-5 times higher than a typical office, direct air exhaust without air recirculation, and keeping the door closed are important for reducing ETS leakage. However, with the smokers moving in and out and the opening of the door, noticeable leakage of ETS can occur. The double-door anteroom design can improve leakage prevention. Among the five tracers, nicotine required the longest purging time to remove, after the smoking activity was stopped in the smoking room, due to its highly sorptive property. At least 4.4-6 hr of purging is needed for minimizing ETS exposure by non-smokers entering the smoking room. The peak size of particulate matter inside the smoking room is about 80-100 nm, suggesting the importance of including UFP as an indicator for monitoring the exposure and leakage of ETS. The impact of manikin movement on contaminant transport was studied, providing useful information on the effects of human activities on indoor air quality multicompartmental modeling. PMID:20694932

  11. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    PubMed

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which received the rutine, the concentration of rutine in the group of non-pregnant females was 9.3 +/- 1.0 microg/ml of urine, and in the group of the pregnant ones 8.5 +/- 1.1 microg/ml of urine. In the lungs of non-pregnant animals exposed to tobacco smoke, the decreased permeability of vessels for the albumin-Evans blue complex was proven. The administration of rutine to non-pregnant and pregnant animals did not exert influence on the permeability of vessels in lungs. A similar result was obtained for the lungs of rats receiving the rutine, as well as those exposed to tobacco smoke. In the brain tissue of non-pregnant and pregnant animals, a slight decrease in the content of Evans blue was declared as a consequence of tobacco smoke impact. In the groups receiving the rutine, this flavonoid was declared to influence the blood supply of the brain tissue, and the permeability of the vascular walls. In the liver tissue of animals inhaling the tobacco smoke, the permeability of vascular walls for albumin-Evans blue complex was increased. The rutine did not affect significantly the permeability of vessels, whereas the exposure of pregnant females, which received rutine, to smoke decreased the content of Evans blue in the liver tissue. In the tissues of all tested females, no significant differences between the control groups and groups exposed to tobacco smoke as well as rutine+tobacco smoke were detected. The obtained results do not indicate, however, that in case of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke, the rutine has insignificant protective meaning. PMID:17288177

  12. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  13. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2015-01-01

    Background Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. Methods The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Results Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015–2055. Conclusions SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. PMID:23853252

  14. “Accommodating” smoke?free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  15. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.?DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.?RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).?CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco on-screen are significantly more likely to have an advanced smoking status and more favourable attitudes toward smoking than adolescents who choose non-smoking stars. This finding supports the proposition that the portrayal of tobacco use in contemporary motion pictures, particularly by stars who are admired by adolescents, contributes to adolescent smoking.???Keywords: adolescent smoking; movies; media influences PMID:11226355

  16. Associations between tobacco smoking and illicit drug use among methadone-maintained opiate-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Frosch, D L; Shoptaw, S; Nahom, D; Jarvik, M E

    2000-02-01

    Tobacco chippers are individuals who smoke regularly yet are not nicotine dependent. In the present study, the authors examined the prevalence of tobacco chipping among methadone-maintained opiate abusers. Furthermore, the authors examined associations between tobacco and illicit substance use by comparing heavy smokers, tobacco chippers, and nonsmokers. Results demonstrate that tobacco chipping occurs among methadone-maintained individuals. Illicit substance use, measured through urine toxicology, was found to increase in a stepwise fashion from nonsmokers, to chippers, to heavy smokers. Smoking status (nonsmoker, chipper, heavy smoker) proved a more powerful predictor of cocaine and opiate use than daily methadone dose. Findings lend support to existing evidence suggesting associations between tobacco and opiate and cocaine use and strongly suggest that smoking cessation should be offered to all methadone-maintained individuals. PMID:10743909

  17. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  18. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  19. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

  20. Contribution of tobacco smoke to environmental benzene exposure in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Ruppert, T.; Daube, H.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 10.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking and smoking homes, respectively. The corresponding levels of 3.5 and 4.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} were considerably lower in the suburbs. Median time-integrated 1-week benzene concentrations in the city were 10.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking homes and 13.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in smoking homes. In the suburbs, the corresponding values were 3.2 and 5.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. No difference was found between smoking and nonsmoking households located either in the city or in the suburbs. There was no statistically significant difference between benzene exposure of non-smokers in smoking and nonsmoking homes. Nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households in the city had significantly higher exposure to benzene compared to their counterparts living in the suburban. Nonsmokers from all households with smokers were significantly more exposed to benzene than nonsmokers living in the nonsmoking households (personal samplers: 13.2 vs. 7.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05; benzene in exhalate: 2.6 vs. 1.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.01; trans-muconic acid excretion in urine: 73 vs. 62 {mu}g/g creatinine), but the contribution of ETS to the total benzene exposure was relatively low compared to that from other sources. Analysis of variance showed that at most 15% of the benzene exposure of nonsmokers living in smoking homes was attributable to ETS. For nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households benzene exposure from ETS was insignificant.

  1. Associations between Race, Ethnicity, Religion, and Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Mah, Jennifer; Shensa, Ariel; Rosen, Daniel; Yonas, Michael A.; Fine, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed a random sample of 852 students at a large university in 2010–2011 to clarify associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), ethnicity, and religion. Current (30-day) WTS was reported by 116 students (14%), and 331 (39%) reported ever use. Middle Eastern ethnicity was associated with current WTS (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.06, 5.34) and ever WTS (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.22, 5.47). South Asian ethnicity was associated with lower odds for ever WTS (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.21, 0.86), but there was no significant association between South Asian ethnicity and current WTS. Being an Atheist and having lower religiosity were associated with both WTS outcomes. PMID:24564560

  2. Scientific analysis of second-hand smoke by the tobacco industry, 1929-1972.

    PubMed

    Schick, Suzaynn; Glantz, Stanton

    2005-08-01

    The 1972 U.S. surgeon general's report The Health Consequences of Smoking was the first to include a warning about exposure to second-hand smoke. Because the tobacco industry has a record of withholding the results of their research from the public, we searched the internal tobacco industry documents and compared internal industry research on second-hand smoke to what the industry published in the open scientific literature through 1972. We found chemical analyses, sensory evaluations, and discussions of sidestream cigarette smoke (the smoke emitted by the cigarette between puffs, the main component of second-hand smoke), beginning in 1929. American Tobacco Company research in the 1930s indicated that, compared with mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke was produced in larger quantities and contained, per cigarette, 2 times more nicotine and 12 times more ammonia. Research funded by the Tobacco Industry Research Committee in the 1950s revealed that sidestream smoke contained, per unit cigarette, higher concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, per unit mass, including four times more 3,4 benzopyrene. In 1956 and 1957, respectively, Philip Morris and R. J. Reynolds also began to research sidestream smoke. In 1961, Philip Morris began to do sensory evaluation and modification of sidestream odor during product development. This sensory evaluation of sidestream smoke was the first biological testing of sidestream smoke by a tobacco company. Prior to the release of the 1972 U.S. surgeon general's report, the tobacco industry published the majority of its findings in the open scientific literature and does not appear to have perceived second-hand smoke as a threat to human health. PMID:16085530

  3. Biomonitoring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): a critical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G; Richter, E

    1997-08-01

    1 The most frequently used biomarkers for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are cotinine and thiocyanate in body fluids, carboxyhaemoglobin in red blood cells (COHb) and carbon monoxide in the expired air. Although not ideal, cotinine in blood, saliva or urine is an established biomarker for ETS exposure within the past 1-3 days. Comparison with cotinine concentrations in cigarette smokers reveals that passive smokers take up less than 1/100 of the nicotine dose of smokers. 2 Biomonitoring data available for the ETS-related exposure to genotoxic substances comprise uptake of benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aromatic amines, tobacco-specific nifrosamines (TSNA), electrophilic compounds giving rise to urinary thioethers, mutagens causing urinary mutagenic activity and the formation of various DNA adducts. With the exception of TSNA, these biomarkers are related to chemicals occurring ubiquitously in the environment and in the food. As a consequence, the background levels in unexposed nonsmokers are high compared to the observed increases (if any) associated with ETS exposure. 3 Some markers of biological effects, which, by definition, are non-specific with regard to the underlying exposure, have also been investigated in relation to ETS exposure. These markers comprise cytogenetic effects, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction, urinary hydroxyproline excretion and various factors indicative of cardiovascular risks. The available data suggest that passive smoking is associated with a small induction of placental AHH and also with effects on cardiovascular risk markers. The latter findings in particular may be confounded by other risk factors, which have been observed to be more frequent in passive smokers than in unexposed nonsmokers. PMID:9292285

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  5. Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, E; Leavy-Sperounis, A; Balbach, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discover how the tobacco industry considers social class and gender in its efforts to market cigarettes in the USA, particularly to socially disadvantaged young women. Methods: A systematic on-line search of tobacco industry documents using selected keywords was conducted, and epidemiological data on smoking rates reviewed. Results: The two largest cigarette manufacturers in the USA consider "working class" young adults to be a critical market segment to promote growth of key brands. Through their own market research, these companies discovered that socially disadvantaged young women do not necessarily desire a "feminine" cigarette brand. Conclusions: Considering the tobacco industry's efforts, alongside the persistent and growing disparities in cigarette smoking by social class, and the narrowing of differences in smoking by gender, it is concluded that additional tobacco control resources ought to be directed toward working class women. PMID:15175523

  6. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities. PMID:19951428

  7. Tobacco smoking in hotel workers and the necessity to promote non-smoking policy at the workplace.

    PubMed

    Lazici?-Putnik, Ljiljana; Lazari?-Zec, Danijela

    2003-06-01

    This investigation aimed at evaluating the prevalence of active smokers in hotel workers to underline the need for a non-smoking campaign at the workplace. Data on smoking habit were collected in a questionnaire which included 398 subjects of whom 170 were men and 228 women aged in average 29 and 35 years, respectively. Seventy-six men and 134 women declared themselves regular tobacco smokers. In average, they started to smoke at the age of 17 and 18, respectively and had been smoking for 21 and 16 years, respectively. Although the number of smokers was high, it is encouraging that 29% of men and of 51% women tried and did not succeed in quitting smoking, whereas 30% of men and 12% of women did quit smoking. The authors advocate reducing tobacco use and controlling environmental tobacco smoke exposure at the workplace, which should include a non-smoking company policy, implementation of smoking cessation programmes, social support programmes, trade union support, as well as the assistance of health professionals during regular check-ups. PMID:14679663

  8. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  9. Anti-Tobacco Socialization and Youth Smoking Initiation

    E-print Network

    Emory, Kristen Tracee

    World Health Organization: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention- Tobacco Control; 2009. ReportWorld Health Organization. : IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention- Tobacco Control; 2009. ReportWorld Health Organization. : IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention- Tobacco Control; 2009. Report

  10. Hiding Tobacco Displays in Stores Might Lower Kids' Smoking Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a news release from the nonprofit organization. Tobacco "power walls" at retail stores have largely replaced tobacco ... stocked convenience store. They also built a tobacco power wall. The wall was placed in one of ...

  11. Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

  12. COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Tobacco smoke, most people would say. Prob-

    E-print Network

    Duesberg, Peter

    COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;Tobacco smoke, most people would say. Prob- ably too by better screening, changes in diet, and new drugs--or even by old drugs, such as aspirin. Other theo- ries

  13. Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

  14. Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

  15. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11–15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be emphasized in programs aimed at preventing onset, and both exposures should be emphasized in programs aimed at experimental smokers. PMID:19413793

  16. Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

    2015-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3%). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed. PMID:24797155

  17. Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

  18. Beliefs and Norms Associated with Smoking Tobacco Using a Waterpipe among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe “will taste pleasant” and “will allow me to have a good time with my friends.” Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

  19. Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM 10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM 10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM 2.5) and even smaller particles (PM 1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information on fine particles is needed. Aiming to evaluate the impact of tobacco smoke on public health, this work evaluates the influence of tobacco smoke on the characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 considering concentration and elemental composition. Samples were collected at sites influenced by tobacco smoke, as well as at reference sites, using low-volume samplers; the element analyses were performed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE); Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, I, Ba, La, Ce and Pb were quantified. At the sites influenced by tobacco smoke concentrations were 270-560% higher for PM 10 and 320-680% higher for PM 2.5 than at reference sites. Tobacco smoke increased the total concentrations of five carcinogenic elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb) 1100-2400% for PM 10 and 840-2200% for PM 2.5. The elements associated with tobacco smoke (S, K, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were predominantly present in the fine fraction; the elements mostly originating from building erosion (Mg, Al, Si and Ca) predominantly occurred in the coarse particles. The analysis of enrichment factors confirmed that tobacco smoking mainly influenced the composition of the fine fraction of particles; as these smaller particles have a strong influence on health, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

  20. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14 to 19. Methods Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points – in 2008-09 and 2010-11 (N=942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Results Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-09 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-11. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

  1. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  2. Behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke among bar and restaurant workers.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2007-09-01

    This study explores the behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) on bar and restaurant workers. Baseline data were obtained from a longitudinal study of 105 bar and restaurant workers. Hair nicotine, self-reported SHS exposure, smoking status, symptoms of nicotine exposure after being exposed to a smoky environment, and nicotine dependence were assessed. Nonsmokers reporting four or more symptoms of nicotine exposure had higher hair nicotine levels than those reporting less than four symptoms. Nonsmokers with higher hair nicotine levels were 2.2 times more likely to report 4 or more behavioral symptoms. Self-reported secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and hair nicotine were not predictive of nicotine dependence among smokers. Nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke may have important behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. This study provides further evidence for the importance of prohibiting smoking in hospitality venues to protect the health of workers. PMID:17239546

  3. THE ROLE OF TOBACCO SMOKE INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE IN VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Harrison, Corey M.; Chuang, Gin; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of individuals chronically exposed to tobacco smoke will eventually succumb to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, despite the major cardiovascular health implications of tobacco smoke exposure, concepts of how such exposure specifically results in cardiovascular cell dysfunction that leads to CVD development are still being explored. Moreover, surprisingly little is known about the effects of prenatal and childhood tobacco smoke exposure on adult CVD development. Herein, it is proposed that the mitochondrion is a central target for environmental oxidants, including tobacco smoke. By virtue of its multiple, essential roles in cell function including energy production, oxidant signaling, apoptosis, immune response, and thermogenesis, damage to the mitochondrion will likely play an important role in the development of multiple common forms of human disease, including CVD. Specifically, this review will discuss the potential role of tobacco smoke and environmental oxidant exposure in the induction of mitochondrial damage which is related to CVD development. Furthermore, mechanisms of how mitochondrial damage can initiate and/or contribute to CVD are discussed, as are experimental results that are consistent with the hypothesis that mitochondrial damage and dysfunction will increase CVD susceptibility. Aspects of both adult and developmental (fetal and childhood) exposure to tobacco smoke on mitochondrial damage, function and disease development are also discussed, including the future implications and direction of studies involving the role of the mitochondrion in influencing disease susceptibility mediated by environmental factors. PMID:17428506

  4. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places

    PubMed Central

    Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

  5. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  6. Study on tobacco components involved in the pyrolytic generation of selected smoke constituents.

    PubMed

    Torikai, K; Torikaiu, K; Uwano, Y; Nakamori, T; Tarora, W; Takahashi, H

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of various tobacco components to the generation of smoke constituents using a tobacco pyrolysis model. We analyzed the amounts of primary tobacco components (sugars, protein, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, inorganics etc.) in flue-cured and burley tobacco leaves. Each of the components was added to the tobacco leaves at the 0.5-fold and 1.0-fold amount naturally present in the leaves. The treated tobacco samples were pyrolyzed at 800 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere with an infrared image furnace, and the selected smoke constituents (benzo[a]pyrene, hydrogen cyanide, carbonyl compounds, aromatic amines, volatile organic compounds and phenolics) were quantitatively analyzed by several methods, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The contribution of each tobacco component to the generation of selected smoke constituents was estimated from a regression line determined by the three yields (no addition, 0.5-fold addition, and 1.0-fold addition). The results of this study can provide useful and comprehensive information on the relationship between tobacco components and selected smoke constituents during pyrolysis. PMID:15721203

  7. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

  8. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  9. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  10. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute presents this 19th monograph in the Tobacco Control Monograph Series, The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Monograph 19 provides a critical, scientific review and synthesis of the current evidence regarding the power of the media, both to encourage and to discourage tobacco use. It is the most current and comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on media communication in tobacco promotion and tobacco control.

  11. Association between environmental tobacco smoke and depression among Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Ju-Mi; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and depression among Korean women. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, we examined 731 men and 1249 women (aged 39–85?years) for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)-Kangwha. Among 1208 never-smoking women, we excluded two women taking antidepressants and five women who did not complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on 1201 women. ETS exposure was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire, and was classified into three groups: no exposure, occasional exposure and regular exposure. Depression was assessed using the BDI score, which ranged from 0 to 63, and the presence of depression was defined as a BDI score ?10. Results Women exposed to ETS were more likely to have depression than those without ETS exposure (p=0.019). When BDI was analysed as a continuous variable, women exposed to ETS had significantly higher BDI scores after full adjustment (overall exposure: ?=1.36, p=0.013; occasional exposure: ?=1.15, p=0.063; regular exposure: ?=1.90, p=0.039). ETS exposure was significantly associated with depression in a dose–response manner even after adjusting for age, body mass index, menopause, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and prevalent chronic diseases. The adjusted OR for depression (95% CI) was 1.72 (1.25 to 2.37) for overall ETS exposure, 1.56 (1.09 to 2.24) for occasional exposure and 2.19 (1.30 to 3.69) for regular exposure, when compared to no exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ETS was associated with depression among middle aged and elderly Korean women. PMID:26100025

  12. Changes in Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure: The Beaver Dam Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Margarete A; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Chappell, Richard; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Fischer, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Our goal was to determine if ETS exposure changed between 1998–2000 and 2003–2005 among participants in the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study. Methods ETS exposure was ascertained using a cotinine-validated questionnaire at the 5-year (1998–2000) and 10-year follow-up examinations (2003–2005). Non-smoking participants with data from both visits were included (n=1898; ages 53–96 years at 5-yr follow-up). McNemar’s test was used to test differences in ETS exposure overall and in three settings: home, work, and social settings. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used for multivariate logistic regression models of exposure. Results The proportion of nonsmokers with no or little ETS exposure increased from 80% to 88% (p<0.0001). The percent living in a home with no indoor smokers increased from 94% to 97% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting no exposure at work increased from 91% to 95% (p<0.0001). The percent reporting the lowest frequency of social exposure increased from 65% to 77% (p<0.0001). In the GEE model, age was inversely associated with exposure (Odds Ratio (OR) per 5 yr=0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI)=0.76, 0.86), as was education (OR for college vs

  13. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  14. Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

    1985-05-01

    Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

  15. State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

  16. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

  17. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Jenkins, R.A.; Naiman, D.Q.; Ginevan, M.E.; Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  18. Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in tobacco smoke, and pathways for formation of OH and peroxyl species. Tobacco smoke provides a new perspective of radical generation in a relatively well-defined biomass burning process.

  19. Tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and their related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Grace X; Shive, Steven E; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I; Fang, Carolyn Y; Edwards, Rosita L

    2005-05-01

    The present study examined tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among Asian Americans in the Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the relationship between acculturation and smoking, social influence patterns on smoking, and stages of change of smoking among Asian subgroups. Study sample was 1174 Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Cambodians, and other Asians. Findings revealed mean age of initiation to be 18.3, 40% ever and 30% current users. Significant differences were reflected in smoking by gender, ethnicity, educational level, marital and employment status. While knowledge and attitudes about smoking and secondhand smoke were associated with these variables, ethnic pride and smoking status played significant roles. Fathers and brothers had greater social influence on young male smoking behavior; smoking friends had influence on both genders. Stages of change of smoking and acculturation impact on smoking varied with gender, age, and time living in the U.S. Findings provide comprehensive insights into tobacco use and related KAB among Asian Americans that reflect the need for developing culturally appropriate programs for this underserved population. PMID:15833577

  20. A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control. PMID:20390676

  1. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  2. Out smoking on the big screen: Tobacco use in LGBT movies, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Agnew-Brune, Christine B.; Clapp, Justin A.; Blosnich, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have significantly higher smoking prevalence than heterosexual people in the United States. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear. Tobacco use in movies has a substantial influence on tobacco use behaviours, particularly among youth. Yet, no research has examined tobacco use in movies for LGBT audiences or containing LGBT characters. Methods We identified 81 U.S. movies from 2000–2011 with a theatre release and with LGBT themes or characters. We then selected a random sample of these movies (n = 45) for quantitative content analysis to examine the proportion of movies with depictions of tobacco use and the number of occurrences of tobacco use. Results Tobacco use was depicted in 87%(95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%–94%) of movies with an average of 4 occurrences of tobacco use per hour (95% CI: 3–5). Only 15% (95% CI: 8%–23%) of movies and 3% of all depictions of tobacco use conveyed any harms of tobacco use. Conclusions Viewers of movies with LGBT themes or characters are exposed, on average, to one depiction of tobacco use for every 15 minutes of movie run-time. As a major component of the entertainment media environment, movies may contribute to smoking among LGBT people. PMID:24277775

  3. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of solanesol was compromised--as it had been in the chamber experiments.

  4. Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

  5. Adolescent Smoking and Exposure to Tobacco Marketing Under a Tobacco Advertising Ban: Findings From 2 Norwegian National Samples

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Marc T.; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent to which adolescents in Norway have been exposed to tobacco marketing despite an existing ban, and whether exposure is related to their current smoking or expectations they will smoke in the future. Methods. Questionnaires were administered to nationally representative systematic samples of Norwegian youths aged 13 to 15 years in 1990 (n = 4282) and 1995 (n = 4065). Results. About half in each cohort reported exposure to marketing. Youths reporting exposure were significantly more likely to be current smokers and to expect to be smokers at 20 years of age, after control for important social influence predictors. Conclusions. Adolescents’ current smoking and future smoking expectations are linked to marketing exposure even in limited settings, suggesting the need for comprehensive controls to eliminate the function of marketing in promoting adolescent smoking. PMID:15226148

  6. Respiratory illness in nonsmokers chronically exposed to tobacco smoke in the work place.

    PubMed

    White, J R; Froeb, H F; Kulik, J A

    1991-07-01

    We evaluated CO levels as an index of cigarette smoke in the work place and analyzed diary entries on respiratory symptoms, eye irritation, chest colds and lost days from work due to respiratory illness in 40 passive smokers (nonsmokers chronically exposed to tobacco smoke in the work place) and 40 control subjects (nonsmokers not exposed to tobacco smoke in the work place) matched for age and gender. Passive smokers experienced greater CO levels during the workday. Also they reported significantly more cough, greater phlegm production, more shortness of breath, greater eye irritation, more chest colds and more days lost from work due to chest colds than control subjects. Nonsmoking workers and their employers are likely to incur significant financial loss because of missed workdays due to illnesses resulting from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. PMID:2060388

  7. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  8. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  9. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Technical report--Secondhand and prenatal tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Best, Dana

    2009-11-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure of children and their families causes significant morbidity and mortality. In their personal and professional roles, pediatricians have many opportunities to advocate for elimination of SHS exposure of children, to counsel tobacco users to quit, and to counsel children never to start. This report discusses the harms of tobacco use and SHS exposure, the extent and costs of tobacco use and SHS exposure, and the evidence that supports counseling and other clinical interventions in the cycle of tobacco use. Recommendations for future research, policy, and clinical practice change are discussed. To improve understanding and provide support for these activities, the harms of SHS exposure are discussed, effective ways to eliminate or reduce SHS exposure are presented, and policies that support a smoke-free environment are outlined. PMID:19841110

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Yu, Chundong; Han, Zenggang; Xu, Sunyu; Li, Dacheng; Meng, Xiao; Chen, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been conformed that active smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but the role of environmental tobacco smok (passive smoking) in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. We intended to study the relationship between passive smoking and pancreatic cancer. Methods: From Oct. 1991 to Sep. 2014, A hospital-based case-control study on pancreatic cancer was conducted from the inpatient of five hospitals. 1076 cases pancreatic cancer patients. History of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was assessed through questionnaires. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During 23 years of follow-up (1991-2014), 1076 patients were diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (686 men and 390 women). Compared to paternal smoking (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21; P = 0.084), maternal smoking significantly increased the risk of pancreatic cancer (R, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.13-1.98; P = 0.018). Although the risk associated with maternal smoking remained elevated compared to the never smokers (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.27), there was no statistical significance. Conclusions: The positive association with maternal smoking suggests that environmental tobacco smoke, potentially in utero or in early life, may be associated with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26629212

  11. [The introduction of tobacco and the diffusion of smoking culture in Korea].

