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1

Water-Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students in Arizona  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Using a water pipe to smoke tobacco is increasing in prevalence among US college students, and it may also be common among younger adolescents. The purpose of this study of Arizona middle and high school students was to examine the prevalence of water-pipe tobacco smoking, compare water-pipe tobacco smoking with other forms of tobacco use, and determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water-pipe tobacco smoking in this population. METHODS We added items assessing water-pipe tobacco smoking to Arizona’s 2005 Youth Tobacco Survey and used them to estimate statewide water-pipe tobacco smoking prevalence among various demographic groups by using survey weights. We also used multiple logistic regression to determine which demographic characteristics had independent relationships with each of 2 outcomes: ever use of water-pipe to smoke tobacco and water-pipe tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days. RESULTS Median age of the sample was 14. Accounting for survey weights, among middle school students, 2.1% had ever smoked water-pipe tobacco and 1.4% had done so within the previous 30 days. Among those in high school, 10.3% had ever smoked from a water pipe and 5.4% had done so in the previous 30 days, making water-pipe tobacco smoking more common than use of smokeless tobacco, pipes, bidis, and kreteks (clove cigarettes). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, ever smoking of water-pipe tobacco was associated with older age, Asian race, white race, charter school attendance, and lack of plans to attend college. CONCLUSIONS Among Arizona youth, water pipe is the third most common source of tobacco after cigarettes and cigars. Increased national surveillance and additional research will be important for addressing this threat to public health.

Primack, Brian A.; Walsh, Michele; Bryce, Cindy; Eissenberg, Thomas

2010-01-01

2

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. Th...

M. R. Guerin

1993-01-01

3

Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic.

Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antonio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mario; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

2014-01-01

4

Smoking and Tobacco Use  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. Surgeon General â?? Tobacco Initiative HHS â?? Tobacco Control and Prevention Initiative CDC â?? Office on Smoking and Health  VA â?? Tobacco and Health VA â?? HIV Provider Smoking Cessation ...

5

GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review Abstract This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

6

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

7

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

8

COPD and tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

COPD and tobacco smoke. M. Bartal. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation of the airways, including the parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature. The burden of COPD is increasing around the world in terms of mor- bidity and mortality in adult population. Active smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, although there is individual susceptibility to the

M. Bartal

9

Environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

1992-12-01

10

Environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

1992-01-01

11

Smoke Production of Nonmetallic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smoke production of nonmetallic pipes was investigated using 'Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,' ASTM E 662. The pipe samples consisted of two epoxy resin glass reinforced pipes, two vinyl ester resin glas...

W. H. McLain L. Nash

1995-01-01

12

Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed.

Furrukh, Muhammad

2013-01-01

13

Tobacco smoking, epilepsy, and seizures.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for death caused by noncommunicable diseases. In contrast to extensive research on the association between tobacco smoking and diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and cancers, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient. The exact roles tobacco smoking and nicotine use play in seizures or epilepsy have not been well reviewed. We reviewed available literature and found that 1) there are vast differences between tobacco smoke and nicotine based on their components and their effects on seizures or epilepsy; 2) the seizure risk in acute active tobacco smokers, women who smoke during pregnancy, electronic cigarette smokers, and the role of smoking in sudden unexplained/unexpected death in epilepsy remain unclear; 3) seizure risks are higher in acute secondhand smokers, chronic active smokers, and babies whose mothers smoke; 4) tobacco smoke protects against seizures in animal models whereas nicotine exerts mixed effects in animals; and 5) tobacco smoking agents can be noneffective, proconvulsant, or anticonvulsant. Finally, the opportunities for future research on this topic is discussed. PMID:24441294

Rong, Lingling; Frontera, Alfred T; Benbadis, Selim R

2014-02-01

14

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

15

Characterization of Environmental Tobacco Smoke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. Parameters analyzed and their airborne yeild per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and...

G. Lofroth R. M. Burton L. Forehand S. K. Hammond R. L. Seila

1989-01-01

16

[The exposure to tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

The exposition to tobacco smoke is overall: in home, work and public places. For the examination of the presence and concentration of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in indoor environments the nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are determined. A variety of biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, protein and DNA adducts) are propose for measurement of exposure to tobacco smoke. The most popular is measurement of cotinine concentration in body fluids (blood, urine, saliva). Plasma cotinine concentration correlated to numbers of cigarettes smoked and to various biological effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS. Other biomarkers as carboxyhemoglobin, thiocyanate, and amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adduct can be also use. PMID:12184007

Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara

2002-01-01

17

A critique of recent hypotheses on oral (and lung) cancer induced by water pipe (hookah, shisha, narghile) tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

The medical hypothesis that the mainstream smoke (the one inhaled by the user) from "water pipes" (mainly: shisha, hookah, narghile) causes oral cancer is certainly acceptable. However, most of the recent reviews on this issue, including an attempt to develop an hypothesis for hookah carcinogenesis, have not cited key references of the world available literature which, so far, generally do not support such an hypothesis. Besides, the proposal is biased since it is apparently an adaptation of the cigarette model whereas cigarette and hookah smokes are, chemically to start with, completely different. Furthermore, all water pipes, despite their striking varieties and the consequences on the chemical processes, are, according to the same cancer-hypothesis, considered as one. The reason is the use, in the cited mainstream literature, of a nominalism ("waterpipe", often in one word) which does not allow any distinction between devices. This critical article suggests to take into account all the peculiar characteristics into consideration in order to come up with another (or several other) carcinogenesis model(s). "Firmly believ[ing] that water pipe smoking can provoke lung cancer as well as oral cancer", based on what may be seen as a rather reductionist view of the issue, is not enough. PMID:20036075

Chaouachi, Kamal; Sajid, Khan Mohammad

2010-05-01

18

Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

1983-02-01

19

Nitrogen Oxides in Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BECAUSE of their considerable pharmacological significance, the presence of nitrogen oxides in tobacco smoke has been the subject of a number of reports in the past few years1-4. In general, the choice of experimental techniques has been such that the relative amounts of the principal components, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in cigarette smoke have not been clearly

Vello Norman; Charles H. Keith

1965-01-01

20

Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, ... be easier to stop smoking. Knowing why you smoke will help you find ways to make up ...

21

Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette

Georges Saade; Andrew B Seidenberg; Vaughan W Rees; Zaher Otrock; Gregory N Connolly

2010-01-01

22

Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... Tips Quit Smoking Resources Cessation Materials for State Tobacco Control Programs Archive Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart ... 2014 2012 2010 2006 2004 History State Data Tobacco Control State Highlights 2012 Surveys National Youth Tobacco Survey ( ...

23

Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

24

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

25

Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review  

SciTech Connect

Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. 18 references.

Godish, T.

1989-08-01

26

Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos

W. H. Griest; M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

27

[Doctors and tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

A survey undertaken at three hospitals in Zagreb in 1988 showed that 32.1% of doctors employed were smokers. Another survey found that 31.5% of doctors in 10 health centers in Zagreb in 1993 were smokers. In the same year, some 44 percent of male doctors in health centers in Bjelovar were found to be smokers, along with 40 percent of women. In the beginning of 1999, the Croatia Medical Association undertook an international survey on smoking by doctors who were members of the Association. The survey was in cooperation with the European Forum of Medical Associations (EFMA). The survey showed that only 13% of doctors were still smokers, while 28% were former smokers and 59% had never smoked. The cause for this decrease in smoking by doctors was better information on the scientific evidence about the harmfulness of smoking. One element contributing to the greater availability of information was the work of the Anti-Smoking Coordinating Committee of the Croatian Medical Association. PMID:18956829

Simuni?, Mijo; Bakran, Ivan; Orli?, Dubravko

2002-01-01

28

NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of e...

29

Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

Benignus, V.A.

1987-05-01

30

Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk.

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

31

Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer.  

PubMed

The complexity of tobacco smoke leads to some confusion about the mechanisms by which it causes lung cancer. Among the multiple components of tobacco smoke, 20 carcinogens convincingly cause lung tumors in laboratory animals or humans and are, therefore, likely to be involved in lung cancer induction. Of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are likely to play major roles. This review focuses on carcinogens in tobacco smoke as a means of simplifying and clarifying the relevant information that provides a mechanistic framework linking nicotine addiction with lung cancer through exposure to such compounds. Included is a discussion of the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke carcinogens interact with DNA and cause genetic changes--mechanisms that are reasonably well understood--and the less well defined relationship between exposure to specific tobacco smoke carcinogens and mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Molecular epidemiologic studies of gene-carcinogen interactions and lung cancer--an approach that has not yet reached its full potential--are also discussed, as are inhalation studies of tobacco smoke in laboratory animals and the potential role of free radicals and oxidative damage in tobacco-associated carcinogenesis. By focusing in this review on several important carcinogens in tobacco smoke, the complexities in understanding tobacco-induced cancer can be reduced, and new approaches for lung cancer prevention can be envisioned. PMID:10413421

Hecht, S S

1999-07-21

32

Effect of alcohol and marihuana on tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking covaried with alcohol consumption in male social drinkers over 15 days of unrestricted alcohol availability. Increased tobacco smoking was associated with alcohol consumption in occasional, moderate, and heavy smokers. Tobacco smoking was not systematically related to marihuana smoking even though both drugs were often smoked at the same time. During ten days of concurrent access to tobacco, alcohol,

Nancy K Mello; Jack H Mendelson; Margaret L Sellers; John C Kuehnle

1980-01-01

33

Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines effectiveness of several tobacco control policies in discouraging cigarette smoking among youths. These policies include increased cigarette excise taxes (which result in higher cigarette prices), restrictions on smoking in public places and at private worksites, and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths. The data employed in this research are taken from the 1992, 1993,

Frank J. Chaloupka; Michael Grossman

1996-01-01

34

Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non-Arab-American Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that water-pipe smoking is a safe alternative to cigarette smoking.

Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

2008-01-01

35

Restaurant smoking restrictions and environmental tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking restrictions. METHODS: We measured particulate concentrations in restaurants with different levels of allowable smoking. RESULTS: Mean particulate concentrations were 70% higher in establishments without smoking restrictions compared with those with partial smoking restrictions. Concentrations in nonsmoking restaurants were reduced by an additional 20% to 30%. Measurements of cadmium, an environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) marker, implicated ETS as the major source of particulate in restaurants that allowed smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Partial smoking restrictions substantially reduce, but do not eliminate, ETS exposure in restaurants. Occupants of nonsmoking restaurants avoid ETS exposure but may experience substantial particulate exposures from cooking emissions.

Brauer, M; Mannetje, A

1998-01-01

36

Tobacco smoke incursions in multiunit housing.  

PubMed

Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of secondhand tobacco smoke incursions reported by multiunit housing (MUH) residents, pinpoint factors associated with exposure, and determine whether smoke-free building policy was associated with prevalence of reported tobacco smoke incursions. Methods. Data are from a 2011 nationally representative dual-frame survey (random-digit-dial and Internet panels) of US adults aged 18 years and older. Individuals who lived in MUH and who reported no smoking in their homes for the past 3 months, whether or not they reported being smokers themselves, were included in this study. Incursions were defined as smelling tobacco smoke in their building or unit. Results. Of 562 respondents, 29.5% reported smoke incursions in their buildings. Of these, 16% reported incursions in their own unit, 36.2% of which occurred at least weekly. Government-subsidized housing and partial smoke-free policies were associated with a higher likelihood of reporting smoke incursions. Conclusions. Many residents of multiunit housing are exposed to tobacco smoke in their units and buildings. Partial smoke-free policies do not appear to protect residents and might increase the likelihood of incursions in residents' individual units. PMID:24922124

Wilson, Karen M; Torok, Michelle; McMillen, Robert; Tanski, Susanne; Klein, Jonathan D; Winickoff, Jonathan P

2014-08-01

37

Influence of Tobacco Type on Smoke Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for th...

W. H. Griest M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

38

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

39

Household Smoking Restrictions and Adolescents' Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Reducing adolescents' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important public health goal. This paper identifies the linkage between young people's exposure at home and household smoking restrictions, and suggests the promotion of such restrictions as a strategy to reduce health risks.Methods.Data are from the 1993 Massachusetts Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of 1,606 adolescents.Results.Seventy-eight percent of adolescents reported

Lois Biener; Doris Cullen; Zhu Xiao Di; S. Katharine Hammond

1997-01-01

40

Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

41

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and the Health of Your Family  

MedlinePLUS

... for ways to help you stop smoking. Secondhand Smoke is Dangerous Everyone knows that smoking is bad ... and the health of your community. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and the Health of Your Family Make Your ...

42

CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... Vital Signs Share Compartir Tobacco Use Smoking & Secondhand Smoke September 2010 46.6M About 1 in 5 ... Problem Millions of people in the US still smoke The decline in smoking has stalled in the ...

43

[Polonium: the radioactive killer from tobacco smoke].  

PubMed

Among all carcinogenic substances contained in tobacco smoke, Polonium 210 (Po-210), with a half-life of 138 days, is one of the most dangerous, by exerting a devastating, chronic, slow and progressive carcinogenesis activity. The main source of Po-210 in tobacco is represented by fertilizers (polyphosphates) containing radium-226 (Ra-222) which decades to plumb 210 (Pb-210). Through the thricomes Pb-210 is concentrated in the tobacco leaves, where it turns to Po-210, which at the cigarette combustion temperature (800-900 degrees C) reaches the gaseous state and it is absorbed by the micro particles released into tobacco smoke. Thus, smoke becomes radioactive in both its gaseous and corpuscular components and reaches the airways, where, particularly at the branches level and together with other substances, it exerts its carcinogenic activity, especially in those subjects with impaired respiratory mucosal clearance. The carcinogenic risk/one year lifetime of a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day is equivalent to that of undertaking 300 chest x-rays. It is calculated that Po-210 may be independently responsible of 4 lung cancers every 10,000 smokers. During cigarette's combustion, tobacco smoke is also released in the air, contributing to serious health risks for those exposed to passive smoke. PMID:19186689

Zagà, Vincenzo; Gattavecchia, Enrico

2008-01-01

44

The relationship between tobacco smoke & bronchial asthma.  

PubMed

Bronchial asthma is a common disease and an important cause of morbidity among both children and adults. Tobacco smoking, both active and passive i.e., exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has got important effects on asthma. Smoking by adults causes bronchial irritation and precipitates acute episodes. It also increases bronchial responsiveness and causes airway sensitization to several occupational allergens. Smoking may also increase the disease severity. Continued smoking by adult asthmatics is the likely cause of irreversibility of airway obstruction and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. ETS exposure affects asthma in a similar fashion. Parental smoking is commonly associated with increased asthma symptoms, respiratory infections, acute episodes and frequent hospitalization of children. Bronchial responsiveness and airway sensitization may also increase. Childhood exposure to smoking is also considered as a risk factor for the development of asthma. Similarly, in utero exposure to maternal smoking may be independently responsible for early onset asthma. ETS exposure in adult asthmatics from smoking by spouses, siblings or colleagues is equally troublesome. There is increased morbidity and poorer asthma control. Asthmatic symptoms sharply decline after the ETS exposure is reduced. PMID:15591628

Jindal, S K; Gupta, Dheeraj

2004-11-01

45

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

2010-04-01

46

Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-01-01

47

Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-01-01

48

Tobacco smoking: the leading cause of preventable disease worldwide.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of avoidable premature mortality, reflecting the potent toxicity of tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers for decades. In the twentieth century, lung cancer was an early sentinel of the emergence of the still persisting epidemic of tobacco-caused disease. Smoking has declined in many countries, particularly the high-income countries, but low- and middle-income countries remain at risk because of the aggressive tactics of tobacco multinationals. The World Health Organization treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is a critical factor in countering these tactics and precipitating the end of the global epidemic of tobacco smoking. PMID:23566962

Samet, Jonathan M

2013-05-01

49

Controlling environmental tobacco smoke in offices  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a case study on the effectiveness of supplemental air cleaning to control environmental tobacco smoke in a single-level office building. A study to assess the effectiveness of supplemental air cleaning to control airborne levels of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was conducted in a single-level office building in Redmond, Wash. Three air cleaners were integrated into the HVAC systems serving the offices. Smoking is permitted throughout the offices with the exception of one designated nonsmoking room that is physically separated from the remaining space. The objectives of the research were to assess the effectiveness of the air cleaners in providing acceptable indoor environmental conditions and to determine the impact of the air cleaning equipment on nonsmokers` exposure to ETS in the designated nonsmoking room.

Ross, J.A.; Sterling, E.; Collett, C. [Theodor D. Sterling and Associates, Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Kjono, N.E. [System IV Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

1996-05-01

50

Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer

J M Carstensen; G Pershagen; G Eklund

1987-01-01

51

Tobacco Smoking in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.  

PubMed

Smoking tobacco is a major risk factor for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Quitting smoking rapidly reduces the risk for cardiovascular events. The majority of patients who smoke express a desire to stop, and cost-effective interventions are available. Behavioral (counseling) and pharmacologic (nicotine replacement and non-nicotine medications) treatments double or triple the rate of long-term cessation and should be offered in combination to all patients with CVD who use tobacco. Behavioral therapy can be effectively delivered by a variety of health care providers and means (in person, telephone, mail). For patients with CVD, more intensive and sustained interventions should be encouraged. Nicotine patches have been studied extensively in patients with stable CVD and are safe. Bupropion (a non-nicotine aid) also may be especially useful for patients with CVD. Special consideration is needed for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ie, myocardial infarction and unstable angina). It is important to create a clinical environment that supports treatment of patients with nicotine addiction. Simple changes in office and hospital routines and procedures (establishing routine screening to identify users of tobacco, prompts to encourage intervention, establishing links to more intensive nicotine-dependence treatment programs) can substantially improve the identification, treatment, and outcomes for patients with CVD who use tobacco. PMID:11445061

Joseph, Anne M.; An, Lawrence C.

2001-08-01

52

Lung Carcinogenesis by Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of chemicals including multiple genotoxic lung carcinogens. The classic mechanisms of carcinogen metabolic activation to DNA adducts, leading to miscoding and mutations in critical growth control genes, applies to this mixture but some aspects are difficult to establish because of the complexity of the exposure. This paper discusses certain features of this mechanism including the role of nicotine and its receptors; lung carcinogens, co-carcinogens and related substances in cigarette smoke; structurally characterized DNA adducts in the lungs of smokers; the mutational consequences of DNA adduct formation in smokers’ lungs; and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen uptake as related to lung cancer. While there are still uncertainties which may never be fully resolved, the general mechanisms by which cigarette smoking causes lung cancer are well understood and provide insights relevant to prevention of lung cancer, the number one cancer killer in the world, causing 1.37 million deaths per year.

Hecht, Stephen S.

2012-01-01

53

Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.  

PubMed

Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

2009-12-01

54

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations.

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

55

Effects of tobacco smoke exposure in childhood on atopic diseases.  

PubMed

Although the smoking prevalence in the United States continues to decline since the Surgeon General's first report in 1964, certain vulnerable populations continue to be disproportionately affected by the adverse consequences of tobacco smoke exposure. Children are particularly vulnerable to exposure and are likely to suffer from both short- and long-term adverse consequences after early life tobacco smoke exposure. An overwhelming amount of evidence supports an association between asthma development and tobacco smoke exposure, and evidence is mounting that tobacco smoke exposure may also increase risk of IgE sensitization. This manuscript will review the effects of tobacco smoke exposure in childhood on the development of asthma and allergic sensitization, and will review practical strategies to assist motivated parents with smoking cessation. PMID:24057650

Ciaccio, Christina E; Gentile, Deborah

2013-12-01

56

Tobacco Smoke Mediated Induction of Sinonasal Microbial Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke are more susceptible to life threatening infection than non-smokers. While much is known about the devastating effect tobacco exposure has on the human body, less is known about the effect of tobacco smoke on the commensal and commonly found pathogenic bacteria of the human respiratory tract, or human respiratory tract microbiome. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common medical complaint, affecting 16% of the US population with an estimated aggregated cost of $6 billion annually. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate a correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and rhinosinusitis. Although a common cause of CRS has not been defined, bacterial presence within the nasal and paranasal sinuses is assumed to be contributory. Here we demonstrate that repetitive tobacco smoke exposure induces biofilm formation in a diverse set of bacteria isolated from the sinonasal cavities of patients with CRS. Additionally, bacteria isolated from patients with tobacco smoke exposure demonstrate robust in vitro biofilm formation when challenged with tobacco smoke compared to those isolated from smoke naïve patients. Lastly, bacteria from smoke exposed patients can revert to a non-biofilm phenotype when grown in the absence of tobacco smoke. These observations support the hypothesis that tobacco exposure induces sinonasal biofilm formation, thereby contributing to the conversion of a transient and medically treatable infection to a persistent and therapeutically recalcitrant condition.

Goldstein-Daruech, Natalia; Cope, Emily K.; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Vukovic, Katarina; Kofonow, Jennifer M.; Doghramji, Laurel; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Chiu, Alexander G.; Kennedy, David W.; Palmer, James N.; Leid, Jeffery G.; Kreindler, James L.; Cohen, Noam A.

2011-01-01

57

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs.

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

58

Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine intake is a necessary but insufficient factor in maintaining tobacco smoking behavior, and nonpharmacological factors associated with smoking play a key role. Some of these factors may influence smoking behavior by eliciting placebo effects, or responses related specifically to the belief that one is consuming a drug. Greater knowledge of placebo effects of smoking would improve our understanding of

Kenneth Perkins; Michael Sayette; Cynthia Conklin; Anthony Caggiula

2003-01-01

59

Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.  