    PubMed

    Sihn, K H; Seo, H G

    2001-06-01

    Since its introduction to Korea from Japan at the beginning of the seventeenth century, tobacco became very popular with an amazing rapidity among Koreans. Along with widespread cultivation of tobacco, smoking also became very popular among Koreans, regardless of their classes, ages, and sexes. On the other hand, other imported crops from America via Europe in the sam period, like sweet potato, potato, corn and tomato, did not enjoy such popularity in Korea. A long time after their introduction, Koreans began to cultivate these crops. Why did Koreans respond enthusiastically to the newly-imported tobacco? What kind of factors contributed to the rapid transmission of tobacco in Korea? This study examined the causes of rapid diffusion of the smoking population in three aspects. First was economic aspect. The farming of tobacco yielded a profit by selling it to Chinese. The climate and the soil of Korea fit for farming of tobacco. So the farm land of tobacco expanded gradually since the 18th century. Second was medical aspect. At first, many Koreans believed that smoking was helpful to digestion, expectoration, protecting coldness, and exterminating parasites. Afterwards, they believed smoking could encourage vitality and protect diseases. There was no reason of smoking cessation for the people's health in that the hazards of smoking were not well known to the commonage in those days, though a few intellectuals acknowledge its harm. Third was sociocultural aspect. We could trace the smoking culture of Chosun dynasty through arts, poems, and essays. The making of smoking culture made stable reproduction of smokers generation by generation. Especially, the smoking culture secured juvenile's smoking. Considering the three aspects above, we know that what reason the Decree of Ban of Smoking in Korea was not strict in comparison to that of China (Qing Dynasty), in which the violators were executed. The regulation of smoking by the government failed except controlling in sociocultural aspect. The government reinforced controlling of smoking culture in counteraction to the threat of collapse of the hierarchy of Chosun dynasty in 18th century. PMID:12219758

  12. Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Pires, J. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is one of the greatest sources of indoor particles, which has been linked with serious health effects. Consequently, there has been a widespread interest in analysing tobacco related indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, the majority of performed studies focused on bulk chemical composition of tobacco related PM, but the knowledge of individual tobacco smoke particles is still limited. Therefore, more information on PM should be provided, namely concerning morphological and chemical characterisation of individual particles. Aiming to further understand the impact of tobacco smoke on human health, this work studied the influence of tobacco smoke on chemical and morphological characteristics of PM 10 and PM 2.5, collected at one site influenced by smoking and at one reference (non-smoking) site. Chemical and morphological characteristics of 4000 individual particles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray microanalysis (by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer - EDS). Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify different particle groups that occurred in PM, aiming the identification of the respective emission sources. The results showed that tobacco smoke influenced the characteristics of both fine and coarse particles, this influence being stronger for fine fraction. The abundance of particles associated with tobacco smoke was 27% and 5% for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, respectively; as expected, those particles were not identified in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 of the reference (non-smoking) site. The results showed that at both sites PM was also influenced by outdoor sources. For PM 2.5-10, outdoor particles essentially originated from natural sources accounting for 35% and 15% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively. For PM 2.5, outdoor particles account for 38% and 29% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively; these particles showed considerable contribution (13% and 17%) from anthropogenic sources (mainly from traffic emissions). In general SEM-EDS showed to be a useful technique to complement characterisation of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, and to identify the respective emission sources.

  13. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the smoking areas compared to the non-smoking areas of pubs that contained both smoking and non-smoking sections. Median concentrations of RSP and nicotine were reduced by 18% and 68%, respectively, in non-smoking areas. UVPM, FPM and SolPM median concentrations were reduced by 27%, 34% and 39%, demonstrating the increased tobacco-specificity of the particulate markers and the impact of non-smoking areas. Levels of particulate phase ETS markers were also found to be higher in the smoking sections of pubs that allowed smoking throughout compared to the smoking sections of pubs with other areas where smoking was prohibited. The presence of a non-smoking section has the effect of reducing concentrations even in the smoking areas. This may be caused by migration of smoke into the non-smoking section thereby diluting the smoking area or by smokers tending to avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  14. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-01-01

    Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

  15. Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  17. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers’ predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3,147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44% respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

  18. The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives.

    PubMed

    Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

    2004-01-01

    The effects of 450 tobacco ingredients added to tobacco on the forty-four "Hoffmann analytes" in mainstream cigarette smoke have been determined. These analytes are believed by regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. They are based on lists published by D. Hoffmann and co-workers of the American Health Foundation in New York. The ingredients comprised 431 flavours, 1 flavour/solvent, 1 solvent, 7 preservatives, 5 binders, 2 humectants, 2 process aids and 1 filler. The cigarettes containing mixtures of the ingredients were smoked using the standard ISO smoking machine conditions. The levels of the "Hoffmann analytes" in the smoke from the test cigarettes containing the ingredient mixture were compared to those from control cigarettes without the ingredients. In practice, flavouring ingredients are typically added to tobacco that also contains casing ingredients and reconstituted tobacco materials. In order to keep the tobacco mixtures as authentic as possible, three comparisons have been made in this study. These are: (a) control cigarette containing a typical US blended, cased tobacco incorporating reconstituted tobacco versus test cigarettes that had flavouring ingredients added to this tobacco; (b) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarettes with the tobacco cased and incorporating flavourings; (c) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarette incorporating additives made in an experimental sheet material. The significances of differences between the test and control cigarettes were determined using both the variability of the data on the specific occasion of the measurement, and also taking into account the long-term variability of the analytical measurements over the one-year period in which analyses were determined in the present study. This long-term variability was determined by measuring the levels of the 44 "Hoffmann analytes" in a reference cigarette on many occasions over the one-year period of this study. The ingredients were added to the experimental cigarettes at or above the maximum levels used commercially by British American Tobacco. The effect of the ingredient mixtures on total particulate matter and carbon monoxide levels in smoke was not significantly different to the control in most cases, and was never more than 10% with any ingredient mixture. It was found that, in most cases, the mixtures of flavouring ingredients (generally added in parts per million levels) had no statistically significant effect on the analyte smoke yields relative to the control cigarette. Occasionally with some of the mixtures, both increases and decreases were observed for some smoke analyte levels relative to the control cigarette. These differences were generally up to about 15% with the mixtures containing flavouring ingredients. The significance of many of the differences was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. For the test cigarettes with ingredient mixtures containing casing ingredients, there were again no significant changes in smoke analyte levels in most cases. Those changes that were observed are as follows. Decreases in smoke levels were observed with some ingredient mixtures for most of the tobacco specific nitrosamines (up to 24%), NO(x), most of the phenols (up to 34%), benzo[a]pyrene, and some of the aromatic amines and miscellaneous organic compounds on the "Hoffmann list". Increases were observed for some test cigarettes in smoke ammonia, HCN, formaldehyde and lead levels (up to 24%). The significance of the ammonia and lead increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. The yields of some carbonyl compounds in smoke were increased in one comparison with an additives mixture containing cellulosic components; in particular, formaldehyde was increased by 68%. This was the largest single change seen in any smoke analyte level in this study. These carbonyls are

  19. Toxic Elements in Tobacco and in Cigarette Smoke: Inflammation and Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemically and pathologically, there is strong evidence for both atopic and nonatopic airway sensitization, hyperresponsiveness, and inflammation as a consequence of exposure to tobacco mainstream or sidestream smoke particulate. There is growing evidence for the relation between exposure to mainstream and sidestream smoke and diseases resulting from reactive oxidant challenge and inflammation directly as a consequence of the combined activity of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, eosinophils, basophils, as a humoral immunological consequence of sensitization, and that the metal components of the particulate play a role in adjuvant effects. As an end consequence, carcinogenicity is a known outcome of chronic inflammation. Smokeless tobacco has been evaluated by the IARC as a group 1 carcinogen. Of the many harmful constituents in smokeless tobacco, oral tissue metallothionein gradients suggest that metals contribute to the toxicity from smokeless tobacco use and possibly sensitization. This work reviews and examines work on probable contributions of toxic metals from tobacco and smoke to pathology observed as a consequence of smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:21799956

  20. Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.

    PubMed

    Megerdichian, Christine L; Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-11-01

    Evidence has shown that factors other than the central pharmacological effects of nicotine are important in promoting smoking behavior. One such non-nicotine effect includes sensory stimulation, which may promote smoking by developing learned associations with nicotine's rewarding effects, or by constituting a rewarding experience independent of nicotine. The present study used internal tobacco industry documents to examine industry efforts to understand and manipulate stimulation of the sensory nerves by tobacco smoke, and the influence of sensory stimulation on smoker behavior. Research focused on sensory nerves of the head and neck, including the olfactory nerve, which carries flavor and odor, and the trigeminal nerve, which carries irritant information. The tobacco industry maintained a systematic research program designed to elucidate an understanding of responses of sensory nerves to nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke, and attempted to develop nicotine-like compounds that would enhance sensory responses in smokers. Industry research appeared intended to aid in the development of new products with greater consumer appeal. The potential influence of sensory response in enhancing nicotine dependence through an associative mechanism was acknowledged by the tobacco industry, but evidence for research in this area was limited. These findings add to evidence of industry manipulation of sensory factors to enhance smoking behavior and may have implications for development of more effective treatment strategies, including more "acceptable" nicotine replacement therapies. PMID:17978985

  1. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. Aim: To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. Results: All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high. PMID:26236164

  2. A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Markowicz, P.; Löndahl, J.; Wierzbicka, A.; Salman, R.; Shihadeh, A.; Larsson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m3 of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m3 of LPS and 87.5 ng/m3 of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

  3. A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Markowicz, P; Löndahl, J; Wierzbicka, A; Suleiman, R; Shihadeh, A; Larsson, L

    2014-11-15

    Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m(3) of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m(3) of LPS and 87.5 ng/m(3) of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

  4. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura J.; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Kott, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:26694440

  5. An inter-machine comparison of tobacco smoke particle deposition in vitro from six independent smoke exposure systems.

    PubMed

    Adamson, J; Thorne, D; Errington, G; Fields, W; Li, X; Payne, R; Krebs, T; Dalrymple, A; Fowler, K; Dillon, D; Xie, F; Meredith, C

    2014-10-01

    There are several whole smoke exposure systems used to assess the biological and toxicological impact of tobacco smoke in vitro. One such system is the Vitrocell® VC 10 Smoking Robot and exposure module. Using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) installed into the module, we were able to assess tobacco smoke particle deposition in real-time. We compared regional deposition across the module positions and doses delivered by six VC 10s in four independent laboratories: two in the UK, one in Germany and one in China. Gauge R&r analysis was applied to the total data package from the six VC 10s. As a percentage of the total, reproducibility (between all six VC 10s) and repeatability (error within an individual VC 10) accounted for 0.3% and 7.4% respectively. Thus Gauge R&r was 7.7%, less than 10% overall and considered statistically fit for purpose. The dose-responses obtained from the six machines across the four different locations demonstrated excellent agreement. There were little to no positional differences across the module at all airflows as determined by ANOVA (except for one machine and at three airflows only). These results support the on-going characterisation of the VC 10 exposure system and suitability for tobacco smoke exposure in vitro. PMID:24997294

  6. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

  7. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(12); 1902-6. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26503035

  8. A survey of environmental tobacco smoke controls in California office buildings.

    PubMed

    Liu, K S; Alevantis, L E; Offermann, F J

    2001-03-01

    A survey of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) controls in California office buildings was carried out to obtain information of the type and distribution of ETS controls in office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of various ETS controls. A total of 118 smoking areas in 111 county and city buildings were inspected to collect information on the type of ETS controls. Only 31% of the smoking areas inspected were physically separated from nonsmoking areas with full floor-to-true-ceiling walls, 25% exhausted air to the outside, and 38% did not recirculate air to non-smoking areas. A total of 23 smoking areas and their adjacent non-smoking areas in 21 buildings were monitored for nicotine and fluorescent particulate matter (FPM). A tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was released in smoking areas to measure the air leakage from smoking areas to adjacent non-smoking areas. The measurements of nicotine, FPM, and SF6 have shown large variations of the effectiveness of ETS controls. The least effective type of smoking area studied were open areas with no physical barriers between smoking and nonsmoking areas, no exhaust to the outside and no return air separation. On the contrary, smoking rooms with three ETS controls (i.e., physical separation, exhaust to outside, and no air recirculation) were the most effective design in containing ETS within smoking areas. PMID:11235229

  9. Evaluation of In Vitro Assays For Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Wan, J.; Johnson, M.; Schilz, J.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Rice, J.R.; Shields, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In vitro toxicology studies of tobacco and tobacco smoke have been used to understand why tobacco use causes cancer and to assess the toxicological impact of tobacco product design changes. The need for toxicology studies has been heightened given that the FDA’s newly granted authority over tobacco products requires mandating performance standards for tobacco products and evaluate manufacturers’ health claims. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps. Methods PubMed database searches were used to identify tobacco-related in vitro toxicology studies published since 1980. Articles published prior to 1980 with high relevance also were identified. The data was compiled to examine: 1) goals of the study; 2) methods for collecting test substances; 3) experimental designs; 4) toxicological endpoints, and; 5) relevance to cancer risk. Results A variety of in vitro assays are available to assess tobacco and tobacco smoke that address different modes of action, mostly using non-human cell models. Smokeless tobacco products perform poorly in these assays. While reliable as a screening tool for qualitative assessments, the available in vitro assays have been poorly validated for quantitative comparisons of different products. Assay batteries have not been developed, although they exist for non-tobacco assessments. Extrapolating data from in vitro studies to human risks remains hypothetical. Conclusions In vitro toxicology methods are useful for screening toxicity, but better methods are needed for today’s context of regulation and evaluation of health claims. PMID:19959677

  10. Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a “healthy” tobacco-free alternative

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for “health-conscious” users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. PMID:23059956

  11. Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex) of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex). The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001) and umbilical artery (P = 0.001), and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450). These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P < 0.001) in association with a progressive increase in the tobacco exposure of the pregnant woman. Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure. PMID:21453488

  12. Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Mott, Leila A; Tickle, Jennifer J; Ahrens, M Bridget; Heatherton, Todd F

    2001-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents. Design Cross sectional survey of 4919 schoolchildren aged 9-15 years, and assessment of occurrence of smoking in 601 films. Setting Randomly selected middle schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Main outcome measure Number of schoolchildren who had ever tried smoking a cigarette. Results The films contained a median of 5 (interquartile range 1-12) occurrences of smoking. The typical adolescent had seen 17 of 50 films listed. Exposure to smoking in films varied widely: median 91 (49-152) occurrences. The prevalence of ever trying smoking increased with higher categories of exposure: 4.9% among students who saw 0-50 occurrences of smoking, 13.7% for 51-100 occurrences, 22.1% for 101-150, and 31.3% for >150. The association remained significant after adjustment for age; sex; school performance; school; parents' education; smoking by friend, sibling, or parent; and receptivity to tobacco promotions. The adjusted odds ratios of ever trying smoking for students in the higher categories of exposure, compared with students exposed to 0-50 occurrences of smoking in films, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.4), and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.8). These odds ratios were not substantially affected by adjustment for parenting style or for personality traits of the adolescent. Conclusion In this sample of adolescents there was a strong, direct, and independent association between seeing tobacco use in films and trying cigarettes, a finding that supports the hypothesis that smoking in films has a role in the initiation of smoking in adolescents. What is already known on this topicSmoking is often depicted in films, and watching films is a favourite activity of adolescentsAdolescents whose favourite actors smoke in films are more likely to have tried smokingWhat this study addsAdolescents' exposure to smoking in films varies widelyAdolescents with higher exposure are significantly more likely to have tried smoking, even when other factors linked with adolescent smoking have been taken into accountThis study supports the hypothesis that depictions of smoking in films influence adolescents to smoke PMID:11744562

  13. Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

  14. A Randomized, Controlled Community-Wide Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target population’s knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 2005–2006 study in Egypt’s Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce one’s ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers’ behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881

  15. Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-06-15

    Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008

  16. “Quitting Smoking Will Benefit Your Health”: The Evolution of Clinician Messaging to Encourage Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Toll, Benjamin A.; Rojewski, Alana M.; Duncan, Lindsay; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Boyer, Julie L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Salovey, Peter; Herbst, Roy S.

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Illnesses that are caused by smoking remain as the world's leading cause of preventable death. Smoking and tobacco use make up approximately 30% of all cancer deaths and nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths. Thus, improving smoking cessation interventions is crucial to reduce tobacco use and assist in minimizing the burden of cancer and other diseases in the United States (US). This review focuses on the existing research on framed messages to promote smoking cessation. Consistent with the tenets of Prospect Theory and recent meta-analysis, gain-framed messages emphasizing the benefits of quitting appear to be preferable when working with adult patients who smoke tobacco products. The evidence also suggests that moderators of treatment should guide framed statements made to patients. Meta-analyses have provided consistent moderators of treatment such as need for cognition, but future studies should further define the specific framed interventions that would be most helpful for sub-groups of smokers. In conclusion, instead of using loss-framed statements like “Smoking will harm your health by causing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke,” as a general rule, physicians should use gain-framed statements like “Quitting smoking will benefit your health by preventing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke.” PMID:24436474

  17. "Quitting smoking will benefit your health": the evolution of clinician messaging to encourage tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    Toll, Benjamin A; Rojewski, Alana M; Duncan, Lindsay R; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Fucito, Lisa M; Boyer, Julie L; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Salovey, Peter; Herbst, Roy S

    2014-01-15

    Illnesses that are caused by smoking remain as the world's leading cause of preventable death. Smoking and tobacco use constitute approximately 30% of all cancer-related deaths and nearly 90% of lung cancer-related deaths. Thus, improving smoking cessation interventions is crucial to reduce tobacco use and assist in minimizing the burden of cancer and other diseases in the United States. This review focuses on the existing research on framed messages to promote smoking cessation. Consistent with the tenets of prospect theory and recent meta-analysis, gain-framed messages emphasizing the benefits of quitting seem to be preferable when working with adult patients who smoke tobacco products. The evidence also suggests that moderators of treatment should guide framed statements made to patients. Meta-analyses have provided consistent moderators of treatment such as need for cognition, but future studies should further define the specific framed interventions that would be most helpful for subgroups of smokers. In conclusion, instead of using loss-framed statements like "Smoking will harm your health by causing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke," as a general rule, physicians should use gain-framed statements like "Quitting smoking will benefit your health by preventing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke." PMID:24436474

  18. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample (N = 4100) of intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. The data were collected using a pretested modified version of the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 3923 students from 72 intermediate and secondary schools for males and females in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ever having smoked prevalence was 17.3%, and the current smoking prevalence was 10.7%. The most important independent predictors of smoking were academic performance (odds ratio [OR]: 5.32), having friends who used khat (OR: 3.23), and having friends who used tobacco (OR: 2.88). Conclusions: Understanding the factors and predictors associated with tobacco use are crucial to identifying high-risk groups to design tobacco prevention and control programs. For the first time, a strong and statistically significant association was identified between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. Because the use of khat is increasingly spreading outside of its traditional areas to Europe and America, this finding may have an important impact on tobacco control efforts internationally. PMID:24159909

  19. Tobacco and cannabis smoking in secondary school pupils in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Abul Bangura, S; Lisk, R D

    1995-01-01

    A questionnaire survey of 713 pupils of Secondary Schools in Bo town, Southern Sierra Leone, on tobacco and cannabis smoking was carried out in January and February 1994. There were 56.8% males and 43.2% females with a mean age of 17.6 +/- 1.5 years. Lifetime use of both substances was 9% while current use was 4.2%. Current use of cigarettes was 3.2% and of cannabis 2.2%. Forty percent of current users smoked both cigarettes and cannabis. The mean age of onset of smoking was 15.1 +/- 3.1 years. Males smoked significantly more than females (p < 0.001). The prevalence of smoking increased with age and from junior to senior forms. There was also a higher prevalence among muslim students. Smoking within the family was a significant determinant of smoking in School children (p < 0.01). Current smokers were less aware of the health hazards of smoking but the majority of previous smokers stopped the habit because they thought it was bad for their health. In spite of these relatively rates, it is recommended that appropriate health education programme on tobacco and cannabis smoking be incorporated into school curricula. Further studies are indicated in more urbanized areas and in colleges. PMID:8519703

  20. [Influence of tobacco smoking on physical efficiency of young woman (part I)].

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Sliwi?ska-Mosso?, Mariola; Kasprzyk, Izabela

    2007-01-01

    For over 20 years Poland has been one of the countries with the world's highest consumption of tobacco. In view of the widespread popularity of this addition, of particular importance becomes the problem of women becoming addicted to tobacco smoke. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop and conduct preliminary surveys aimed at the determination of the scale of active and passive cigarette smoking among young women as well as the assessment of smoking on physical fitness. The research took a form of an anonymous questionnaire administered to 80 female secondary school graduates who were passing their entrance examinations to the University of Physical Education in Wroc?aw. The physical capacities were assessed on the basis of fitness tests and their results were subject to statistical analysis. One identified a significant impact of cigarette smoking on reducing the physical fitness and, in consequence, lower scores in the fitness test among smoking girls when compared to the scores of non-smoking girls (respectively 17.5+/-2.0; 21.0+/-4.5; p<0.0001). It was shown that smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and on the fitness test day has considerably influenced their physical fitness (p<0.002; p<0.0004). Moreover, smoking women devoted less time to exercises and had a higher BMI when compared to non-smoking women. PMID:18409279

  1. High-Throughput Determination of Mercury in Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke from Little Cigars.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-09-01

    A method was developed that utilizes a platinum trap for mercury from mainstream tobacco smoke, which represents an improvement over traditional approaches that require impingers and long sample preparation procedures. In this approach, the trapped mercury is directly released for analysis by heating the trap in a direct mercury analyzer. The method was applied to the analysis of mercury in the mainstream smoke of little cigars. The mercury levels in little cigar smoke obtained under Health Canada Intense smoking machine conditions ranged from 7.1 × 10(-3) to 1.2 × 10(-2) mg/m(3). These air mercury levels exceed the chronic inhalation minimal risk level corrected for intermittent exposure to metallic mercury (e.g., 1 or 2 h per day, 5 days per week) determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to assess associations between mercury levels and little cigar physical design properties. Filter ventilation was identified as the principal physical parameter influencing mercury concentrations in mainstream little cigar smoke generated under ISO machine smoking conditions. With filter ventilation blocked under Health Canada Intense smoking conditions, mercury concentrations in tobacco and puff number (smoke volume) were the primary physical parameters that influenced mainstream smoke mercury concentrations. PMID:26051388

  2. [Gender and disparities: the example of tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Clair, Carole; De Kleijn, Miriam J J; Jaunin-Stalder, Nicole; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-06-10

    Smoking prevalence is globally five times higher among men compared to women but this gap tends to decrease. Regarding health consequences of smoking, women tend to be more vulnerable than men. They are namely more at risk to present certain lung cancers and die of cardiovascular disease. While men are less prone to seek help for smoking cessation, women are less successful in their quit attempts and smoking cessation treatments are less effective among them. Interventions for smoking cessation and preventive measures tailored to gender specificities have the potential to improve management of smokers and decrease gender disparities in healthcare. PMID:26211088

  3. Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

  4. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  5. Tobacco Smoking in Islands of the Pacific Region, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    We provide an overview of tobacco smoking patterns in Pacific island countries and territories to facilitate monitoring progress toward the goal of a Tobacco-Free Pacific by 2025. We examined data from 4 surveys conducted in the region between 2001 and 2013, including the STEPwise approach to surveillance for adults (25-64 years); the Global School-Based Student Health Survey and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (students 13-15 years); and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (grade 9-12 students) in United States affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs). Adult smoking prevalence ranged from less than 5% of women in Vanuatu to almost 75% of men in Kiribati. Smoking prevalence among students (13-15 years) ranged between 5.6% and 52.1%. There were declines in smoking among youths in many USAPIs. To achieve the tobacco-free goal and reduce disease burden, accelerated action is needed to align national legislation with international agreements and build capacity for tobacco control at all levels. PMID:26632953

  6. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter?writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  7. Tobacco Smoking in Islands of the Pacific Region, 2001–2013

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    We provide an overview of tobacco smoking patterns in Pacific island countries and territories to facilitate monitoring progress toward the goal of a Tobacco-Free Pacific by 2025. We examined data from 4 surveys conducted in the region between 2001 and 2013, including the STEPwise approach to surveillance for adults (25–64 years); the Global School-Based Student Health Survey and the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (students 13–15 years); and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (grade 9–12 students) in United States affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs). Adult smoking prevalence ranged from less than 5% of women in Vanuatu to almost 75% of men in Kiribati. Smoking prevalence among students (13–15 years) ranged between 5.6% and 52.1%. There were declines in smoking among youths in many USAPIs. To achieve the tobacco-free goal and reduce disease burden, accelerated action is needed to align national legislation with international agreements and build capacity for tobacco control at all levels. PMID:26632953

  8. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

  9. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S; Fayter, D; Misso, K; Ogilvie, D; Petticrew, M; Sowden, A; Whitehead, M; Worthy, G

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. Data sources: Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. Study selection: Studies were included (n?=?84) if they reported the effects of any population-level tobacco control intervention on smoking behaviour or attitudes in individuals or groups with different demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. Data extraction: Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data synthesis: Data were synthesised using graphical (“harvest plot”) and narrative methods. No strong evidence of differential effects was found for smoking restrictions in workplaces and public places, although those in higher occupational groups may be more likely to change their attitudes or behaviour. Smoking restrictions in schools may be more effective in girls. Restrictions on sales to minors may be more effective in girls and younger children. Increasing the price of tobacco products may be more effective in reducing smoking among lower-income adults and those in manual occupations, although there was also some evidence to suggest that adults with higher levels of education may be more price-sensitive. Young people aged under 25 are also affected by price increases, with some evidence that boys and non-white young people may be more sensitive to price. Conclusions: Population-level tobacco control interventions have the potential to benefit more disadvantaged groups and thereby contribute to reducing health inequalities. PMID:18426867

  10. Science, Politics, and Ideology in the Campaign Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The issue of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the harms it causes to nonsmoking bystanders has occupied a central place in the rhetoric and strategy of antismoking forces in the United States over the past 3 decades. Beginning in the 1970s, anti-tobacco activists drew on suggestive and incomplete evidence to push for far-reaching prohibitions on smoking in a variety of public settings. Public health professionals and other antismoking activists, although concerned about the potential illness and death that ETS might cause in nonsmokers, also used restrictions on public smoking as a way to erode the social acceptability of cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This strategy was necessitated by the context of American political culture, especially the hostility toward public health interventions that are overtly paternalistic. PMID:12036788

  11. 75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...are necessary to protect children and adolescents from the harms caused by tobacco use...health goal of protecting children and adolescents from the harms caused by tobacco...

  12. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry’s involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. Methods and Findings A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry’s interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. Conclusions The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC’s commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees. PMID:26252397

  13. Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    David, G; Koh, W; Lee, H; Yu, M; London, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has been extensively associated with childhood respiratory illness; fewer studies have addressed the effects on adults. Methods: Childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure in relation to chronic cough, phlegm, and asthma diagnosis was studied in never smokers from a cohort of Singaporeans of Chinese ethnicity aged 45–74 years at enrolment from 1993 to 1998. From 1999 to 2004 subjects were interviewed regarding environmental tobacco smoke exposure before and after the age of 18 and the presence and duration of current symptoms of chronic cough and phlegm production and asthma diagnosis. Results: Among 35 000 never smokers, fewer had smoking mothers (19%) than fathers (48%). Although few subjects currently lived (20%) or worked (4%) with smokers, 65% reported living with a daily smoker before the age of 18 years. Living with a smoker before the age of 18 increased the odds of chronic dry cough (149 cases, odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.3) and, to a lesser extent, phlegm, after adjustment for age, sex, dialect group, and current and past exposure to smokers at home and at work after the age of 18. Associations strengthened with higher numbers of smokers in childhood. There was no association with asthma or chronic bronchitis. There was evidence to suggest a stronger association among subjects with a lower adult intake of fibre which has previously been found to be protective for respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: In this large study of non-smokers, living with a smoker in childhood was associated with chronic dry cough and phlegm in adulthood, independent of later exposures to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:16131525

  14. Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nicola J.; Kerr, Susan M.; Smith, Sheree M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable premature death worldwide. While the majority of smokers would like to stop, the habitual and addictive nature of smoking makes cessation difficult. Clinical guidelines suggest that smoking cessation interventions should include both behavioural support and pharmacotherapy (e.g. nicotine replacement therapy). This commentary paper focuses on the important role of behavioural interventions in encouraging and supporting smoking cessation attempts. Recent developments in the field are discussed, including ‘cut-down to quit’, the behaviour change techniques taxonomy (BCTT) and very brief advice (VBA) on smoking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the important role that health professionals can and should play in the delivery of smoking cessation interventions. PMID:25114563

  15. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Elmasry, Shady; Asfour, Shihab; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Travascio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Compelling experimental evidence associates smoking to the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In particular, it has been shown that nicotine down-regulates both the proliferation rate and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis of disc cells. Moreover, tobacco smoking causes the constriction of the vascular network surrounding the IVD, thus reducing the exchange of nutrients and anabolic agents from the blood vessels to the disc. It has been hypothesized that both nicotine presence in the IVD and the reduced solute exchange are responsible for the degeneration of the disc due to tobacco smoking, but their effects on tissue homeostasis have never been quantified. In this study, a previously presented computational model describing the homeostasis of the IVD was deployed to investigate the effects of impaired solute supply and nicotine-mediated down-regulation of cell proliferation and biosynthetic activity on the health of the disc. We found that the nicotine-mediated down-regulation of cell anabolism mostly affected the GAG concentration at the cartilage endplate, reducing it up to 65% of the value attained in normal physiological conditions. In contrast, the reduction of solutes exchange between blood vessels and disc tissue mostly affected the nucleus pulposus, whose cell density and GAG levels were reduced up to 50% of their normal physiological levels. The effectiveness of quitting smoking on the regeneration of a degenerated IVD was also investigated, and showed to have limited benefit on the health of the disc. A cell-based therapy in conjunction with smoke cessation provided significant improvements in disc health, suggesting that, besides quitting smoking, additional treatments should be implemented in the attempt to recover the health of an IVD degenerated by tobacco smoking. PMID:26301590

  16. Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking in a Spanish psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    LLerena, Adrián; de la Rubia, Alfredo; Peñas-Lledó, Eva M; Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose

    2003-04-01

    This study in a Spanish hospital replicated two US studies suggesting that schizophrenia is associated with smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. Neither antipsychotics nor institutionalism could explain this relationship. Seventy of the 100 schizophrenic and 53 of the 100 non-schizophrenic inpatients were current smokers. After correcting for confounding factors, schizophrenia increased the risk of smoking by 2- to 3-fold. Heavy smoking was not associated with schizophrenia. PMID:12591592

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and absence from work in women in Nis, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stankovi?, Aleksandra; Nikoli?, Maja; Arandelovi?, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke leads to very serious health effects, especially on the respiratory system. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on absence from work because of respiratory problems in women. The study sample consisted of 497 women aged 40-56 who live in an area with identical outdoor air pollution. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was recorded in 346 women. Data about respiratory symptoms in women were entered into a structured questionnaire. Statistics tests showed no significant difference of living conditions, keeping pets, hereditary predisposition among women. The occurrence of congested nose (OR = 3.47; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.01), nasal secretion (OR = 3.48; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.02) and sinusitis (OR = 2.88; 95% Cl = 1.22-6.89) was significantly higher in women who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Primary health care need for respiratory symptoms due to the effect of passive smoking is higher in the exposed women. Passive smoking can be a risk factor for the appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness in women that causes absence from work. PMID:22571012

  18. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  19. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smoke; Cigarette smoking - quitting; Tobacco cessation; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - quitting; Why you should quit smoking ... P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol . 2008;9:667-675. ...

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT: SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Cigarette smoking is unrivaled among developmental toxicants in terms of total adverse impact on the human population. According to the American Lung Association, smoking during pregnancy is estimated to account for 20 to 30 percent of low-weight babies, up to 14 per...

  1. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  2. Detection of nicotine as an indicator of tobacco smoke by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.

  3. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100?000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100?000 v 128.9/100?000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer mortality (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.90). Conclusions Smoking contributes to substantial mortality in prison, and prison tobacco control policies are associated with reduced mortality. These findings suggest that smoking bans have health benefits for people in prison, despite the limits they impose on individual autonomy and the risks of relapse after release. PMID:25097186

  4. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  5. Alterations in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity are associated with tobacco smoking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Humsini; Velasquez, Kenia M.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy Gemma Yan; Savjani, Ricky; Carter, Asasia Q.; Eagleman, David; Baldwin, Philip R.; De La Garza, II, Richard; Salas, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity correlates with several neurologic and psychiatric conditions, including depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and stroke. Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity also correlates with abuse of cannabis and cocaine. In the current report, we evaluated whether tobacco abuse (i.e., cigarette smoking) is associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity. To that end, we examined resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in short term tobacco deprived and smoking as usual tobacco smokers, and in non-smoker controls. Additionally, we compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the same subjects to study differences in white matter. The data reveal a significant increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity in sated tobacco smokers when compared to controls. This difference was larger in frontal regions, and was positively correlated with the average number of cigarettes smoked per day. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the number of DTI streamlines in the genual corpus callosum and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Taken together, our results implicate changes in interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity in current cigarette smokers. PMID:25805986

  6. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  7. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Allermann, Leila; Vogel, Ulla; Andersen, Paal Skytt; Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2009-11-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we identified 1111 eighteen month old cases with recurrent wheeze and 735 wheeze-free controls among 11942 children recruited in the Copenhagen area. Polymorphisms in IL-4R, IL-8, IL-13, SPINK5, and CD14 were genotyped. Interviews at gestational wks 12 and 30, and at age 6 and 18 months included questions on number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent wheeze (p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant interaction between this polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, though this was probably a chance finding. There were no other statistically significant effects of the polymorphisms or interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke in relation to the risk of recurrent wheeze. Polymorphisms in IL-8 affected the association between pet-keeping and risk of wheeze. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes might affect the association between environmental exposures and risk of recurrent wheeze in early childhood. PMID:19674346

  8. The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

  9. MICROENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO CALIFORNIANS POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the 1987-88 California Activity Pattern (CAP) Survey, this report examines various microenvironmental aspects of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that were not explored in earlier reports. hese topics include: (1) predictors of those individuals with t...

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  11. Effects of maternal tobacco smoking, sleeping position, and sleep state on arousal in healthy term infants

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Vitkovic, J; Lacey, B; Andrew, S; Cranage, S; Chau, B; Greaves, R; Adamson, T

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether a history of maternal tobacco smoking affected the maturation of arousal responses and whether sleeping position and infant age alters these relations. Design: Healthy term infants (13 born to mothers who did not smoke and 11 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy) were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: (a) two to three weeks after birth, (b) two to three months after birth, and (c) five to six months after birth. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold in response to air jet stimulation were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) when infants slept both prone and supine. Results: Maternal smoking significantly elevated arousal threshold in QS when infants slept supine at 2–3 months of age (p<0.05). Infants of smoking mothers also had fewer spontaneous arousals from QS at 2–3 months in both prone (p<0.05) and supine (p<0.001) sleeping positions. In infants of non-smoking mothers, arousal thresholds were elevated in the prone position in AS at 2–3 months (p<0.01) and QS at 2–3 weeks (p<0.05) and 2–3 months (p<0.001). Conclusions: Maternal tobacco smoking significantly impairs both stimulus induced and spontaneous arousal from QS when infants sleep in the supine position, at the age when the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is highest. PMID:12193515

  12. Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population

    PubMed Central

    Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; DeBon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and smoking cessation and relapse has not been studied. In a large military sample entering Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT), where tobacco use is prohibited, we investigated (i) the prevalence of agreement with a statement that tobacco companies have misled the public about the health consequences of smoking and (ii) the association of this acknowledgement with smoking status upon entry into BMT (N?=?36 013). At baseline, 56.6% agreed that tobacco companies have been deceptive, and agreement was a strong predictor of smoking status [smokers less likely to agree, odds ratio (OR)?=?0.39, P < 0.01]. At 12-month follow-up, we examined the association between industry perception at baseline and current smoking status (N?=?20 672). Recruits who had been smoking upon entry into BMT and who had acknowledged industry deception were less likely to report current smoking (OR?=?0.84, P?=?0.01). These findings suggest that anti-industry attitudes may affect smoking relapse following cessation. PMID:19528314

  13. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  14. Let's Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free: Your Guide to the 50th Anniversary Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctrine requires public ser vice announcements about smoking’s health risks to counter tobacco ads on radio and TV. ... General’s Repor t discusses secondhand smoke as a health risk. 1973 Arizona becomes the first state to restrict ...

  15. Tobacco smoking in mongolia: findings of a national knowledge, attitudes and practices study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, a national NCDs knowledge, attitudes and practices survey focusing, among other things, on NCD risk factors was implemented in Mongolia in late 2010 to complement the previous WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance Survey (STEPS) findings from 2009. This publication explores the smoking-related findings of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (KAPS). Methods A nationally representative sample size was calculated using methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPS surveys. As a result, 3450 people from across Mongolia were selected using a multi-stage, random cluster sampling method from permanent residents aged between 15 and 64 years. The KAP survey questionnaire was interviewer-administered on a door-to-door basis. Results In Mongolia at 2010, 46.3% of males and 6.8% of females were smokers. This practice was especially dominant among males and urban dwellers (MOR 2.2), and more so among the middle-aged (45–54) (MOR 2.1) while still displaying a high prevalence among Mongolian youth (15.5%). The probability of smoking was independent of the level of education. Although the level of awareness of the health hazards related to tobacco smoking was generally very high in the population, this was influenced by the level of education as more people with a primary and secondary level of education believed that smoking at least one pack of cigarette per day was required to harm one’s health (MOR 5.8 for primary education and 2.5 for secondary). Finally, this knowledge did not necessarily translate into a behavioural outcome as 15.5% of the population did not object to people smoking in their house, and especially so among males (MOR 4.1). Conclusion The findings of this KAP survey corroborate the 2009 WHO STEPS Survey findings with regards to the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Mongolia. It identifies males, urban dwellers and Mongolian youth as groups that should be targeted by public health measures on tobacco consumption, while keeping in mind that higher levels of awareness of the harms caused by tobacco smoking do not necessarily translate into behavioural changes. PMID:24580834

  16. Collection and analysis of Nicotine as a marker for environmental tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. Katharine; Leaderer, Brian P.; Roche, Anne C.; Schenker, Marc

    Nicotine is a potential marker for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) because it is unique to tobacco smoke and is a major constituent of the smoke. An air sampling method is presented which efficiently collects both particulate and vapor phase nicotine. Two filters are assembled in tandem in a personal sampling cassette. The first filter collects total or size fractional particules and the second is treated with sodium bisulfate to collect vapor phase nicotine and nicotine which has volatilized from the paniculate material collected on the first filler. The nicotine is then desorbed from the filters and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection. The sampling method was evaluated in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and smoking rate. It was then employed in a field study of particulate exposures of railroad office workers and railroad mechanics to determine the portion of the particulate exposure attributable to environmental tobacco smoke. The method was found to be efficient and sensitive for the determination of nicotine levels in air.

  17. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  18. Predictors of hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity in vocational school students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking, hazardous drinking and physical inactivity during adolescence are risk factors that are associated with poorer health in adulthood. The identification of subgroups of young people with a high prevalence of one or more of these risk factors allows an optimised allocation of preventive measures. This study aimed at investigating hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity as well as their associations and demographic predictors in vocational school students. Methods Out of 57 contacted vocational schools in Switzerland, a total of 24 schools participated in a survey assessing gender, age, immigrant background, educational attainment and vocational field as well as the above mentioned health risk factors. Out of the 2659 students present in 177 included vocational school classes, 2647 (99.5%) completed the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the demographic predictors of each health risk factor and a multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate predictors of different risk factor combinations. Results Of the surveyed students, 79.4% showed at least one risk factor, 43.6% showed two or more and 9.6% showed all three health risk factors. Hazardous drinking was more prevalent in male, physical inactivity was more prevalent in female vocational school students. The proportion of students with low physical activity and tobacco smoking increased with increasing age. While the combination of hazardous drinking and tobacco smoking was higher in males, the other risk factor combinations were observed particularly among females. Conclusions Multiple risk factors were ascertained in a significant proportion of vocational school students. Specifically, tobacco smoking and hazardous drinking were coexistent. The study underlines the need for preventive measures in specific subpopulations of adolescents and young adults with lower educational level. PMID:23672294

  19. More Children, Teens Enticed to Smoke with Flavored Tobacco: CDC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these products. "Although flavorings in cigarettes, except for menthol, have been banned by the U.S. Family Smoking ... nearly 54 percent (900,000) had puffed on menthol cigarettes, and about 42 percent (120,000) had ...

  20. Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

    2012-11-01

    This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside. PMID:22921198

  1. Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

  2. Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    de Leon, Jose; Tracy, Joseph; McCann, Eileen; McGrory, Amy; Diaz, Francisco J

    2002-07-01

    A prior study in a US state hospital suggested that schizophrenia is more closely associated with tobacco smoking when compared with other severe mental illnesses. This second study, in a neighborhood hospital, tries to (1) replicate that schizophrenia is associated with smoking and heavy smoking, and (2) rule out that this relationship is explained by substance use. The methodology was very similar to the first study. The sample included 588 inpatients. Logistic regression was used to develop models of variables associated with smoking or heavy smoking. The frequency of current smoking for the total, schizophrenic and non-schizophrenic samples were respectively 71, 75, and 55%. The sequence of frequencies from the highest to lowest was the same as in the first study: male schizophrenic patients, male non-schizophrenic patients, female schizophrenic patients and female non-schizophrenic patients. This second study consistently replicated the relationship between schizophrenia and smoking (after correcting for other variables) including history of alcohol and drug abuse or dependence. Only one of two definitions of heavy smoking showed a significant association with schizophrenia. In summary, these two studies suggest that schizophrenia is strongly associated with smoking. Neither substance use, antipsychotics, nor institutionalism can explain this relationship. PMID:12084420

  3. Tobacco Price Increase and Smoking Cessation in Japan, a Developed Country With Affordable Tobacco: A National Population-Based Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakamura, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Mori, Jun-ichiro; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal assessment of the impact of tobacco price on smoking cessation is scarce. Our objective was to investigate the effect of a price increase in October 2010 on cessation rates according to gender, age, socioeconomic status, and level of tobacco dependence in Japan. Methods We used longitudinal data linkage of two nationally representative studies and followed 2702 smokers for assessment of their cessation status. The odds ratios (ORs) for cessation were calculated using logistic regression. To estimate the impact of the 2010 tobacco price increase on cessation, data from 2007 were used as a reference category. Results Overall cessation rates significantly increased from 2007 to 2010, from 3.7% to 10.7% for men and from 9.9% to 16.3% for women. Cessation rates were 9.3% for men who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day, 2.7% for men who smoked 11–20 cigarettes per day, and 2.0% for men who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day in 2007. These rates increased to 15.5%, 10.0%, and 8.0%, respectively, in 2010. The impact was stronger among subjects who smoked more than 11 cigarettes per day than those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day in both sexes: ORs for 2010 were 4.04 for those smoking 11–20 cigarettes per day, 4.26 for those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, and 1.80 for those smoking 1–10 cigarettes per day in the main model in men. There were no obvious differences in the relationship between tobacco price increase and smoking cessation across age and household expenditure groups. Conclusions The tobacco price increase in Japan had a significant impact on smoking cessation in both sexes, especially among heavy smokers, with no clear difference in effect by socio-demographic status. PMID:26277880

  4. The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

  5. The potential effects of tobacco control in China: projections from the China SimSmoke simulation model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use a computer simulation model to project the potential impact in China of tobacco control measures on smoking, as recommended by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), being fully implemented. Design Modelling study. Setting China. Population Males and females aged 15-74 years. Intervention Incremental impact of more complete implementation of WHO FCTC policies simulated using SimSmoke, a Markov computer simulation model of tobacco smoking prevalence, smoking attributable deaths, and the impact of tobacco control policies. Data on China’s adult population, current and former smoking prevalence, initiation and cessation rates, and past policy levels were entered into SimSmoke in order to predict past smoking rates and to project future status quo rates. The model was validated by comparing predicted smoking prevalence with smoking prevalence measured in tobacco surveys from 1996-2010. Main outcome measures Projected future smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths from 2013-50. Results Status quo tobacco policy simulations projected a decline in smoking prevalence from 51.3% in 2015 to 46.5% by 2050 in males and from 2.1% to 1.3% in females. Of the individual FCTC recommended tobacco control policies, increasing the tobacco excise tax to 75% of the retail price was projected to be the most effective, incrementally reducing current smoking compared with the status quo by 12.9% by 2050. Complete and simultaneous implementation of all FCTC policies was projected to incrementally reduce smoking by about 40% relative to the 2050 status quo levels and to prevent approximately 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths and 154 million life years lost by 2050. Conclusions Complete implementation of WHO FCTC recommended policies would prevent more than 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths in China by 2050. Implementation of FCTC policies would alleviate a substantial portion of the tobacco related health burden that threatens to slow China’s extraordinary gains in life expectancy and prosperity. PMID:24550245

  6. Alternative Tobacco Products as a Second Front in the War on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Amrock, Stephen M.; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    JAMA PEDIATRICS Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking: Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults Samir Soneji, PhD; James D. Sargent, MD; Susanne E. Tanski, MD, MPH; Brian A. Primack, MD, PhD IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46–4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43–9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95%CI, 1.01–6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86–20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95%CI, 1.48–4.38 and 4.45; 95%CI, 1.75–11.27, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking. PMID:26461999

  7. Rural-Urban Differences in the Social Climate Surrounding Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Report From the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Robert; Breen, Julie; Cosby, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Objective: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. Design: Data were…

  8. A Test of the Cognitive Self-Medication Hypothesis of Tobacco Smoking in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Britta; Harvey, Alexander N.; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Holcomb, Henry H.; Gold, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavier tobacco smoking among people with schizophrenia (SCZ) has been suggested to reflect self-medication of cognitive deficits. The idea that cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine are a primary motivator of tobacco consumption in SCZ and that abstinence would deprive SCZ of such beneficial effects may explain hesitation among providers to pursue smoking cessation in SCZ. This study tested predictions of the cognitive self-medication hypothesis. Methods In three counterbalanced sessions, 17 SCZ and 17 healthy control subjects (HCS), all smokers, were tested under ad libitum smoking, or 3.5 hours after abstaining and receiving a nicotine (14 mg/24 hrs) or placebo patch. Results Attention task performance was improved by transdermal nicotine relative to placebo, with intermediate performance by ad libitum smoking. These effects were of similar size in SCZ and HCS, and did not reflect remediation of functions disproportionately impaired in SCZ. Although more SCZ reported that the need to concentrate influenced their smoking, this was not reflected by these patients' actual behavior. Self-reported ability to concentrate changed with nicotine status in HCS but not SCZ, suggesting insensitivity of SCZ to nicotine-derived performance benefits. Nicotine plasma concentrations after ad libitum smoking were not associated with performance benefits but instead with the propensity to experience nicotine withdrawal upon abstinence. This association was seen selectively in SCZ, suggesting a possible reason for heavier smoking. Conclusions These findings suggest that subjective or objective attentional benefits are unlikely the primary driving force of tobacco consumption in SCZ and should not discourage providers from supporting quit attempts. PMID:23660272

  9. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Sean M.; Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts ; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts ; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  10. Smoking, disease, and obdurate denial: the Australian tobacco industry in the 1980s

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S; Chapman, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To contrast the Australian tobacco industry's awareness of the diseases caused by smoking with their aggressive public denial on the relation between smoking and disease in the 1980s. Design: Analysis of 325 industry documents from the world wide web. Results: In the 1980s Australian cigarette manufacturers were informed constantly by the international industry of the medical consensus that smoking caused disease. In addition Philip Morris (Australia) Limited received reports of Philip Morris' international biological research programme and visited its Richmond research facility; and WD&HO Wills part funded, co-managed, and contributed research to the British American Tobacco groups' biological research programme. Despite this knowledge, the Australian manufacturers had a policy of arguing to their employees, decision makers, and the general public that questions of smoking and disease were unresolved. The industry catalogued the literature, developed arguments against the main claims made by health groups, and attacked public health advocates who made statements linking smoking to death and disease. Industry studies suggested that a 20–30% minority of the Australian public agreed with the industry on smoking and disease, diminishing across the decade. Conclusion: Australian manufacturers were clearly negligent in the 1980s, deliberately working to undermine Australians' understandings of the diseases caused by smoking despite their own private knowledge. Continuing scepticism about smoking and disease, corresponding with the industry's deceptions, exists in Australian smokers today, suggesting that their actions may have slowed the rate of decline in smoking prevalence. These revelations provide important evidence for Australian litigation and advocacy. PMID:14645945

  11. Influence of tobacco smoke on indoor PM 10 particulate matter characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Arrizza, L.; Granato, V.