PubMed

Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies. PMID:24217845

Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

2013-01-01

60

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the

Anne Landman; Pamela M. Ling; Stanton A. Glantz

61

Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Many Californians are exposed at home, at work, and in public places. In the comprehensive reviews published as Reports of the Surgeon General and by th...

1999-01-01

62

Tobacco use and smoking policy perceptions onboard an aircraft carrier.  

PubMed

Prior to implementing a shipwide no-smoking policy, the crew of U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) participated in a voluntary survey on tobacco-related matters. The survey queried participants on their tobacco-use history, subjective exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and attitudes related to smoking policy prior to the cessation of all smoking activities aboard ship. Of the 2,221 crewmembers who participated (74% response rate), 36% classified themselves as current cigarette smokers. Nonsmokers estimated their general exposure to ETS between "low" to "moderate." Of all participants, 57% were in favor of the current restricted smoking policy, including 18% of currently smoking personnel. Follow-up research is being conducted to assess the long-term impact of the no-smoking policy on changes in attitudes regarding policy, tobacco-use rates, and ETS exposure. PMID:7695554

Hurtado, S L; Shappell, S A; Bohnker, B K; Fraser, J R

1995-01-01

63

TOBACCO SMOKING POLICY PROCESSES IN AUSTRALIAN STATES AND TERRITORIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims to clarify a legislation procedure in tobacco smoking social policy formulation in Australia, non governmental organisations' (NGOs) influence to initiate change of tobacco control enforcement, and measures undertaken to prevent smoking among adolescents in the Australian States and National Territories. The paper is based on the recent research project conducted about public policy role in controlling and

Sonja Petrovic-Lazarevic; Ken Coghill

2005-01-01

64

Molecular Basis of Tobacco Smoke-Induced Premature Skin Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is now widely recognized that tobacco smoke has negative effects on the skin, the molecular mechanisms underlying its skin-aging effects remain uncertain. Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoking is a strong independent predictor of facial wrinkle formation and other aspects of premature skin aging. Recent in vivo studies in humans and mice provided the first direct evidence that

Akimichi Morita; Kan Torii; Akira Maeda; Yuji Yamaguchi

2009-01-01

65

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children: Household and Community Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the most important sources of environmental tobacco smoke exposure to young children, the authors studied the associations among urinary cotinine, reported household smoking habits, and socioeconomic variables in 575 schoolchildren aged 6–11 y. The school children were among a population of prodigious smokers in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty percent of the children were exposed to environmental tobacco

Esmé R. Jordaan; Rodney I. Ehrlich; Paul Potter

1999-01-01

66

South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining the best combination of counselling/support and pharmacological therapy; (v) setting a quit date and provide suitable resources and support; (vi) frequent follow-up as often as possible via text/telephone or in person; (vii) monitoring for side-effects, relapse and on-going cessation; and (viii) if relapse occurs, providing the necessary support and encourage a further attempt when appropriate.  PMID:24148176

van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

2013-11-01

67

Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles with surfaces highly adsorbent to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Calcic mineral particles are two orders of magnitude more abundant in smokers' lungs compared with non-smoking controls in residents of Vancouver. Such particles may thus be potential agents for the delivery of PAH carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene, to the lungs. None of the potential hazards listed above has yet been properly evaluated.

Stephens, W. E.

2003-12-01

68

"Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

69

Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

70

Adolescent Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Predicts Academic Achievement Test Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral prob- lems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken

Bradley N. Collins; E. Paul Wileyto; Michael F. G. Murphy; Marcus R. Munafò

2007-01-01

71

Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

72

Genotoxic assessment of environmental tobacco smoke using bacterial bioassays  

SciTech Connect

The paper demonstrates that integrated chemical and bacterial mutagenicity information can be used to identify environmental tobacco smoke genotoxicants, monitor human exposure, and make comparative assessments. Approximately one-third of the environmental tobacco-smoke constituents for which there is quantitative analytical-chemistry information also have associated genotoxicity information. For example, 11 of the quantitated compounds are animal carcinogens. Work presented in this paper demonstrates that both the nonparticle-bound semi-volatile and the particulate-bound organic material contain bacterial mutagens. These environmental tobacco-smoke organics give an equivalent of about 86,000 revertants per cigarette. In addition, this article summarizes efforts to estimate environmental tobacco smoke bacterial mutagenicity, to use bacterial tests for the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke-impacted indoor environments, and to use bacterial assays for the direct monitoring of human exposure.

Claxton, L.D.; Morin, R.S.; Hughes, T.J.; Lewtas, J.

1989-01-01

73

Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard.  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke, which contains over 50 known carcinogens and many other toxic agents, is a health hazard for nonsmokers who are regularly exposed to it while at work. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke annoys and irritates many healthy nonsmokers. Serious acute health effects are probably limited to the one fifth of the population with pre-existing health conditions that are aggravated by exposure to tobacco smoke. The consequences of long-term exposure include decreased lung function and lung cancer. Existing air quality standards for workplaces do not directly specify an acceptable level for tobacco smoke. The evidence on the composition of tobacco smoke and on the health hazards of involuntary exposure suggests that there may not be a "safe" level for such exposure.

Collishaw, N E; Kirkbride, J; Wigle, D T

1984-01-01

74

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230...Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts...

2013-10-01

75

Tobacco smoke removal with room air cleaners.  

PubMed

The ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke has been studied. Thirty-one air cleaners were tested. Various air-cleaning devices were used, ie, electrostatic precipitators, electret fiber filters, ionizers, activated carbon, impregnated alumina, ionizing lamps, and an electron generator. The airflow rates were in the range of 0-500 m3/h. The measurements covered particle sizes of 0.01-7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrogen cyanide. No formal standard procedure exists for testing room air cleaners; therefore the tests were made in the following way. Tobacco smoke was generated and mixed in a closed room. The room air cleaner was started, and the decay rates for the gases and particles were measured. The results were calculated as equivalent airflow rates, ie, the clean airflow rate causing the same decay rate for contaminant concentrations in a room. The equivalent airflow rates were 0-360 m3/h. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionizers was also measured. One general conclusion was that it is much more difficult to remove gases than particles. PMID:3212415

Olander, L; Johansson, J; Johansson, R

1988-12-01

76

Tobacco Smoking Produces Widespread Dominant Brain Wave Alpha Frequency Increases  

PubMed Central

The major pharmacological ingredient in tobacco smoke is nicotine, a mild stimulant known to alter brain electrical activity. The object of this study was to determine if tobacco smoking in humans produces localized or widespread neocortical dominant alpha electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency increases consistent with nicotine stimulation of the brainstem activating system in animals. Twenty-two male volunteer non-deprived tobacco smokers were studied. They were asked not to smoke for at least 1 hr before the experiment in mid-morning as part of their usual smoking schedule. In the laboratory, they sham smoked and then smoked their favorite tobacco cigarette. Two experimental sessions (#1 and #2) were conducted, separated by a one to two month interval. In both sessions, there were minor statistically significant increases in the dominant alpha frequencies after sham smoking. In both sessions, after the subjects smoked a favorite tobacco cigarette there was a significant generalized increase in dominant alpha EEG frequencies in most scalp recording sites. This study demonstrates that tobacco smoking produces widespread bilateral neocortical increases in dominant alpha EEG frequencies consistent with the stimulant effects of nicotine on the brainstem reticular activating system.

Domino, Edward F.; Ni, Lisong; Thompson, Michael; Zhang, Huilea; Shikata, Hiroki; Fukai, Hiromi; Sakaki, Takeshi; Ohya, Ippei

2009-01-01

77

Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected.

Rees, Vaughan W.

2013-01-01

78

Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves) or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke). The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols.

Larsson, Lennart; Szponar, Bogumila; Ridha, Beston; Pehrson, Christina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Krysinska-Traczyk, Ewa; Sitkowska, Jolanta

2008-01-01

79

The association between active smoking, smokeless tobacco, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient rest\\/sleep are limited.

Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar

2011-01-01

80

[Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].  

PubMed

Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and tobacco smoking. The higher self-evaluation, the smaller tobacco smoking prevalence. PMID:21360937

Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

2010-01-01

81

Residual tobacco smoke: measurement of its washout time in the lung and of its contribution to environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tobacco smoking entails inhaling millions of fine particles with each puff, and it is intuitive that after smoking a cigarette it will take a certain time to washout residual tobacco smoke (RTS) from the lungs with subsequent breaths.Objectives: To study the washout time of 0.3–1.0 µm particles after the last puff in 10 volunteer smokers by using equipment capable

Giovanni Invernizzi; Ario Ruprecht; Cinzia De Marco; Paolo Paredi; Roberto Boffi

2007-01-01

82

Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking.  

PubMed Central

This paper provides an overview of the relationship between tobacco use and early cancer mortality. It presents a retrospective examination of trends in smoking behavior and how these trends affected the national lung cancer mortality pattern during this century. Information on smoking prevalence is presented for black and white men and women for each 5-year birth cohort between 1885 and 1969. The author argues that the lung cancer mortality pattern observed in the United States since 1950 is entirely compatible with changes in smoking behavior among the various birth cohorts examined. The paper also reviews our current scientific knowledge about the etiological relationship between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer mortality, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. Data on other forms of tobacco use and cancer mortality risks are included as are data on environmental tobacco smoke exposures and nonsmokers' lung cancer risk. Data are presented to demonstrate that cigarette use alone will be responsible for nearly one-third of the U.S. cancer deaths expected in the United States in 1995, or 168,000 premature cancer deaths. Among males, 38% of all cancer deaths are cigarette related, while among women 23% of all cancer deaths are due to cigarettes. These totals, however, include neither the cancer deaths that could reasonably be attributed to pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use among males nor the estimated 3000 to 6000 environmental tobacco smoke-related lung cancer deaths that occur annually in nonsmokers. It is concluded that tobacco use, particularly the practice of cigarette smoking, is the single greatest cause of excess cancer mortality in U.S. populations.

Shopland, D R

1995-01-01

83

71 FR 3313 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Demographic and Smoking/Tobacco Use...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Demographic and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From NCI Cancer Information Service...Demographic and Smoking/ Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service...demographic and smoking intake questions...clients who are cancer patients,...

2006-01-20

84

Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach. PMID:9387970

Jaakkola, M S; Jaakkola, J J

1997-10-01

85

Local Tobacco Policy and Tobacco Outlet Density: Associations With Youth Smoking  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigates the associations between tobacco outlet density, local tobacco policy, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. Methods 1,491 youth (51.9% male, M age = 14.7 years, SD =1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Results Using multilevel regression analyses controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past-12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared to the moderate and high levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy.

Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

2011-01-01

86

Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.  

PubMed

The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

2013-01-01

87

A Comparison of Mainstream and Sidestream Marijuana and Tobacco Cigarette Smoke Produced under Two Machine Smoking Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for

David Moir; William S. Rickert; Genevieve Levasseur; Yolande Larose; Rebecca Maertens; Paul White; Suzanne Desjardins

2008-01-01

88

[Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].  

PubMed

The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (?4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

Melkadze, N

2013-02-01

89

Policies to Reduce Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses a significant risk to health. It is carcinogenic to humans and is a risk factor for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Exposure to ETS is widespread, affecting people in houses, workplaces and public buildings. ETS is also a part of a broader problem of tobacco use. The Working Group was convened to discuss approaches to reducing

2000-01-01

90

Tobacco Use by Male Prisoners Under an Indoor Smoking Ban  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Most correctional facilities have implemented tobacco restrictions in an effort to reduce costs and improve prisoner health, but little has been done to evaluate the impact of these policy changes. Patterns of tobacco use among prisoners were explored to determine the impact of incarceration in a facility with an indoor smoking ban on tobacco use behaviors. Methods: Recently incarcerated male inmates (n = 200) were surveyed about their tobacco use prior to and during incarceration. Results: Tobacco use was prevalent prior to arrest (77.5%) and increased during incarceration (81.0%). Though the number of cigarette smokers increased during imprisonment, per-capita cigarette consumption declined by 7.1 cigarettes/day (p < .001). Despite widespread tobacco use, most participants recognized that smoking is a cause of lung cancer (96.0%) and heart disease (75.4%) and that it can be addicting (97.5%). Most tobacco users (70.0%) reported a desire to quit, with 63.0% saying they intended to try quitting in the next year. Conclusions: Indoor smoking bans do not promote cessation in prisons but may reduce the amount of tobacco consumed. Though smoking is commonplace in prisons, most prisoners recognize the risks involved and wish to quit. This creates an ideal setting for intervention. Evidence-based cessation assistance should be made freely available to all incarcerated smokers.

Ferketich, Amy K.; Murray, David M.; Bellair, Paul E.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2011-01-01

91

Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smokers are more likely to use marijuana than those who do not smoke tobacco. Little is known about how marijuana use affects the probability of tobacco smoking cessation. This analysis was based on 431 adults less than 45 years of age who reported recent tobacco smoking in the 1981 baseline interview in the household-based Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study

Daniel E. Ford; Hong Thi Vu; James C. Anthony

2002-01-01

92

Platelet monoamine oxidase, smoking cessation, and tobacco withdrawal symptoms.  

PubMed

Previous studies have found that constituents in tobacco inhibit both forms of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B). This enzyme is important in the breakdown of the amine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, which is thought to mediate the reinforcing effects of nicotine and contribute to tobacco dependence. To further examine the relationship between cigarette smoking, smoking cessation and MAO, we measured platelet MAO-B activity in 16 smokers before and after being switched to smoking denicotinized cigarettes; in a subset of six subjects who subsequently quit-smoking, MAO-B activity was also measured at 1 and 4 weeks following cessation. Smoking cessation treatment was provided in an open-label format, and included nicotine skin patch treatment in conjunction with oral mecamylamine (a nicotinic antagonist) and neostigmine (a peripherally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, administered to counteract constipation experienced from mecamylamine). Results showed that smoking behavior, indexed by expired air carbon monoxide levels, was negatively correlated with platelet MAO-B activity prior to smoking cessation. Moreover, MAO-B activity significantly increased by approximately 100% at 4 weeks after quitting smoking. However, little or no recovery occurred within the first week of abstinence, suggesting that the constituents in tobacco responsible for MAO inhibition may have half-lives of several days. Thus, if relapse to smoking is due in part to withdrawal from the MAO-inhibiting effects of tobacco, this effect likely occurs more than 1 week after quitting. Additionally, low baseline MAO-B activity significantly predicted the intensity of withdrawal symptoms reported upon switching to the denicotinized cigarettes as well as after smoking cessation. These results support the view that MAO inhibition from non-nicotine constituents in cigarette smoke is relevant to tobacco dependence and that continued investigation of the potential use of MAO inhibitors in smoking cessation treatment is warranted. PMID:11694206

Rose, J E; Behm, F M; Ramsey, C; Ritchie, J C

2001-11-01

93

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

94

Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

1981-01-01

95

Tobacco industry efforts at discrediting scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke: a review of internal industry documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVEUsing tobacco industry internal documents to investigate the use of tobacco industry consulting scientists to discredit scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).DESIGNBasic and advanced searches were performed on the Philip Morris, Tobacco Institute, R J Reynolds, Brown and Williamson, Lorillard, and the Council for Tobacco Research document web sites, with a concentration on the years 1985–1995. Guildford depository

J Drope; S Chapman

2001-01-01

96

Antioxidant Status of Neonates Exposed in utero to Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of

L. Fayol; J. M. Gulian; C. Dalmasso; R. Calaf; U. Simeoni; V. Millet

2005-01-01

97

Tobacco use in shisha: studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterpipe (also known as gouza, narghile, hubble-bubble, hookah or shisha, depending on the local tradition) has been used for smoking tobacco for centuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Formerly associated almost exclusively with older males, usually of lower socioeconomic level, waterpipe smoking is now spreading to other segments of society in the region, particularly young men and women, and

2006-01-01

98

Carbon monoxide poisoning associated with water pipe smoking.  

PubMed

The water pipe is a means of tobacco consumption widespread in Turkey and Arab countries. We present two patients brought to our emergency department due to a syncopal attack secondary to carbon monoxide toxicity following water pipe use. This rare form of poisoning should be borne in mind by emergency physicians as a differential diagnosis in water pipe smokers. Water pipes should be used where there is adequate ventilation. PMID:21819288

Türkmen, Süha; Eryigit, Umut; Sahin, Aynur; Yeniocak, Selman; Turedi, Suleyman

2011-08-01

99

Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M.

2013-01-01

100

Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use.

Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

101

The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Rates: A Tobacco Control Scorecard  

Microsoft Academic Search

his article reviews studies of the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking rates with the aim of providing guidance on the importance of different policies. Based on past studies, we estimate the magnitude of effects of major tobacco control policies, how their effects depend on the manner in which the policies are implemented, the relationship between the different policies,

David T. Levy; Frank Chaloupka; Joseph Gitchell

2004-01-01

102

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

2010-04-01

103

The role of home smoking bans in limiting exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in Hungary.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally representative sample of 48 Hungarian settlements, completed paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires addressing tobacco-related attitudes, opinions and behaviors. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of demographics, socio-economic characteristics and home smoking policies on the risk of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home. Significantly higher risk of exposure was found among younger, lower educated and poorer people and among those having no or partial home smoking restrictions. There was a significant interaction between education level and home smoking policies: the effect of a smoking ban on exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was stronger for the lower educated group than the higher educated group. The results suggest that Hungarians are making good progress in implementing home smoking bans, and that in the majority of population these bans are working. More can be done to promote the uptake of home smoking bans among poorer and less educated subpopulations. PMID:22653684

Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Á; Nagymajtényi, L; Rogers, T; Easterling, D

2013-02-01

104

Effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on cancer treatment.  

PubMed

A substantial number of the world's population continues to smoke tobacco, even in the setting of a cancer diagnosis. Studies have shown that patients with cancer who have a history of smoking have a worse prognosis than nonsmokers. Modulation of several physiologic processes involved in drug disposition has been associated with long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. The most common of these processes can be categorized into the effects of smoking on cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism, glucuronidation, and protein binding. Perturbation in the pharmacokinetics of anticancer drugs could result in clinically significant consequences, as these drugs are among the most toxic, but potentially beneficial, pharmaceuticals prescribed. Unfortunately, the effect of tobacco smoking on drug disposition has been explored for only a few marketed anticancer drugs; thus, little prescribing information is available to guide clinicians on the vast majority of these agents. The carcinogenic properties of several compounds found in tobacco smoke have been well studied; however, relatively little attention has been given to the effects of nicotine itself on cancer growth. Data that identify nicotine's effect on cancer cell apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis are emerging. The implications of these data are still unclear but may lead to important questions regarding approaches to smoking cessation in patients with cancer. PMID:23033231

Petros, William P; Younis, Islam R; Ford, James N; Weed, Scott A

2012-10-01

105

Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology  

PubMed Central

The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ? 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.

Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

2013-01-01

106

Time trends in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and parental educational level for 6-year-old children in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke of 6-year-old children and parental educational level in Germany under the changing socioeconomic conditions after reunification. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure of children (current environmental tobacco smoke, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke during the first

Xianming du Prel; Ursula Krämer; Ulrich Ranft

2006-01-01

107

Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen  

PubMed Central

Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker.

Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M. Lynn; Yauk, Carole L.

2011-01-01

108

74 FR 31963 - Notice Correction; Collection of Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service (CIS) Clients...Customer Service, Demographic, and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service (CIS)...

2009-07-06

109

Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented.

Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

2012-01-01

110

Factors associated with adolescents' smoking experience and staying tobacco free  

PubMed Central

Introduction It is not expected that those who did not smoke during their adolescent years will start to smoke later in life. This study was planned to learn the thoughts of Turkish adolescents about staying tobacco free. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in 2007 with 866 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years. On a self?administered questionnaire, non?smoker students answered both multiple choice and open?ended questions about why they would not smoke in the future. The Chi?square test and logistic regression analysis was used for statistical assessment. For the answers to the open?ended questions, thematic analysis was applied. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.84 ± 1.14 years. The incidence of a smoking experience at least once in the participant's lifetime was 12% and the rate of current smoking was 3.6%. The most listed reasons for staying tobacco free were health problems directly related to smoking (64%), such as ‘it can cause diseases’ or ‘it kills’, negative effects of smoking other than health (51%), such as ‘it smells bad’ or ‘it is toxic’, and some subjective judgements related only with their self perceptions, such as ‘I am happy and healthy’ or ‘it affects growth negatively’ (20%). The most well?known problem related to tobacco use was lung cancer and the least well?known problems were bladder cancer and chronic bronchitis. Most of the smoking students (68%) were not aware that second?hand smoking was harmful (p=0.003). There were significant correlations between smoking experience and male gender, having a smoker in the household and low educational level of the mother or the father (p=0.000, p=0.018, p=0.022, p=0.044 respectively). Conclusion We suggest that the beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about smoking should be given as much consideration as the negative effects of cigarettes in planning smoking free messages.

2010-01-01

111

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

112

Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

Guerin, M.R.

1988-01-01

113

Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products.

Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

2014-01-01

114

Association between Tobacco Smoking and Active Tuberculosis in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Previous case-control studies and a small number of cohort studies in high-risk populations have found an association between tobacco and active tuberculosis, but no cohort studies have been conducted in the general population on this association to date. Objectives: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and active tuberculosis in a cohort of a general population. Methods: 17,699 participants

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Hsing-Yi Chang; Megan Murray

2009-01-01

115

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns.

Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

116

Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (<2?year) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia – ALL, 59 AML and 423 controls), being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR) on the association between tobacco smoking (3?months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3?months after delivery) and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy). Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR?=?5.28 (95% CI 1.40–19.95) for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR?=?7.78 (95% CI 1.33–45.5). No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and EAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cezar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

2012-01-01

117

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

118

An Analysis of the Role of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Carcinogenicity of Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture consisting of more than 4500 chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). TSNA typically form in tobacco during the post-harvest period, with some fraction being transferred into mainstream smoke when a cigarette is burned during use. The most studied of the TSNA is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Studies examining the carcinogenicity of NNK frequently are conducted by injecting rodents with a single dose of 2.5 to 10 ?mol of pure NNK; the amount of NNK contained in all of the mainstream smoke from about 3700 to 14,800 typical U.S. cigarettes. Extrapolated to a 70-kg smoker, the carcinogenic dose of pure NNK administered to rodents would be equivalent to the amount of NNK in all of the mainstream smoke of 22 to 87 million typical U.S. cigarettes. Furthermore, extrapolating results from rodent studies based on a single injection of pure NNK to establish a causative role for NNK in the carcinogenicity of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in humans is not consistent with basic pharmacological and toxicological principles. For example, such an approach fails to consider the effect of other smoke constituents upon the toxicity of NNK. In vitro studies demonstrate that nicotine, cotinine, and aqueous cigarette “tar” extract (ACTE) all inhibit the mutagenic activity of NNK. In vivo studies reveal that the formation of pulmonary DNA adducts in mice injected with NNK is inhibited by the administration of cotinine and mainstream cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke has been shown to modulate the metabolism of NNK, providing a mechanism for the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke constituents on NNK-induced tumorigenesis. NNK-related pulmonary DNA adducts have not been detected in rodents exposed to cigarette smoke, nor has the toxicity of tobacco smoke or tobacco smoke condensate containing marked reductions in TSNA concentrations been shown to be reduced in any biological assay. In summary, there is no experimental evidence to suggest that reduction of TSNA will reduce the mutagenic, cytotoxic, or carcinogenic potential of tobacco smoke.

Brown, Buddy G.; Borschke, August J.; Doolittle, David J.

2003-01-01

119

Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle  

PubMed Central

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful.

Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

2009-01-01

120

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use.

Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

2011-01-01

121

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers.

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

122

Predicting regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation exposure of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles may increase health risks, but only to the extent that the particles deposit in the respiratory tract. We describe a technique to predict regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles. Interpretation of particle size distribution measurements after cigarette combustion by a smoking machine in a test room yields an effective emissions profile. An aerosol dynamics model is used to predict indoor particle concentrations resulting from a specified combination of smoking frequency and building factors. By utilizing a lung deposition model, the rate of ETS mass accumulation in human lungs is then determined as a function of particle size and lung airway generation. Considering emissions of sidestream smoke only, residential exposures of nonsmokers to ETS are predicted to cause rates of total respiratory tract particle deposition in the range of 0.4-0.7 {mu}g/day per kg of body weight for light smoking in a well-ventilated residence and 8-13 {mu}g/day per kg for moderately heavy smoking in a poorly ventilated residence. Emissions of sidestream plus mainstream smoke lead to predicted deposition rates about a factor of 4 higher. This technique should be useful for evaluating health risks and control techniques associated with exposure to ETS particles. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Nazaroff, W.W.; Hung, W.Y.; Sasse, A.G.B.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gadgil, A.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-10-01

123

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: An Emerging Health Crisis in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10–20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Conclusion Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread.

Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

124

SUMMARY The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette quitting therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette qu- itting therapies and to determine source environment\\/individuals for ETS exposure. 230 individuals were contacted. We in- vestigated person\\/s with ETS exposure before starting to smoke, places\\/duration of exposure, sources of exposure, therapy methods\\/durations recommended. Training seminar was also assumed as a

Türkan GÜNAY; Emel CEYLAN

125

Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Harmful Substances in Tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

... called cotinine. This chemical is a metabolite of nicotine and is regarded as the best biological marker ... the laboratory not only investigates the concentration of nicotine in cigarettes and smoke but also the factors ...

126

Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products  

PubMed Central

Smokers have a significantly higher risk for developing coronary and cerebrovascular disease than nonsmokers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive, cross-linking moieties that form from the reaction of reducing sugars and the amino groups of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs circulate in high concentrations in the plasma of patients with diabetes or renal insufficiency and have been linked to the accelerated vasculopathy seen in patients with these diseases. Because the curing of tobacco takes place under conditions that could lead to the formation of glycation products, we examined whether tobacco and tobacco smoke could generate these reactive species that would increase AGE formation in vivo. Our findings show that reactive glycation products are present in aqueous extracts of tobacco and in tobacco smoke in a form that can rapidly react with proteins to form AGEs. This reaction can be inhibited by aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of AGE formation. We have named these glycation products “glycotoxins.” Like other known reducing sugars and reactive glycation products, glycotoxins form smoke, react with protein, exhibit a specific fluorescence when cross-linked to proteins, and are mutagenic. Glycotoxins are transferred to the serum proteins of human smokers. AGE-apolipoprotein B and serum AGE levels in cigarette smokers were significantly higher than those in nonsmokers. These results suggest that increased glycotoxin exposure may contribute to the increased incidence of atherosclerosis and high prevalence of cancer in smokers.

Cerami, Carla; Founds, Hank; Nicholl, Iain; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Giordano, Donna; Vanpatten, Sonya; Lee, Annette; Al-Abed, Yousef; Vlassara, Helen; Bucala, Richard; Cerami, Anthony

1997-01-01

127

Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

2005-01-01

128

ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

129

Fox Chase scientists discover link between estrogen and tobacco smoke  

Cancer.gov

The hormone estrogen may help promote lung cancer— including compounding the effects of tobacco smoke on the disease—pointing towards potential new therapies that target the hormone metabolism, according to new research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3 by scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia.

130

A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

131

75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). FDA has reserved a section of that...

2010-03-19

132

Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

133

Patient rights and law: tobacco smoking in psychiatric wards and the Israeli Prevention of Smoking Act.  

PubMed

In August 2001, the Israeli Ministry of Health issued its Limitation of Smoking in Public Places Order, categorically forbidding smoking in hospitals. This forced the mental health system to cope with the issue of smoking inside psychiatric hospitals. The main problem was smoking by compulsorily hospitalized psychiatric patients in closed wards. An attempt by a psychiatric hospital to implement the tobacco smoking restraint instruction by banning the sale of cigarettes inside the hospital led to the development of a black market and cases of patient exploitation in return for cigarettes. This article surveys the literature dealing with smoking among psychiatric patients, the role of smoking in patients and the moral dilemmas of taking steps to prevent smoking in psychiatric hospitals. It addresses the need for public discussion on professional caregivers' dilemmas between their commitment to uphold the law and their duty to act as advocates for their patients' rights and welfare. PMID:15362356

Kagan, Ilya; Kigli-Shemesh, Ronit; Tabak, Nili; Abramowitz, Moshe Z; Margolin, Jacob

2004-09-01

134

Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. Design A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. Setting The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Participants One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Outcome measures Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Results Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13–25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56–70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Conclusions Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aar?, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

2013-01-01

135

Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; McAughey, J.

2009-02-01

136

Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

2014-07-01

137

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

138

A Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Mortality in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. Methods Using data on 20, 033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ?7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking. Results Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86) and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80), and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24) was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36) for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01) for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women. Conclusions Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh.

Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Segers, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul

2013-01-01

139

The Fate of Maleic Hydrazide on Tobacco during Smoking  

PubMed Central

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process.

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

140

Formation of 8-nitroguanine in tobacco cigarette smokers and in tobacco smoke-exposed Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have shown that 8-nitroguanine (8-NO(2)-G) could serve as a specific biomarker of DNA damage induced by gaseous nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) exposure. To evaluate the effect of tobacco cigarette smoking on the DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of cigarette smoke ones, we randomly collected and determined the level of 8-NO(2)-G in DNA extracted from peripheral lymphocyte of 15 each of light-smoking healthy volunteer (L-S, less than one pack per day), moderate-smoking healthy volunteers (M-S, one to two pack per day for 5-10 years), heavy-smoking healthy volunteers (H-S, over two packs per day for 10 years), lung cancer patients with heavy smoking (cancer H-S) and non-smoking healthy controls. Both of the mean level of the 8-NO(2)-G levels in peripheral lymphocyte (0.90+/-1.0, 1.23+/-1.14, 1.43+/-0.79, 3.62+/-1.38 ng per microg DNA) and serum nitrite (38.99+/-9.58, 46.70+/-9.38, 55.46+/-10.45, 70.1+/-18.54 microM) of L-S, M-S, H-S and cancer H-S groups were higher than that of non-smoking healthy controls (0.02+/-0.04 and 18.96+/-4.31 for 8-NO(2)-G level and serum nitrite, respectively). Furthermore, in animal experiment, a dose-dependent increase in 8-NO(2)-G was observed in rat lung and peripheral lymphocyte DNA of Wistar rats after tobacco cigarette smoke exposure twice a day, for 1 month. The level of 8-NO(2)-G is 0.17+/-0.41, 1.65+/-3.15, 23.50+/-20.75 and 37.58+/-17.55 ng per microg lung DNA for rat exposed with tobacco cigarette smoke from 0, 5, 10, 15 cigarettes per day, respectively. It was also found that count of peripheral lymphocytes and nitrite concentration in serum of rat increased after the tobacco smoke exposure. It is postulated that tobacco cigarette smoking could induce DNA damage (8-NO(2)-G formation) by exo- and endogenous NO(x). PMID:12044561

Hsieh, Yih-Shou; Chen, Bi-Chiou; Shiow, Song-Jui; Wang, Hsue-Chun; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Wang, Chau-Jong

2002-04-20

141

Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke.

Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

142

Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal, information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between smoking and the characteristics evaluated. Overall, 35.8% students had never smoked, 39.4% had tried it ("experimental" smokers) but were not smokers, 3.3% were former smokers, 6.6% occasional smokers, and 14.9% regular smokers. The mean age for starting smoking was 13.4 +/- 2.1 years for males and 13.4 +/- 1.6 years for females. The prevalence of current smoking was higher among males than females, but the difference was not significant. Male students were significantly more likely to smoke more cigarettes per day than were females. The prevalence of smoking was significantly associated with the following variables: being aged > 12 years; having parents who had attended school for < 4 years; having a mother (OR = 1.88), siblings (OR = 1.96) or friends (OR = 1.75) who smoked; low academic performance (OR = 1.74 for one or two failures and OR = 2.27 for more than two failures at school); and consumption of coffee (OR = 2.90), alcohol (OR = 3.53), or illicit drugs (OR = 6.69). The prevalence of smoking among adolescents increased with age. There is therefore a need for school-based tobacco prevention programmes which also deal with family influences on smoking.

Azevedo, A.; Machado, A. P.; Barros, H.

1999-01-01

143

Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and pregnancy outcome among couples undergoing assisted reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is preventable, yet common. This study assessed relationships between maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We measured cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco smoke) in urine from 921 women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) between 1994 and 1998. We also collected information on self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke at home

J. D. Meeker; S. A. Missmer; D. W. Cramer; R. Hauser

2006-01-01

144

Formation of 8-nitroguanine in tobacco cigarette smokers and in tobacco smoke-exposed Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies have shown that 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-G) could serve as a specific biomarker of DNA damage induced by gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) exposure. To evaluate the effect of tobacco cigarette smoking on the DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of cigarette smoke ones, we randomly collected and determined the level of 8-NO2-G in DNA extracted from peripheral lymphocyte of 15

Yih-Shou Hsieh; Bi-Chiou Chen; Song-Jui Shiow; Hsue-Chun Wang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Chau-Jong Wang

2002-01-01

145

71 FR 41030 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Collection of Demographic and Smoking/Tobacco Use...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Demographic and Smoking/Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service...Demographic and Smoking/ Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service...1-800- 4-CANCER) and LiveHelp...CIS provides smoking cessation...

2006-07-19

146

Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students  

PubMed Central

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior.

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

147

Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students.  

PubMed

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior. PMID:22987864

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H; Fine, Michael J; Barnett, Tracey E; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A

2013-02-01

148

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks.

Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2009-01-01

149

Factors associated with adolescents' smoking experience and staying tobacco free.  

PubMed

Introduction It is not expected that those who did not smoke during their adolescent years will start to smoke later in life. This study was planned to learn the thoughts of Turkish adolescents about staying tobacco free.Methods A descriptive study was conducted in 2007 with 866 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years. On a self-administered questionnaire, non-smoker students answered both multiple choice and open-ended questions about why they would not smoke in the future. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was used for statistical assessment. For the answers to the open-ended questions, thematic analysis was applied.Results The mean age of the participants was 12.84 ± 1.14 years. The incidence of a smoking experience at least once in the participant's lifetime was 12% and the rate of current smoking was 3.6%. The most listed reasons for staying tobacco free were health problems directly related to smoking (64%), such as 'it can cause diseases' or 'it kills', negative effects of smoking other than health (51%), such as 'it smells bad' or 'it is toxic', and some subjective judgements related only with their self perceptions, such as 'I am happy and healthy' or 'it affects growth negatively' (20%).The most well-known problem related to tobacco use was lung cancer and the least well-known problems were bladder cancer and chronic bronchitis. Most of the smoking students (68%) were not aware that second-hand smoking was harmful (p=0.003). There were significant correlations between smoking experience and male gender, having a smoker in the household and low educational level of the mother or the father (p=0.000, p=0.018, p=0.022, p=0.044 respectively).Conclusion We suggest that the beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about smoking should be given as much consideration as the negative effects of cigarettes in planning smoking free messages. PMID:22477936

Kaya, Ci?dem Apayd?n; Unalan, Pemra C

2010-09-01

150

Tobacco smoking and solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs. PMID:23169222

Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James

2012-11-27

151

The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

2009-01-01

152

Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

2014-02-01

153

[Socioeconomic costs due to tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to calculate costs attributable to smoking from both a societal and a public finance perspective. The Cost-of-Illness analysis was based on incidence data from 1995 and 1996, estimated with the attributable fraction, based on English and Danish RR-estimates respectively. The indirect costs are calculated with both the friction and the human capital method. In 1995, smoking attributable costs in Denmark amounted to 4100 million DKK with the friction method and based on Danish RR-estimates, including 3600 million in direct costs and 500 million in indirect costs. A public cash flow analysis showed a net revenue of about 3900 to 5600 million DKK. Compared with previous results for Denmark (1983), the annual costs to society increased by about 118%. It is suggested that similar Cost-of-Illness analyses are carried out at regular intervals to monitor the economic consequences of smoking in society. PMID:10895600

Rasmussen, S R; Søgaard, J

2000-06-01

154

ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

155

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

156

Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an

A. Azevedo; A. P. Machado; H. Barros

157

Environmental tobacco smoke, parental atopy, and childhood asthma.  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that the joint effect of genetic propensity to asthma and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of childhood asthma is greater than expected on the basis of their independent effects. We performed a population-based 4-year cohort study of 2,531 children born in Oslo, Norway. We collected information on the child's health and environmental exposures at birth and when the child was 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and 4 years of age. The outcomes of interest were bronchial obstruction during the first 2 years and asthma at the age of 4 years. Parental atopy was defined as a history of maternal or paternal asthma or hay fever. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was defined on the basis of questionnaire information on household smokers at birth. In logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounding, parental atopy alone increased the risk of bronchial obstruction [odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.40] and asthma (1.66; 95% CI, 1.08-2.54). In children without parental atopy, there was little effect of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on bronchial obstruction (1.29; 95% CI, 0.88-1.89) and asthma (0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.34). The presence of parental atopy and exposure had a substantial effect both on bronchial obstruction (2.88; 95% CI, 1.91-4.32) and asthma (2.68; 95% CI, 1.70-4.22). The results are consistent with the hypothesized joint effect of parental atopy and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. This phenomenon--denoted as effect modification of environmental exposure by genetic constitution, or gene by environment interaction--suggests that some genetic markers could indicate susceptibility to environmental factors.

Jaakkola, J J; Nafstad, P; Magnus, P

2001-01-01

158

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

2011-01-01

159

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

2009-10-01

160

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box,...

2010-10-01

161

Maternal and Neonatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Targets Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Neonatal Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mainstream tobacco smoking is known to have adverse outcomes on fetal respiratory function; however, no data is currently\\u000a available on the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on fetal systemic arterial\\u000a structure and function. Eight pregnant rhesus macaque monkeys were studied at the California Regional Primate Research Center\\u000a breeding colony. The estimated gestational

Amparo C. Villablanca; Kent E. Pinkerton; John C. Rutledge

2010-01-01

162

Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

2012-01-01

163

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among Korean American nonsmokers in California.  

PubMed

Information about the extent and patterns of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among Korean Americans is sparse, despite the population's having one of the highest male smoking rates. This paper estimates the prevalence of ETS exposure among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and identifies demographic and other characteristics associated with exposure. Data were collected during 2001-2002 from telephone interviews (in English or Korean) with 2,328 nonsmoking Korean American adults. ETS was encountered by 31% of respondents during a typical day. Exposure was most common in "other locations," where 24% of respondents were exposed, compared with 6% at home and 9% at work. Among those exposed, the greatest dose of exposure occurred at work (6 cigarettes/day) and at home (5 cigarettes/day). Women were four times more likely than men to be exposed to ETS at home (8% vs. 2%, respectively). For both men and women, the odds of exposure were greater among those who were younger, who were unmarried, and whose friends smoked. Additionally, traditional men and bicultural women had greater odds of ETS exposure than those who were more acculturated. Women who were married to smokers, had no children at home, consumed more alcohol, and had no home smoking ban also had greater likelihood of exposure. The results indicate the need for a complete ban of smoking in workplaces and in private homes to prevent exposure, particularly for women whose husbands smoke. PMID:18418789

Hughes, Suzanne C; Corcos, Isabel A; Hofstetter, Richard C; Hovell, Melbourne F; Irvin, Veronica L

2008-04-01

164

Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. A Report to the Surgeon General.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This twenty-ninth report of the Surgeon General documents the serious and deadly health effects of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. Secondhand smoke is a major cause of disease, including lung cancer and coronary heart disease, in healthy nonsmokers...

2006-01-01

165

Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. A Report to the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty years ago when Dr. C. Everett Koop released the Surgeon Generals report, The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking, it was the first Surgeon Generals report to conclude that involuntary exposure of nonsmokers to tobacco smoke causes disease. T...

2006-01-01

166

[Effect of tobacco smoking on glutathione concentration in the blood].  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking and age on reduced glutathione concentration in the blood. The study was performed in the blood of 65 subjects. The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material was divided into groups of non-smokers and smokers. Malonylodialdehyde concentration in the plasma was measured by reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Concentration of cadmium was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Reduced glutathione in the blood was measured using a previously developed method [11]. A significant increase of malonylodialdehyde concentration was observed in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Malonylodialdehyde level in the plasma of smokers <20 cigarettes per day did not differ with non-smokers. The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the whole blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day and it was about 4-fold higher compared to non-smoking people. Also smokers <20 cigarettes per day have higher cadmium concentration in the blood in comparison to non-smokers. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity on reduced glutathione concentration it was a statistically significant increase in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Non-smoking and smokers <20 cigarettes per day had comparable levels of this antioxidant in the blood. A significant elevation in reduced glutathione concentration was observed in the blood of smokers < 30 years of age in comparison to nonsmoking persons < 30 and > 30 years of age. Our study confirmed that the reduced glutathione concentration in the body affects tobacco smoking and aging. PMID:23421037

Bizo?, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

2012-01-01

167

Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2012-01-01

168

[Prevalence of tobacco smoking among health-care managers].  

PubMed

A whole variety of new organisational solutions are being introduced nowadays, at an increasing pace, in health-care institutions, not always preceded by appropriate information related to the upcoming changes. The situation may be conducive to the feeling of discomfort and doubt among managerial staff, as to the ultimate result of imminent innovations. A necessity to relieve the perceived tension will then arise, for example, by way of smoking. The principal objective of the present study was to examine the occurrence of tobacco-smoking among the nursing executive personnel. Two groups of employees holding high-ranking positions in the nursing subsystem were included in the study. The initial part of the project was performed throughout the first quarter of 2010, and comprised 102 departmental female nurses. The concluding part is planned for October - November, 2010, and will address the second and third-level managers. A questionnaire-based, diagnostic survey was the employed research method. The questionnaires' return rate was 85%. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test was applied in statistical calculations (for expected values < 5). The study revealed, so far, that the performance of managerial functions induced undesirable behavioural patterns, i.e., tobacco smoking. It also affected low self-assessment of their bio-psycho-social wellness. The majority of the respondents took part in various forms of in-service, refresher training which also included information concerning behavioural patterns detrimental to health. The latter influenced the participating nurses' self-assessment of the extent of their knowledge related to tobacco smoking and its harmful effect on their health. PMID:21360945

Zysnarska, Monika; Adamek, Renata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Bernad, Dorota; Maksymiuk, Tomasz

2010-01-01

169

Smoking Behaviour, Involuntary Smoking, Attitudes towards Smoke-Free Legislations, and Tobacco Control Activities in the European Union  

PubMed Central

Background The six most important cost-effective policies on tobacco control can be measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS). The objective of our study was to describe the correlation between the TCS and smoking prevalence, self-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and attitudes towards smoking restrictions in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). Methods/Principal Findings Ecologic study in the EU27. We used data from the TCS in 2007 and from the Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey in 2008. We analysed the relations between the TCS and prevalence of smoking, self-reported exposure to SHS (home and work), and attitudes towards smoking bans by means of scatter plots and Spearman rank-correlation coefficients (rsp). Among the EU27, smoking prevalence varied from 22.6% in Slovenia to 42.1% in Greece. Austria was the country with the lowest TCS score (35) and the UK had the highest one (93). The correlation between smoking prevalence and TCS score was negative (rsp?=??0.42, p?=?0.03) and the correlation between TCS score and support to smoking bans in all workplaces was positive (rsp?=?0.47, p?=?0.01 in restaurants; rsp?=?0.5, p?=?0.008 in bars, pubs, and clubs; and rsp?=?0.31, p?=?0.12 in other indoor workplaces). The correlation between TCS score and self-reported exposure to SHS was negative, but statistically non-significant. Conclusions/Significance Countries with a higher score in the TCS have higher support towards smoking bans in all workplaces (including restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs, and other indoor workplaces). TCS scores were strongly, but not statistically, associated with a lower prevalence of smokers and a lower self-reported exposure to SHS.