    In this study we evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke on the physico-chemical characteristics of PM 10 in different environments: outdoors, a smoking room, the same room after a 7-day absence of smokers and in a smoke-free office. The latter office was close to the smoking room, separated by a corridor. The coarse (PM 10-2.1) and fine (PM 2.1) fractions of PM 10 collected in the monitored areas were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the elemental composition of the particulate and to identify the chemical state of atomic species detected. Four clusters of particles for both "fine" and "coarse" fractions were identified: carbonaceous particles, soil erosion particles, Ca-sulphates and metal compound particles. EDX spectra showed that a percentage of carbonaceous particles carried S, Si and metal traces. High-resolution XPS spectra of the C1s region showed a significant greater occurrence of the C-O/C-N functional group in the particulate fine fraction collected in the smoking room compared to that collected outdoors. The carbonaceous component of coarse fraction collected in the smoking room appeared dissimilar from the same component detected in the other areas. After the 7-day absence of smokers this component of the PM 10-2.1 fraction was similar to the corresponding coarse fraction collected at the outdoor location. The carbonaceous component of fine fraction collected in the smoking room, containing tobacco smoke products, such as organic carbon and nicotine, was traceable in the neighbouring areas, even several days after suspension of smoking activity.

  12. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    PubMed Central

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Weglicki, Linda S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

  13. Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

  14. Neoliberal and public health effects of failing to adopt OSHA's national secondhand tobacco smoke rule.

    PubMed

    Givel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    From the early 1980s to the present, neoliberal doctrine has called for government policies of privatization, funding cutbacks, and deregulation of public health and other domestic social programs in the belief that the market rather than the public sector can best organize and distribute crucial societal services. Proponents of a neoliberal and deregulatory mixed approach of command and control and self-regulation argue this approach provides the most adequate means to conduct regulation in the legalistic and adversarial U.S. regulatory process. In April 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued a proposed rule to eliminate tobacco smoking in most workplace rooms, arguing secondhand tobacco smoke annually killed up to 13,700 nonsmokers. The tobacco industry purposely delayed public hearing procedures (later halted altogether by Congress and the president) primarily to advance unhindered private property rights and profits rather than submitting to a public command-and-control regulatory framework to reduce deaths due to secondhand tobacco smoke. PMID:16524168

  15. Cao, Y., H.C. Frey, Z. Liu, and B. Deshpande, "Evaluation of the Modeling of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the SHEDS-PM Model," Paper 2009-A-239-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    . ETS, also referred to second-hand smoke, includes sidestream smoke and mainstream smoke. Sidestream smoke is given off by the burning end of a tobacco product. Mainstream smoke is exhaled by the smoker

  16. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and"mild" from tobacco products in the U.S. market, and health officials continue to warn there is ... 2010, to stop labeling cigarettes then on the market as"light,""low," and"mild." Then, they had ...

  17. U.S. Hookah Tobacco Smoking Establishments Advertised on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Rice, Kristen R.; Shensa, Ariel S.; Carroll, Mary V.; DePenna, Erica J.; Nakkash, Rima; Barnett, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishments dedicated to hookah tobacco smoking have recently proliferated and helped introduce hookah use to U.S. communities. Purpose To conduct a comprehensive, qualitative assessment of websites promoting these establishments. Methods In June 2009, a systematic search process was initiated to access the universe of websites representing major hookah tobacco smoking establishments. In 2009–2010, codebook development followed an iterative paradigm involving three researchers and resulted in a final codebook consisting of 36 codes within eight categories. After two independent coders had nearly perfect agreement (Cohen’s ?=0.93) on double-coding the data in the first 20% of sites, the coders divided the remaining sites and coded them independently. A thematic approach to the synthesis of findings and selection of exemplary quotations was used. Results The search yielded a sample of 144 websites originating from states in all U.S. regions. Among the hookah establishments promoted on the websites, 79% served food and 41% served alcohol. Of the websites, none required age verification, <1% included a tobacco-related warning on the first page, and 4% included a warning on any page. Although mention of the word tobacco was relatively uncommon (appearing on the first page of only 26% sites and on any page of 58% of sites), the promotion of flavorings, pleasure, relaxation, product quality, and cultural and social aspects of hookah smoking was common. Conclusions Websites may play a role in enhancing or propagating misinformation related to hookah tobacco smoking. Health education and policy measures may be valuable in countering this misinformation. PMID:22261211

  18. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. Setting A large university in the Southeastern USA. Participants Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Design Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Outcome measures Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. Results On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Conclusions Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. PMID:26353876

  19. Acute effect of isometric exercise on desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ussher, Michael; West, Robert; Doshi, Reena; Sampuran, Amandeep Kaur

    2006-01-01

    A brief bout of aerobic exercise (e.g. stationary bicycle) has been shown to result in an acute reduction in tobacco withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent smokers. However, aerobic exercise is often not practical and it is of interest to examine whether non-aerobic exercise has a similar effect. We investigated whether isometric exercise (involving muscular contractions against resistance without movement, e.g. placing the palms of the hands together and pushing) reduces desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Following overnight abstinence smokers were randomized to 5-min of: isometric exercises (n = 20), body scanning (focusing attention on sensations in different areas of the body, n = 20, control), or sitting passively (n = 20, control). Desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms ('irritable', 'depressed', 'stressed', 'tense', 'restless' and 'poor concentration') were rated at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-min post-intervention. Isometric exercise produced a significantly greater reduction in desire to smoke versus passive control at immediate post-intervention and 5-min post-intervention, relative to baseline (p < 0.05). Most withdrawal symptoms were significantly moderated by exercise versus controls at some point between 5- to 20-min post-intervention, relative to baseline (p < 0.05). Brief isometric exercise has potential for offering immediate relief from a desire to smoke. PMID:16389665

  20. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories—premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Methods Analysis of 2001–08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Results Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. PMID:25118219

  1. Nicotine Content of Domestic Cigarettes, Imported Cigarettes and Pipe Tobacco in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sahar; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moalemzadeh-Haghighi, Hamideh; Nassirli, Hooriyeh; Eshraghi, Pyman; Jalali, Navid; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many different kinds of cigarettes and tobacco available in the market. Since nicotine content of various brands of cigarettes are very variable, therefore evaluation and comparison of nicotine content of different brands of cigarettes is important. The goal of the present study was to determine and compare nicotine content of various domestic and imported cigarettes available in the area. Methods Fourteen popular imported brands and nine popular domestic brands of cigarettes and three available brands of tobaccos were investigated for the amounts of nicotine content. Nicotine was extracted from each cigarette and tobacco samples and was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Findings The amount of nicotine in each cigarette was from 6.17 to 12.65 mg (1.23 ± 0.15 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) in domestic cigarettes. It was between 7.17-28.86 mg (1.80 ± 0.25 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) for imported cigarette, and between 30.08- 50.89 mg (3.82 ± 1.11 percent) for the pipe nicotine. There was significant difference in nicotine amount between imported and domestic brands of cigarettes. There was also no significant difference in nicotine content between light and normal cigarettes in imported brands. Conclusion Nicotine content of all tested cigarettes, imported and domestic brands, were higher than the international standard. PMID:24494133

  2. Considerations for comparative tobacco product assessments based on smoke constituent yields.

    PubMed

    Belushkin, M; Jaccard, G; Kondylis, A

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of more than 8000 smoke constituents. The quantification of selected mainstream smoke constituent yields is one of the methods to evaluating and comparing the performance of different products. Numerous regulatory and scientific advisory bodies have used cigarette smoke constituent yield data for reporting and product comparison purposes. For more than a decade limitations of the indiscriminate application of traditional statistical methods such as the t-test for differences in comparative smoke constituent yield assessments lacking a specific study design, have been highlighted. In the present study, the variability of smoke constituent yields is demonstrated with data obtained under the ISO smoking regime for the Kentucky reference cigarette 3R4F and one commercial brand, analyzed on several occasions between 2007 and 2014. Specifically it is shown that statistically significant differences in the yields of selected smoke constituents do not readily translate to differences between products, and that tolerances need to be defined. To this end, two approaches have been proposed in the literature--minimal detectable differences, and the statistical equivalence. It is illustrated how both approaches provide more meaningful comparison outcomes than the statistical t-test for differences. The present study provides considerations relevant for comparative tobacco product assessments both in the scientific and regulatory contexts. PMID:26140819

  3. Measurements and modeling of environmental tobacco smoke leakagefrom a simulated smoking room

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.A.; Fisk,W.J.; Alevantis, L.E.; Waldman, J.M.

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect ofvarious design and operating parameters on smoking room performance.Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room witha smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made ofair flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, twogas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakageflows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance andnon-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakagemechanism are presented. The results indicate that the first priority foran effective smoking room is to depressurize it with respect to adjoiningnon-smoking areas. Another important ETS leakage mechanism is the pumpingaction of the smoking room door. Substituting a sliding door for astandard swing-type door reduced this source of ETS leakagesignificantly. Measured results correlated well with model predictions(R2 = 0.82-0.99).

  4. A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

  5. Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Effects in Asthmatic Children through Determination of Urinary Cotinine and Targeted Metabolomics of Plasma Introduction Asthma is a complex disease with multiple triggers and causal factors, Exposure to environmental tob...

  6. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 ?g/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 ?g/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID:22788372

  7. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Pregnancy is Associated With Earlier Delivery and Reduced Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel C; Wills, Andrew K; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-12-01

    The association between maternal smoking and preterm birth (PTB) has been known for more than 50 years but the effect of passive smoking is controversial. This retrospective cohort study in Bristol, United Kingdom, examines the effect of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE) on gestational age at delivery, birth weight, PTB, and being small-for-gestational age (SGA). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was defined by either self-report or exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels, and exposed women were compared with unexposed controls. Two models were used: The first included all women with adjustment for maternal smoking, and the second considered nonsmokers alone. Both models were further adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, parity, ethnicity, employment status, socioeconomic position, asthma, preeclampsia, and offspring sex. Logistic regression and likelihood ratio tests were used to test for any association between exposure and the binary outcomes (PTB and SGA), while linear regression and F tests were used to test for associations between exposure and the continuous outcomes. There were 13 359 deliveries in 2012 to 2014, with complete data for 5066 and 4793 women in the self-reported and eCO-measured exposure groups, respectively. Self-reported exposure was associated with earlier delivery (-0.19 weeks; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32 to -0.05) and reduced birth weight (-56 g, 95% CI: -97 to -16 g) but no increase in the risk of PTB or SGA. There was no evidence for an association between eCO-measured exposure and any of the outcome measures. This information is important when advising women and their families and adds further support to continued public health efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:26507870

  8. Changes in Tobacco Smoke Exposure following the Institution of a Smoke-Free Policy in the Boston Housing Authority

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Douglas E.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Fang, Shona C.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To protect residents from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE), the Boston Housing Authority (BHA) prohibited smoking in BHA-owned apartments beginning in 2012. Our goal was to determine if the smoke-free policy reduced TSE for non-smoking BHA residents. Methods We compared TSE before the smoke-free policy (2012) and one year later among BHA residents as well as residents of the neighboring Cambridge Housing Authority (CHA) where no such policy was in place. Participants were a convenience sample of adult non-smoking BHA and CHA residents cohabitating with only non-smokers. Main outcomes were 7-day airborne nicotine in participants’ apartments; residents’ saliva cotinine; and residents’ self-reported TSE. Results We enrolled 287 confirmed non-smokers (192 BHA, 95 CHA). Seventy-nine percent (229) were assessed at follow-up. At baseline, apartment and resident TSE were high in both housing authorities (detectable airborne nicotine: 46% BHA, 48% CHA; detectable saliva cotinine: 49% BHA, 70% CHA). At follow-up there were significant but similar declines in nicotine in both sites (detectable: -33% BHA, -39% CHA, p = 0.40). Detectable cotinine rose among BHA residents while declining among CHA participants (+17% BHA vs. -13% CHA, p = 0.002). Resident self-reported TSE within and outside of the housing environment decreased similarly for both BHA and CHA residents. Conclusions Apartment air nicotine decreased after the introduction of the smoke-free policy, though the decline may not have resulted from the policy. The BHA policy did not result in reduced individual-level TSE. Unmeasured sources of non-residential TSE may have contributed to BHA residents’ cotinine levels. PMID:26360258

  9. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Results Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0–16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide. PMID:24725483

  10. Pathogenesis of lesions induced in rat lung by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, C.A.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    Lesions were induced in the lungs of specific-pathogen-free F344 rats by chronic tobacco smoke exposure. Animals exposed to 7 cigarettes/day were killed after 1, 1.5 or 2 years of exposure. Parallel lifetime exposures induced pulmonary tumors in 9% of the animals. In serially killed animals, four types of lesions were found: (1) perivascular or peribronchiolar accumulation of lymphoreticular cells; (2) fibrotic and cellular enlargement of peribronchiolar septa; (3) type II cell hyperplasia with septal fibrosis; and (4) air-space enlargement (emphysema). However, emphysema occurred only in animals exposed to a higher (10 cigarettes) dose of tobacco smoke. Ultrastructural studies showed all of the focal lesions to be infiltrated by cells typical of the inflammatory response. The type II hyperplastic and peribronchiolar alveolar lesions involved larger portions of the parenchyma in fibrotic changes but differed in structure, location, and frequency. The incidence of the peribronchiolar alveolar lesions was temporally related to tumor incidence.

  11. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco

  12. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis

    PubMed Central

    Aprioku, Jonah Sydney; Ugwu, Theresa Chioma

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to tobacco smoke (TS), smokeless tobacco (ST), and nicotine on reproductive parameters and oxidative biomarkers in prepubertal and adult male rats. Sperm motility was reduced by 77.5 and 89.0% in TS and ST exposed prepubertal rats and 71.1 and 86.4% in adult rats, respectively. Sperm count was also reduced by 64.7 and 89.9% in prepubertal rats and 64.9 and 47.0% in adult rats, respectively. Nicotine decreased sperm motility (82.2%) and count (62.6%) in prepubertal rats but caused no effect in adult rats. There were no changes in sperm morphology; testosterone was decreased, while LH and FSH were increased in exposed rats, when compared with control. Malondialdehyde levels in testes of exposed rats were increased, and GSH, SOD, and catalase were altered. Results indicate that subacute exposure of tobacco products alters sperm characteristics in a rank order of ST > TS > nicotine, which may be linked to increase in oxidative stress in the testis. PMID:26634225

  14. Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

    Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds, and at lower versus higher ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation can reduce indirect exposures to very low levels for non-sorbing ETS components, but indirect routes accounted for ˜50% of potential nicotine exposures during non-smoking periods at all ventilation rates.

  15. Early pulmonary events of nose-only water pipe (shisha) smoking exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Hemeiri, Ahmed Al; Hammadi, Naser Al; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Elwasila, Mohamed; Ali, Badreldin H; Adeghate, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS) is increasing in popularity and prevalence worldwide. Convincing data suggest that the toxicants in WPS are similar to that of cigarette smoke. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms related to the early pulmonary events of WPS exposure are not understood. Here, we evaluated the early pulmonary events of nose-only exposure to mainstream WPS generated by commercially available honey flavored “moasel” tobacco. BALB/c mice were exposed to WPS 30 min/day for 5 days. Control mice were exposed using the same protocol to atmospheric air only. We measured airway resistance using forced oscillation technique, and pulmonary inflammation was evaluated histopathologically and by biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue. Lung oxidative stress was evaluated biochemically by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Mice exposed to WPS showed a significant increase in the number of neutrophils (P < 0.05) and lymphocytes (P < 0.001). Moreover, total protein (P < 0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.005), and endothelin (P < 0.05) levels were augmented in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tumor necrosis factor ? (P < 0.005) and interleukin 6 (P < 0.05) concentrations were significantly increased in lung following the exposure to WPS. Both ROS (P < 0.05) and LPO (P < 0.005) in lung tissue were significantly increased, whereas the level and activity of antioxidants including GSH (P < 0.0001), catalase (P < 0.005), and SOD (P < 0.0001) were significantly decreased after WPS exposure, indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress. In contrast, airway resistance was not increased in WPS exposure. We conclude that subacute, nose-only exposure to WPS causes lung inflammation and oxidative stress without affecting pulmonary function suggesting that inflammation and oxidative stress are early markers of WPS exposure that precede airway dysfunction. Our data provide information on the initial steps involved in the respiratory effects of WPS, which constitute the underlying causal chain of reactions leading to the long-term effects of WPS. PMID:25780090

  16. A Comparison of Smoking Related Attitudes and Behaviors among Kentucky Public School Children Whose Families Are and Are Not Involved in Tobacco Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, C. Wayne; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Kentucky public school students were surveyed to observe family influence on smoking behavior. Those children whose families were involved in tobacco production held more favorable attitudes towards smoking than their nontobacco family peers. Development of effective smoking education programs in major tobacco states is suggested. (Author/ DF)

  17. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  18. Adolescents' responses to anti-tobacco advertising: exploring the role of adolescents' smoking status and advertisement theme.

    PubMed

    Sutfin, Erin L; Szykman, Lisa R; Moore, Marian Chapman

    2008-01-01

    Anti-smoking media directed at adolescents use many different message themes, but little evidence exists as to which is most effective. Additionally, little is known about how teens who smoke respond to anti-tobacco ads. This study examined smoking and nonsmoking adolescents' responses to three popular thematic approaches: (1) endangering others, (2) negative life circumstances, and (3) industry manipulation. Sixteen groups of high school students (total N=488) were randomly assigned in a balanced fashion to one of three anti-tobacco ad conditions or a control condition. Outcome variables included adolescents' immediate emotional and cognitive responses, and intentions to smoke. Adolescents exposed to negative life circumstances ads reported lower intentions to smoke than those exposed to control and industry manipulation ads. Additionally, adolescents' responses differed based on smoking status. Smokers liked the ads less and had fewer positive and more negative thoughts. Findings suggest a media campaign focusing on negative life circumstances can be an effective component of a tobacco control program aimed at adolescents. Mechanisms through which the negative life circumstances ads influence adolescents' intentions to smoke are discussed. Findings also suggest that smokers respond differently to anti-tobacco ads, and their responses need to be considered when developing effective anti-tobacco advertising campaigns. PMID:18661389

  19. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  20. Responses to Tobacco Smoking-Related Health Messages in Young People With Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Daniel J; Brunette, Mary; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Malhotra, Anil K; Robinson, Delbert G

    2015-11-01

    Virtually no research has examined the responses of youth with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) to smoking-related health warnings. We examined predictors of response and tested hypotheses that participants with ROP would (a) assess warnings as less effective than a healthy comparison (HC) group, and (b) assess video warnings as more effective than pictures. ROP participants (n = 69) had <2 years of prior antipsychotic treatment; the HC group (n = 79) had no major mental illness. Participants viewed 10 pictorial warnings, 8 videos depicting similar messages, and were interviewed regarding tobacco use, health literacy, and smoking knowledge. We assessed response at baseline and at 4-week follow-up. ROP participants were more likely than HC to smoke tobacco (49.3% vs 10.1%) and had lower levels of health literacy and smoking-related knowledge. Cannabis was used by 46.4% of ROP participants. Effectiveness ratings were high for both picture and video warnings with no differences between media. ROP participants compared to HC and nonsmokers compared to smokers were more likely to perceive warnings as effective. Effectiveness was associated with negative affect and greater emotional arousal. We assessed 33 smokers at follow-up; 5 (15%) identified as nonsmokers, 15 (45%) made a quit attempt, and 16 (49%) reported that the warnings influenced their smoking. Results indicate that young people with psychotic disorders respond favorably to health warnings. Effective messages depict health consequences clearly, elicit negative emotions, and may impact smoking behavior. Future research is needed to understand the effects of mode of presentation and message comprehension on smoking behavior. PMID:26316595

  1. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Laura; Zucker, David; Hovell, Melbourne; Brown, Nili; Ram, Amit; Myers, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP) measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor) was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring. PMID:26633440

  2. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' (75 FR 32952). FDA announced the availability of the final guidance on January 31, 2011 (76 FR 5387) (available at http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Guidance....htm . \\2\\ See 75 FR 22147 (April 27, 2010), and 75 FR 33814 (June 15, 2010). Information submitted...

  3. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Cosmetic Act'' (76 FR 5387) (available at www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatory...AdvisoryCommittee/default.htm . \\2\\ See 75 FR 22147 (April 27, 2010) and 75 FR 33814 (June 15, 2010...: \\3\\ See 75 FR 47308 (August 5, 2010). Information submitted by the public to the docket for...