Martinez-Sanchez, Jose M.; Fernandez, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Gallus, Silvano; Martinez, Cristina; Sureda, Xisca; La Vecchia, Carlo; Clancy, Luke

2010-01-01

170

Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths’ smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103 172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. Results. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company–sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Conclusions. Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

2006-01-01

171

The Effect of Support for Action Against the Tobacco Industry on Smoking Among Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated associations between tobacco industry denormalization attitudes and the smoking behavior of young adults (aged 18 to 29 years). Methods. We analyzed data from 9455 young adults in the 2002 California Tobacco Survey. Results. The data showed that 27.4% of young adults were “ever smokers” (smoked ? 100 cigarettes in their lifetime), of whom 66.9% were current smokers (18.3% of young adults). Denormalization attitudes formed 2 major factors: support for anti–tobacco industry action and mistrust of tobacco companies. In multivariate logistic regression, support for action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with current smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.13, 0.19) and susceptibility to smoking, after we controlled for demographics, exposure to smokers, and advertising receptivity. Mistrust of tobacco companies was associated with smoking behavior, with anti-industry support acting as a mediating variable. Among current smokers, support for anti–tobacco industry action was strongly associated with intentions to quit (OR=4.64; 95% CI=3.15, 6.84) after we controlled for demographics, exposure to smokers, and advertising receptivity. Conclusions. Support for anti–tobacco industry action protects against smoking and is associated with intentions to quit among young adults. Encouraging involvement in tobacco control and against the tobacco industry may decrease smoking among young adults.

Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2007-01-01

172

Acute effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking: a double-blind, placebo-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking usually involves heating flavored tobacco with charcoal and inhaling the resulting smoke after it has passed through water. Waterpipe tobacco smoking increases heart rate and produces subjective effects similar to those reported by cigarette smokers. These responses are thought to be nicotine-mediated, though no placebo-control studies exist. Accordingly, this double-blind, placebo-control study compared the acute physiological and subjective effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking to those produced when participants used a waterpipe to smoke a flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. Methods Occasional waterpipe tobacco smokers (N=37; 2–5 monthly smoking episodes for ? 6 months) completed two double-blind, counterbalanced sessions that differed by product: preferred brand/flavor of waterpipe tobacco or flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. For each 45-minute, ad lib smoking episode blood and expired air CO were sampled, cardiovascular and respiratory response were measured, and subjective response was assessed. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking significantly increased mean (±SEM) plasma nicotine concentration (3.6±0.7 ng/ml) and heart rate (8.6±1.4 bpm) while placebo did not (0.1±0.0 ng/ml; 1.3±0.9 bpm). For carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired air CO, significant increases were observed for tobacco (3.8±0.4%; 27.9±2.6 ppm) and for placebo (3.9±0.4%; 27.7±3.3 ppm) with no differences across condition. Independent of condition, symptoms of nicotine/tobacco abstinence (e.g., “urges to smoke”, “anxious”) were reduced and direct effects (e.g., “dizzy”, “satisfy”) increased. Discussion These results from the first placebo-control study of waterpipe tobacco smoking demonstrate that waterpipe-induced heart rate increases are almost certainly mediated by nicotine though the subjective effects observed in these occasional smokers were not.

Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Kilgalen, Barbara; Austin, Janet; Weaver, Michael F.; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

173

Effectiveness of Clean Indoor Air Ordinances in Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean indoor air (CIA) ordinances in Toledo, Ohio, and Bowling Green, Ohio, regulate smoking in restaurants to protect patrons and employees. Yet complete protection is questionable because the ordinances allow for smoking in certain dining sections. Two restaurants were studied in each city, one smoking and one nonsmoking. Levels of contaminants related to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)—determined by personal and

Farhang Akbar-khanzadeh; Sheryl Milz; April Ames; Sara Spino; Christopher Tex

2004-01-01

174

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 540 treatment staff, 306 attendants\\/nurses, and 93 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported ETS exposure, current smoking policy, compliance

M. C. Willemsen; C. A. Gorts; P. van Soelen; R. E. Jonkers; S. R. Hilberink

2004-01-01

175

MR and GR functional SNPs may modulate tobacco smoking susceptibility.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that stress is involved in all aspects of smoking behavior, including initiation, maintenance and relapse. The mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors are expressed in several brain areas and play a key role in negative feedback of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. As nicotine increases the activation of the HPA axis, we wondered if functional SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in MR and GR coding genes (NR3C2 rs5522 and NR3C1 rs6198, respectively) may be involved in smoking susceptibility. The sample included 627 volunteers, of which 514 were never-smokers and 113 lifetime smokers. We report an interaction effect between rs5522 and rs6198 SNPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of the NR3C2 rs5522 Val allele in NR3C1 rs6198 G carriers was 0.18 (P = 0.007), while in rs6198 G noncarriers the OR was 1.83 (P = 0.027). We also found main effects of the NR3C1 rs6198 G allele on number of cigarettes smoked per day (P = 0.027) and in total score of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (P = 0.007). These findings are consistent with a possible link between NR3C2 and NR3C1 polymorphisms and smoking behavior and provide a first partial replication for a nominally significant GWAS finding between NR3C2 and tobacco smoking. PMID:23543128

Rovaris, Diego L; Mota, Nina R; de Azeredo, Lucas A; Cupertino, Renata B; Bertuzzi, Guilherme P; Polina, Evelise R; Contini, Verônica; Kortmann, Gustavo L; Vitola, Eduardo S; Grevet, Eugenio H; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Bau, Claiton H D

2013-10-01

176

Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers  

PubMed Central

Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior.

Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

2009-01-01

177

75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Extension of Comment Period...advertising of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. The agency is taking this action...Annette Marthaler, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug...

2010-05-18

178

The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth  

PubMed Central

Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

2012-01-01

179

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation

Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2012-01-01

180

Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend.

Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

2011-01-01

181

Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer  

SciTech Connect

The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement.

Crawford, W.A.

1988-11-01

182

Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

2013-10-01

183

Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco  

SciTech Connect

The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

1987-01-01

184

Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine tobacco company documents to determine what the companies knew about the impact of cigarette prices on smoking among youth, young adults, and adults, and to evaluate how this understanding affected their pricing and price related marketing strategies. Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the

F J Chaloupka; K M Cummings; JK Horan

2010-01-01

185

Tobacco control and the inequitable socio-economic distribution of smoking: smokers’ discourses and implications for tobacco control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warning: this article contains strong language.This paper focuses on the ways in which social context structures smokers’ views of, and reactions to, tobacco control. This exploratory study examined the interactions between tobacco control and smokers’ social contexts and how this may be contributing to inequalities in smoking. We found in our sample that higher socio-economic status (SES) smokers are more

Katherine L. Frohlich; Blake Poland; Eric Mykhalovskiy; Stephanie Alexander; Catherine Maule

2010-01-01

186

Carcinogenic Risk of Lead-210 and Polonium-210 in Tobacco Smoke: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is concerned with the possible carcinogenic risk to man from the presence of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco smoke. It includes a data base on such topics as background levels of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco and tobacco smok...

C. C. Travis E. L. Etnier K. A. Kirkscey

1978-01-01

187

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates?  

Cancer.gov

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates ? Karen Messer, JP Pierce et al Tobacco Control 2007; 16:85-90; In the 1990’s CA was the only US state to spend $3.67 per person per year on Tobacco Control. The

188

Transnational tobacco companies and health in underdeveloped countries: Recommendations for avoiding a smoking epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of transnational tobacco companies on health in underdeveloped countries and makes recommendations for avoiding a coming smoking epidemic. Although tobacco is generally seen as primarily a health problem, tobacco's future in the Third World depends upon a number of nonhealth related considerations, especially political and economic factors. Unfortunately, there is very little relationship between what

Kenyon Rainier Stebbins

1990-01-01

189

Smoking mothers and snuffing fathers: behavioural influences on youth tobacco use in a Swedish cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective: To analyse the influences of parental use of cigarettes and snus (the Swedish variety of smokeless tobacco) on offspring's behaviour. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Stockholm County of Sweden. Subjects: 2232 adolescents recruited in the fifth grade (mean age 11.6 years) with follow up in the eighth grade. Main outcome measures: Self reported tobacco use (ever and current use of cigarettes and/or snus) in the eighth grade. Results: Parents' tobacco use was associated with adolescents' current use of cigarettes and snus (odds ratio (OR) 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 3.9 if both parents used tobacco v neither parent). Mother's cigarette smoking was associated with adolescents' current exclusive smoking (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.6). Father's use of snus was associated with current exclusive use of snus among boys (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4 to 6.4), but not with current cigarette use. The overall prevalence of current smoking was lower among children whose fathers used snus than among those whose fathers smoked. Conclusions: Parental smoking, especially maternal smoking, enhances the risk of tobacco experimentation in youths, as does paternal use of smokeless tobacco. However, the transition to regular cigarette smoking is not likely to be affected by paternal use of smokeless tobacco. Contextual factors, in particular declining smoking trends and negative social acceptance of smoking, can explain most of these findings.

Rosendahl, K; Galanti, M; Gilljam, H; Ahlbom, A

2003-01-01

190

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS.

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

191

Kidney Function and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adolescents  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) are known risk factors for kidney disease in adults. We evaluated the association between exposure to active smoking or SHS and kidney function in US adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in 7516 adolescents aged 12–17 who participated in NHANES 1999–2010 and had serum creatinine and cotinine measures. Active smoking was defined as self-reported smoking or serum cotinine concentrations >10 ng/mL. SHS was defined as nonactive smokers who self-reported living with ?1 smokers or serum cotinine concentrations ? 0.05 ng/mL. Kidney function was determined by using the chronic kidney disease in children estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equation. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) eGFR and serum cotinine concentrations were 96.8 (85.4–109.0) mL/minute per 1.73 m2 and 0.07 (0.03–0.59) ng/mL, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, eGFR decreased 1.1 mL/minute per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: ?1.8 to ?0.3) per interquartile range increase in serum cotinine concentrations. The mean (95%CI) difference in eGFR for serum cotinine tertiles 1, 2, and 3 among children exposed to SHS compared to unexposed were ?0.4 (?1.9 to 1.2), ?0.9 (?2.7 to 0.9), and ?2.2 (?4.0 to ?0.4) mL/minute per 1.73 m2, respectively (P = .03). The corresponding values among tertiles of active smokers compared to unexposed were 0.2 (?2.2 to 2.6), ?1.9 (?3.8 to 0.0), and ?2.6 (?4.6 to ?0.6) mL/minute per 1.73 m2 (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with decreased eGFR in US adolescents, supporting the possibility that tobacco smoke effects on kidney function begin in childhood.

Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Loeffler, Lauren F.; Weaver, Virginia M.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

192

Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.

Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

2014-01-01

193

A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. 'Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using 'peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

2014-04-01

194

Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.  

PubMed

Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 ?g/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 ?g/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 ?g/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 ?g/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

2012-09-01

195

Determination of (+)-alpha-tocopherol in environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the quantitation of (+)-alpha-tocopherol in the particulate phase of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) collected on a 1-micron pore size Fluoropore membrane. A methanol (MeOH) extract of the membrane, which can be used for four other ETS procedures, is analyzed for (+)-alpha-tocopherol on a reversed-phase column with fluorescence detection at selective wavelengths of 280 nm excitation and 330 nm emission. A mobile phase of MeOH and water is used. The method is reproducible with a relative standard deviation (%) of about 12. Recovery is 88%, and the procedure is capable of detecting greater than 0.04 microgram/m3 (+)-alpha-tocopherol in ETS. A comparison of the ETS from five commercially available cigarettes shows similar (+)-alpha-tocopherol concentrations. A cigarette that primarily heats tobacco yields about 6% of that amount of (+)-alpha-tocopherol found in ETS from tobacco-burning cigarettes. (+)-alpha-Tocopherol can be used as a marker for ETS respirable suspended particles (RSP) because it is found at a consistent amount in ETS RSP of 0.29%. However, sufficient amounts of RSP would have to be generated in order to detect (+)-alpha-tocopherol. PMID:9487671

Risner, C H; Nelson, P R

1998-02-01

196

Smoke Free Health Care: an organisational change to increase effective intervention for tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the NSW Health Smoke Free Workplace Policy directed that grounds of health sites would become smoke free, in addition to the existing policy requiring smoke-free buildings.This was one of the first attempts by any health service to exclude tobacco entirely from health sites. This task required the adoption of evidence-based manage- ment of tobacco dependence and changing the

Annie M. Kia; Eric K. van Beurden; Gavin S. Dart; Cecily M. Barrack; Mark D. Mitchell

2008-01-01

197

A pilot study of concurrent lead and cotinine screening for childhood tobacco smoke exposure: effect on parental smoking.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . To investigate whether a biomarker screening approach for tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) conducted concurrently with lead screening at well-child visits would increase parental smoking cessation and implementation of home smoking restrictions. Design . Observational, quasi-experimental. Setting . Pediatric clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Subjects . Eighty parents who smoked and their children presenting for well-child visits. Intervention . Children in the intervention group had serum cotinine measured with lead screening. Laboratory results were sent to providers and parents and a counselor proactively contacted parents to offer an eight-session telephone intervention to help parents stop smoking. The comparison group, a historical control, received usual care. Measures . Parental smoking, engagement in tobacco treatment, and home and car smoking policies 8 weeks later. Analysis . Mean/standard deviation for continuous data or frequency/percentage for categorical data. Results . Eighty-four percent of eligible parents agreed to have their child tested for TSE along with lead testing. Measurable cotinine was identified in 93% of children. More parents in the intervention group received tobacco treatment than in the comparison group (74% vs. 0%) and more parents reported 7-day point-prevalent abstinence from smoking at 8 weeks (29% vs. 3%). Conclusion . These data demonstrate the feasibility of adding cotinine measurement to routine well-child lead screening to document TSE in small children. Data suggest providing this information to parents increases engagement in tobacco treatment and prompts smoking cessation. PMID:23971524

Joseph, Anne; Murphy, Sharon; Thomas, Janet; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Wang, Qi; Briggs, Anna; Doyle, Brandon; Winickoff, Jonathan P

2014-01-01

198

Smoke-Free Homes for Smoke-Free Babies: The Role of Residential Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Low Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure may negatively affect birth outcomes, especially\\u000a birth weight. This study evaluates the effect of residential ETS exposure on the risk of having a low birth weight (LBW) infant\\u000a and investigates whether there is a dose–response relationship. This retrospective cohort study comprised 2,206 women who\\u000a participated in the 2004–2005 North Carolina

Corina Pogodina; Larissa R. Brunner Huber; Elizabeth F. Racine; Elena Platonova

2009-01-01

199

Associations of mental health problems with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among college students  

PubMed Central

Associations between the emerging trend of waterpipe tobacco smoking and mental health among college students have not been sufficiently explored. This study analyzed data collected from 152 academic institutions that participated in the National College Health Assessment during the 2008–2009 academic year to examine associations between mental health and waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students (N=100,891). For comparison, cigarette smoking was also examined. Associations with mental health variables were very strong for cigarette smoking but only moderate for waterpipe smoking. Study implications and limitations are noted. Funding was provided by NCI Grant [removed for blind version].

Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fan, Jieyu; Kim, Kevin H.; Rosen, Daniel A.

2013-01-01

200

Frequency of Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with COPD due to Biomass Smoke and Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Objectives; Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common and well established complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its presence is associated with decreased survival. This study was designed to investigate the PH frequency and its relations in hospitalized tobacco and biomass related COPD patients. Methods and Results; The study was a retrospective review of inpatients with COPD defined as a history of tobacco or biomass smoking, Pulmonary function tests (PFT) within stable status, an echocardiogram within stable status. PH was defined as systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) >35 mmHg. Of the 694 individuals, 600 had suitable aspects for inclusion of study. All Females were biomass exposer and males were tobacco smoker. The Prevalence of PH was found more frequent in females than males. It was more prominent in moderate level COPD cases (56,2% and 37,5%, P<0,002). Both groups had airflow limitation, hypercapnia and hypoxemia, but no differences were found in terms of PaCO2 and PaO2. However, FEV1 % was lower in males than females (p<0,005). On the other hand, FVC % was lower in the females compared with the males (p < 0.02). When analyzing the influence of PFT and demographic parameters on PH in separate COPD level groups, the results a bit varied among the groups. Conclusion; Our study demonstrated that PH frequency is higher in female COPD cases due to biomass smoke than in male COPD cases due to tobacco smoke. The influence of FVC % on the risk of a person having PH increased with increasing COPD level.

Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Gumrukcuoglu, Hasan Ali; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Akil, Mehmet Ata

2012-01-01

201

Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C

2012-01-01

202

Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed Central

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended.

Jiloha, Ram C.

2012-01-01

203

"Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

Sebrie, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

2007-01-01

204

Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

2014-01-01

205

Tobacco smoking, nicotine, and nicotine and non-nicotine replacement therapies.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk for the development of coronary and pulmonary vascular diseases and smoking cessation will greatly reduce this risk. Nicotine replacement and nonnicotine modalities have been used alone and in combination to help in smoking cessation. These treatment modalities appear to be safe in patients with known stable coronary artery disease. PMID:11975821

Frishman, W H; Ky, T; Ismail, A

2001-01-01

206

Transcriptome alterations in maternal and fetal cells induced by tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesMaternal smoking has a negative effect on all stages of pregnancy. Tobacco smoke-related defects are well established at the clinical level; however, less is known about molecular mechanisms underlying these pathologic conditions. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome alterations induced by smoking in maternal and fetal cells.

H. Votavova; M. Dostalova Merkerova; K. Fejglova; A. Vasikova; Z. Krejcik; A. Pastorkova; N. Tabashidze; J. Topinka; M. Veleminsky; R. J. Sram; R. Brdicka

2011-01-01

207

Community-Based Interventions for Smokers: The COMMIT Field Experience. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Smoking Control and the COMMIT Experience-Summary and Overview(Trends in the Magnitude of Smoking as a Public Health Problem, Activities of the Tobacco Industry, COMMIT and the Evolution of the National Cancer Institute's Smoking and Tob...

1995-01-01

208

Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer mortality in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been classified as a human lung carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), based both on the chemical similarity of sidestream and mainstream smoke and on slightly higher lung cancer risk in never-smokers whose spouses smoke compared with those married to nonsmokers. We evaluated the relation between ETS and lung cancer prospectively in

Victor M. Cardenas; Michael J. Thun; Harland Austin; Cathy A. Lally; Raymond S. Greenberg; Clark W. Heath

1997-01-01

209

Tobacco smoking: patterns, health consequences for adults, and the long-term health of the offspring.  

PubMed

Tobacco use started several centuries ago and increased markedly after the invention of the cigarette making machine. Once people start smoking they find it difficult to quit the habit. This is due to the addictive effect of nicotine in tobacco smoke. Various epidemiologic and laboratory studies clearly showed that smoking is associated with various diseases such as heart diseases, asthma and emphysema and the associated increase in morbidity and mortality of smokers. Several studies implicate nicotine as the causative factor in tobacco smoke. Apart from nicotine, various carcinogens also occur in tobacco smoke resulting in an increase in the incidence of cancer in smokers. While the smoking habit is decreasing in developed countries, tobacco use increases in the developing countries. Smoking prevalence is also highest in poor communities and amongst those with low education levels. It is important to note that, although ther is a decline in the number of smokers in the developed countries, there is a three to four decades lag between the peak in smoking prevalence and the subsequent peak in smoking related mortality. It has been shown that maternal smoking induces respiratory diseases in the offspring. There is also evidence that parental smoking may program the offspring to develop certain diseases later in life. Various studies showed that maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation via tobacco smoke of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), program the offspring to develop compromised lung structure later in life with the consequent compromised lung function. This implies that NRT is not an option to assist pregnant or lactating smokers to quit the habit. Even paternal smoking may have an adverse effect on the health of the offspring since it has been shown that 2nd and 3rd hand smoking have adverse health consequences for those exposed to it. PMID:22980343

Maritz, Gert S; Mutemwa, Muyunda

2012-07-01

210

Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

211

Acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and heart rate variability.  

PubMed Central

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Pathophysiologic pathways leading from ETS exposure to cardiopulmonary disease are still being explored. Reduced cardiac autonomic function, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), has been associated with cardiac vulnerability and may represent an important pathophysiologic mechanism linking ETS and risk of cardiac mortality. In this study we evaluated acute ETS exposure in a commercial airport with changes in HRV in 16 adult nonsmokers. We conducted ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring for 8-hr periods while participants alternated 2 hr in nonsmoking and smoking areas. Nicotine and respirable suspended particle concentrations and participants' blood oxygen saturation were also monitored. We calculated time and frequency domain measures of HRV for periods in and out of the smoking area, and we evaluated associations with ETS using comparative statistics and regression modeling. ETS exposure was negatively associated with all measures of HRV. During exposure periods, we observed an average decrement of approximately 12% in the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal heart beat intervals (an estimate of overall HRV). ETS exposures were not associated with mean heart rate or blood oxygen saturation. Altered cardiac autonomic function, assessed by decrements in HRV, is associated with acute exposure to ETS and may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms linking ETS exposure and increased cardiac vulnerability.