  4. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

  5. Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of ever-smoking and second-hand smoking in 1989 among Korean adults, respectively, and the relative risks were estimated from the meta-analysis of studies performed in the Korean population for ever-smoking and in the Asian population for passive smoking. National cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and national cancer mortality data from Statistics Korea for the year 2009 were used to estimate the cancer cases and deaths attributable to tobacco smoking. Results Tobacco smoking was responsible for 20,239 (20.9%) cancer incident cases and 14,377 (32.9%) cancer deaths among adult men and 1,930 (2.1%) cancer incident cases and 1,351 (5.2%) cancer deaths among adult women in 2009 in Korea. In men, 71% of lung cancer deaths, 55%–72% of upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx) cancer deaths, 23% of liver, 32% of stomach, 27% of pancreas, 7% of kidney and 45% of bladder cancer deaths were attributable to tobacco smoking. In women the proportion of ever-smoking-attributable lung cancer was 8.1%, while that attributable to second-hand smoking among non-smoking women was 20.5%. Conclusions Approximately one in three cancer deaths would be potentially preventable through appropriate control of tobacco smoking in Korean men at the population level and individual level. For Korean women, more lung cancer cases and deaths were attributable to second-hand than ever-smoking. Effective control programs against tobacco smoking should be further developed and implemented in Korea to reduce the smoking-related cancer burden. PMID:24902960

  6. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. PMID:25985121

  7. Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested poorer health in the homosexual and bisexual groups compared to heterosexuals. Tobacco smoking, which is a health-related behavior associated with psychosocial stress, may be one explanation behind such health differences. Social capital, i.e. the generalized trust in other people and social participation/social networks which decreases the costs of social interaction, has been suggested to affect health through psychosocial pathways and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account and analyzing the attenuation of the logit after the introduction of social participation, trust and their combination in the models. Methods In 2008 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in southern Sweden with a postal questionnaire with 28,198 participants aged 18–80 (55% participation rate). This study was restricted to 24,348 participants without internally missing values on all included variables. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco smoking were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 11.9% of the men and 14.8% of the women were daily tobacco smokers. Higher and almost unaltered odds ratios of daily smoking compared to heterosexuals were observed for bisexual men and women, and for homosexual men throughout the analyses. The odds ratios of daily smoking among homosexual women were not significant. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels among both men and women, with a corresponding 54% attenuation of the logit in the “other” group among men and 31.5% among women after the inclusion of social participation and trust. In addition, only the “other” sexual orientation group had higher odds ratios of low participation than heterosexuals. Conclusions Bisexual men and women and homosexual men, but not homosexual women, are daily smokers to a higher extent than heterosexuals. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels after adjustments for covariates including trust and social participation. PMID:24903892

  8. The Brazil SimSmoke Policy Simulation Model: The Effect of Strong Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Prevalence and Smoking-Attributable Deaths in a Middle Income Nation

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Szklo, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Background Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. Methods and Findings The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%–66%) relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000–715,000) deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million–10.3 million) deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%–54%), and 1.3 million (0.9 million–2.0 million) out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. Conclusions Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce smoking and save many additional lives. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23139643

  9. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  10. Acute exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induces changes in the oxidative and inflammatory markers in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammed; Dodin, Arwa; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Context Tobacco smoking represents a global public health threat, claiming approximately 5 million lives a year. Waterpipe tobacco use has become popular particularly among youth in the past decade, buttressed by the perception that the waterpipe “filters” the smoke, rendering it less harmful than cigarette smoke. Objective In this study, we examined the acute exposure of waterpipe smoking on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice, and compared that to cigarette smoking. Materials and methods Mice were divided into three groups; fresh air control, cigarette and waterpipe. Animals were exposed to fresh air, cigarette, or waterpipe smoke using whole body exposure system one hour daily for 7 days. Results Both cigarette and waterpipe smoke exposure resulted in elevation of total white blood cell count, as well as absolute count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes (P < 0.01). Both exposures also elevated proinflammatory markers such as TNF-? and IL-6 in BALF (P < 0.05), and oxidative stress markers including GPx activity in lungs (P < 0.05). Moreover, waterpipe smoke increased catalase activity in the lung (P < 0.05). However, none of the treatments altered IL-10 levels. Discussion and conclusion Results of cigarette smoking confirmed previous finding. Waterpipe results indicate that, similar to cigarettes, exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke is harmful to the lungs. PMID:22906173

  11. Tobacco Smoking among Incarcerated Individuals: A Review of the Nature of the Problem and What Is Being Done in Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a major health problem, however the issue is even more pronounced among those incarcerated in prisons, where smoking rates are often three times that of the general population. While effective treatments have been demonstrated in the tobacco literature, research examining treatment within prisons is limited in scope. This article…

  12. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke Directed Toward Cholinergic and Serotonergic Systems: More Than Just Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-09-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of compounds in addition to nicotine, a known neuroteratogen. We evaluated the developmental neurotoxicity of tobacco smoke extract (TSE) administered to pregnant rats starting preconception and continued through the second postnatal week. We simulated nicotine concentrations encountered with second-hand smoke, an order of magnitude below those seen in active smokers, and compared TSE with an equivalent dose of nicotine alone, and to a 10-fold higher nicotine dose. We conducted longitudinal evaluations in multiple brain regions, starting in adolescence (postnatal day 30) and continued to full adulthood (day 150). TSE exposure impaired presynaptic cholinergic activity, exacerbated by a decrement in nicotinic cholinergic receptor concentrations. Although both nicotine doses produced presynaptic cholinergic deficits, these were partially compensated by hyperinnervation and receptor upregulation, effects that were absent with TSE. TSE also produced deficits in serotonin receptors in females that were not seen with nicotine. Regression analysis showed a profound sex difference in the degree to which nicotine could account for overall TSE effects: whereas the 2 nicotine doses accounted for 36%-46% of TSE effects in males, it accounted for only 7%-13% in females. Our results show that the adverse effects of TSE on neurodevelopment exceed those that can be attributed to just the nicotine present in the mixture, and further, that the sensitivity extends down to levels commensurate with second-hand smoke exposure. Because nicotine itself evoked deficits at low exposures, "harm reduction" nicotine products do not eliminate the potential for neurodevelopmental damage. PMID:26085346

  13. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  14. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

  15. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

  19. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their knowledge on health risks of smoking. Comprehensive messages and/or images about specific diseases related to AS/SHS should be conveyed using of different channels and modes specific to local cultures to increase knowledge on smoking health consequences for general population. PMID:23374702

  20. The influence of tobacco smoke and nicotine on antidepressant and memory-improving effects of venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Kus, Krzysztof; Florek, Ewa; Czubak, Anna; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2006-04-01

    In experimental and clinical studies, central nicotinic systems have been shown to play an important role in cognitive function. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors also mediate the reinforcing properties of nicotine (NIC) in tobacco products. A variety of studies have shown that acute treatment with NIC or nicotinic agonists can improve working memory function. Moreover, it is known that the monoaminergic system plays an important role in memory function. And there is evidence suggesting that prolonged use of NIC may exert antidepressant action via nicotinic receptors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between a novel antidepressant, venlafaxine (VEN), a blocker of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake sites, and pure NIC in the context of antidepressant and memory function in tobacco smoke exposed and nonexposed rats. The animals were subjected to Porsolt's test for testing antidepressant activity and their memory function (spatial memory) was evaluated in the Morris Water Maze Test. In tobacco smoke non-exposed and exposed rats both single and chronic administration of VEN (20 mg/kg po) shortened immobility time. NIC (0.2 mg/kg sc) significantly reduced immobility time on the 1st, 7th and 14th test days in both non-exposed and exposed rats. Combined VEN+NIC treatment in tobacco smoke non-exposed rats reduced immobility too. This effect of the combination of drugs was significantly stronger as compared to the effects obtained after individual administration of VEN or NIC. In the group exposed to tobacco smoke, joint administration of VEN+ NIC induced a significant reduction of immobility as compared to the control and NIC groups. In the Morris Water Maze Test single and chronic administration of VEN, lower values of escape latencies and lower numbers of crossed quadrants were noted in both exposed and non-exposed rats, which indicates improved performance. After administering NIC we could observe improvement of spatial memory in both the exposed and non-exposed group. A similar effect of improvement of spatial memory was observed after joint administration of VEN and NIC. The study results support the involvement of nicotinic systems in memory processes in rats. Memory improvement and antidepressant effects following joint administration of VEN and NIC may depend on nicotinic interactions with monoaminergic systems and VEN may represent a new therapeutic approach to smoking cessation. PMID:16696296

  1. Invited commentary: Parental smoking as a risk factor for adult tobacco use: can maternal smoking during pregnancy be distinguished from the social environmental influence during childhood?

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J; Korte, Jeffrey E

    2014-06-15

    Parental smoking is known to have prenatal health effects on developing fetuses, and postnatal exposure to secondhand smoke causes adverse health effects during childhood and beyond. Further, there is solid evidence that parental smoking during childhood is a potent risk factor for smoking in offspring. In this issue of the Journal, Rydell et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(12):1409-1417) add to a growing body of evidence showing that maternal smoking during pregnancy is statistically associated with the long-term risk of tobacco use in offspring. The data revealed a strong signal between maternal smoking during pregnancy and tobacco use in young adulthood, an association that was largely concentrated in snus use but not cigarette smoking. This new study adds to a growing body of epidemiologic evidence that consistently points toward maternal smoking during pregnancy being associated with an increased risk of offspring tobacco use in later life. There is also evidence from animal models indicating that fetal exposure to maternal nicotine use in utero can have a durable impact on the neural pathways that affect lifetime sensitivity to nicotine. This is an important research topic that continues to yield a consistent signal despite an array of inferential challenges. PMID:24761006

  2. Tobacco Control and the Reduction in Smoking-related Premature Deaths in the United States, 1964–2012

    PubMed Central

    Holford, Theodore R.; Meza, Rafael; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meernik, Clare; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Levy, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking and health is celebrated in 2014. This seminal document inspired efforts by government s, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce the toll of cigarette smoking through reduced initiation and increased cessation. Objective To quantify reductions in smoking -related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Design, Setting and Participants Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking -related mortality from 1964–2012 was compared to estimated mortality under no tobacco control that included a likely scenario (primary counterfactual) and upper and lower bounds that would capture plausible alternatives. Exposure National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the US adult population from 1964–2012. Main Outcomes and Measures Number of premature deaths avoided and years of life saved were primary outcomes. Change in life expectancy at age 40 associated with change in cigarette smoking exposure constituted another measure of overall health outcomes. Results From 1964–2012, an estimated 17.6 million deaths were related to smoking, an estimated 8.0 (7.4–8.3, for the lower and upper tobacco control counterfactuals, respectively) million fewer premature smoking-induced deaths than what would have occurred under the alternatives and thus associated with tobacco control (5.3 (4.8–5.5) million males and 2.7 (2.5–2.7) million females). This resulted in an estimated 157 (139–165) million years of life saved, a mean of 19.6 years for each beneficiary, (111 (97–117) million for males, 46 (42–48) million for females). During this time, estimated life expectancy at age 40 increased 7.8 years for males and 5.4 years for females, of which tobacco control is associated with2.3 (1.8–2.5) years [30% (23–32%)] of the increase for males and 1.6 (1.4–1.7) years [29% (25–32%)] for females. Conclusions and Relevance Tobacco control is associated with avoidance of millions of premature deaths, and an estimated extended mean lifespan of 19–20 years. While tobacco control represents an important public health achievement, smoking continues to be the leading contributor to the nation’s death toll. PMID:24399555

  3. Retailer Adherence to Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, North Carolina, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; D’Angelo, Heather; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act regulates the sales and marketing of tobacco products in the United States; poor adherence by tobacco retailers may reduce the effectiveness of the Act’s provisions. The objectives of this study were 1) to assess whether and to which provisions retailers were adherent and 2) to examine differences in adherence by county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer characteristics. Methods We conducted multivariate analysis of tobacco retailers’ adherence to 12 point-of-sale provisions of the Tobacco Control Act in 3 North Carolina counties. We conducted observational audits of 324 retailers during 3 months in 2011 to assess adherence. We used logistic regression to assess associations between adherence to provisions and characteristics of each county, retailer neighborhood, and retailer. Results We found 15.7% of retailers did not adhere to at least 1 provision; 84.3% adhered to all provisions. The provisions most frequently violated were the ban on sales of cigarettes with modified-risk labels (eg, “light” cigarettes) (43 [13.3%] retailers nonadherent) and the ban on self-service for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (6 [1.9%] retailers nonadherent). We found significant differences in rates of nonadherence by county and type of retailer. Pharmacies and drug stores were more than 3 times as likely as grocery stores to be nonadherent. Conclusion Most tobacco retailers have implemented regulatory changes without enforcement by the US Food and Drug Administration. Monitoring rates of adherence by store type and locale (eg, county) may help retailers comply with point-of-sale provisions. PMID:23557638

  4. Tobacco Use and Smoking Cessation Practices among Physicians in Developing Countries: A Literature Review (1987–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Abu S.; Stillman, Frances A.; Yang, Li; Luo, Hongye; Zhang, Zhiyong; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of smoking cessation services among physicians in developing countries, a detailed literature review of studies published in English, between 1987 and 2010 was carried out. The electronic databases Medline and Pub Med were searched for published studies. The findings show that there are regional variations in the current smoking prevalence, quitting intentions, and cessation services among physicians. Smoking prevalence (median) was highest in Central/Eastern Europe (37%), followed by Africa (29%), Central and South America (25%) and Asia (17.5%). There were significant gender differences in smoking prevalence across studies, with higher prevalence among males than females. Smoking at work or in front of patients was commonly practiced by physicians in some countries. Asking about smoking status or advising patients to quit smoking was not common practice among the physicians, especially among smoker physicians. Organized smoking cessation programs for physicians did not exist in all of these regions. This review suggests that while smoking of physicians varies across different developing regions; prevalence rates tend to be higher than among physicians in developed countries. Quitting rates were low among the physicians, and the delivery of advice on quitting smoking was not common across the studies. To promote tobacco control and increase cessation in populations, there is a need to build physicians’ capacity so that they can engage in tobacco use prevention and cessation activities. PMID:24380976

  5. Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, ?aneta; Kie?bratowska, Bogumi?a; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco smoking constitutes a significant source of indoor air pollution. Various chemical compounds that are emitted during tobacco smoking can have a direct cytotoxic effect on spermatozoa by damaging DNA. There is some evidence that tobacco smoking in men could affect male fertility. The goals of this study were to find relationships between thiocyanates (as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in human semen samples and present the effectiveness of the proposed sample preparation procedure combined with ion chromatography technique for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates, in human semen samples collected from heavy, moderate, and passive smokers, as well as nonsmoking individuals. PMID:21073804

  6. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking ... Home > Health Effects > Tobacco Use and Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking ...

  7. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal was associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthens after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung cancer risk by the intensity, duration, and type of coal used. Materials and Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 260 male lung cancer cases and 260 age-matched male controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for tobacco use was calculated by conditional logistic regression. Results Use of smoky coal was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer risk, and tobacco use was weakly and non-significantly associated with lung cancer risk. When the association was assessed by coal use, the cigarette-lung cancer risk association was null in hazardous coal users and elevated in less hazardous smoky coal users and non-smoky coal users. The risk of lung cancer per cigarette per day decreased as annual use of coal increased (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17; >3 tons: OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03). Among more hazardous coal users, attenuation occurs at even low levels of usage (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.14; >3 tons: OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). Conclusion We found evidence that smoky coal attenuated the tobacco and lung cancer risk association in males that lived in Xuanwei, particularly among users of hazardous coal where even low levels of smoky coal attenuated the association. Our results suggest that the adverse effects of tobacco may become more apparent as China's population continues to switch to using cleaner fuels for the home, underscoring the urgent need for smoking cessation in China and elsewhere. PMID:24506909

  8. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    ... deliver as much nicotine as smoking three cigarettes. Nicotine addiction can make quitting difficult. Smokeless tobacco may cause ... divisions about tobacco (including smokeless tobacco), its health effects, and quitting. Related Oral Health Topics Oral Cancer ? ?? ...

  9. German tobacco industry's successful efforts to maintain scientific and political respectability to prevent regulation of secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bornhäuser, A; McCarthy, J; Glantz, S A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the tactics the tobacco industry in Germany used to avoid regulation of secondhand smoke exposure and to maintain the acceptance of public smoking. Methods Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between June 2003 and August 2004. Results In West Germany, policymakers were, as early as the mid 1970s, well aware of the fact that secondhand smoke endangers non?smokers. One might have assumed that Germany, an international leader in environmental protection, would have led in protecting her citizens against secondhand smoke pollution. The tobacco manufacturers in Germany, however, represented by the national manufacturing organisation “Verband” (Verband der Cigarettenindustrie), contained and neutralised the early debate about the danger of secondhand smoke. This success was achieved by carefully planned collaboration with selected scientists, health professionals and policymakers, along with a sophisticated public relations programme. Conclusions The strategies of the tobacco industry have been largely successful in inhibiting the regulation of secondhand smoke in Germany. Policymakers, health professionals, the media and the general public should be aware of this industry involvement and should take appropriate steps to close the gap between what is known and what is done about the health effects of secondhand smoke. PMID:16565444

  10. “Stay away from them until you're old enough to make a decision”: tobacco company testimony about youth smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; McLeod, Kim; Perry, Cheryl L

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine common themes used by US tobacco industry witnesses pertaining to youth smoking initiation during litigation in the United States. Methods Qualitative thematic analysis of transcripts from 29 tobacco litigation cases dating from 1992 to 2002. Results Youth smoking is portrayed by the tobacco industry as a source of great concern to them. Youth smoking prevention programmes developed by US tobacco companies are supposedly intended to delay decision?making about smoking until age 18, when individuals are then seen to be of an age where they are able to “choose to smoke”. Tobacco industry media campaigns, youth access, community and school?based programmes are predicated on peer influence, parental factors, and commercial access being the primary influences on youth smoking uptake, rather than tobacco marketing, inaccurate risk appraisal, price and other factors known to influence youth smoking. Despite substantial financial investment in tobacco industry programmes, their witnesses were able to describe only weak evaluation methods, being preoccupied with measures of message comprehension, programme reach and uptake, and the associated costs of their efforts, rather than any evaluation designed to assess effects on youth smoking behaviour. Conclusion Stated concerns about youth smoking and youth smoking prevention programmes are put forward in litigation as evidence that the tobacco industry is “serious” about tackling youth smoking, and serve as a primary strategy to improve the tobacco industry's public image. The tobacco industry's evaluation of the effectiveness of their youth smoking prevention programmes is demonstrably insufficient under current public health evaluation standards. Public health and welfare agencies should avoid engagement with tobacco industry?sponsored programmes. PMID:17130624

  11. Fast analysis of nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke by megabore capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Lin, Ping; Su, Qingde

    2003-10-31

    A novel fast megabore capillary gas chromatographic (MCGC) method for analysis of 7 nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke, including nicotine, nornicotine, myosmine, nicotyrine, anabasine, anatabine and 2,3-dipyridyl, was developed. The use of megabore capillary column GC methodology, equipped with flame ionization detector (FID), provided rapid, unambiguous nicotine related alkaloids analysis. One gram flue-cured tobacco (or Cambridge filter pad), 20 ml ether, and 5 ml 10% sodium hydroxide solution, added with n-heptadecane as the internal standard, were placed in a flask, and the flask was capped and placed in an ultrasonic bath for 15 min. A 1 microl volume was analyzed by capillary GC operating in split-injection mode on a mega bore Simplicity-5 column. This simple procedure was compared with the previously reported packed column GC method and the Griffith still-colorimetric method. The application of the method for analysis of various flue-cured tobaccos and cigarette smoke was discussed. PMID:14584703

  12. Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

  13. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  14. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the effect of tobacco smoke on rat cornea function.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Pi?tek, Jacek; Samborski, W?odzimierz; Sosnowski, Przemys?aw; Ole?ków, Beata; Zawadzi?ski, Jaros?aw; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of tobacco smoke on the dielectric properties of rat cornea were measured in vitro over the frequency range of the electric field of 500Hz-100kHz and in temperatures of the air from 25 to 150°C. The temperature dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea represent the relation between the energy lost and the energy stored in the epithelium-stromal-endothelium systems of the cornea. The differences between the healthy and the smoky cornea concerned the temperature ranges in which there appeared the decomposition of loosely-bound water and ?-relaxation associated with polar side-chains relaxations on protein molecules of this tissue. The effect of smoke is manifested as a shift of the loss tangent peaks of these two processes towards higher temperatures, when compared with the control. The results are interpreted as caused by the toxic compounds of the tobacco smoke leading to higher ion transport in the nonhomogeneous structure of the cornea when compared to that of the control tissue. The activation energy of conductivity were similar for the healthy and smoky cornea as a consequence of the braking of hydrogen and Van der Waals bonds between loosely bound water, and the proteins of channels in the epithelium and endothelium. Recognition of the effect of frequency and temperature on the dielectric behaviour of the smoky cornea may be of interest for disease characterization of this tissue. PMID:23311788

  16. Determination of pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Jeng, J; Hsiang, W S; Hwang, B H

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the pyrolysis products of smoked methamphetamine mixed with tobacco that was trapped with a C8 adsorbent cartridge and then detected by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. According to the results, the mainstream smoke contains 2-methylpropyl-benzene, 2-chloropropyl-benzene, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, 3-ethyl-phenol, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, hydroquinone, 3-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-methylcarbamate phenol, N-methyl-N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetamide, 4-(3-hydroxy-1-butenyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one, propanoic acid, N-acetylmethamphetamine, phenyl ester, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. In addition, the compounds in sidestream smoke are 2-propenyl benzene, phenylacetone, methamphetamine, dimethylamphetamine, benzyl methyl ketoxime, 3,4-dihydro-2-naphthalenone, N-folmyamphetamine, N-acetylamphetamine, bibenzyl, N-folmylmethamphetamine, N-acetylmethamphetamine, N-propionymethamphetamine, and furfurylmethylamphetamine. Moreover, the presence of methamphetamine promotes the oxidation of the tobacco components. PMID:10022208

  17. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    PubMed

    Meeker, John D; Benedict, Merle D

    2013-02-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated. PMID:23888128

  18. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Benedict, Merle D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated. PMID:23888128

  19. Impact of Waterpipe Tobacco Pack Health Warnings on Waterpipe Smoking Attitudes: A Qualitative Analysis among Regular Users in London

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; Bakir, Ali; Ali, Mohammed; Grant, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the rise in prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking, it has received little legislative enforcement from governing bodies, especially in the area of health warning labels. Methods. Twenty regular waterpipe tobacco smokers from London took part in five focus groups discussing the impact of waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings on their attitudes towards waterpipe smoking. We presented them with existing and mock waterpipe tobacco products, designed to be compliant with current and future UK/EU legislation. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results. Participants felt packs were less attractive and health warnings were more impactful as health warnings increased in size and packaging became less branded. However, participants highlighted their lack of exposure to waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings due to the inherent nature of waterpipe smoking, that is, smoking in a café with the apparatus already prepacked by staff. Health warnings at the point of consumption had more reported impact than health warnings at the point of sale. Conclusions. Waterpipe tobacco pack health warnings are likely to be effective if compliant with existing laws and exposed to end-users. Legislations should be reviewed to extend health warning labels to waterpipe accessories, particularly the apparatus, and to waterpipe-serving premises. PMID:26273642

  20. The Pit and the Pendulum: The Impact on Teen Smokers of Including a Designated Smoking Area in School Tobacco Control Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, L. E.; Lovato, C. Y.; Taylor, E.; Rutherford, M. B.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant…

  1. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15%) the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%), Estonia (21%), and Lebanon (25%). Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%), the United Kingdom (8%), the United States (10%), Syria (15%), Lebanon (28%), and Pakistan (33%). The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%), Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%), Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults), Syria (9%-12%), and Lebanon (15%). Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%), and Egypt (11%-15%). In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. PMID:21504559

  2. Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is Associated with Childhood DNA CpG Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Wang, Xinhui; Qui, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent; Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Martinez, Fernando; Liu, Andy; Lemanske, Robert; Strunk, Robert; Weiss, Scott; London, Stephanie; Gilliland, Frank; Raby, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking while pregnant is associated with a myriad of negative health outcomes in the child. Some of the detrimental effects may be due to epigenetic modifications, although few studies have investigated this hypothesis in detail. Objectives To characterize site-specific epigenetic modifications conferred by prenatal smoking exposure within asthmatic children. Methods Using Illumina HumanMethylation27 microarrays, we estimated the degree of methylation at 27,578 distinct DNA sequences located primarily in gene promoters using whole blood DNA samples from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) subset of Asthma BRIDGE childhood asthmatics (n?=?527) ages 5–12 with prenatal smoking exposure data available. Using beta-regression, we screened loci for differential methylation related to prenatal smoke exposure, adjusting for gender, age and clinical site, and accounting for multiple comparisons by FDR. Results Of 27,578 loci evaluated, 22,131 (80%) passed quality control assessment and were analyzed. Sixty-five children (12%) had a history of prenatal smoke exposure. At an FDR of 0.05, we identified 19 CpG loci significantly associated with prenatal smoke, of which two replicated in two independent populations. Exposure was associated with a 2% increase in mean CpG methylation in FRMD4A (p?=?0.01) and Cllorf52 (p?=?0.001) compared to no exposure. Four additional genes, XPNPEP1, PPEF2, SMPD3 and CRYGN, were nominally associated in at least one replication group. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with reproducible epigenetic changes that persist well into childhood. However, the biological significance of these altered loci remains unknown. PMID:24964093

  3. “Efforts to Reprioritise the Agenda” in China: British American Tobacco's Efforts to Influence Public Policy on Secondhand Smoke in China

    PubMed Central

    Muggli, Monique E; Lee, Kelley; Gan, Quan; Ebbert, Jon O; Hurt, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Background Each year, 540 million Chinese are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), resulting in more than 100,000 deaths. Smoke-free policies have been demonstrated to decrease overall cigarette consumption, encourage smokers to quit, and protect the health of nonsmokers. However, restrictions on smoking in China remain limited and ineffective. Internal tobacco industry documents show that transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have pursued a multifaceted strategy for undermining the adoption of restrictions on smoking in many countries. Methods and Findings To understand company activities in China related to SHS, we analyzed British American Tobacco's (BAT's) internal corporate documents produced in response to litigation against the major cigarette manufacturers to understand company activities in China related to SHS. BAT has carried out an extensive strategy to undermine the health policy agenda on SHS in China by attempting to divert public attention from SHS issues towards liver disease prevention, pushing the so-called “resocialisation of smoking” accommodation principles, and providing “training” for industry, public officials, and the media based on BAT's corporate agenda that SHS is an insignificant contributor to the larger issue of air pollution. Conclusions The public health community in China should be aware of the tactics previously used by TTCs, including efforts by the tobacco industry to co-opt prominent Chinese benevolent organizations, when seeking to enact stronger restrictions on smoking in public places. PMID:19108603

  4. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Methods Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Results Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR?=?1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR?=?1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR?=?2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR?=?0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Conclusion Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking. PMID:24555481

  5. SLC6A4 STin2 VNTR genetic polymorphism is associated with tobacco use disorder, but not with successful smoking cessation or smoking characteristics: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the second intron (STin2) of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene was associated with tobacco use disorder, successful smoking cessation, or smoking characteristics. In this case–control study, patients with current tobacco use disorder, diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria (n?=?185), and never-smokers, diagnosed according to CDC criteria (n?=?175), were recruited and received 52 weeks of combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive therapy. Successful smoking cessation was defined as exhaled carbon monoxide?tobacco use disorder, while the STin2.10/10 genotype (OR?=?0.42; 95% CI 0.25-0.71, p?tobacco use disorder and the STin2.10 or STin2.9 alleles or the other genotypes (STin2.12/12, 12/10, 12/9, 10/9 or 9/9). There were no significant associations between the STin2 genotypes and alleles and successful smoking cessation, smoking characteristics and increased alcohol or sedative use risk. Conclusions Our results suggest that the STin2.10/10 genotype and STin2.12 allele are associated with tobacco use disorder or nicotine dependence, but not with treatment response or severity of dependence. It is hypothesized that the ST2in.12 allele by modulating the metabolism of serotonin may participate in the pathophysiology of tobacco use disorder or nicotine dependence. PMID:24968820

  6. Quit Smoking Experts’ Opinions toward Quality and Results of Quit Smoking Methods Provided in Tobacco Cessation Services Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ebn Ahmady, Arezoo; Leischow, Scott J.; Lando, Harry A.; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the core responsibilities of health system is to treat tobacco dependence. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess physicians’ opinions towards quality and result of different quit smoking methods provided in tobacco cessation services centers in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, random sampling of all quit centers at country level was used to obtain a representative sample size of 100 physicians. Physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects, and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: Most experts preferred to use combination quit smoking methods and then Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) with 26 and 23, respectively. The least used methods were quit line and some methods without medication with 3 cases. The method which gained the maximum scores were telephone consultation, acupuncture, Willpower, Champix, combined method, and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) with the mean of 23.3, 23, 22.5, 22, 21.7 and 21.3, respectively. The minimum scores were related to e-cigarette, some methods without medication, and non-NRT medication with the mean of 12.3, 15.8 and 16.2, respectively. There were no significant differences in the mean of scores based on different cities (P = 0.256). Analysis of variance in mean scores showed significant differences in the means scores of different methods (P < 0.000). Conclusions: According to physicians acupuncture, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods and these methods could be much more feasible and cost effective than other methods. PMID:26425329

  7. Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: I. Inhalation efficiency and pyrolysis products of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sekine, H; Nakahara, Y

    1987-09-01

    Experiments of smoking methamphetamine in tobacco have been investigated. Inhalation efficiencies of methamphetamine into tar were 6 to 17% according to the additive amounts, suction volume, and intervals of smoking. Major pyrolysis products of methamphetamine in tar were identified as methamphetamine, amphetamine, phenylacetone, dimethylamphetamine, N-formyl-, N-acetyl-, N-propionyl-, and N-cyanomethyl-methamphetamine by the spectral analysis of infrared spectra (IR), mass spectra (MS), and proton magnetic resonance spectra (PMR), and comparison with the samples synthesized from authentic samples by one step. The largest pyrolysis product was N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine which is a new compound and easily metabolized to methamphetamine in the body. Methamphetamine itself transferred into tar was not so large, but the total active compounds in tar which would be metabolized to methamphetamine in the body were considerably larger. PMID:3668479

  8. Water-pipe smoking and metabolic syndrome: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

    2012-01-01

    Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study--Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation's criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals--of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38-4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25-2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37-2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51-2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52-2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components. PMID:22848361

  9. Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

    2012-01-01

    Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components. PMID:22848361

  10. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Estimating the prevalence of hardcore smoking and identifying linked factors is fundamental to improve planning and implementation of effective tobacco control measures. Given the paucity of data on that topic, we aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a representative, cross-sectional, household based survey conducted in Poland between 2009 and 2010. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations of socio-demographic and smoking related variables with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Results The prevalence of hardcore smoking was 10.0% (13.0% among men and 7.3% among women) in the whole population of Poland at age 26 years and above. Hardcore smokers constitute 39.9% (41.6% among men and 37.7% among women) of all daily smokers in analyzed age frame. Being older, having started smoking at earlier ages, living in large cities (in women only), being less aware of negative health effects of smoking, having less restrictions on smoking at home was associated with higher risk of being hardcore smoker. Educational attainment and economic activity were not associated with hardcore smoking among daily smokers. Conclusions High prevalence of hardcore smokers may be a grand challenge for curbing non-communicable diseases epidemic in Poland. Our findings should urge policy makers to consider hardcore smoking issues while planning and implementing tobacco control policies. Prevention of smoking uptake, education programs, and strengthening cessation services appeared to be the top priorities. PMID:24916122

  12. Protecting the World From Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go From Here?

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates all signatory countries to “protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places.” Even though there has been great progress in the implementation of Article 8, still most of the world population remains exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). In this article, we sought to summarize the research that supports Article 8, where do we stand, and current research gaps and future directions. Discussion: Secondhand smoke is an established cause of heart disease and several types of cancer. Additional research is needed to reach final conclusions for diseases where evidence is only suggestive of causality. The only solution to SHS exposure in public places is banning smoking indoors. Research on the gaming industry and nightclubs, particularly in developing countries, needs to be disseminated to support their inclusion in smoke-free laws. Aside from indoor bans, additional research is needed for outdoor and multiunit housing bans and in support of measures that protect children and other vulnerable populations. The impact of smoke-free laws on other health outcomes, besides heart disease and respiratory outcomes, is another area where further research is needed. Thirdhand smoke assessment and health effects are also likely to be a topic of further research. As new tobacco products emerge, evaluating SHS exposure and effects will be vital. Conclusions: Furthering research in support of Article 8 can contribute to reach the final goal of protecting everyone from SHS exposure. PMID:23072872

  13. Routine screening of hospital patients for secondhand tobacco smoke exposure: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Gina Rae; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes over 40,000 deaths per year, but healthcare systems rarely address this risk factor. In September 2012, Massachusetts General Hospital initiated routine inpatient screening for SHS exposure by adding a question to the nurses' computerized admission assessment form (“Is smoking allowed in your home or car?”). We measured the implementation of this screening question over 1 year. Methods Multivariable analysis of hospital records of adult and pediatric admissions (N = 35,701) from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013, to assess screening question completion and identify characteristics of nonsmokers who may be exposed to SHS. Results Nurses entered “Yes” or “No” to the screening question for 91% of 34,295 adult admissions and 86% of 1406 pediatric admissions. Among nonsmokers, smoking in the home or car was allowed for 3% of adult admissions and 4% of pediatric admissions. Adults admitted for psychiatric diagnoses, children admitted for asthma, and patients with Medicaid insurance had higher odds of exposure to SHS in their home or car. Conclusion Routine screening of SHS among hospitalized patients by nurses is feasible. Doing so offers hospitals an opportunity to intervene and to promote smoke-free policies in patients' homes and cars. PMID:25284258

  14. Toxics of Tobacco Smoke and Cardiovascular System: From Functional to Cellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Leone, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Manufactured tobacco contains over 4, 000 toxic substances, but only a few exert adverse cardiovascular effects. Nicotine and its metabolites, carbon monoxide, thiocyanate and some aromatic amines play a strong, although different, role to determine cardiovascular damage. Of these substances, however, nicotine, acting by the double mechanism of addiction and receptor-binding, and carbon monoxide by increasing the production of carboxyhemoglobin and hypoxia, are the main determinants of the damage. The development of the alterations of heart and blood vessels follows a typical way, initially consisting of functional responses that become irreversible pathological lesions at the time. Myocardium and endothelial cells are the targets where cigarette smoking exerts its effects. The first displays functional and pathological disorders primarily related to ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, including experimental cardiomyopathy from smoking, and heart failure, while the second should be interpreted as a structure, which shows early alterations caused by smoking as clearly evident, repeatable and typically depending on smoking toxicity. Cardiovascular damage has a functional onset, which, at the time, leads to irreversible morphological damage of myocardial and endothelial cells. PMID:26234797

  15. Abuse of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco: II. The formation mechanism of pyrolysis products.

    PubMed

    Sekine, H; Nakahara, Y

    1990-05-01

    The pyrolysis products of smoking methamphetamine mixed with tobacco were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The mainstream smoke contained methamphetamine (14.5% of the initial methamphetamine), phenylacetone (3.1%). N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine (1.9%), trans-beta-methylstyrene (1.7%), N-formylmethamphetamine (1.5%), and other products (each less than 1%). The amount of each pyrolysis product in the sidestream smoke was less than that in the mainstream smoke by a factor of over 5, except for methamphetamine (10.5%) and N-formylmethamphetamine (1.4%). The formation mechanism of these products was investigated, by use of a pyrolyzer, from the standpoint of the material, pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis atmosphere. Although several products (for example, dimethylamphetamine and trans-beta-methylstyrene) were formed by thermal self-decomposition of methamphetamine alone, most of the products, except N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine, were formed chiefly by the thermal reaction of methamphetamine with cigarette components. The formation of N-cyanomethylmethamphetamine required air and a high pyrolysis temperature. Air and a high pyrolysis temperature generally accelerated the formation of the pyrolysis products. PMID:2348176

  16. Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared to chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

  17. Determination of aromatic tracer compounds for environmental tobacco smoke aerosol by two step laser mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrical, Brad D.; Zenobi, Renato

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of indoor aerosol pollution. Determination of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) aerosol is critical to understanding health effects. Sizing studies have shown that ETS has a size distribution that is efficiently deposited into the lungs and can therefore provide effective delivery of carcinogenic compounds into the human body. Two-step laser mass spectrometry is used to analyze aromatic compounds on aerosols collected from a smoking lobby. The determination and suitability of ETS tracers on aerosols is examined. Additionally, the transport of aerosol from the smoking lobby is examined to determine what effect deposition and dilution have on the mass spectrum observed. Results from the analysis of ETS, both from lobby samples and direct cigarette sampling, show that several unique peaks are present in the mass spectrum when compared to other combustion sources, such as automobiles and diesel trucks. In particular, ions at m/ z 118, 132, 146, and 160 are consistently present and are not found in other combustion sources. For the indoor environment, where chemical transformation is much less rapid than in the outdoor environment, these ions were found to be present as soon as the first smokers appeared and persisted over the course of the day. Aerosol samples taken in the morning prior to the presence of smokers in the lobby reveal the presence of skeletal PAHs, indicative of outdoor urban traffic aerosol penetration into the building.

  18. Cross-sectional association between smoking depictions in films and adolescent tobacco use nested in a British cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Waylen, Andrea E; Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andrew R; Tanski, Susanne E; Sargent, James D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between exposure to smoking depictions in films and adolescent tobacco use in a British population cohort. Methods Data on exposure to smoking in films and smoking behaviour were collected from 5166 15-year-old adolescents in the UK. Main outcome measures were smoking initiation (ever tried a cigarette) and current smoking status. Social, family and behavioural factors were adjusted for, together with alcohol use and peer smoking as potential mediators. Data from all existing cross-sectional studies examining the effects of exposure to smoking in films were summarised in a meta-analysis. Results Higher exposure to smoking in films was associated with a dose-response increase in the risk of smoking initiation even after adjusting for confounders. Adolescents in the highest exposure quartile were 1.73 (95% CI 1.55 to 1.93) times (RR) more likely to initiate smoking than those in the lowest quartile. They were more likely to report current smoking after adjusting for social and familial factors (RR 1.47 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.02)), but the association attenuated after including behavioural factors (RR 1.34 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.87)). The meta-analysis shows that, after aggregation of all relevant data, viewing smoking in films increases the risk of smoking onset by over 100% (combined RR 2.13 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.57)) and the risk of current or established smoking behaviour by 68% (combined RR 1.68 (95% CI 0.40 to 2.01)). Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescents in the UK and elsewhere who are exposed to smoking depictions in films are more likely to initiate smoking. Given the association between smoking and poor health outcomes, these data justify a review of film ratings. PMID:21933947

  19. RESPIRATORY HEALTH EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SMOKING (ALSO KNOWN AS EXPOSURE TO SECONDHAND SMOKE OR ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE - ETS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1992, the EPA completed its risk assessment on The Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders (PDF, 525 pp, 4MB, About PD...

  20. Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Khlifi, Rim Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2010-10-15

    Chronic exposures to heavy metals via tobacco smoking and professional exposure may increase the risk of head and neck cancer, although the epidemiologic evidence is limited by problems of low study power and inadequate adjustment for tobacco and professional exposure use. Numerous scientific reviews have examined the association of various heavy metals exposure with respiratory cancer as well as other cancer types, but few have been published on head and neck cancer. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the head and neck tract cancer-related data on exposure to heavy metals via smoking and working exposure and to study the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metals carcinogenesis.

  1. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these events seem to precede the first symptoms of tobacco-related diseases, our findings might contribute to elucidation of early SHS-induced pathogenic mechanisms and constitute a useful tool for monitoring the effects of SHS on occupationally exposed individuals such as those working in the hospitality industry. PMID:23514073

  2. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every additional client attended to daily, knowledge scores increased by 0.022 points. Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely to support smoke-free policies compared with non-smokers. The findings emanating from the focus group discussion reinforced the fact that the pharmacists were in support of smoke-free policies particularly in homes and public places. It also demonstrated that most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use and second hand smoke however some misconceptions seemed to exist. Conclusion: The pharmacists surveyed expressed support of smoke-free policies and most of them were aware of the health risks associated with tobacco use. However, awareness of WHO FCTC and country-level tobacco legislation was low. Current smokers were less likely to support smoke-free policies. Community pharmacists should therefore be considered worth engaging for the promotion of smoke-free policies. Efforts should also be made to educate pharmacists about country level smoke-free laws. PMID:25883686

  3. Household environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory diseases among children in Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stosi?, Ljiljana; Milutinovi?, Suzana; Lazarevi?, Konstansa; Blagojevi?, Ljiljana; Tadi?, Ljiljana

    2012-03-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases as well as absenteeism related to respiratory illness in schoolchildren. The study sample consisted of 1,074 children aged 7-11 years from three primary schools in Nis (Serbia). ETS exposure was associated with wheezing (OR-1.48; 1.09-2.01), bronchitis (OR-1.66; 1.23-2.23), headache (OR-1.45; 1.08-1.95), and fatigue (OR-1.38; 1.02-1.85) in exposed children. The other risk factors with possible influences weren't assessed. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of physicians' visits as well as in absenteeism from school due to illness in children exposed to ETS in comparison to non exposed children. The tobacco smoke effect on children is an essential and urgent problem with life lasting negative health effects which are preventable. PMID:22571013

  4. Determination of Tobacco Specific Hemoglobin Adducts in Smoking Mothers and New Born Babies by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Steven R.; Ali, Md. Yeakub

    2007-01-01

    Biological markers for assessment of exposure to a variety of environmental carcinogens has been widely applied in both basic as well as clinical research. Exposure to tobacco smoke presents an ideal environment with which to develop, characterize, and refine biological markers, especially of those carcinogens found in tobacco. In the present study, a sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed to measure nitrosamine- hemoglobin adducts (HPB-Hb (4-Hydroxy-3-pyridinyl-1-butanone) at trace levels in red blood cells of both African-American and Caucasian smoking and nonsmoking mothers and their infants. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods with chemical ionization (CI) of methane reagent gas in both positive and negative ion mode as well as electron ionization (EI) were studied to determine differences in sensitivity of detection among the various ionization methods. Detection limits using both positive and negative chemical ionization modes were found to be 30 femtomoles of HPB, whereas detection using electron impact modes yielded a detection limit of 80 femtomoles of HBP. Comparative derivatization of HPB was performed using O-bis(Trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-Pentafluorobenzoylchloride (PFBC). Both Negative CI and Positive CI modes of analysis were compared to the more widely accepted EI modes of mass spectrometric analysis. PMID:19662210

  5. Bioinformatics Analysis of the Effects of Tobacco Smoke on Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chunhua; Chen, Jianhua; Lyu, Chengqi; Yu, Jia; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Zou, Derong

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of tobacco smoke on gene expression through bioinformatics analyses. Gene expression profile GSE17913 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in buccal mucosa tissues between 39 active smokers and 40 never smokers were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, transcriptional regulatory network as well as miRNA-target regulatory network construction. In total, 88 up-regulated DEGs and 106 down-regulated DEGs were identified. Among these DEGs, cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 were enriched in the Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 pathway. In the PPI network, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta (YWHAZ), and CYP1A1 were hub genes. In the transcriptional regulatory network, transcription factors of MYC associated factor X (MAX) and upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) regulated many overlapped DEGs. In addition, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D (PTPRD) was regulated by multiple miRNAs in the miRNA-DEG regulatory network. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, YWHAZ and PTPRD, and TF of MAX and USF1 may have the potential to be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in tobacco smoke-related pathological changes. PMID:26629988

  6. The impact of regional economic reliance on the tobacco industry on current smoking in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingzhong; Barnett, Ross; Rockett, Ian R H; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Wu, Dan; Zheng, Weijun; Li, Lu

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary assessment of province of residence and other contextual factors on the likelihood of being a current smoker in China. A cross-sectional, multistage sampling process was used to recruit participants, and their smoking status and sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through face-to-face interviews. The contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of provincial economic reliance on the tobacco industry, as well as individual-level characteristics, on the likelihood of being a current smoker. Participants totaled 20,601 from 27 cities located in 26 of the 31 municipalities/provinces in China. Overall smoking prevalence was 31.3% (95% CI: 19.3-33.2%), with rates being highest in Yinchuan City in Ningxia Province (49.8%) and lowest in Shanghai (21.6%). The multilevel analysis showed an excess likelihood of being a current smoker for individuals living in provinces with the highest rate of cigarette production relative to those with the smallest (p<0.001). Findings underscore the importance of restricting cigarette production and regulating the marketing of tobacco products in China. PMID:25834992

  7. Implications of the alpha dispersion for studies on interaction of tobacco smoke--corneal tissue.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, J; Marzec, E; Kulza, M; Samborski, W

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we have carried out a dielectric study to determine the effect of tobacco smoke on the rat corneal function. Measurements were performed over the frequency range of 500 Hz-100 kHz in air and at the temperature of 35°C. The frequency dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea exhibit two peaks with different width occurring as a narrow at 2 kHz and a broad at around 16 kHz. The distribution parameter ? at 2 kHz has a value of about 0.3, which increases to 0.6 at 16 kHz. The magnitude of the permittivity decrement at 2 and 16 kHz is about two and four times higher, respectively, for the smoky cornea than that for the healthy one. These dielectric studies indicate that the present method is useful in detection of the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on the corneal behavior. PMID:22037475

  8. Pathobiology of tobacco smoking and neurovascular disorders: untied strings and alternative products.

    PubMed

    Naik, Pooja; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. In addition to a host of well characterized diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, oral and peripheral cancers and cardiovascular complications, epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic smokers are at equal risk to develop neurological and neurovascular complications such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, vascular dementia and small vessel ischemic disease (SVID). Unfortunately, few direct neurotoxicology studies of tobacco smoking and its pathogenic pathways have been produced so far. A major link between TS and CNS disorders is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this review article, we summarize the current understanding of the toxicological impact of TS on BBB physiology and function and major compensatory mechanisms such as nrf2- ARE signaling and anti-inflammatory pathways activated by TS. In the same context, we discuss the controversial role of antioxidant supplementation as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic approach in delaying or decreasing the disease complications in smokers. Further, we cover a number of toxicological studies associated with "reduced exposure" cigarette products including electronic cigarettes. Finally, we provide insights on possible avenues for future research including mechanistic studies using direct inhalation rodent models. PMID:26520792

  9. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

  10. Tobacco use and asking prices of used cars: prevalence, costs, and new opportunities for changing smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matt, Georg E; Romero, Romina; Ma, Debbie S; Quintana, Penelope JE; Hovell, Melbourne F; Donohue, Michael; Messer, Karen; Salem, Simon; Aguilar, Mauricio; Boland, Justin; Cullimore, Jennifer; Crane, Marissa; Junker, Jonathan; Tassinario, Peter; Timmermann, Vera; Wong, Kristen; Chatfield, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a) the proportion of used cars sold in the private party market that may be polluted with tobacco smoke and (b) whether asking prices of smoker and nonsmoker cars differed for cars of otherwise equivalent value. A random sample of 1,642 private party sellers were interviewed by telephone, and content analyses of print advertisements were conducted. Findings indicate that 22% of used cars were advertised by smokers or had been smoked in during the previous year. Among nonsmokers, 94% did not allow smoking in their car during the past year. Only 33% of smokers had the same restrictions. The smoking status of the seller and tobacco use in the car were significantly (p < .01) associated with the asking price independent of a car's Kelley Blue Book value (KBB). Used nonsmoker cars were offered at a considerable premium above their KBB value (>11%) and above comparable smoker cars (7–9%). These findings suggest that community preferences are affecting the value of smoke-free cars. New directions for research, tobacco control policies, and health education are discussed to further reduce smoking behavior, to help consumers make informed purchasing decisions, and to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. PMID:18822157

  11. Short and long term health effects of parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy and lactation: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Banderali, G; Martelli, A; Landi, M; Moretti, F; Betti, F; Radaelli, G; Lassandro, C; Verduci, E

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on adverse effects of tobacco smoking on conception, pregnancy, fetal, and child health. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current evidence regarding short and long-term health effects on child health of parental smoking during pregnancy and lactation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Studies were searched on MEDLINE(®) and Cochrane database inserting, individually and using the Boolean ANDs and ORs, 'pregnancy', 'human lactation', 'fetal growth', 'metabolic outcomes', 'obesity', 'cardiovascular outcomes', 'blood pressure', 'brain development', 'respiratory outcomes', 'maternal or paternal or parental tobacco smoking', 'nicotine'. Publications coming from the reference list of studies were also considered from MEDLINE. All sources were retrieved between 2015-01-03 and 2015-31-05. There is overall consistency in literature about negative effects of fetal and postnatal exposure to parental tobacco smoking on several outcomes: preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral problems, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, impaired lung function, asthma and wheezing. While maternal smoking during pregnancy plays a major role on adverse postnatal outcomes, it may also cumulate negatively with smoking during lactation and with second-hand smoking exposure. Although this review was not strictly designed as a systematic review and the PRISMA Statement was not fully applied it may benefit the reader with a promptly and friendly readable update of the matter. This review strengthens the need to plan population health policies aimed to implement educational programs to hopefully minimize tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:26472248

  12. Water-pipe smoking and albuminuria: new dog with old tricks.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaque, Iqra; Shafique, Kashif; Ul-Haq, Zia; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Ishtiaque, Afra

    2014-01-01

    Water-pipe (WP) smoking is on rise worldwide for the past few years, particularly among younger individuals. Growing evidence indicates that WP smoking is as harmful as cigarette smoking. To date, most of the research has focused on acute health effects of WP smoking, and evidence remains limited when it comes to chronic health effects in relation to long-term WP smoking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between WP smoking and albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. This analysis was conducted on data of a population-based cross-sectional study--the Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). The study sample was recruited from three sites in Pakistan. Trained nurses carried out individual interviews and obtained the information on demographics, lifestyle factors, and past and current medical history. Measurements of complete blood count, lipid profile, fasting glucose level, and 24-hour albuminuria were also made by using blood and urine samples. Albumin excretion was classified into three categories using standard cut-offs: normal excretion, high-normal excretion and microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between WP smoking and albuminuria. The final analysis included data from 1,626 health individuals, of which 829 (51.0%) were males and 797 (49.0%) females. Of 1,626 individuals, 267 (16.4%) were current WP smokers and 1,359 (83.6%) were non-WP smokers. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria (OR ?=? 2.33, 95% CI 1.68-3.22, p-value <0.001) and microalbuminuria (OR ?=? 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.58, p-value 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, social class, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria and microalbuminuria when analysis was stratified on hypertension and diabetes mellitus categories. WP smoking has a strong association with albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. More research is warranted to evaluate the temporality of this association between WP smoking and albuminuria. PMID:24465635

  13. Water-Pipe Smoking and Albuminuria: New Dog with Old Tricks

    PubMed Central

    Ishtiaque, Iqra; Shafique, Kashif; Ul-Haq, Zia; Shaikh, Abdul Rauf; Khan, Naveed Ali; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Ishtiaque, Afra

    2014-01-01

    Water-pipe (WP) smoking is on rise worldwide for the past few years, particularly among younger individuals. Growing evidence indicates that WP smoking is as harmful as cigarette smoking. To date, most of the research has focused on acute health effects of WP smoking, and evidence remains limited when it comes to chronic health effects in relation to long-term WP smoking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between WP smoking and albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. This analysis was conducted on data of a population-based cross-sectional study—the Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). The study sample was recruited from three sites in Pakistan. Trained nurses carried out individual interviews and obtained the information on demographics, lifestyle factors, and past and current medical history. Measurements of complete blood count, lipid profile, fasting glucose level, and 24-hour albuminuria were also made by using blood and urine samples. Albumin excretion was classified into three categories using standard cut-offs: normal excretion, high-normal excretion and microalbuminuria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between WP smoking and albuminuria. The final analysis included data from 1,626 health individuals, of which 829 (51.0%) were males and 797 (49.0%) females. Of 1,626 individuals, 267 (16.4%) were current WP smokers and 1,359 (83.6%) were non-WP smokers. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria (OR ?=? 2.33, 95% CI 1.68-3.22, p-value <0.001) and microalbuminuria (OR ?=? 1.75, 95% CI 1.18-2.58, p-value 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, social class, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. WP smoking was significantly associated with high-normal albuminuria and microalbuminuria when analysis was stratified on hypertension and diabetes mellitus categories. WP smoking has a strong association with albuminuria in apparently healthy individuals. More research is warranted to evaluate the temporality of this association between WP smoking and albuminuria. PMID:24465635

  14. Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments.