Pope, C A; Eatough, D J; Gold, D R; Pang, Y; Nielsen, K R; Nath, P; Verrier, R L; Kanner, R E

2001-01-01

212

Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures and the risk of infection, disease, and death from TB. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals on how tobacco smoking, passive smoke exposure, and indoor air pollution are associated with TB. We identified 33 papers on tobacco smoking and TB, five papers on passive smoking and TB, and five on indoor air pollution and TB. We found substantial evidence that tobacco smoking is positively associated with TB, regardless of the specific TB outcomes. Compared with people who do not smoke, smokers have an increased risk of having a positive tuberculin skin test, of having active TB, and of dying from TB. Although we also found evidence that passive smoking and indoor air pollution increased the risk of TB disease, these associations are less strongly supported by the available evidence. Conclusions There is consistent evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with an increased risk of TB. The finding that passive smoking and biomass fuel combustion also increase TB risk should be substantiated with larger studies in future. TB control programs might benefit from a focus on interventions aimed at reducing tobacco and indoor air pollution exposures, especially among those at high risk for exposure to TB.

Lin, Hsien-Ho; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Megan

2007-01-01

213

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.?DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.?RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).?CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco on-screen are significantly more likely to have an advanced smoking status and more favourable attitudes toward smoking than adolescents who choose non-smoking stars. This finding supports the proposition that the portrayal of tobacco use in contemporary motion pictures, particularly by stars who are admired by adolescents, contributes to adolescent smoking.???Keywords: adolescent smoking; movies; media influences

Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

2001-01-01

214

Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

2012-08-01

215

Removal and leakage of environmental tobacco smoke from a model smoking room.  

PubMed

Experimental studies on the removal of accumulated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the effectiveness of ETS leakage control were carried out in a model smoking room using carbon monoxide, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particulates, and ultrafine particles (UFP) as the ETS tracers. The study investigated the effectiveness of the designated smoking room, equipped with a displacement ventilation system under different ventilation rates (10-58 L/sec per person,) in removing the ETS tracers. The extent of ETS leakage through different door operating scenarios under various ventilation rates was intensively studied. In particular, a manikin installed on a motorized rail was used to study the effect of human movement on the leakage of the ETS tracers. A double-door anteroom design was incorporated into the smoking room to study its effectiveness in ETS leakage prevention. It shows that at least 5 Pa of negative pressure, a fresh air supply rate 3-5 times higher than a typical office, direct air exhaust without air recirculation, and keeping the door closed are important for reducing ETS leakage. However, with the smokers moving in and out and the opening of the door, noticeable leakage of ETS can occur. The double-door anteroom design can improve leakage prevention. Among the five tracers, nicotine required the longest purging time to remove, after the smoking activity was stopped in the smoking room, due to its highly sorptive property. At least 4.4-6 hr of purging is needed for minimizing ETS exposure by non-smokers entering the smoking room. The peak size of particulate matter inside the smoking room is about 80-100 nm, suggesting the importance of including UFP as an indicator for monitoring the exposure and leakage of ETS. The impact of manikin movement on contaminant transport was studied, providing useful information on the effects of human activities on indoor air quality multicompartmental modeling. PMID:20694932

Wan, Man-Pun; Wu, Chi-Li; Chan, Tsz-Tung; Chao, Christopher Y H; Yeung, Lam-Lung

2010-10-01

216

Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in young adolescents following implementation of smoke-free policy in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated acute and chronic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a cohort of young adolescents using urinary cotinine and hair nicotine testing after recent implementation of Italian smoke free legislation.Study subjects were 372 Italian young adolescents, between 10 and 16 years of age from the principal city of Sicily, Palermo. Urine and hair samples were collected between November

M. Pellegrini; M. C. Rotolo; S. La Grutta; F. Cibella; O. Garcia-Algar; A. Bacosi; G. Cuttitta; R. Pacifici; S. Pichini

2010-01-01

217

Non-smoking policies, tobacco education, and smoking cessation programmes in facilities serving the elderly in Michigan, United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of and impetus for smoke-free policies in facilities serving Michigan's elderly, and the extent of tobacco education and smoking cessation programmes for elders and staff of these facilities. DESIGN: Telephone survey in February 1997 of three types of facilities serving Michigan's elderly population. SUBJECTS: Area Agencies on Aging (n = 12), Councils and Commissions on

J. A. Bergman; J. L. Falit

1997-01-01

218

Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Results: Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14–0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43–1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04–1.34). Interpretation: Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level.

Mecredy, Graham C.; Diemert, Lori M.; Callaghan, Russell C.; Cohen, Joanna E.

2013-01-01

219

[Effect of tobacco smoking on skin and mucosa appearance, ageing and pathological conditions].  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is considered to be one of the main factors that negatively affect the skin, mucous membranes and teeth, i.e. the body parts that decide on the so called 'healthy look' and 'attraction'. This paper is a review of literature on the subject of harmful and pathological influence of tobacco smoking on the skin and the immunological system. Furthermore, the paper described such smoking results as wrinkle development, skin elasticity and thickness loss, as well as a decreased ability of tissues to regenerate. Finally, the authors discussed various diseases connected with tobacco use: changes in the skin, teeth and mucous membranes, and cancerous lesions. PMID:19189590

Czoga?a, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej ?; Czubek, Agnieszka; Go?abek, Karolina; Sobczak, Andrzej

2008-01-01

220

Induction of apoptosis with tobacco smoke and related products in A549 lung epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study has investigated the ability of tobacco smoke, and ingredients of tobacco smoke, to induce apoptosis in the airway epithelial cell line A549. METHOD: A549 cells were treated with 80 ?g\\/ml Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC), 10 mM Nicotine, 10 ?M paraldehyde, 10 ?M hydrogen peroxide, 1 ?M Taxol® (Paclitaxel), 100%, 50% and 25% cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Following

Lindsay Ramage; Amanda C Jones; Clifford J Whelan

2006-01-01

221

Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449

Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

2012-10-01

222

A global toxicogenomic analysis investigating the mechanistic differences between tobacco and marijuana smoke condensates in vitro.  

PubMed

Like tobacco smoking, habitual marijuana smoking causes numerous adverse pulmonary effects. However, the mechanisms of action involved, especially as compared to tobacco smoke, are still unclear. To uncover putative modes of action, this study employed a toxicogenomics approach to compare the toxicological pathways perturbed following exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke condensate in vitro. Condensates of mainstream smoke from hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana cigarettes were similarly prepared using identical smoking conditions. Murine lung epithelial cells were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of the smoke condensates for 6h. RNA was extracted immediately or after a 4h recovery period and hybridized to mouse whole genome microarrays. Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) exposure was associated with changes in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage response. These same pathways were also significantly affected following marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) exposure. Although the effects of the condensates were largely similar, dose-response analysis indicates that the MSC is substantially more potent than TSC. In addition, steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways were more significantly affected following MSC exposure, whereas M phase cell cycle pathways were more significantly affected following TSC exposure. MSC exposure also appeared to elicit more severe oxidative stress than TSC exposure, which may account for the greater cytotoxicity of MSC. This study shows that in general MSC impacts many of the same molecular processes as TSC. However, subtle pathway differences can provide insight into the differential toxicities of the two complex mixtures. PMID:23542559

Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

2013-06-01

223

Menthol sensory qualities and smoking topography: a review of tobacco industry documents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about the potential effects of menthol on smoking topography—how a person smokes a cigarette. Methods A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 1 June 2010 and 9 August 2010. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 252 documents related to menthol and smoking topography. Results The tobacco industry knew that menthol has cooling, anaesthetic and analgesic properties that moderate the harshness and irritation of tobacco. Owing to its physiological effects, menthol contributes to the sensory qualities of the smoke and affects smoking topography and cigarette preference. Conclusion Our review of industry studies suggests that the amount of menthol in a cigarette is associated with how the cigarette is smoked and how satisfying it is to the smoker. If menthol in cigarettes was banned, as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is currently considering, new/experimental smokers might choose not to smoke rather than experience the harshness of tobacco smoke and the irritating qualities of nicotine. Similarly, established menthol smokers might choose to quit if faced with an unpleasant smoking alternative.

McCandless, Phyra M

2011-01-01

224

Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass, and prevalence of heart disease - A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime, and ash) with prevalent HD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Baseline data (collected in 2004–2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. Participants 50,045 residents of Golestan (40–75 years old; 42.4% male). Main outcome measures ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. Results A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use versus never use, OR= 3.75; 95% CI 1.52 – 9.22; P for trend= 0.04). This association persisted when using different cutoff points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use versus never use, OR= 0.91; 95% CI 0.69 – 1.20). Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies.

Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D.; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo

2013-01-01

225

Tobacco Taxes: Large Disparities in Rates for Smoking Products Trigger Significant Market Shifts to Avoid Higher Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, CHIPRA increased and equalized federal excise tax rates for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, and small cigars. Though CHIPRA also increased federal excise tax rates for pipe tobacco and large cigars, it raised the pipe tobacco tax to a rate sig...

2012-01-01

226

Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

2013-01-01

227

Influence of Traditional Tobacco Use on Smoking Cessation among American Indians  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the influence of traditional tobacco use on smoking cessation among American Indian adult smokers. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey of self-identified American Indians was conducted from 2008 to 2009. A total of 998 American Indian adults (18 years and older) from the Midwest, participated in the study. Measurements Traditional tobacco use and method of traditional use were both assessed. Commercial tobacco use (current smoking) was obtained through self-reported information as well as the length of their most recent quit attempt. We also assessed knowledge and awareness of pharmacotherapy for current smokers. Findings Among participants in our study, 33.3% were current smokers and they reported smoking an average of 10 cigarettes per day. American Indian current smokers who used traditional tobacco reported greater number of days abstinent during their last quit attempt compared to those who do not use traditional tobacco (p=0.01). However, it appears that this protective effect of traditional tobacco use is diminished if the person smokes traditional tobacco. Finally, very few (less than 20% of current smokers) were aware of more recent forms of pharmacotherapy such as Chantix or Bupropion. Conclusions American Indians appear to show low levels of awareness of effective pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation but those who use `traditional tobacco' report somewhat longer periods of abstinence from past quit attempts.

Daley, Christine M.; Faseru, Babalola; Nazir, Niaman; Solomon, Cheree; Greiner, K. Allen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Choi, Won S.

2011-01-01

228

US Adult Attitudes and Practices Regarding Smoking Restrictions and Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Changes in the Social Climate From 2000 -2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smok- ing bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and non- smokers regarding smoking bans

Robert C. McMillen; Jonathan P. Winickoff; Jonathan D. Klein; Michael Weitzman

2010-01-01

229

Adaptation of an amphibian mucociliary clearance model to evaluate early effects of tobacco smoke exposure  

PubMed Central

Rationale Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent process. By the time clinical manifestations require medical attention, several structural and functional changes have already occurred. The respiratory system has to undergo an iterative process of injury, healing and remodeling with every exposure. Methods To have a better understanding of the initial changes that take place when first exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, we have developed an exposure model, using the frog palate that closely represents the features of obstructive airways where ciliary dysfunction and mucus hypersecretion occur. Results Mucus transport was significantly reduced, even after exposure to the smoke of one cigarette (p < 0.05) and even further with 4-cigarettes exposure (p < 0.001). Morphometric and ultrastructural studies by SEM show extensive areas of tissue disruption. Gelatinase zymography shows activation of MMP9 in mucus from palates exposed to tobacco smoke. Conclusions The clearance of mucus on the frog palate is significantly reduced after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Cilia and the extracellular matrix are anatomically disrupted. Tobacco smoke triggers an increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases associated with a substantial defoliation of ciliated epithelium. These studies enhance the knowledge of the changes in the mucociliary apparatus that occur initially after exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, with the goal of understanding how these changes relate to the genesis of chronic airway pathologies in humans.

Zayas, J Gustavo; O'Brien, Darryl W; Tai, Shusheng; Ding, Jie; Lim, Leonard; King, Malcolm

2004-01-01

230

Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples). However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load)\\/non-lung cancer mortality

Bruce N Leistikow; Zubair Kabir; Gregory N Connolly; Luke Clancy; Hillel R Alpert

2008-01-01

231

How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To reduce tobacco-attributable death and disease, public health efforts since the 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health have emphasized the importance of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use. Although progress has been made, approximately ...

2010-01-01

232

Awareness of an obstetric population about environmental tobacco smoking  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The reported rate of women's smoking is typically low. However, many pregnant women are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which could affect their own health and the health of their growing fetus. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the problem of exposure to ETS and assess the awareness of postpartum women to ETS and its possible effects. Designs and Settings: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1182 postpartum women at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1st January and 30th June, 2012. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with the level of understanding of the possible effects of ETS exposure were analyzed. Results: The majority of the participating women knew that exposure to ETS had adverse effects on maternal and fetal health (>80%), but their knowledge of the specific effects on fetal health was limited. The level of mothers’ education was found to be associated with better knowledge of effects on mother and fetal health (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study revealed that pregnant women in our sample had limited knowledge of the specific effects of ETS on fetal health. This shortcoming in knowledge needs to be addressed by improving health.

Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Alzeidan, Rasmieh A.; Mandil, Ahmed M. A.; Fayed, Amel A.; Marwa, Bilal; Wahabi, Hayfaa A.

2014-01-01

233

ADHD Diagnosis May Influence the Association between Polymorphisms in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes and Tobacco Smoking.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster have been shown to be involved in tobacco smoking susceptibility. Considering that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only increases the risk but may also influence the molecular mechanisms of tobacco smoking, we analyzed the association between polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and tobacco smoking among individuals with or without ADHD. The sample included 1,118 subjects divided into four groups according to smoking status and ADHD diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that the minor alleles of two polymorphisms (rs578776 and rs3743078) in the CHRNA3 gene are associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking only among patients with ADHD. These alleles have been shown in previous studies to be protective factors for smoking in subjects without ADHD. These findings add to existing evidence that ADHD may exert an important modifying effect on the genetic risk of smoking and should be considered in tobacco smoking association studies. PMID:24375168

Polina, Evelise R; Rovaris, Diego L; de Azeredo, Lucas A; Mota, Nina R; Vitola, Eduardo S; Silva, Katiane L; Guimarães-da-Silva, Paula O; Picon, Felipe A; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton H D

2014-06-01

234

Smoking Cessation  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Health Disparities Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... Youth Tobacco Prevention Celebrities Against Smoking Tobacco-Free Sports Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS ...

235

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure.  

PubMed

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva continine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average continine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whose only exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure. PMID:10765410

LaKind, J S; Jenkins, R A; Naiman, D Q; Ginevan, M E; Graves, C G; Tardiff, R G

1999-06-01

236

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth.

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

237

Fetal and Postnatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke and Respiratory Health in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to find out whether fetal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), as compared to postnatal ETS exposure, is an independent risk factor for respiratory symptoms and diseases in younger schoolchildren. The cross-sectional epidemiological study comprised population of 1,561 Polish schoolchildren, aged 9–11 years. Information on the exposure to tobacco smoke and other sources of indoor

Renata Zlotkowska; Jan E. Zejda

2005-01-01

238

Exposure to Pro-tobacco Messages and Smoking Status Among Mexican Origin Youth.  

PubMed

Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14-19. Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points-in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 (N = 942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-2009 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-2011. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR = 1.21; 95 % CI 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

2014-06-01

239

Tobacco smoking and environmental risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is multifactorial, and the risk factors include both genetic and environmental factors. Although tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for COPD, many other associated factors remain underappreciated or neglected. Upto 50% of cases of COPD can be attributed to nonsmoking risk factors. This article describes the role of tobacco smoking and the various environmental risk factors associated with the development of COPD. PMID:24507834

Salvi, Sundeep

2014-03-01

240

Tobacco Smoking and Depression – Results from the WHO\\/ISBRA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To elucidate the relationship between tobacco smoking and depression, and to estimate the impact of other substance dependencies. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: A total of 1,849 men and women were interviewed face-to-face using a validated structured questionnaire. According to their tobacco smoking behavior, participants were grouped into never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers. Measurements: Data were generated through the WHO\\/ISBRA

G. A. Wiesbeck; H.-C. Kuhl; Ö. Yaldizli; F. M. Wurst

2008-01-01

241

Pulmonary Prostacyclin Synthase Overexpression Chemoprevents Tobacco Smoke Lung Carcinogenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pulmonary production of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) by lung-specific overexpression of prostacyclin synthase decreases lung tu- mor incidence and multiplicity in chemically induced murine lung cancer models. We hypothesized that pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overex- pression would prevent lung carcinogenesis in tobacco-smoke exposed mice. Murine exposure to tobacco smoke is an established model of inducing pulmonary adenocarcinomas and allows for the

Robert L. Keith; York E. Miller; Tyler M. Hudish; Carlos E. Girod; Sylk Sotto-Santiago; Wilbur A. Franklin; Raphael A. Nemenoff; Thomas H. March; S. Patrick Nana-Sinkam; Mark W. Geraci

2004-01-01

242

Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM 10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM 10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM 2.5) and even smaller particles (PM 1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information on fine particles is needed. Aiming to evaluate the impact of tobacco smoke on public health, this work evaluates the influence of tobacco smoke on the characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 considering concentration and elemental composition. Samples were collected at sites influenced by tobacco smoke, as well as at reference sites, using low-volume samplers; the element analyses were performed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE); Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, I, Ba, La, Ce and Pb were quantified. At the sites influenced by tobacco smoke concentrations were 270-560% higher for PM 10 and 320-680% higher for PM 2.5 than at reference sites. Tobacco smoke increased the total concentrations of five carcinogenic elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb) 1100-2400% for PM 10 and 840-2200% for PM 2.5. The elements associated with tobacco smoke (S, K, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were predominantly present in the fine fraction; the elements mostly originating from building erosion (Mg, Al, Si and Ca) predominantly occurred in the coarse particles. The analysis of enrichment factors confirmed that tobacco smoking mainly influenced the composition of the fine fraction of particles; as these smaller particles have a strong influence on health, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

Slezakova, K.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

243

Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

Jiang, Nan

2011-01-01

244

Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.  

PubMed

This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

Ribisl, Kurt M

2012-01-01

245

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in

Norbert Hirschhorn; Stella Aguinaga Bialous

2001-01-01

246

Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strat- egy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10 035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to

James F. Thrasher; Jeffrey D. Niederdeppe; Christine Jackson; Matthew C. Farrelly

2006-01-01

247

Survival of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Due to Biomass Smoke and Tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Women exposed chronically to biomass develop airflow limitation, as tobacco smokers do, but their clinical profile and survival have not been described in detail. Objective: To determine the clinical profile, survival, and prognostic factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with biomass exposure and tobacco smoking. Methods: During a 7-yr period (1996-2003), a consecutive series of 520 patients were

Alejandra Ramirez-Venegas; Raul H. Sansores; Rogelio Perez-Padilla; Justino Regalado; Alejandra Velazquez; Candelaria Sanchez; Maria Eugenia Mayar

2005-01-01

248

The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) – tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant

Chuan Liu; Yves DeGrandpré; Andrew Porter; Alexander Griffiths; Kevin McAdam; Richard Voisine; France Côté; Christopher Proctor

2011-01-01

249

Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.

Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

250

Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.  

PubMed

This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

2012-05-01

251

Reversible and permanent effects of tobacco smoke exposure on airway epithelial gene expression  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the US. The risk of dying from smoking-related diseases remains elevated for former smokers years after quitting. The identification of irreversible effects of tobacco smoke on airway gene expression may provide insights into the causes of this elevated risk. Results Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we measured gene expression in large airway epithelial cells obtained via bronchoscopy from never, current, and former smokers (n = 104). Linear models identified 175 genes differentially expressed between current and never smokers, and classified these as irreversible (n = 28), slowly reversible (n = 6), or rapidly reversible (n = 139) based on their expression in former smokers. A greater percentage of irreversible and slowly reversible genes were down-regulated by smoking, suggesting possible mechanisms for persistent changes, such as allelic loss at 16q13. Similarities with airway epithelium gene expression changes caused by other environmental exposures suggest that common mechanisms are involved in the response to tobacco smoke. Finally, using irreversible genes, we built a biomarker of ever exposure to tobacco smoke capable of classifying an independent set of former and current smokers with 81% and 100% accuracy, respectively. Conclusion We have categorized smoking-related changes in airway gene expression by their degree of reversibility upon smoking cessation. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms leading to reversible and persistent effects of tobacco smoke that may explain former smokers increased risk for developing tobacco-induced lung disease and provide novel targets for chemoprophylaxis. Airway gene expression may also serve as a sensitive biomarker to identify individuals with past exposure to tobacco smoke.

Beane, Jennifer; Sebastiani, Paola; Liu, Gang; Brody, Jerome S; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

2007-01-01

252

Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.  

PubMed

Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups. PMID:24871250

Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskink?l?ç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Ta?t?, Enver; Er?ahin, Y?lmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

2014-05-30

253

The tobacco industry's past role in weight control related to smoking  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson and British American Tobacco) that were Defendants in tobacco litigation settled in 1998. Findings are dated from 1949 to 1999. Results: The documents revealed the strategies planned and used by the industry to enhance effects of smoking on weight and appetite, mostly by chemical modifications of cigarettes contents. Appetite-suppressant molecules, such as tartaric acid and 2-acetylpyridine were added to some cigarettes. Conclusion: These tobacco companies played an active and not disclaimed role in the anti-appetite effects of smoking, at least in the past, by adding appetite-suppressant molecules into their cigarettes.

Jacot-Sadowski, Isabelle; Diethelm, Pascal A.; Barras, Vincent; Cornuz, Jacques

2012-01-01

254

Daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: smokers vs nonsmokers in California.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the differences in environmental tobacco smoke exposure between smokers and non-smokers. METHODS: A probability sample of 1579 California adults completed a 1-day time diary of a full day's activities in which they reported whether any smoker was present during each activity. RESULTS: Some 61% of respondents reported at least some environmental tobacco smoke exposure in these diary accounts (for an average of up to 5 hours per day), and potential exposure rose monotonically with number of cigarettes actively smoked. Heaviest smokers reported about four times as much such exposure as nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Because smokers lead life-styles that expose them to far higher levels of environmental tobacco smoke exposure, that factor needs to be controlled in studies estimating the effects of active smoking.

Robinson, J P; Switzer, P; Ott, W

1996-01-01

255

Marijuana use and tobacco smoking cessation among heavy alcohol drinkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWhereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking.

Jane Metrik; Nichea S. Spillane; Adam M. Leventhal; Christopher W. Kahler

256

Smokeless Tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

... or Health: An International Perspective A Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph, from the National Cancer Institute. Smokeless Tobacco Fact Sheets: 3rd International Congress on Smokeless Tobacco ...

257

Public Health Under Attack: The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

We describe the tobacco industry’s response to the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Tobacco industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco/Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and industry Web sites were analyzed. LexisNexis and the Library of Congress’s Thomas Web site were searched for legislative history. We found that the tobacco industry considered ASSIST a major threat because of its emphasis on policy and creation of local tobacco control infrastructures. The industry mobilized resources for a well-coordinated attack on ASSIST. Although industry executives were sometimes frustrated in their efforts, they ultimately had a chilling effect on ASSIST. This evidence suggest that tobacco control advocates should expect a vigorous response from the tobacco industry to policy advocacy efforts, particularly at the local level.

White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

258

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

259

Prevalence of and Associations with Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among U.S. University Students  

PubMed Central

Background Although waterpipe tobacco smoking seems to be increasing on U.S. university campuses, these data have come from convenience samples. Purpose We aimed to determine the prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among a random sample of students. Methods We surveyed a random sample of graduate and undergraduate students at a large, urban university. We used multivariate modeling to determine independent associations between belief-related predictors and waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Of the 647 respondents, waterpipe smoking was reported in 40.5%, over the past year in 30.6%, and over the past 30 days in 9.5%. Over half of the sample (52.1%) perceived that tobacco smoking from a waterpipe was less addictive than cigarette smoking. In fully adjusted multivariate models, 1-year waterpipe smoking was associated with low perceived harm (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.68, 3.83), low perceived addictiveness (OR=4.64, 95% CI=3.03, 7.10), perception of high social acceptability (OR=20.00, 95% CI=6.03, 66.30), and high perception of popularity (OR=4.72, 95% CI=2.85, 7.82). Conclusions In this sample, lifetime waterpipe use was as common as lifetime cigarette use. Perception of harm, perception of addictiveness, social acceptability, and popularity were all strongly related to waterpipe smoking.

Primack, Brian A.; Sidani, Jaime; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Shadel, William G.; Donny, Eric C.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

260

Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

1985-05-01

261

The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students incorporating the importance of peer effects and allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have a direct effect and an indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. To control for the potential endogeneity of our

Lisa M. Powell; John A. Tauras; Hana Ross

2005-01-01

262

Turkish Coffeehouse “Kahvehane’’ is An Important Tobacco Smoke Exposure Area in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the extent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in coffeehouses, as these are commonly frequented public places in Turkey. From 86 coffeehouses in the 3 districts, 59 coffeehouse workers and 35 hospital staff members (as a control group) were evaluated. Participants answered a questionnaire about demographics, working characteristics, smoking behavior, and ETS exposure during

Fatma Fidan; Hulya Guven; Ozlem Eminoglu; Sule Kalkan; Gul Ergor; Arif Cimrin

2005-01-01

263

Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Epidemiology (The Smokeless Tobacco Problem: Risk Groups in North America, Surveillance of and Knowledge About Cancer Associated With Smokeless Tobacco Use, Smokeless Tobacco Use in India); Clinical and Pathological Effects (Oral Mucosal...

1992-01-01

264

Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in tobacco smoke, and pathways for formation of OH and peroxyl species. Tobacco smoke provides a new perspective of radical generation in a relatively well-defined biomass burning process.

Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

2012-12-01

265

Tobacco Smoking Using Midwakh Is an Emerging Health Problem - Evidence from a Large Cross-Sectional Survey in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accurate information about the prevalence and types of tobacco use is essential to deliver effective public health policy. We aimed to study the prevalence and modes of tobacco consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), particularly focusing on the use of Midwakh (Arabic traditional pipe). Methods We studied 170,430 UAE nationals aged ?18 years (44% males and 56% females) in the Weqaya population-based screening program in Abu Dhabi residents during the period April 2008–June 2010. Self-reported smoking status, type, quantity and duration of tobacco smoked were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study findings; prevalence rates used the screened sample as the denominator. Result The prevalence of smoking overall was 24.3% in males and 0.8% in females and highest in males aged 20–39. Mean age (SD) of smokers was 32.8 (11.1) years, 32.7 (11.1) in males and 35.7 (12.1) in females. Cigarette smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use (77.4% of smokers), followed by Midwakh (15.0%), shisha (waterpipe) (6.8%), and cigar (0.66%). The mean durations of smoking for cigarettes, Midwakh, shisha and cigars were 11.4, 9.3, 7.6 and 11.0 years, respectively. Conclusions Smoking is most common among younger UAE national men. The use of Midwakh and the relatively young age of onset of Midwakh smokers is of particular concern as is the possibility of the habit spreading to other countries. Comprehensive tobacco control laws targeting the young and the use of Midwakh are needed.

Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Ali, Raghib; Hajat, Cother

2012-01-01

266

A qualitative study on tobacco smoking and betel quid use among Burmese refugees in Australia.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence suggests that there are high rates of smoking among Burmese men in Wollongong, Australia. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the beliefs and experiences of Burmese refugees in Wollongong on smoking to guide the development of smoking cessation interventions. Three focus groups were conducted with Burmese refugees. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with service providers involved with Burmese refugees. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants were aware of the health effects of tobacco smoking but had little knowledge of support for quitting. Many participants chewed betel quid and were unaware of the health consequences. Service providers noted the lack of resources on smoking and betel quid use for Burmese people. Smoking cessation interventions for Burmese people should consider the co-related use of betel quid due to the possibility of inadvertently encouraging use of betel nut as an alternative to tobacco. PMID:23892575

Furber, Susan; Jackson, Janet; Johnson, Keryn; Sukara, Radmila; Franco, Lisa

2013-12-01

267

Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and available through http:// roswell.tobaccodocuments.org, supplemented with documents obtained from http://www.tobaccodocuments.org. Results: Tobacco company documents provide clear evidence on the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette smoking, describing how tax related and other price increases lead to significant reductions in smoking, particularly among young persons. This information was very important in developing the industry's pricing strategies, including the development of lower price branded generics and the pass through of cigarette excise tax increases, and in developing a variety of price related marketing efforts, including multi-pack discounts, couponing, and others. Conclusions: Pricing and price related promotions are among the most important marketing tools employed by tobacco companies. Future tobacco control efforts that aim to raise prices and limit price related marketing efforts are likely to be important in achieving reductions in tobacco use and the public health toll caused by tobacco.

Chaloupka, F; Cummings, K; Morley, C.; Horan, J.

2002-01-01

268

Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z. [Rovinj Crotia J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01

269

Challenging the epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking: tactics of tobacco industry expert witnesses  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the statements given by tobacco industry defence witnesses during trial testimonies and depositions in second?hand smoke cases and in parallel, to review criticisms of epidemiology in industry?funded publications in order to identify strategies for discrediting epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking health effects. Methods A collection of depositions and trial testimony transcripts from tobacco industry?related lawsuits filed in the United States during the 1990s, was compiled and indexed by the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Statements in DATTA made by expert witnesses representing the tobacco industry relating to the health effects of passive smoking were identified and reviewed. Industry?supported publications within the peer?reviewed literature were also examined for statements on exposure misclassification, meta?analysis, and confounding. Results The witnesses challenged causation of adverse health effects of passive smoking by citing limitations of epidemiologic research, raising methodological and statistical issues, and disputing biological plausibility. Though not often cited directly by the witnesses, the defence tactics mirrored the strategies used in industry?funded reports in the peer?reviewed literature. Conclusion The tobacco industry attempted to redirect the focus and dialogue related to the epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking. This approach, used by industry experts in trial testimony and depositions, placed bias as a certain alternative to causation of diseases related to passive smoking and proposed an unachievable standard for establishing the mechanism of disease.

Francis, John A; Shea, Amy K

2006-01-01

270

Tobacco Smoking Leads to Extensive Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (–24.40% methylation; p?=?2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers.

Zeilinger, Sonja; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjorg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin

2013-01-01

271

Design, construction, and evaluation of an inhalation system for exposing experimental animals to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

An inhalation system was designed to expose experimental animals to aged and diluted sidestream smoke (ADSS), used as a surrogate for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The construction of the smoke generator and of the smoke dilution systems is described. Target ADSS concentrations in a 90-day inhalation study were 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/m3 of respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Data is presented on the physical and chemical composition of the smoke presented to animals at or near these target RSP concentrations. The design of the inhalation laboratory was shown to result in highly reproducible respirable aerosols that were effective surrogates of ETS. PMID:7942514

Ayres, P H; Mosberg, A T; Coggins, C R

1994-09-01

272

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure  

SciTech Connect

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-06-01

273

Plutonium-239, /sup 240/Pu and /sup 210/Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the /sup 210/Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of /sup 210/Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

1985-08-01

274

The Influence of Parity and Smoking in the Social Environment on Tobacco Consumption among Daily Smoking Women in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper isto determine factors associated with higher tobacco consumption in a large cohort of daily smoking Danish women 27–39 years of age with a main focus on the smoking habits of people in the women’s social environment and parity. A cohort of 12,023 Danish women was examined in a cross-sectional study design with a mailed questionnaire.

Luise L. Mueller; Christian Munk; Birthe L. Thomsen; Kirsten Frederiksen; Susanne K. Kjaer

2007-01-01

275

Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals’ perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents’ subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more ‘antismoking’ if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms.

Hamilton, William L.; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T.

2008-01-01

276

A descriptive study of smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine waterpipe smoking and beliefs about waterpipe smoking in a sample of college students from a public university in Virginia. Data Sources A web-based survey was sent to 1,000 undergraduate students recruiting them to participate in the study. Measures from the investigator-developed Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Waterpipe Questionnaire were used to capture belief-based components of the TRA related to waterpipe use. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions Of the sample (n=223), 73% of males and 63% of females reporting ever smoking tobacco using a waterpipe and 23% of males and 7% of females reporting current waterpipe smoking. Of the sample 29% of males and 10% of females were current cigarette smokers and 25% of males and 13% of females were current marijuana users. Common beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking are also presented. Implications for Practice Nurse Practitioner’s working with college students need to be aware of the multiple forms of tobacco that students may engage in. They also should be aware of the common beliefs about waterpipe smoking. This information is useful when targeting and counseling patients about alternative tobacco products like waterpipe smoking.

Noonan, Devon

2012-01-01

277

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of solanesol was compromised--as it had been in the chamber experiments.

Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

2004-03-02

278

Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoke is one of the greatest sources of indoor particles, which has been linked with serious health effects. Consequently, there has been a widespread interest in analysing tobacco related indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, the majority of performed studies focused on bulk chemical composition of tobacco related PM, but the knowledge of individual tobacco smoke particles is still limited. Therefore, more information on PM should be provided, namely concerning morphological and chemical characterisation of individual particles. Aiming to further understand the impact of tobacco smoke on human health, this work studied the influence of tobacco smoke on chemical and morphological characteristics of PM 10 and PM 2.5, collected at one site influenced by smoking and at one reference (non-smoking) site. Chemical and morphological characteristics of 4000 individual particles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray microanalysis (by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer - EDS). Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify different particle groups that occurred in PM, aiming the identification of the respective emission sources. The results showed that tobacco smoke influenced the characteristics of both fine and coarse particles, this influence being stronger for fine fraction. The abundance of particles associated with tobacco smoke was 27% and 5% for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, respectively; as expected, those particles were not identified in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 of the reference (non-smoking) site. The results showed that at both sites PM was also influenced by outdoor sources. For PM 2.5-10, outdoor particles essentially originated from natural sources accounting for 35% and 15% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively. For PM 2.5, outdoor particles account for 38% and 29% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively; these particles showed considerable contribution (13% and 17%) from anthropogenic sources (mainly from traffic emissions). In general SEM-EDS showed to be a useful technique to complement characterisation of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, and to identify the respective emission sources.

Slezakova, K.; Pires, J. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

2011-02-01

279

Distance-based training in two community health centers to address tobacco smoke exposure of children  

PubMed Central

Background The CEASE (Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure) intervention was developed to help pediatricians routinely and effectively address the harms of family smoking behaviors. Based on paper versions of CEASE, we partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics’ online education department and developed a completely distance-based training, including an online CME training, handouts and education materials for families, and phone and email support. Methods The pediatric offices of two low income health clinics with primarily Medicaid populations were selected for the study. Pre and post intervention data by survey of the parents was collected in both practices (Practice 1 n?=?470; Practice 2 n?=?177). The primary outcome for this study was a comparison of rates of clinician’s asking and advising parents about smoking and smoke-free home and cars. Results Exit surveys of parents revealed statistically significant increases in rates of clinicians asking about parental smoking (22% vs. 41%), smoke-free rules (25% vs. 44%), and asking about other smoking household members (26% vs. 48%). Conclusions Through a completely distance based intervention, we were able to train pediatricians who see low income children to ask parents about smoking, smoke-free home and car rules, and whether other household members smoke. Implementing a system to routinely ask about family tobacco use and smoke-free home and car rules is a first step to effectively addressing tobacco in a pediatric office setting. By knowing which family members use tobacco, pediatricians can take the next steps to help families become completely tobacco-free. Trial registration Clinical trials number: NCT01087177

2013-01-01

280

Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.  

PubMed

PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

2011-01-01

281

Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. Results We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women’s use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Conclusions Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit.

2013-01-01

282

Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.  

PubMed

Evidence has shown that factors other than the central pharmacological effects of nicotine are important in promoting smoking behavior. One such non-nicotine effect includes sensory stimulation, which may promote smoking by developing learned associations with nicotine's rewarding effects, or by constituting a rewarding experience independent of nicotine. The present study used internal tobacco industry documents to examine industry efforts to understand and manipulate stimulation of the sensory nerves by tobacco smoke, and the influence of sensory stimulation on smoker behavior. Research focused on sensory nerves of the head and neck, including the olfactory nerve, which carries flavor and odor, and the trigeminal nerve, which carries irritant information. The tobacco industry maintained a systematic research program designed to elucidate an understanding of responses of sensory nerves to nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke, and attempted to develop nicotine-like compounds that would enhance sensory responses in smokers. Industry research appeared intended to aid in the development of new products with greater consumer appeal. The potential influence of sensory response in enhancing nicotine dependence through an associative mechanism was acknowledged by the tobacco industry, but evidence for research in this area was limited. These findings add to evidence of industry manipulation of sensory factors to enhance smoking behavior and may have implications for development of more effective treatment strategies, including more "acceptable" nicotine replacement therapies. PMID:17978985

Megerdichian, Christine L; Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

2007-11-01

283

Upregulation of xanthine oxidase by tobacco smoke condensate in pulmonary endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking has been causally linked to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has been reported that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)- generating enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XO) is increased in smoking-related stomach ulcers and that gastric mucosal damage caused by tobacco smoke can be blocked by the XO inhibitor allopurinol. In order to test the hypothesis that tobacco may cause the upregulation of XO in the lung, cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to tobacco smoke condensate (TSC). TSC at a concentration of 20 microg/mL significantly upregulated XO activity after 24 h of exposure. Longer exposure (1 week) to a lower concentration of TSC (2 microg/mL) also caused an increase in XO activity. Unlike hypoxia, TSC treatment did not alter the phosphorylation of XO. However, TSC treatment increased XO mRNA expression and the XO gene promoter activity. Furthermore, actinomycin D blocked the activation of XO by TSC. In conclusion, our results indicate that tobacco smoke condensate causes upregulation of XO transcription and activity. PMID:12668123

Kayyali, Usamah S; Budhiraja, Rohit; Pennella, Corin M; Cooray, Samantha; Lanzillo, Joe J; Chalkley, Roger; Hassoun, Paul M

2003-04-01

284

SMOKED: a pharmacist-monitored tobacco cessation program.  

PubMed

Tobacco users use an array of pharmaceutical aids in their quest to become tobacco free. Tobacco cessation aids are indicated to assist individuals to become tobacco free when used in conjunction with a behavior modification program. For many persons, attending traditional group behavioral modification classes of 1- to 2-hour weekly meetings for 4 to 6 weeks is either undesirable or impractical. This article describes a nontraditional tobacco cessation program offered by a pharmacist at a Coast Guard military treatment facility. The program required persons desiring tobacco cessation aids to see a medical provider who then referred the individual to the pharmacy officer for counseling. Of the 20 persons completing all designated counseling sessions with the pharmacy officer, 4 were tobacco free after 1 year. PMID:12502175

Huntzinger, Paul Evan

2002-12-01

285

The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the smoking areas compared to the non-smoking areas of pubs that contained both smoking and non-smoking sections. Median concentrations of RSP and nicotine were reduced by 18% and 68%, respectively, in non-smoking areas. UVPM, FPM and SolPM median concentrations were reduced by 27%, 34% and 39%, demonstrating the increased tobacco-specificity of the particulate markers and the impact of non-smoking areas. Levels of particulate phase ETS markers were also found to be higher in the smoking sections of pubs that allowed smoking throughout compared to the smoking sections of pubs with other areas where smoking was prohibited. The presence of a non-smoking section has the effect of reducing concentrations even in the smoking areas. This may be caused by migration of smoke into the non-smoking section thereby diluting the smoking area or by smokers tending to avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

286

The Philippines is Marlboro country for youth smoking: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000 to 2007 Marlboro clearly became the most preferred brand in both boys and girls. Further, Marlboro smokers were found to exhibit a stronger commitment to smoking, to smoke more frequently, and to hold more positive images of smoking compared to other brand smokers. Tobacco control efforts in the Philippines may benefit from educational and policy initiatives that lead to aggressive counter marketing efforts to address the industry's efforts to portray positive images of smoking. PMID:23185836

Page, Randy M; West, Joshua H

2012-01-01

287

Evaluation of In Vitro Assays For Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vitro toxicology studies of tobacco and tobacco smoke have been used to understand why tobacco use causes cancer and to assess the toxicological impact of tobacco product design changes. The need for toxicology studies has been heightened given that the FDA’s newly granted authority over tobacco products requires mandating performance standards for tobacco products and evaluate manufacturers’ health claims. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps. Methods PubMed database searches were used to identify tobacco-related in vitro toxicology studies published since 1980. Articles published prior to 1980 with high relevance also were identified. The data was compiled to examine: 1) goals of the study; 2) methods for collecting test substances; 3) experimental designs; 4) toxicological endpoints, and; 5) relevance to cancer risk. Results A variety of in vitro assays are available to assess tobacco and tobacco smoke that address different modes of action, mostly using non-human cell models. Smokeless tobacco products perform poorly in these assays. While reliable as a screening tool for qualitative assessments, the available in vitro assays have been poorly validated for quantitative comparisons of different products. Assay batteries have not been developed, although they exist for non-tobacco assessments. Extrapolating data from in vitro studies to human risks remains hypothetical. Conclusions In vitro toxicology methods are useful for screening toxicity, but better methods are needed for today’s context of regulation and evaluation of health claims.

Wan, J.; Johnson, M.; Schilz, J.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Rice, J.R.; Shields, P.G.