    PubMed

    Arku, R E; Adamkiewicz, G; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D; Levy, D E

    2015-02-01

    The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2 ?g/m3, higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 ?g/m3) compared with summer (8.0 ?g/m3). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m3 (mean 311 ng/m3). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared with summer (620 vs. 85 ng/m3; 95% CI: 72-998). Smoking-related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities that may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure and protect non-smokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

  15. An intervention to address secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among nonsmokers hospitalized with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Park, Elyse R; Streck, Joanna; Chang, Yuchiao; Reyen, Michele; McKool, Kathleen; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2014-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure increases nonsmokers' risk of coronary heart disease and worsens outcomes after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, but it is rarely addressed in inpatient cardiac care. We developed and assessed a hospital-based intervention to increase nonsmokers' awareness of SHS as a cardiovascular risk factor. Nonsmokers admitted to 2 cardiac units of a large Boston, Massachusetts, hospital were surveyed before (May 2010 to January 2011) and after (November 2011 to March 2012) a system-level nurse-delivered intervention was implemented in October 2011. It consisted of a revised admission form that prompted nurses to document SHS exposure at admission, provide a pamphlet about SHS risks, and advise nonsmokers to make their home and car smoke free. The primary outcome was patients' short-term recall of advice to keep their home and car smoke free. The secondary outcome was patients' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. We enrolled 190 nonsmokers before and 142 nonsmokers after implementation. Adjusting for group differences, patients admitted after the system change were more likely to recall being asked if a household member smokes (24% vs 10%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8 to 7.1, p=0.0002) and being advised to keep their home and car smoke free (28% vs 2%, AOR 27.3, 95% CI 7.8 to 95.7, p<0.0001). After the intervention, more patients believed that SHS exposure increased cardiovascular risk for nonsmokers (42% vs 21%, AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.4) and for themselves (39% vs 22%, AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). In conclusion, a system-level intervention in cardiac units successfully increased hospitalized nonsmokers' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. PMID:25124185

  16. Smokeless tobacco cessation cluster randomized trial with rural high school males: Intervention interaction with baseline smoking

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Timothy J.; Kavanagh, Niall; Mansell, Chuck; MacDougal, William; Kavanagh, Catherine; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent males in rural areas use smokeless tobacco (ST). We assessed the efficacy of a school-based nurse-directed ST intervention among rural high school males. Methods: Study high schools were randomly selected from a public high school list of California rural counties. Consenting high schools were stratified by school size and randomly assigned within strata to intervention or no-intervention groups. After gaining parental consent, male students completed baseline and 1-year follow-up questionnaires. The intervention included peer-led educational sessions and an oral exam by the school nurse who also provided brief tobacco cessation counseling. We used binary generalized estimating equation (GEE) models accounting for clustering within schools to test no difference between groups after adjusting for year in high school using both completers only and multiple imputation for those lost to follow-up. Subgroup analyses assessed Baseline Factor × Group interaction in GEE models. Results: Twenty-one rural counties (72%), 41 randomly selected high schools (56%), and 4,731 male students (50%) participated with 65% retention. Nonsmoking ST users in the intervention group were significantly more likely to stop using ST at follow-up than those in the no-intervention group; there was no intervention effect among baseline ST users who also smoked. A higher percentage of baseline nonsmoking ST users reported smoking at follow-up than baseline non-ST-using smokers who reported using ST. Discussion: A school-based nurse-directed ST cessation program was efficacious among rural nonsmoking ST-using high school males. The potential program reach holds significant public health value. Baseline ST use facilitated smoking at follow-up. PMID:20439384

  17. Changes in smoking prevalence and number of cigarettes smoked per day following the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control plan in New York City.

    PubMed

    Coady, Micaela H; Jasek, John; Davis, Karen; Kerker, Bonnie; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Perl, Sarah B

    2012-10-01

    The New York City (NYC) Health Department has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan since 2002, and there was a 27% decline in adult smoking prevalence in NYC from 2002 to 2008. There are conflicting reports in the literature on whether residual smoker populations have a larger or smaller share of "hardcore" smokers. Changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence, common components used to define hardcore smokers, were evaluated in the context of the smoking prevalence decline. Using the NYC Community Health Survey, an annual random digit dial, cross-sectional survey that samples approximately 10,000 adults, the prevalence of current heavy daily, light daily, and nondaily smokers among NYC adults was compared between 2002 and 2008. A five-level categorical cigarettes per day (CPD) variable was also used to compare the population of smokers between the 2 years. From 2002 to 2008, significant declines were seen in the prevalence of daily smoking, heavy daily smoking, and nondaily smoking. Among daily smokers, there is also evidence of population declines in all but the lowest smoking category (one to five CPD). The mean CPD among daily smokers declined significantly, from 14.6 to 12.5. After an overall decline in smoking since 2002, the remaining smokers may be less nicotine dependent, based on changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence. These findings suggest the need to increase media and cessation efforts targeted towards lighter smokers. PMID:22544658

  18. EFFECTS OF TOBACCO SMOKE ON PC12 CELL NEURODIFFERENTIATION ARE DISTINCT FROM THOSE OF NICOTINE OR BENZO[a]PYRENE

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J.

    2014-01-01

    Although nicotine accounts for a great deal of the neurodevelopmental damage associated with maternal smoking or second-hand exposure, tobacco smoke contains thousands of potentially neurotoxic compounds. We used PC12 cells, a standard in vitro model of neurodifferentiation, to compare tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to nicotine, matching TSE exposure (with its inherent nicotine content) to parallel concentrations of nicotine, or to benzo[a]pyrene, a tobacco combustion product. TSE promoted the transition from cell replication to differentiation, resulting in fewer, but larger cells with greater neurite extension. TSE also biased differentiation into the dopaminergic versus the cholinergic phenotype, evidenced by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity but not choline acetyltransferase. Nicotine likewise promoted differentiation at the expense of cell numbers, but its effect on growth and neurite extension was smaller than that of TSE; furthermore, nicotine did not promote the dopaminergic phenotype. Benzo[a]pyrene had effects opposite to those of TSE, retarding neurodifferentiation, which resulted in higher cell numbers, smaller cells, reduced neurite information, and impaired emergence of both dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes. Our studies show that the complex mixture of compounds in tobacco smoke exerts direct effects on neural cell replication and differentiation that resemble those of nicotine in some ways but not others, and most importantly, that are greater in magnitude than can be accounted for from just the nicotine content of TSE. Thus, fetal tobacco smoke exposure, including lower levels associated with second-hand smoke, could be more injurious than would be anticipated from measured levels of nicotine or its metabolites. PMID:24642111

  19. Effects of tobacco smoke on PC12 cell neurodifferentiation are distinct from those of nicotine or benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2014-01-01

    Although nicotine accounts for a great deal of the neurodevelopmental damage associated with maternal smoking or second-hand exposure, tobacco smoke contains thousands of potentially neurotoxic compounds. We used PC12 cells, a standard in vitro model of neurodifferentiation, to compare tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to nicotine, matching TSE exposure (with its inherent nicotine content) to parallel concentrations of nicotine, or to benzo[a]pyrene, a tobacco combustion product. TSE promoted the transition from cell replication to differentiation, resulting in fewer, but larger cells with greater neurite extension. TSE also biased differentiation into the dopaminergic versus the cholinergic phenotype, evidenced by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity but not choline acetyltransferase. Nicotine likewise promoted differentiation at the expense of cell numbers, but its effect on growth and neurite extension was smaller than that of TSE; furthermore, nicotine did not promote the dopaminergic phenotype. Benzo[a]pyrene had effects opposite to those of TSE, retarding neurodifferentiation, which resulted in higher cell numbers, smaller cells, reduced neurite information, and impaired emergence of both dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes. Our studies show that the complex mixture of compounds in tobacco smoke exerts direct effects on neural cell replication and differentiation that resemble those of nicotine in some ways but not others, and most importantly, that are greater in magnitude than can be accounted for from just the nicotine content of TSE. Thus, fetal tobacco smoke exposure, including lower levels associated with second-hand smoke, could be more injurious than would be anticipated from measured levels of nicotine or its metabolites. PMID:24642111

  20. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P < 0.01 and aRR = 1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P = 0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P < 0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts. PMID:25665487

  1. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Ginevan, M.E.; Naiman, D.Q.; James, A.C.; Jenkins, R.A.; Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P.; Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G.

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  2. In-utero exposure to maternal smoking is not linked to tobacco use in adulthood after controlling for genetic and family influences: a Swedish sibling study.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Mina; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven; Magnusson, Cecilia; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with regular tobacco use in offspring, but findings are not consistent and confounding from genetic and environmental factors have not fully been taken into account. A comparison between siblings discordant for prenatal smoking exposure adjusts for confounding by shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) factors. We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of regular smoking or snus (Swedish moist smokeless tobacco) use in young adult offspring, using a population based matched cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,538 randomly sampled same-sex sibling pairs, discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 19-27 years old, participating in a survey conducted in Sweden 2010-2011. Lifetime and current history of tobacco use was self-reported in the survey, and information about maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used to calculate odds ratios, hazard ratios, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of exposure-discordant siblings did not reveal significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and lifetime or current daily tobacco use, intensity of use, or time to onset of daily tobacco use. These findings suggest that the previously reported higher risks of tobacco use in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, compared with offspring of non-smoking mothers, were likely due to confounding from genetic or environmental factors. PMID:24840229

  3. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  4. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

  5. Organizational change in a perinatal treatment setting: integration of clinical practice and policies on tobacco and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Jessup, Martha A

    2007-12-01

    Perinatal smoking presents serious health risks to the fetus, mother, and child. Despite extensive evidence of risk and high rates of smoking among in-treatment perinatal women substance abusers, tobacco-related practice and policy change has not been widely transferred for application in drug abuse treatment programs for pregnant and parenting women. This qualitative study investigated the process of change and the resultant adoption of clinical policy and treatment innovation in a residential drug abuse treatment program that converted from tobacco-tolerant to tobacco-free with provision of smoking cessation services. Informed by the Organizational Readiness for Change Model, staff interviews and data analysis were conducted to examine program characteristics affecting adoption. An organizational climate of openness to change and the program's clarity of mission, expressed in perinatal-specific motivators for change, influenced the adoption of tobacco-related clinical practice and policy. Re-allocation of time, previously occupied by smoking behaviors, allowed for added promotion of maternal-child interaction and positive role-modeling for children. PMID:18303703

  6. A Comprehensive Mixture of Tobacco Smoke Components Retards Orthodontic Tooth Movement via the Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Nagaie, Maya; Nishiura, Aki; Honda, Yoshitomo; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs) attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC) inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days. TSC administration effectively retarded tooth movement since day 4. Histological evaluation disclosed that tooth movement induced bone resorption at two sites: in the bone marrow and the peripheral bone near the root. TSC administration significantly reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells in the bone marrow cavity of the PC-treated dentition. An in vitro study indicated that the inhibitory effects of TSCs on osteoclastogenesis seemed directed more toward preosteoclasts than osteoblasts. These results indicate that the comprehensive mixture of TSCs might be a useful tool for detailed verification of the adverse effects of tobacco smoke, possibly contributing to the development of reliable treatments in various fields associated with bone resorption. PMID:25322153

  7. 75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... comment period for the advance notice of proposed rulemaking, published March 19, 2010, at 75 FR 13241, is.... Background In the Federal Register of March 19, 2010 (75 FR 13241), FDA published an ANPRM with a 60-day... of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY:...

  8. A Multilevel-Based Study of School Policy for Tobacco Control in Relation to Cigarette Smoking among Children in Elementary Schools: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Fu-Li; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Shi, Hon-Yi; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to comprehensively examine school-based tobacco policy status, implementation and students' perceived smoking at school in regard to gender-specific differences in smoking behavior. We conducted a multilevel-based study to assess two-level effects for smoking among 2350 grades three to six students in 26 randomly selected elementary…

  9. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... to cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  10. The Effect of Chronic Tobacco Smoking and Chewing on the Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Rao Ch., Srinivasa; Subash Y., Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A worldwide epidemic of cardio vascular diseases is evolving, out of which atherosclerosis appears to be the most frequent underlying cause. Cigarette smoking remains the most important cause of the preventable morbidity and the early mortality. Nicotine is highly addictive, it raises the brain levels of dopamine and it produces withdrawal symptoms on its discontinuation. Aim: To study the effect of tobacco smoking & chewing on serum lipid profile. Methods: Although a genetic predis-position to atherosclerosis may be the cause, a vast majority of the atherosclerotic related diseases, which include coronary heart diseases, are acquired. Those which usually appear later in life are largely preventable. Tobacco is the major and the single most preventable risk factor for atherosclerotic related, clinical events like coronary heart disease. This study was conducted on three groups of male subjects, with each group containing 25 individuals of 25 to 35 years of age and who weighed 50-70 kgs. Group-I: non smokers and non chewers. Group-II: smokers and non chewers Group–III: chewers and non smokers. To estimate the triglycerides, glycerol which is derived from the saponification of triglycerides is oxidized to formaldehyde, which in turn is made to react with ammonia and acetylacetone to give rise to a chromogen (3.5 diacetyle-1,4 dihydrolutidine). It is quantified spectro-photometrically (the HANTZSCH reaction). Results: The mean serum total cholesterol level in the subjects of Group II was more by about 16.94 % (p< 0.001) and that in the subjects of Group –III was more by 23.21% (p< 0.001). The mean serum VLDL level in the subjects of Group II had an increase of about 27.54% (p< 0.01) and in Group –III, it had increased by11.82% (p< 0.01). The mean serum LDL level in the subjects of Group II showed an increase of about 34.64% (p< 0.001) and in Group –III, it had increased by16.27% (p< 0.001). The mean serum HDL level in the subjects of Group II showed a decrease in the mean serum HDL level by about 9.78 % (p< 0.01) and in Group –III, it had decreased by 22.12% (p< 0.01). The mean serum Triglyceride level in the subjects of Group II showed an increase of about 25.40% (p< 0.001) and in Group –III, it was more by33.35% (p< 0.001). Conclusion: There was a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-C in tobacco users ,as compared to non tobacco users. PMID:23449989

  11. [The awareness of carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke--a questionnaire survey of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University].

    PubMed

    Seget, Monika; Karolczak, Dominika; Wilk, Magdalena; B?aszczyk, Agata; Szylberg, ?ukasz; Florek, Ewa; Marsza?ek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is currently the most significant risk factor for health according to WHO statements. It has been proven that smoking is the cause of many diseases, for example cardiovascular and respiratory tract diseases as well as impaired fertility and decreased immunity. The adverse effects of cigarette smoking on pregnancy and health of children were also proved. However, special attention is laid on impact of smoking on the development of cancer. In tobacco smoke there are over 4,000 different chemical substances and compounds, of which more than 50 are carcinogens. The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (CM UMK), first on number and types of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke and secondly on types of diseases caused by smoking. There were 480 responders included to the study(253 women and 227 men). Among them there were 416 students of CM UMK, 59 students of biomedical engineering at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz and 5 employees of CM UMK. Among the respondents there was considerable ignorance about the number of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke with over 50% of them indicating the incorrect answer. Among the carcinogens there were mentioned mostly tar and nicotine, and among the diseases caused by tobacco smoke most often pointed response there were lung and larynx cancer and heart and blood vessels diseases and to reduce the weight of newborns. In summary, we can conclude that the awareness of students and employees of CM UMK about the carcinogenic properties of tobacco smoke was not sufficient. Respondents were aware of the dangers of smoking, they knew the basic carcinogenic substances and pointed a few diseases caused by smoking cigarettes. Unfortunately their knowledge does not refer to a number of diseases which in common believe are not connected to cigarette smoking, but in fact tobacco smoke is very important for their development. PMID:23421057

  12. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  13. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What You ... Information What You Need to Know About Quitting Smoking Tobacco use can lead to tobacco/nicotine dependence ...

  14. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePLUS

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... quit tobacco use. These medicines do not contain nicotine. They work in a different way than nicotine ...

  15. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePLUS

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  16. [Evaluation of quality of life and knowledge about tobacco smoking toxicity among patients hospitalized in Department of Pneumonology].

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Patrycja; Targowski, Tomasz; Jahnz-Rózyk, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate knowledge about tobacco toxicity among patients hospitalized in Department of Internal Diseases, Pneumonology and Allergology in Warsaw and to examine their quality of life. The study comprised 51 people at age between 18-80 years, from Warsaw and its environs. They were hospitalized because of many reasons like: COPD or asthma exacerbation, cough and focal pulmonary lesions diagnostics, follow-up examinations because of sarcoidosis or pulmonary fibrosis. Data for analysis were achieved from anonymous questionnaire prepared by authors and filled by patients. Quality of life was assessed with EQ-5D Questionnaire. The tobacco addiction rate was assessed with the Fagerström questionnaire, and the motivation to quit smoking with the Schneider test. It was found that only 14% of hospitalized patients have never smoked cigarettes, 86% smoked in the past, and 29% declare regularly smoking in present. The most common pointed tobacco-related diseases were lung cancer and hearth diseases. People hospitalized because of COPD exacerbation (CHPOChP) had significantly lower level of quality of life than patients hospitalized because of asthma exacerbation (CHA) (p = 0.03), and this both groups had significantly lower level of quality of life than persons without obstructive pulmonary diseases (NCH) (NCH - CHPOChP p = 0.0004; NCH - CHA p = 0.04). The motivation to quit smoking in COPD smokers group was significantly lower than in group treated in the hospital because of other reasons (p = 0.004). PMID:17288220

  17. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  18. Battling Tobacco Use at Home: An Analysis of Smoke-Free Home Rules Among US Veterans From 2001 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Cook, Jessica; Piper, Megan E.; Berg, Kristin; Jones, Nathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined national trends in smoke-free home rules among US veterans and nonveterans. Methods. We used data from the 2001–2002 and 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey to estimate and compare the existence of smoke-free home rules among veterans and nonveterans for each survey period. Results. The prevalence of a complete smoke-free home rule among veterans increased from 64.0% to 79.7% between 2001 and 2011 (P?smoke-free home rules, veterans lag behind the rest of the US population. Interventions promoting the adoption of complete smoke-free home rules are necessary to protect veterans and their families and to reduce disparities. PMID:25100423

  19. Tomato juice prevents senescence-accelerated mouse P1 strain from developing emphysema induced by chronic exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Kasagi, Satoshi; Seyama, Kuniaki; Mori, Hiroaki; Souma, Sanae; Sato, Tadashi; Akiyoshi, Taeko; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2006-02-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is a naturally occurring animal model for accelerated aging after normal development and maturation. SAMP1 strain was reported to show age-related structural and functional changes in lung and to be a murine model of senile lung. We postulated that aging of lung is an important intrinsic process for development of emphysema and even in a short period of tobacco smoke exposure may be able to generate emphysema. At age 12 wk, SAMP1 inhaled air or 1.5% tobacco smoke (total particulate matter 23.9 mg/m3) through the nose for 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, and for 8 wk. The mean linear intercepts (MLI) and destructive index (DI) of lung were significantly increased [air vs. smoke (means+/-SE); MLI, 68.76+/-0.69 vs. 75.34+/-1.70 microm, P<0.05 and DI, 8.61+/-0.38 vs. 16.18+/-1.54%, P<0.05], whereas no significant changes were observed in SAMR1, control mice that show normal aging. In contrast, smoke-induced emphysema was completely prevented by concomitant ingestion of lycopene given as tomato juice [MLI: smoke with/without lycopene (mean+/-SE), 62.87+/-0.8 vs. 66.90+/-1.33 microm, P<0.05]. Smoke exposure increased apoptosis and active caspase-3 of airway and alveolar septal cells and reduced VEGF in lung tissues, but tomato juice ingestion significantly reduced apoptosis and increased tissue VEGF level. We conclude that SAMP1 is a useful model for tobacco smoke-induced emphysema and a valuable tool to explore both pathophysiological mechanisms and the effect of therapeutic intervention on smoke-induced emphysema. PMID:16214812

  20. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijun; Yao, Yan; Han, Weiqing; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui; Jiang, Lingling; Sun, Qing; Yin, Yutian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%). The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9), 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6), and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7), respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1), and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0) of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4), but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5%) (95% CI: 6.0–7.1). More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0) of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5%) (95% CI: 48.7–50.3) did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in Northeast China. Anti-smoking campaigns and legislation should be built into the public health curriculum and government policy. PMID:26206569

  1. Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

  2. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Data Sources Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. Study Selection 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Data Extraction Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Results Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Conclusion Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority. PMID:26162085

  3. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655

  4. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking ... Health Effects > Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking ...

  5. Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin K; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of vaping in electronic cigarette advertisements may serve as smoking cues to smokers and former smokers, increasing urge to smoke and smoking behavior, and decreasing self-efficacy, attitudes, and intentions to quit or abstain. After assessing baseline urge to smoke, 301 daily smokers, 272 intermittent smokers, and 311 former smokers were randomly assigned to view three e-cigarette commercials with vaping visuals (the cue condition) or without vaping visuals (the no-cue condition), or to answer unrelated media use questions (the no-ad condition). Participants then answered a posttest questionnaire assessing the outcome variables of interest. Relative to other conditions, in the cue condition, daily smokers reported greater urge to smoke a tobacco cigarette and a marginally significantly greater incidence of actually smoking a tobacco cigarette during the experiment. Former smokers in the cue condition reported lower intentions to abstain from smoking than former smokers in other conditions. No significant differences emerged among intermittent smokers across conditions. These data suggest that visual depictions of vaping in e-cigarette commercials increase daily smokers' urge to smoke cigarettes and may lead to more actual smoking behavior. For former smokers, these cues in advertising may undermine abstinence efforts. Intermittent smokers did not appear to be reactive to these cues. A lack of significant differences between participants in the no-cue and no-ad conditions compared to the cue condition suggests that visual depictions of e-cigarettes and vaping function as smoking cues, and cue reactivity is the mechanism through which these effects were obtained. PMID:25758192

  6. Influence of tobacco smoke on carcinogenic PAH composition in indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Castro, D.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), have a direct impact on human population. Consequently, there is a widespread interest in analysing and evaluating the exposure to PAH in different indoor environments, influenced by different emission sources. The information on indoor PAH is still limited, mainly in terms of PAH distribution in indoor particles of different sizes; thus, this study evaluated the influence of tobacco smoke on PM 10 and PM 2.5 characteristics, namely on their PAH compositions, with further aim to understand the negative impact of tobacco smoke on human health. Samples were collected at one site influenced by tobacco smoke and at one reference (non-smoking) site using low-volume samplers; the analyses of 17 PAH were performed by Microwave Assisted Extraction combined with Liquid Chromatography (MAE-LC). At the site influenced by tobacco smoke PM concentrations were higher 650% for PM 10, and 720% for PM 2.5. When influenced by smoking, 4 ring PAH (fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) were the most abundant PAH, with concentrations 4600-21 000% and 5100-20 800% higher than at the reference site for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, accounting for 49% of total PAH (? PAH). Higher molecular weight PAH (5-6 rings) reached concentrations 300-1300% and 140-1700% higher for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, at the site influenced by tobacco smoke. Considering 9 carcinogenic PAH this increase was 780% and 760% in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, indicating the strong potential risk for human health. As different composition profiles of PAH in indoor PM were obtained for reference and smoking sites, those 9 carcinogens represented at the reference site 84% and 86% of ? PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, and at the smoking site 56% and 55% of ? PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. All PAH (including the carcinogenic ones) were mainly present in fine particles, which corresponds to a strong risk for cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer; thus, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

  7. Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescents, are more susceptible to smoking epidemic and its consequences. Therefore, it is important to identify the association between anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking status in order to design effective interventions to curtail the smoking epidemic in this region. Methods This is a secondary analysis of national data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Pakistan (year 2003), India (year 2006), Bangladesh (year 2007), and Nepal (year 2007). GYTS is a school-based survey of students targeting adolescents of age 13–15 years. We examined the association of different ways of delivering anti-smoking messages with students’ current smoking status. Results A total of 19,643 schoolchildren were included in this study. The prevalence of current smoking was 5.4% with male predominance. No exposure to school teachings, family discussions regarding smoking hazards, and anti-smoking media messages was significantly associated with current smoking among male students. Participants who were deprived of family discussion regarding smoking hazards (girls: odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.89, p value 0.152; boys: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04–1.80, p value 0.025), those who had not seen media messages (girls: OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.58–5.28, p value <0.001; boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91–1.88, p value 0.134), and those who were not taught the harmful effects of smoking at school (girls: OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.95–4.21, p value 0.066; boys: OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.44–2.48, p value <0.001) had higher odds of being current smokers after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion School-going adolescents in South Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) who were not exposed to anti-tobacco media messages or were not taught about the harmful effects in school or at home had higher odds of being current smokers than their counterparts. PMID:24568532

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke: mutagenic emission rates and their relationship to other emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.; Williams, K.; Lofroth, G.; Hammond, K.; Leaderer, B.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission rates and exposure concentrations of mutagens, nicotine, and particles from cigarettes. Studies were conducted under controlled laboratory and chamber conditions as well as in personal residences. The mutagenicity of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was evaluated in three bioassays using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA98 was used in the standard plate-incorporation and microsuspension histidine reversion assays; and strain TM677 in a microsuspension forward mutation assay. The mutagenicity, expressed either per Ug particle or per Ug nicotine, appeared to be a relatively constant factor that did not vary significantly between various cigarette brands. These data are being used to model the emissions of mutagens to predict mutagenic exposure concentrations under various conditions.

  9. Smoke Extracts and Nicotine, but not Tobacco Extracts, Potentiate Firing and Burst Activity of Ventral Tegmental Area Dopaminergic Neurons in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Fabio; Arib, Ouafa; Morel, Carole; Dufresne, Virginie; Maskos, Uwe; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Faure, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine prominently mediates the behavioral effects of tobacco consumption, either through smoking or when taking tobacco by snuff or chew. However, many studies question the exclusive role of nicotine in these effects. The use of preparations containing all the components of tobacco, such as tobacco and smoke extracts, may be more suitable than nicotine alone to investigate the behavioral effects of smoking and tobacco intake. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of tobacco and smoke on ventral tegmental area dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in vivo in anesthetized wild-type (WT), ?2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockout (?2?/?), ?4?/?, and ?6?/? mice and compared with those of nicotine alone. In WT mice, smoke and nicotine had similar potentiating effects on DA cell activity, but the action of tobacco on neuronal firing was weak and often inhibitory. In particular, nicotine triggered strong bursting activity, whereas no bursting activity was observed after tobacco extract (ToE) administration. In ?2?/? mice, nicotine or extract elicited no modification of the firing patterns of DA cells, indicating that extract acts predominantly through nAChRs. The differences between DA cell activation profiles induced by tobacco and nicotine alone observed in WT persisted in ?6?/? mice but not in ?4?/? mice. These results would suggest that tobacco has lower addiction-generating properties compared with either nicotine alone or smoke. The weak activation and prominent inhibition obtained with ToEs suggest that tobacco contains compounds that counteract some of the activating effects of nicotine and promote inhibition on DA cell acting through ?4?2*-nAChRs. The nature of these compounds remains to be elucidated. It nevertheless confirms that nicotine is the main substance involved in the tobacco addiction-related activation of mesolimbic DA neurons. PMID:21716264

  10. Smoke extracts and nicotine, but not tobacco extracts, potentiate firing and burst activity of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Marti, Fabio; Arib, Ouafa; Morel, Carole; Dufresne, Virginie; Maskos, Uwe; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Faure, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Nicotine prominently mediates the behavioral effects of tobacco consumption, either through smoking or when taking tobacco by snuff or chew. However, many studies question the exclusive role of nicotine in these effects. The use of preparations containing all the components of tobacco, such as tobacco and smoke extracts, may be more suitable than nicotine alone to investigate the behavioral effects of smoking and tobacco intake. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of tobacco and smoke on ventral tegmental area dopaminergic (DA) neurons were examined in vivo in anesthetized wild-type (WT), ?2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) knockout (?2-/-), ?4-/-, and ?6-/- mice and compared with those of nicotine alone. In WT mice, smoke and nicotine had similar potentiating effects on DA cell activity, but the action of tobacco on neuronal firing was weak and often inhibitory. In particular, nicotine triggered strong bursting activity, whereas no bursting activity was observed after tobacco extract (ToE) administration. In ?2-/- mice, nicotine or extract elicited no modification of the firing patterns of DA cells, indicating that extract acts predominantly through nAChRs. The differences between DA cell activation profiles induced by tobacco and nicotine alone observed in WT persisted in ?6-/- mice but not in ?4-/- mice. These results would suggest that tobacco has lower addiction-generating properties compared with either nicotine alone or smoke. The weak activation and prominent inhibition obtained with ToEs suggest that tobacco contains compounds that counteract some of the activating effects of nicotine and promote inhibition on DA cell acting through ?4?2*-nAChRs. The nature of these compounds remains to be elucidated. It nevertheless confirms that nicotine is the main substance involved in the tobacco addiction-related activation of mesolimbic DA neurons. PMID:21716264

  11. An Exploration of Ethnic, Immigration and Acculturation Differences on Tobacco Smoking Among Public High School Girls in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai‘i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai‘i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai‘i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai‘i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai‘i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese. PMID:24470981

  12. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Methods In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child’s behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. Results ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Conclusion Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children. PMID:26244898

  13. Assessment of Different Quit Smoking Methods Selected by Patients in Tobacco Cessation Centers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Leischow, Scott J.; Harry, A. Lando; Shadmehr, Mohammad B.; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling) with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8) and the quit and win (n = 17). The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers’ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system. PMID:26442750

  14. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50?years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    In the 50?years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of ‘clean’ nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible. PMID:23591504

  15. Tobacco Use and Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke among Urban Residents: A Community-Based Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhaorui; Han, Hongzhi; Zhuang, Cheng; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Ping; Yao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In 2005, China acceded to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the foundation for the global fight against tobacco. Certain cities in China have established local regulations to control tobacco use ahead of national policy; however, without the enforcement of statutory law, some of these regulations are merely lip service. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of city policy on smoking prevalence and on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure status among non-smokers in Changchun City. Methods: A cross-sectional survey covering a multiple-stage, representative sample of the urban population aged ?15 years was conducted between 1 Dec 2013 and 31 Jan 2014. The WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the questionnaires used, which included demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors and SHS exposure status. Results: Overall cigarette smoking prevalence was 23.5%; daily cigarette smoking prevalence was 21.2%. Smoking prevalence and cigarettes consumed per day was higher among men (p < 0.05) and those aged 45–64 years (p < 0.05). Among current smokers, 8.1% planned to quit within 12 months; 53.4% had no intention of quitting. Overall SHS exposure prevalence was 41.9% (workplace) and 34.1% (at home) over the previous 30 days. The weighted workplace SHS exposure prevalence increased with age. Conclusions: The high proportion of smokers with no intention of quitting and the high level of SHS exposure may constitute one of the most significant barriers to successful smoking cessation in the city. A continued drive to promote full implementation of the WHO FCTC is still needed. PMID:26295250

  16. Tracers for Assessing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: What are they tracing?

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, Joan M.

    1998-03-01

    The effectiveness of various tracers for measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a complex chemical mixture is based on the physicochemical properties of four major organic components and their dynamic behavior in indoor environments. For the particulate matter (PM) component and the very volatile organic compounds, emission and ventilation rates are generally the most important processes controlling indoor concentrations and exposures of nonsmokers. For the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), sorption on and desorption from indoor surfaces are additional processes that influence exposures. Laboratory and modeling studies of the dynamic behavior of nicotine, an SVOC, and PM indicate that nicotine can be used to estimate PM exposures from ETS in indoor environments when certain criteria are met: (a) smoking occurs regularly in the environment, (b) the system is near quasi-steady state, and (c) sampling time is longer than the characteristic times for removal processes. Measurements in residential and workplace buildings also support the use of nicotine as a tracer for PM in ETS. Recent laboratory and field data indicate that the VOCs from ETS can be traced using compounds with similar physicochemical properties, such as 3-ethenylpyridine, pyrrole, or pyridine. The effectiveness of nicotine for estimating exposures to the VOCs and SVOCs has not been determined, although these constitute major mass fractions of ETS.

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Ahrens, W; Nyberg, F; Mukeria, A; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Fortes, C; Constantinescu, V; Simonato, L; Batura-Gabryel, H; Lea, S; Gaborieau, V; Benhamou, S

    1999-11-26

    We conducted a case-control study of adenocarcinoma of the lung and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 7 countries. We interviewed 70 cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung and 178 population or hospital controls. All subjects had smoked fewer than 400 cigarettes in their lifetimes. Ever exposure to ETS from the parents during childhood was associated with a decreased risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-1.2], and there was a suggestion of a decreasing trend in risk with increasing duration of exposure. Ever exposure to ETS from the spouse was not associated with an increased risk (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.8), while the OR of ever exposure to ETS at the workplace was 1.5 (95% CI 0.8-3.0). For both exposure sources, an increased risk was observed among the highly exposed, and the OR among those with the highest duration of exposure to ETS from the spouse or at the workplace was 1.8 (95% CI 0.5-6.2). A similar risk was estimated for current exposure to ETS from either source. Our results confirm previous reports of a weak effect of adult ETS exposure on risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Bias and confounding cannot be excluded as explanations for the apparent decrease in risk from childhood exposure. PMID:10521800

  18. Tracers for assessing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: what are they tracing?

    PubMed Central

    Daisey, J M

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of various tracers for measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a complex chemical mixture is based on the physicochemical properties of four major organic components and their dynamic behavior in indoor environments. For the particulate matter (PM) component and the very volatile organic compounds, emission and ventilation rates are generally the most important processes controlling indoor concentrations and exposures of nonsmokers. For the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), sorption on and desorption from indoor surfaces are additional processes that influence exposures. Laboratory and modeling studies of the dynamic behavior of nicotine, an SVOC, and PM indicate that nicotine can be used to estimate PM exposures from ETS in indoor environments when certain criteria are met: (italic>a(/italic>) smoking occurs regularly in the environment, (italic>b(/italic>) the system is near quasi-steady state, and (italic>c(/italic>) sampling time is longer than the characteristic times for removal processes. Measurements in residential and workplace buildings also support the use of nicotine as a tracer for PM in ETS. Recent laboratory and field data indicate that the VOCs from ETS can be traced using compounds with similar physicochemical properties, such as 3-ethenylpyridine, pyrrole, or pyridine. The effectiveness of nicotine for estimating exposures to the VOCs and SVOCs has not been determined, although these constitute major mass fractions of ETS. PMID:10350517

  19. A method to guide community planning and evaluation efforts in tobacco control using data on smoking during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Newburn, V; Remington, P; Peppard, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Effective community based tobacco control programmes are critical for state and nationwide impact. However, there is little discussion in the literature of methods for setting local objectives which use locally collected data and account for historical variation in progress. Objectives: To develop and illustrate a method that uses locally available birth certificate data to model trends in tobacco use during pregnancy among women giving birth, predict future prevalence, and use predictions to set community specific tobacco control objectives. Data source: Vital statistics. Wisconsin standard birth certificates, 1990–2000, which record the smoking status of the mother during pregnancy. Data analysis: Trends in the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Wisconsin statewide and in all counties (n = 72) were modelled using linear regression of log prevalence on year. Model fit was assessed using R2. Regression slopes, indicating estimated relative annual percentage change in prevalence, were used to predict prevalence in 2005, and objectives were calculated as a 20% reduction from the predicted prevalence in 2005. Conclusions: Modelling trends in the prevalence of smoking using locally collected data enables communities to set reasonable future tobacco control objectives that account for historical trends in progress. PMID:12773726

  20. 75 FR 42659 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...blend, high moisture content, dense packing, burn inhibitors, and block or flake cut. NTC states that the presence of menthol flavoring and the use of blending components such as expanded stem, expanded leaf tobacco, or reconstituted sheet...

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and low birth weight: a hazard in the workplace?

    PubMed Central

    Misra, D P; Nguyen, R H

    1999-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. One well-established risk factor is maternal smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has recently been focused on as another potential risk factor. In this article, we review epidemiologic literature on the effects of ETS on LBW and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the cause of LBW related to maternal smoking. As we consider the feasibility of modifying women's exposure, we focus our discussion on workplace exposure to ETS. The workplace is particularly important to consider because women of child-bearing age are present in the workplace in greater numbers now than ever before. In addition, certain subgroups of working women may be particularly at risk from the effects of ETS on pregnancy because they work in environments with higher exposure or they are more susceptible to its effects. We conclude that there is consistent evidence to relate maternal ETS exposure to an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and that this association may be generalized to the work environment. In studies with positive findings, infants exposed to ETS antenatally were 1.5-4 times more likely to be born with LBW, but few studies examined LBW. Most studies looked at measures of IUGR. ETS was associated with reductions in birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) ranging from 25 to 90 g. Infants born to women exposed to ETS were generally 2-4 times more likely to be born small-for-gestational age. ETS exposure in the workplace can and should be minimized to protect pregnant women from its adverse effects. PMID:10592147

  2. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  3. Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

    1982-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

  4. Trends in Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Blood Lead Levels Among Youths and Adults in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Kaufmann, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation. Results Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking. Conclusion Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general. PMID:24355106

  5. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  6. Minnesota smokers’ perceived helpfulness of 2009 federal tobacco tax increase in assisting smoking cessation: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost of cigarettes has been cited as a motivating factor for smokers to quit smoking, and a cigarette tax increase is an effective way to increase the cost of cigarettes. Scholars have suggested that smokers may see cigarette tax increases as commitment devices to help them quit smoking. Little is known about whether smokers actually think cigarette tax increases help them quit, and whether this perception predicts subsequent smoking cessation behaviors. We used data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study collected after the 2009 federal tobacco tax increase to answer these questions. Methods In 2009, 727 smokers were asked whether they thought the federal tobacco tax increase helped them to: (1) think about quitting, (2) cut down on cigarettes, and (3) make a quit attempt. We also collected data on demographics, number of cigarette price-minimizing strategies used, and cigarette consumption. In 2010, we assessed if these smokers had made a quit attempt, had cut down on their cigarette consumption, and had stopped smoking. Logistic regression models were used to assess the characteristics associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation, and the association between these perceptions in 2009 and cessation behaviors in 2010. Results Overall, 65% of the sample thought that the 2009 tax increase helped them think about quitting, 47% thought it helped them cut down on cigarettes, and 29% thought it helped them make a quit attempt. Lower education, lower income, lower cigarette consumption, and using more cigarette price-minimizing strategies were associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation (p?smoking cessation were more likely than those who did not perceive the tax increase as helpful to report making a quit attempt in 2010 (p?tobacco tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation, particularly among smokers of lower socio-economic status. Health communication interventions to promote cigarette tax increases as an opportunity for smoking cessation may further assist quit attempts. PMID:24134094

  7. Simultaneous on-line size and chemical analysis of gas phase and particulate phase of mainstream tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAughey, J.; Adam, T.; McGrath, C.; Mocker, C.; Zimmermann, R.

    2009-02-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex and dynamic physical and chemical matrix in which about 4800 components have been identified. It is known that deposition efficiencies of smoke particles in the lung in the lung (60-80%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150-- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of three studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. This information will improve dosimetry estimates in quantitative risk assessment tools as part of a harm reduction process. In this study smoke particle size and chemistry were measured simultaneously in real-time using electrical mobility spectrometry and soft-ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry respectively. Qualitative puff-by-puff resolved yields of three selected compounds (acetaldehyde, phenol, and styrene) are shown and compared with particle number and count median diameter from different smoking intensities and filter ventilation. Yields of chemical analysis, particle diameter and concentration are in good agreement with the intensity of the smoking regime and the dilution of smoke by filter ventilation.

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and the impact of away-from-work exposure

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G.; Ginevan, M.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Naiman, D.Q.

    1999-06-01

    Concentrating on exposure in workplaces where smoking occurs, the authors examined environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related concentration data from the 16-City Study. This study involved a large population of nonsmokers, used personal monitors, and encompassed a wide selection of ETS-related constituents. This first article in a series of three describes the 16-City Study, considers the impact of demographic variables, and concludes that these variables did not explain differences in exposure to ETS. The authors compared 16-City Study concentrations obtained in the workplace to previously reported workplace concentrations and determined that data from this study were representative of current ETS exposure in nonmanufacturing workplaces where smoking occurs. Considering factors other than demographic factors, they found that, not surprisingly, the number of cigarettes observed in the workplace had an impact on exposure concentrations. Finally, they compared people from homes where smoking occurs with people from nonsmoking homes and found that people from smoking homes observed more smoking in the workplace and experienced higher concentrations of ETS-related compounds in the workplace, even when they observed the same number of cigarettes being smoked in the workplace. In two subsequent articles in this series, they discuss relationships between various ETS markers and provide estimates of distributions of doses to nonsmoking workers employed in workplaces where smoking occurs.

  9. The acute effects of nicotine, tobacco smoke and carbon monoxide on myocardial oxygen tension in the anaesthetized cat

    PubMed Central

    Rink, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    1 The acute effects of nicotine, tobacco smoke, and carbon monoxide on myocardial oxygen tension (MPo2) were estimated amperometrically in 33 anaesthetized open-chest cats with a glass-insulated 25 ?m platinum cathode within a 22-gauge needle implanted in the left ventricular wall. 2 MPo2 was 1.6-60 mmHg (mean 23.5 mmHg) when arterial Po2 was >80 mmHg. Sequential intravenous infusions of nicotine (2-3 ?g/kg every 45 s) or intracheal puffs (3-5 ml) of tobacco smoke commonly produced transitory increases (25-35 mmHg) of arterial pressure and 4-6 mmHg increments of MPo2. Intratracheal puffs (5 ml) of 5% carbon monoxide sufficient to increase carboxyhaemoglobin from 0.8 to 1.5% to 4-7% had no effect on arterial Po2 or blood pressure but typically decreased MPo2 by approximately 1-4 mmHg. Augmentation of MPo2 often succeeded carbon monoxide administration. 3 Arterial hypoxia (arterial Po2 < 60 mmHg) reduced mean MPo2 to 14.4 mmHg but anoxic levels were not observed. Pressor responses to nicotine and tobacco smoke were accompanied by small increases (usually 1-3 mmHg) of MPo2. Puffs of 5% carbon monoxide had less effect than during normoxia. Locations of low MPo2 (<10 mmHg) were unaffected as carboxyhaemoglobin was raised to 7-11% during hypoxaemia. 4 It is concluded that nicotine and tobacco smoke cause augmentation of myocardial oxygen supply, even during moderate hypoxaemia. By contrast, smoking dosages of carbon monoxide have the potential of producing a small reduction of MPo2 during normoxia, but the effect is negligible during moderate hypoxaemia. PMID:656704

  10. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Methods Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning). Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor. Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. Results A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 ?g/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE?=?3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE?=?6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE?=?10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE?=?0.14) k/?l. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Conclusions Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated with significantly lower HRV and higher levels of inflammatory markers. Exposure-associated declines in HRV were observed immediately following exposure while higher levels of CRP were not observed until 18 hours following exposure. Cardiovascular autonomic and inflammation responses may contribute to the pathophysiologic pathways that link SHS exposure with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24083379

  11. "We made the rule, we have to stick to it": towards effective management of environmental tobacco smoke in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007-2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ? 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study's intervention phase. Using a critical realist approach, the context and mechanisms that contributed to specific strategies, or outcomes, were examined in order to develop a hypothesis regarding more effective management of ETS in these environments. Our results suggest that in discrete, disadvantaged communities, enhanced local ownership of smoke-free policies and development of implementation strategies at the grassroots level that acknowledge and incorporate cultural contexts can contribute to more effective management of ETS. PMID:24157514

  12. “We Made the Rule, We Have to Stick to It”: Towards Effective Management of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Remote Australian Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Jan; Pointing, Boris Shane; Stevenson, Leah; Clough, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in remote Australian Aboriginal communities remains extraordinarily high, with rates reported of up to 82%. Widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is exacerbated by overcrowded housing. Implementation of existing smoke-free policies is challenged by the normalization of smoking and a lack of appropriate regulation resources. This paper celebrates a grassroots approach to control of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in these settings. We report on selected findings from a tobacco intervention study in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory in 2007–2012. In community-level tobacco use surveys at baseline (n = 400 ? 16 years), participants reported concern about the constant exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. Suggestions for action included restricting smoking in private and public spaces. We selected three case studies illustrating management of ETS from observational data during the study’s intervention phase. Using a