2009-01-01

288

Not just ‘a few wisps’: real-time measurement of tobacco smoke at entrances to office buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAn unintended consequence of indoor smoking restrictions is the relocation of smoking to building entrances, where non-smokers may be exposed to secondhand smoke, and smoke from outdoor areas may drift through entrances, exposing people inside. Tobacco smoke has been linked to numerous health effects in non-smokers and there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This paper presents

Pamela Kaufman; Bo Zhang; Susan J Bondy; Neil Klepeis; Roberta Ferrence

2010-01-01

289

Measurement of 16 volatile organic compounds in restaurant air contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke-related air pollutant levels were studied in ten Finnish restaurants. Markers of tobacco smoke were measured together with other compounds typical of tobacco smoke and indoor air. The measurements were carried out at stationary sampling points in smoking and non-smoking areas of the restaurants in 2005-2006, when at least half of the service area had to be non-smoking according to the Finnish Tobacco Act. The average concentrations (geometric mean, microg/m3) of the 16 airborne contaminants measured in the smoking area were: nicotine 18.1; toluene 10.6; isoprene 10.2; m,p-xylene 5.0; limonene 4.8; benzene 3.3; furfuryl aldehyde 3.2; 1,3-butadiene 2.7; 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) 2.5; phenol 2.1; ethyl benzene 1.7; pyridine 1.6; o-xylene 1.5; 3-picoline 1.4; styrene 1.2; and naphthalene 0.45. A good correlation (r=0.90-0.99, p<0.001) was obtained between tobacco-specific markers (3-EP and nicotine) and 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, pyridine, furfuryl aldehyde, 3-picoline, phenol, and styrene. A poor or no correlation (r=0.19-0.60) was obtained between 3-EP or nicotine and the rest of the compounds. The average concentrations of all compounds were significantly lower in the non-smoking area than in the smoking area (p<0.05). In the non-smoking area, the average concentration of 3-EP was 0.35 microg/m3 and that of nicotine 1.6 microg/m3. In three restaurants, the area design and ventilation were effective: the average level of 3-EP in the non-smoking section was <3% from that in the smoking section. In the other restaurants, tobacco smoke was spreading more freely and the corresponding value was 14-76%. A sensitive method was applied for the measurement of airborne 1,3-butadiene. The air samples were collected into Carbopack X adsorption tubes and analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass selective detection. The precision of the method was 4.2% (at 100 ng/sample) and the limit of quantification 0.02 microg/m3. PMID:18801480

Vainiotalo, S; Väänänen, V; Vaaranrinta, R

2008-11-01

290

Transnational tobacco companies and health in underdeveloped countries: recommendations for avoiding a smoking epidemic.  

PubMed

This paper examines the impact of transnational tobacco companies on health in underdeveloped countries and makes recommendations for avoiding a coming smoking epidemic. Although tobacco is generally seen as primarily a health problem, tobacco's future in the Third World depends upon a number of nonhealth related considerations, especially political and economic factors. Unfortunately, there is very little relationship between what the World Health Organization and others have recommended, and what most Third World countries are doing today. Although the controversy concerning cigarette smoking and health has only become a 'burning issue' in recent decades, tobacco products have been used around the world for hundreds of years. The public outcry against cigarette smoking has become increasingly widespread since the 1964 U.S. Surgeon General's report on smoking and health. The ill effects of cigarette smoking are now widely considered collectively as the number one preventable health problem in the world, responsible for an estimated 2.5 million deaths per year. In response to declining sales in developed countries, the tobacco transnational corporations have begun focusing their attention on Third World markets, where tobacco consumption has increased dramatically in recent years. Cigarettes not only take precious limited resources away from desperately needed basic human needs, but they also inflict future health problems on vast numbers of Third World people who have only a vague understanding of the risks involved in cigarette smoking. Until Third World governments address the long-term consequences of their short-term lust for cash, the probabilities of a smoking epidemic in the Third World grow increasingly likely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2305291

Stebbins, K R

1990-01-01

291

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 Years With and Without Asthma in the United States, 1999?2010  

MedlinePLUS

... Data Brief Number 126, August 2013 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 Years With ... of children without asthma exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) decreased from 57.3% to 44.2%, ...

292

Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

2013-06-01

293

Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Bermudez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

294

[Effects of tobacco smoke on fetus and children].  

PubMed

What is caused on fetus and children by parental smoking? Parental smoking, especially maternal smoking cause oral cleft which makes baby difficult to suck milk. It causes not only respiratory illness such as asthma bronchialis but also fire accident or burn by child abuse. These things decrease quality of life of children. Low birth weight caused by parental smoking is the major risk factor of lifestyle-related diseases, according to DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, parental smoking drive children active smokers. If children start to smoke, they will get bad lifestyle led to metabolic syndrome. So it is important not to make children start the first smoking. PMID:23631234

Noda, Takashi

2013-03-01

295

A descriptive analysis of relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of the present study were to examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as assessed by urinary cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (CCR), and to describe the CCR over seven days among infants at home. Methods A convenience sample of 27 households was drawn. Each household had to have at least one daily tobacco smoker and one child up to three years of age. Over a seven-day period, urine samples were obtained from the child daily. To examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking and infants' daily CCR, generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used. Results The data revealed that infants from households with indoor smoking had higher CCRs than infants in households with outdoor smoking. CCRs were higher in girls than in boys. Older infants had lower CCRs than younger infants. Smoking outside the home versus inside the home, infant's gender, and infants' age accounted for 68% of the variance in CCR in a GEE data analysis model. No increase or decrease of CCR over time was found. Conclusion The findings suggest that parents' self-reported smoking indoors at home versus outdoors is predictive of CCR among infants three and younger. Higher CCR concentrations in girls' urine need further examination. Furthermore, significant fluctuations in daily CCR were not apparent in infants over a seven-day time period.

2010-01-01

296

Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a "healthy" tobacco-free alternative.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for "health-conscious" users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. PMID:23059956

Cobb, Caroline O; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2012-11-23

297

Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a "healthy" tobacco-free alternative  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for “health-conscious” users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine.

Cobb, Caroline O.; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2012-01-01

298

Surfactant protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage.  

PubMed

Variation in surfactant protein D (SP-D) is associated with lung function in tobacco smoke-induced chronic respiratory disease. We hypothesized that the same association exists in the general population and could be used to identify individuals sensitive to smoke-induced lung damage. The association between serum SP-D (sSP-D) and expiratory lung function was assessed in a cross-sectional design in a Danish twin population (n = 1,512, 18-72 yr old). The adjusted heritability estimates for expiratory lung function, associations between SP-D gene (SFTPD) single-nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes, and expiratory lung function were assessed using twin study methodology and mixed-effects models. Significant inverse associations were evident between sSP-D and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity in the presence of current tobacco smoking but not in nonsmokers. The two SFTPD single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs1923536 and rs721917, and haplotypes, including these single-nucleotide polymorphisms or rs2243539, were inversely associated with expiratory lung function in interaction with smoking. In conclusion, SP-D is phenotypically and genetically associated with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive pulmonary disease initiation and development. PMID:24610936

Johansson, Sofie L; Tan, Qihua; Holst, René; Christiansen, Lene; Hansen, Niels C G; Hojland, Allan T; Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Schlosser, Anders; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Vestbo, Jørgen; Holmskov, Uffe; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sorensen, Grith L

2014-05-01

299

Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical).

Hirshbein, Laura

2012-01-01

300

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in riyadh, saudi arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3 %. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7 %. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1 % of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8 % of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7 % of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9 % reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

301

Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

This study assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures of nonsmoking musicians in nightclub environments using total suspended particulate (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, saliva nicotine, saliva cotinine, and perceived smokiness as exposure/dose indicators. Measured exposures were as high or higher than those of other occupational groups studied. TSP ranged from 110 to 1714 micrograms/m3 (mean 502, SD 390 micrograms/m3). UVPM (mean 221, SD 95 micrograms/m3) was associated with gaseous and saliva nicotine concentrations. Paired-sample variation was much higher for TSP than for UVPM. Correlation of TSP with UVPM, gaseous nicotine, and saliva nicotine was poor. Paired-sample gaseous nicotine results were similar, with exposures of 28.0 to 50.0 micrograms/m3 (mean 37.1, SD 6.9 micrograms/m3), and were high compared with previous studies. These results suggested that nightclub musicians may be exposed to higher concentrations of ETS than some other occupational groups. Saliva nicotine results were consistent with those previously reported with regard to the range of values, large variation observed, and increase in saliva nicotine levels observable after only a few hours of exposure. Saliva nicotine results could not be correlated with other measures of exposure and did not appear to be a reliable biological indicator of absorbed dose. Saliva cotinine levels were comparable to other occupational groups studied, but were lower than previous findings for bartenders and waitresses. Levels ranged from 1.7 to 5.0 ng/mL (mean 3.4, SD 0.9 ng/mL), and increased with number of exposures during the workweek, but did not correlate with other ETS indicators. PMID:8765204

Bergman, T A; Johnson, D L; Boatright, D T; Smallwood, K G; Rando, R J

1996-08-01

302

Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively new four-story office building with an approximate volume of 1.3 million ft3. The exchange of outside air in the building was determined to be between 0.6 and 0.7 air changes per hour. Eighty-seven area samples (excluding background) were collected at 29 locations over the course of 6 days of sampling. Locations included offices and cubicles occupied by smokers and nonsmokers, common areas, and the computer and mail rooms. Twenty-four nonsmoking subjects wore personal sampling systems to collect breathing zone air samples on each of 3 days in succession. This generated a total of seventy-two 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposure samples. In all samples, respirable suspended particulate matter, ultraviolet light-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, and 3-ethenyl pyridine were determined. With the exception of a few locations, tobacco-specific airborne constituents were determined in all samples. Not surprisingly, areas with the highest ETS constituent concentrations were offices and cubicles of smokers. Median and 95th percentile concentrations for all area samples, excluding background, were determined to be 1.5 and 8.7 microg/m3 for nicotine, and 8.2 and 59 microg/m3 for ETS-specific particles (as solanesol-related particulate matter, Sol-PM), respectively. Personal exposure concentrations of ETS components were similar to those levels found in the area samples (median nicotine and Sol-PM concentrations were 1.24 and 7.1 microg/m3, respectively), but the range of concentrations was somewhat smaller. For example, the 95th percentile 8-h TWA nicotine and ETS-specific particle (as Sol-PM) concentrations were 3.58 and 21.9 microg/m3, respectively. Intrasubject variation of daily concentrations ranged from 20% to 60%, depending on the component. Self-reported proximity to smokers was supported by higher ETS concentrations determined from the personal monitors, but only to a modest extent. Although smoking was completely unrestricted inside the main office areas of the facility, ETS levels, either areal or from personal exposure measurements, were lower than those estimated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration to be present in such facilities. PMID:11687910

Jenkins, R A; Maskarinec, M P; Counts, R W; Caton, J E; Tomkins, B A; Ilgner, R H

2001-01-01

303

Tobacco-Related Mortality  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Health Disparities Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... Youth Tobacco Prevention Celebrities Against Smoking Tobacco-Free Sports Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS ...

304

Youth and Tobacco Use  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Health Disparities Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... Youth Tobacco Prevention Celebrities Against Smoking Tobacco-Free Sports Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS ...

305

Comparison of the Carcinogenic Potential of Smokeless Tobacco and Smoked Tobacco by Quantifying the Excretion of Nicotine Metabolite NNAL in Patients with Oral Leukoplakia.  

PubMed

The case control study was conducted to quantify the amount of the carcinogenic tobacco specific nitrosamine in smokeless tobacco users and smokers in patients with oral leukoplakia and also to emphasize the role of tobacco-specific nitrosamine in the incidence of oral leukoplakia. The study was conducted on 30 patients. The urine samples were obtained from smokeless tobacco users with oral leukoplakia, smokers with oral leukoplakia and non-tobacco users (i.e. people who do not use tobacco in any form). The collected samples were processed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A highly significant difference of NNAL[4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol] in smokeless tobacco users than tobacco smokers P = 0.0002 (Table 1) was obtained. This significant difference shows smokeless tobacco is more carcinogenic than smoked tobacco. This study confirmed that NNAL is a potent biomarker for calculating the risk of occurrence of carcinoma in smokeless tobacco users and smokers, and that smokeless tobacco is more harmful than smoked tobacco. PMID:24757311

Mohamed Anser, S; Aswath, Nalini

2014-04-01

306

Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts. Method: Published reviews and the current literature were searched for relevant articles. Results: The most consistently elevated biomarker in people exposed to SHS was 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), urinary metabolites of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The tobacco specificity of this biomarker as well as its clear relation to an established lung carcinogen are particularly appropriate for its application in studies of SHS exposure. Conclusion: The results of the available carcinogen derived biomarker studies provide biochemical data which support the conclusion, based on epidemiologic investigations, that SHS causes lung cancer in non-smokers.

Hecht, S

2004-01-01

307

Lung tumors in A\\/J mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke: estimated potency and implied human risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directly inhaled tobacco smoke is a recognized human lung carcinogen, and epidemiological studies suggest relative risks of about 1.2-1.4 for nonsmoking spouses of smokers typically exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). While many individual ETS components have been shown experimentally to induce lung tumors, ETS itself was only recently shown to induce lung tumors in a series of studies in

Kenneth T. Bogen; Hanspeter Witschi

308

NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.

Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Pinkerton, Kent E. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: kepinkerton@ucdavis.edu

2008-07-15

309

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

2005-01-01

310

Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

311

Cancer of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Pet Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of nasal cancer in pet dogs was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increases risk. Cases (n = 103) were selected from a teaching hospital during 1986-1990. Controls (n - 378) with other forms of cancer were selected from the same study base. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was evaluated by determining

John S. Reif; Christa Bruns

312

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results revealed that sex, belonging to a

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Donna Bacchi; Joel West

2005-01-01

313

Relationship between Tobacco Advertising and Youth Smoking: Assessing the Effectiveness of a School-Based Antismoking Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hazards of Tobacco (C) program, which focuses on smoking prevention among youth, was completed by 259 suburban sixth graders (199 controls) and 166 urban fifth through seventh graders. Participation significantly changed understanding of the role of tobacco advertising and the intention to smoke in both samples. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)

Beltramini, Richard F.; Bridge, Patrick D.

2001-01-01

314

Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

2013-01-01

315

Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the extent to which smokers and non-smokers in Victoria, Australia attempt to keep their homes smoke free and to determine whether the proportion of people attempting to do so has changed over time.?METHODS—Face to face surveys conducted in Victoria each year from 1989 to 1997.?PARTICIPANTS—Approximately 2500 randomly selected adults each year.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Proportion of respondents who discourage their visitors from smoking; proportion of smokers who always smoke outside their own homes; behaviour of smokers when they are around children. Changes in each of these measures over time.?RESULTS—Reports of visitors being discouraged from smoking rose from 27% in 1989 to 53% in 1997. Smokers who reported always smoking outside the home rose from 20% in 1995 to 28% in 1997. Not smoking in the presence of children rose from 14% in 1989 to 33% in 1996. Indoor restrictions on smoking were associated with the presence of children in the household and even more strongly with the presence of non-smoking adults. People who worked in places where smoking was totally banned were more likely to ask their visitors not to smoke than those who worked where smoking was allowed.?CONCLUSIONS—The results indicate a strong move towards homes and towards protecting children from smoke. Efforts to support and facilitate this social change should be further encouraged.???Keywords: children; environmental tobacco smoke; home

Borland, R.; Mullins, R.; Trotter, L.; White, V.

1999-01-01

316

A survey of environmental tobacco smoke controls in California office buildings.  

PubMed

A survey of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) controls in California office buildings was carried out to obtain information of the type and distribution of ETS controls in office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of various ETS controls. A total of 118 smoking areas in 111 county and city buildings were inspected to collect information on the type of ETS controls. Only 31% of the smoking areas inspected were physically separated from nonsmoking areas with full floor-to-true-ceiling walls, 25% exhausted air to the outside, and 38% did not recirculate air to non-smoking areas. A total of 23 smoking areas and their adjacent non-smoking areas in 21 buildings were monitored for nicotine and fluorescent particulate matter (FPM). A tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), was released in smoking areas to measure the air leakage from smoking areas to adjacent non-smoking areas. The measurements of nicotine, FPM, and SF6 have shown large variations of the effectiveness of ETS controls. The least effective type of smoking area studied were open areas with no physical barriers between smoking and nonsmoking areas, no exhaust to the outside and no return air separation. On the contrary, smoking rooms with three ETS controls (i.e., physical separation, exhaust to outside, and no air recirculation) were the most effective design in containing ETS within smoking areas. PMID:11235229

Liu, K S; Alevantis, L E; Offermann, F J

2001-03-01

317

Biological basis of tobacco addiction: Implications for smoking-cessation treatment  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use became common all over the world after discovery of Americas. Tobacco, a plant carries in its leaves an alkaloid called nicotine, which is responsible not only for several pathophysiological changes in the body but also develops tolerance to its own action with repeated use. Studies suggest that the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor that mediates nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure and mood modulation. Repeated exposure to nicotine develops neuroadaptation of the receptors, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms appear on stoppage of tobacco use, which are characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among others. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation should reduce withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects.

Jiloha, R. C.

2010-01-01

318

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964-1997  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. Methods A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. Results Some of the earliest surveys revealed that around one-quarter of Australian physicians were smoking in the mid twentieth century, a rate which rapidly declined in the 1970s and 1980s, with reductions beyond that achieved by the general population. Conclusion Overall, our review suggests that not only do contemporary Australian physicians smoke at very low rates when compared internationally, but that an active professional community can also make a real difference to the lifestyle choices of its own members.

Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

2008-01-01

319

Tobacco industry efforts to present ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free environments in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry developed a network of consultants to promote ventilation as a ''solution'' to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the USA. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: As with its other strategies to undermine the passage of clean indoor legislation and regulations, the tobacco industry used consultants who represented themselves as independent but

J Drope; S A Bialous; S A Glantz

2004-01-01

320

Field analysis of acetaldehyde in mainstream tobacco smoke using solid-phase microextraction and a portable gas chromatograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetaldehyde is generated in the mainstream tobacco smoke mainly from the pyrolysis (and oxidative pyrolysis) of carbohydrates that are present in tobacco plant, cigarette paper, and also used as additives in tobacco. Acetaldehyde has been classified as an animal carcinogen, and may be cytotoxic or genetoxic. Owing to its high volatility and reactivity, it is difficult to accurately measure it,

Huaqing Lin; Qing Ye; Chunhui Deng; Xiangmin Zhang

2008-01-01

321

Smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural tobacco-growing communities.  

PubMed

Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members' perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance versus those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-min interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD = 13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6 %) and Caucasian (99.5 %). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

Butler, Karen M; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J

2014-06-01

322

Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.  

PubMed

Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008

Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

2014-06-15

323

Inhibition of mutagenicity of N-nitrosamines by tobacco smoke and its constituents.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke is a complex chemical mixture including pyridine alkaloids and N-nitrosamines, with the concentration of the former several orders of magnitude higher that that of the N-nitrosamines. The major biologically important N-nitrosamines present in tobacco smoke are N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N(1)-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). These nitrosamines require metabolic activations by cytochrome P-450s for the expression of mutagenicity. Although nicotine, the major pyridine alkaloid in tobacco, has been shown to inhibit the metabolic activation of NNK, its effect on the mutagenicity of NNK and other N-nitrosamines has not been reported, In the present study, the ability of three pyridine alkaloids (nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine) and aqueous cigarette smoke condensate extract (ACE) to inhibit the mutagenicity of tobacco-related N-nitrosamines was tested on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 in the presence of a metabolic activation system (S9). All three of the pyridine alkaloids tested, as well as ACE, inhibited the mutagenicity of NDMA and NNK, but not NNN, in a concentration-dependent manner. The induction of SCEs in mammalian cells (CHO) by NNK in the presence of metabolic activation was also significantly reduced by nicotine and cotinine. None of the observed reductions in mutagenicity could be explained by cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that tobacco smoke contains chemicals, pyridine alkaloids and other unidentified constituent(s), which inhibit the mutagenicity of N-nitrosamines. PMID:8643119

Lee, C K; Fulp, C; Bombick, B R; Doolittle, D J

1996-02-01

324

Epidemiology and potential mechanisms of tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking represents an important known cause of ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recent data from pooled analyses in consortia involving multiple case-control and cohort studies suggest that heavy (but not moderate or light) alcohol consumption also may increase pancreatic cancer risk. Animal and human evidence indicate that tobacco carcinogens and metabolites may act in concert and have both genetic and epigenetic effects at early and later stages in pancreatic tumorigenesis. One of the more important tobacco-related carcinogens, NNK, probably acts via multiple pathways. Heavy alcohol consumption may increase pancreatic cancer risk by potentiating the effects of other risk factors such as tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, and inflammatory pathways related to chronic pancreatitis, but also may have independent genetic and epigenetic effects. Animal and human studies of tobacco- and alcohol-related pancreatic carcinogenesis suggest multi-modal, overlapping mechanistic pathways. Tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are preventable exposures, and their avoidance would substantially decrease the burden of pancreatic cancer worldwide. PMID:22162230

Duell, Eric J

2012-01-01

325

Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents. Design Cross sectional survey of 4919 schoolchildren aged 9-15 years, and assessment of occurrence of smoking in 601 films. Setting Randomly selected middle schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Main outcome measure Number of schoolchildren who had ever tried smoking a cigarette. Results The films contained a median of 5 (interquartile range 1-12) occurrences of smoking. The typical adolescent had seen 17 of 50 films listed. Exposure to smoking in films varied widely: median 91 (49-152) occurrences. The prevalence of ever trying smoking increased with higher categories of exposure: 4.9% among students who saw 0-50 occurrences of smoking, 13.7% for 51-100 occurrences, 22.1% for 101-150, and 31.3% for >150. The association remained significant after adjustment for age; sex; school performance; school; parents' education; smoking by friend, sibling, or parent; and receptivity to tobacco promotions. The adjusted odds ratios of ever trying smoking for students in the higher categories of exposure, compared with students exposed to 0-50 occurrences of smoking in films, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.4), and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.8). These odds ratios were not substantially affected by adjustment for parenting style or for personality traits of the adolescent. Conclusion In this sample of adolescents there was a strong, direct, and independent association between seeing tobacco use in films and trying cigarettes, a finding that supports the hypothesis that smoking in films has a role in the initiation of smoking in adolescents. What is already known on this topicSmoking is often depicted in films, and watching films is a favourite activity of adolescentsAdolescents whose favourite actors smoke in films are more likely to have tried smokingWhat this study addsAdolescents' exposure to smoking in films varies widelyAdolescents with higher exposure are significantly more likely to have tried smoking, even when other factors linked with adolescent smoking have been taken into accountThis study supports the hypothesis that depictions of smoking in films influence adolescents to smoke

Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Mott, Leila A; Tickle, Jennifer J; Ahrens, M Bridget; Heatherton, Todd F

2001-01-01

326

An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking by physicians represents a contentious issue in public health, and regardless of what country it originates from, the need for accurate, historical data is paramount. As such, this article provides an international comparison of all modern literature describing the tobacco smoking habits of contemporary physicians. Methods A keyword search of appropriate MeSH terms was initially undertaken to identify relevant material, after which the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to locate further publications. Results A total of 81 English-language studies published in the past 30 years met the inclusion criteria. Two distinct trends were evident. Firstly, most developed countries have shown a steady decline in physicians' smoking rates during recent years. On the other hand, physicians in some developed countries and newly-developing regions still appear to be smoking at high rates. The lowest smoking prevalence rates were consistently documented in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. Comparison with other health professionals suggests that fewer physicians smoke when compared to nurses, and sometimes less often than dentists. Conclusion Overall, this review suggests that while physicians' smoking habits appear to vary from region to region, they are not uniformly low when viewed from an international perspective. It is important that smoking in the medical profession declines in future years, so that physicians can remain at the forefront of anti-smoking programs and lead the way as public health exemplars in the 21st century.

Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

2007-01-01

327

Economic effect of a smoke-free law in a tobacco-growing community  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether Lexington, Kentucky's smoke?free law affected employment and business closures in restaurants and bars. On 27 April 2004, Lexington?Fayette County implemented a comprehensive ordinance prohibiting smoking in all public buildings, including bars and restaurants. Lexington is located in a major tobacco?growing state that has the highest smoking rate in the US and was the first Kentucky community to become smoke?free. Design A fixed?effects time series design to estimate the effect of the smoke?free law on employment and ordinary least squares to estimate the effect on business openings and closings. Subjects and settings All restaurants and bars in Lexington?Fayette County, Kentucky and the six contiguous counties. Main outcome measures ES?202 employment data from the Kentucky Workforce Cabinet; Business opening/closings data from the Lexington?Fayette County Health Department, Environmental Division. Results A positive and significant relationship was observed between the smoke?free legislation and restaurant employment, but no significant relationship was observed with bar employment. No relationship was observed between the law's implementation and employment in contiguous counties nor between the smoke?free law and business openings or closures in alcohol?serving and or non?alcohol?serving businesses. Conclusions No important economic harm stemmed from the smoke?free legislation over the period studied, despite the fact that Lexington is located in a tobacco?producing state with higher?than?average smoking rates.

Pyles, Mark K; Mullineaux, Donald J; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hahn, Ellen J

2007-01-01

328

Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes.

Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

329

Global perspective on tobacco control. Part II. The future of tobacco control: making smoking history?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious efforts to reduce the harm caused by tobacco use throughout populations require implementation policies and interventions capable of reaching all smokers and potential smokers. While the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control promises to accelerate the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies throughout the world, its extensive 'optional' language provides consid- erable latitude for governments unwilling to implement rigorous controls.

S. Chapman

330

Smoking Behavior and Exposure to Tobacco Toxicants During 6 months of Smoking Progressively Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes  

PubMed Central

Background Recent federal legislation gives the FDA authority to regulate the nicotine content of cigarettes. A nationwide strategy for progressive reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential way to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects. Methods 135 healthy smokers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes followed by 5 types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each smoked for one month. A control group smoked their own brand of cigarettes for the same period of time. Results Nicotine intake, as indicated by plasma cotinine concentration, declined progressively as the nicotine content of cigarettes was reduced. Cigarette consumption and markers of exposure to carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as cardiovascular biomarkers remained stable, while urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) excretion decreased. No significant changes in biomarkers of exposure or cardiovascular effects were observed in controls. Conclusions Our data support the proposition that the intake of nicotine from cigarettes of smokers can be substantially lowered without increasing exposure to other tobacco smoke toxins. Impact These findings support the feasibility and safety of gradual reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes.

Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Hall, Sharon M.; Stewart, Susan; Wilson, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

2012-01-01

331

Controlling Indoor Air Pollution from Tobacco Smoke: Models and Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of smoking rate, ventilation, surface deposition, and air cleaning on the indoor concentrations of respirable particulate matter and carbon monoxide generated by cigarette smoke are examined. A general mass balance model is presented which has...

F. J. Offermann J. R. Girman R. G. Sextro

1984-01-01

332

Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase correlate with FEV(1) in patients with COPD associated with wood smoke exposure and tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, recent epidemiological studies have established domestic exposure to wood smoke and other biomass fuels as additional important risk factors, characteristic in developing countries. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms concerned with pathogenesis of COPD. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progress of COPD associated with biomass and specifically that derived from wood smoke exposure remain unknown. We analyzed the relationship between forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in COPD patients associated with wood smoke (WSG; n = 30), tobacco smoking (TSG; n = 30), and healthy control subjects (HCG; n = 30). Differences between FEV(1) from WSG and TSG (58 +/- 22% and 51 +/- 24%, respectively) with HCG (100 +/- 6%) were observed (P < 0.01). Plasma MDA concentration was higher in both WSG and TSG (1.87 +/- 0.81 and 1.68 +/- 0.82 nmol/mL, respectively) compared with HCG (0.42 +/- 0.17 nmol/mL; P < 0.01). SOD activity showed a significant increase in both WSG and TSG (0.36 +/- 0.12 and 0.37 +/- 0.13 U/mL) compared with HCG (0.19 +/- 0.04 U/mL; P < 0.01). No differences were shown regarding GPx, GR, and GST activities between COPD and control groups. Inverse correlations were founded between MDA and SOD with FEV(1) in both COPD patients and control subjects (P < 0.001). These results indicate a role for oxidative stress in COPD associated with wood smoke similar to that observed with tobacco smoking in subjects who ceased at least 10 years previous to this study. PMID:20583895

Montaño, Martha; Cisneros, José; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Mercado, Daniel; Ramos, Carlos; Sansores, Raul H

2010-08-01

333

Tobacco smoking effect on HIV-1 pathogenesis: role of cytochrome P450 isozymes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among the HIV-1-infected population. In addition to diminished immune response, smoking has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication and decrease response to antiretroviral therapy, perhaps through drug–drug interaction. However, the mechanism by which tobacco/nicotine increases HIV-1 replication and mediates drug–drug interaction is poorly understood. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss the effects of smoking on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Since they propose a role for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, the authors briefly converse the role of CYP enzymes in tobacco-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Finally, the authors focus on the role of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2A6, in tobacco/nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress in HIV-1 model systems monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and neurons, which may be responsible for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Expert opinion Recent findings suggest that CYP-mediated oxidative stress is a novel pathway that may be involved in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, including HIV-1 replication and drug–drug interaction. Thus, CYP and CYP-associated oxidative stress pathways may be potential targets to develop novel pharmaceuticals for HIV-1-infected smokers. Since HIV-1/TB co-infections are common, future study involving interactions between antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs that involve CYP pathways would also help treat HIV-1/TB co-infected smokers effectively.

Ande, Anusha; McArthur, Carole; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

2014-01-01

334

Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. Data sources: Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. Study selection: Studies were included (n?=?84) if they reported the effects of any population-level tobacco control intervention on smoking behaviour or attitudes in individuals or groups with different demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. Data extraction: Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data synthesis: Data were synthesised using graphical (“harvest plot”) and narrative methods. No strong evidence of differential effects was found for smoking restrictions in workplaces and public places, although those in higher occupational groups may be more likely to change their attitudes or behaviour. Smoking restrictions in schools may be more effective in girls. Restrictions on sales to minors may be more effective in girls and younger children. Increasing the price of tobacco products may be more effective in reducing smoking among lower-income adults and those in manual occupations, although there was also some evidence to suggest that adults with higher levels of education may be more price-sensitive. Young people aged under 25 are also affected by price increases, with some evidence that boys and non-white young people may be more sensitive to price. Conclusions: Population-level tobacco control interventions have the potential to benefit more disadvantaged groups and thereby contribute to reducing health inequalities.

Thomas, S; Fayter, D; Misso, K; Ogilvie, D; Petticrew, M; Sowden, A; Whitehead, M; Worthy, G

2008-01-01

335

'Waiting until they got home': gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland.  

PubMed

The introduction in March 2006 of legislation banning smoking in public places in Scotland raised concerns that smokers would smoke more at home and so increase the exposure of those living with them to tobacco smoke. Drawing on interviews from two qualitative studies conducted after the implementation of the legislation, this article uses a gendered analysis to explore where and why smokers, who lived with non-smokers including children, continued to smoke in their homes. Although very few people attributed any increased home smoking to being a direct consequence of the legislation, many who already smoked there continued, and most women reported little or no disruption to their home smoking post-legislation. Also, because of the changing social environment of smoking, and other life circumstances, a minority of women had increased their levels of home smoking. Compared to the men in these studies, women, particularly those who didn't work outside the home, had restricted social lives and thus were less likely to have smoked in public places before the legislation and spent more time socialising in the homes of other people. In addition, women with children, including women who worked outside their homes, were more likely to spend sustained periods of time caring for children compared to fathers, who were more likely to leave the home to work or socialise. Although home smoking was linked to gendered caring responsibilities, other issues associated with being a smoker also meant that many women smokers chose to keep smoking in their homes. PMID:20580143

Robinson, Jude; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Greaves, Lorraine; Martin, Claudia

2010-09-01

336

[Tobacco smoking as a source of exposure of pregnant women and newborn on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].  

PubMed

An essential problem related to tobacco smoking is exposure of children in the foetal period and early childhood to toxic compounds. The aim of this paper was to assess the exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a consequence of tobacco smoking. The exposure to tobacco smoke was determined through surveys and cotinine measurement in the urine of pregnant women and newborns, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been determined by measure of 1-hydroxypyrene in the same biological material. The cotinine concentration in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was respectively 416.0 +/- 319.9 ng/mg of creatinine and 46.5 +/- 37.2 ng/mg of creatinine. In case of non-smoking as well as non-exposed patients and their newborns, the concentration of cotinine was 0. The correlation between the concentration of cotinine in the urine of smoking women and their newborns was shown. The mean concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smoking patients was 0.65 +/- 0.45 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas in the urine of newborns, it was 0.46 +/- 0.41 ng/mg of creatinine. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers was increased together with the increase of cotinine, and the correlation factor was 0.5128. Such dependence was not indicated for concentrations of these compounds in the urine of newborns of these women. Within the group of non-smoking women, the concentration of 1-hydroxypyene urine of women was 0.25 +/- 0.29 ng/mg of creatinine, whereas among children 0.20 +/- 0.23 ng/mg of creatinine. In both examined group (smoking and non-smoking women) there is a dependence between the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of women and their newborns. The research concerning the assessment of exposure of pregnant women and their newborns to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted, and at the same time it was proven, that the placenta does not constitute a barrier for these compounds, which may freely get into the fetus. Probably for the first time a relatively large group of patients took part in this research. The directly proportional dependence between the concentrations of 1-HP in a mother and a newborn and significantly lower concentrations of this biomarker among the persons who are not exposed to tobacco smoke, indicate that the pro-health behaviours of the future mother (no tobacco smoking) significantly lowers the exposure of foetus to the carcinogenic compounds. PMID:17288184

Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Florek, Ewa; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H

2006-01-01

337

Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to overcome them through an appropraite communication strategy.  

PubMed

This paper rigourolys analyses literature on tobacco smoking and provides a historical perspective of tobacco smoking and the prevalence of smoking in different parts of the world. The dangerous chemical ingredients in cigarettes and their associated health effects are indentified and rigouroulsy analysed. Later, this paper suggests a communication strategy which can be adopted to convey scientific evidence to the public about the dangers of smoking. The analyse of literature shows that today, tobacco is one of the greatest causes of preventable deaths in the world. Smoking causes various diseases like various types of cancer (Lung, Oral, Stomach, Kidney, Breast, Larynx, Pancreas, and Eophagus cancers). Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COPD), heart diseases, miscarriages, poor sperm quality, impotence, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and low birth weight. Significant evidence of such diseases has been observed in United States and South Africa which is one of the top smoking countries in Africa. Despite the existence of World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as well as national laws restricting tobacco use in various countries, the rate of smoking is increasing at a tremendous state especially in developing countries among the adolescents. This means that many tobacco's future victims are today's children. The reason for the high rates of smoking is attribute to the complex marketing skills and strategies of tobacco companies which hinder tobacco smoking control programs. Therefore, if we are to achieve sustainable development as well as the Mellinium Development Goals, we should stand up jointly to stop the smoking habits among the people through collective efforts and collaborative campaigns. An appropriate communication strategy as suggested in this paper is required to counteract the persuasive smoking evil adverts of tobacco companies. PMID:21413590

Semakula, Henry M; Haq, Shah Md Atiqul

2010-06-01

338

Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chronic respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: The Singapore Chinese Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has been extensively associated with childhood respiratory illness; fewer studies have addressed the effects on adults. Methods: Childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure in relation to chronic cough, phlegm, and asthma diagnosis was studied in never smokers from a cohort of Singaporeans of Chinese ethnicity aged 45–74 years at enrolment from 1993 to 1998. From 1999 to 2004 subjects were interviewed regarding environmental tobacco smoke exposure before and after the age of 18 and the presence and duration of current symptoms of chronic cough and phlegm production and asthma diagnosis. Results: Among 35 000 never smokers, fewer had smoking mothers (19%) than fathers (48%). Although few subjects currently lived (20%) or worked (4%) with smokers, 65% reported living with a daily smoker before the age of 18 years. Living with a smoker before the age of 18 increased the odds of chronic dry cough (149 cases, odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.3) and, to a lesser extent, phlegm, after adjustment for age, sex, dialect group, and current and past exposure to smokers at home and at work after the age of 18. Associations strengthened with higher numbers of smokers in childhood. There was no association with asthma or chronic bronchitis. There was evidence to suggest a stronger association among subjects with a lower adult intake of fibre which has previously been found to be protective for respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: In this large study of non-smokers, living with a smoker in childhood was associated with chronic dry cough and phlegm in adulthood, independent of later exposures to environmental tobacco smoke.

David, G; Koh, W; Lee, H; Yu, M; London, S

2005-01-01

339

Association of environmental tobacco smoke exposure with socioeconomic status in a population of 7725 New Zealanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status.DESIGNSurvey.SETTINGGeneral community, New Zealand.PARTICIPANTS7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week

Gary Whitlock; Stephen MacMahon; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Peter Davis; Rodney Jackson; Robyn Norton

1998-01-01

340

Gas and particulate-phase specific tracer and toxic organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke constituents are worthy of concern and characterized as carcinogens. Different experiment conditions may affect the environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents. A study was undertaken in a 75.5-m3 spare office to evaluate ETS constituents in a real environment. Thirty-four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including three ETS tracers: nicotine, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), 19 carbonyl compounds, 54 semi-volatile compounds (24

Xinhui Bi; Guoying Sheng; Yanli Feng; Jiamo Fu; Juexin Xie

2005-01-01

341

Expression of cytochrome CYP2B1\\/2 in nonpregnant, pregnant and fetal rats exposed to tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four-month-old female Wistar rats were exposed for 20 days to tobacco smoke ob- tained from non-filter cigarettes. During the exposure, concentration of tobacco smoke was monitored indirectly by measuring the CO level (1500 mg\\/m 3 air). The effi- cacy of exposure was assessed by measuring urine nicotine and cotinine levels. Ciga- rette smoke did not change total cytochrome P450 and

Piotr Czekaj; Anna Wiaderkiewicz; Ewa Florek; Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz

2000-01-01

342

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among United States physicians: 1949-1984  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco use became an ingrained habit in the United States (US) following the First World War and a large proportion of physicians, similar to the general population, were smokers. The period from 1949 to 1984 was a pivotal era of change however, as the medical profession, like the society it served, became increasingly aware of the dangers that tobacco incurred for health. Methods An extensive review targeted all manuscripts published in academic journals between 1949 and 1984 that related to tobacco smoking among US physicians. The study was undertaken in 2007–08 with an internet search of relevant medical databases, after which time the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to find additional articles. Results A total of 57 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. From a research perspective, the methodology and coverage of smoking surveys ranged from detailed national investigations, to local medical association surveys, and journal readership questionnaires. From a historical perspective, it can be seen that by the 1950s many US physicians had begun questioning the safety of tobacco products, and by the 1960s and 1970s, this had resulted in a continuous decline in tobacco use. By the 1980s, few US physicians were still smoking, and many of their younger demographic had probably never smoked at all. Conclusion Although the quality and coverage of historical surveys varied over time, a review of their main results indicates a clear and consistent decline in tobacco use among US physicians between 1949 and 1984. Much can be learned from this pivotal era of public health, where the importance of scientific knowledge, professional leadership and social responsibility helped set positive examples in the fight against tobacco.

Smith, Derek R

2008-01-01

343

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities  

PubMed Central

Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC.

Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

2008-01-01

344

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed—one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18. Daily waterpipe use was reported by 19%, weekly use by 41%, and monthly use by 29%. Waterpipe use was more common during the weekend (75%) than during weekdays (43%). Forty-four percent reported spending ?60 min smoking tobacco during a waterpipe session. The majority of waterpipe users owned a waterpipe (57%) and purchased it on the Internet (71%). Many waterpipe users smoked the sweetened and flavored tobacco (i.e., maassel), and fruit flavors were the most popular (54%). Past month use of cigarettes, tobacco products other than cigarettes or waterpipe, and alcohol was 54%, 33%, and 80% respectively, and 36% reported past-month marijuana use. Most waterpipe users were confident about their ability to quit (96%), but only a minority (32%) intended to quit. Most waterpipe users believed waterpipe tobacco smoking was less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. These results are from small convenience samples; more detailed study of a larger group of randomly sampled U.S. waterpipe tobacco smokers will be valuable in understanding this behavior and developing effective strategies to prevent it.

Smith-Simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

345

Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schi?ler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina R?ndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

2012-01-01

346

Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion.

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

2009-01-01

347

Tobacco smoking leads to extensive genome-wide changes in DNA methylation.  

PubMed

Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (-24.40% methylation; p = 2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers. PMID:23691101

Zeilinger, Sonja; Kühnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Illig, Thomas

2013-01-01

348

Metabolites of a Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen in Children Exposed to Secondhand or Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke in Their Homes  

PubMed Central

Background People exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) inhale the lung carcinogen NNK which is metabolized to NNAL and its glucuronides. These urinary metabolites, termed total NNAL, can be quantified. A related compound, iso-NNAL, has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to smoke constituent residues on surfaces (thirdhand tobacco smoke). There is limited information in the literature on levels of total NNAL in children exposed to SHS. Methods We recruited 79 parent child dyads from homes where the enrolled parent was a cigarette smoker, and visited their homes. Parents were asked questions, home ambient air quality was evaluated, and children provided urine samples. Urine was analyzed for total NNAL, total cotinine, total nicotine, and iso-NNAL. Results Ninety percent of the children had detectable total NNAL in urine; total nicotine and total cotinine were also detected in most samples. There were significant positive relationships between biomarker levels and exposure of children in the home. Levels were highest in homes with no smoking restrictions. African-American children had significantly higher levels than other children. iso-NNAL was not detected in any urine sample. Conclusions There was nearly universal exposure of children to the lung carcinogen NNK, due mainly to exposure to SHS from adult smokers in their homes. Impact Homes with adult smokers should adopt restrictions to protect their children from exposure to a potent lung carcinogen.

Thomas, Janet L.; Guo, Hongfei; Carmella, Steven G.; Balbo, Silvia; Han, Shaomei; Davis, Andrew; Yoder, Andrea; Murphy, Sharon E.; An, Larry C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Hecht, Stephen S.

2011-01-01

349

Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR?=?1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR?=?1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking. PMID:23700202

Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

2013-12-01

350

Media advocacy, tobacco control policy change and teen smoking in Florida  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether media advocacy activities implemented by the Florida Tobacco Control Program contributed to increased news coverage, policy changes and reductions in youth smoking. Methods A content analysis of news coverage appearing in Florida newspapers between 22 April 1998 and 31 December 2001 was conducted, and patterns of coverage before and after the implementation of media advocacy efforts to promote tobacco product placement ordinances were compared. Event history analysis was used to assess whether news coverage increased the probability of enacting these ordinances in 23 of 67 Florida counties and ordinary least square (OLS) regression was used to gauge the effect of these policies on changes in youth smoking prevalence. Results The volume of programme?related news coverage decreased after the onset of media advocacy efforts, but the ratio of coverage about Students Working Against Tobacco (the Florida Tobacco Control Program's youth advocacy organisation) relative to other topics increased. News coverage contributed to the passage of tobacco product placement ordinances in Florida counties, but these ordinances did not lead to reduced youth smoking. Conclusion This study adds to the growing literature supporting the use of media advocacy as a tool to change health?related policies. However, results suggest caution in choosing policy goals that may or may not influence health behaviour.

Niederdeppe, Jeff; Farrelly, Matthew C; Wenter, Dana

2007-01-01

351

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in the USA (Minnesota trial and the Master Settlement Agreement) and available on the internet. Search terms included: risk assessment, low dose exposure, and the names of key players and organisations.?RESULTS/CONCLUSION—The tobacco industry developed a well coordinated, multi-pronged strategy to create doubt about research on exposure to SHS by trying to link it to the broader discussion of risk assessment of low doses of a number of toxins whose disease burden may still be a matter of scientific debate, thus trying to make SHS their equivalent; and by attempting, through third party organisations and persons, to impugn the agencies using risk assessment to establish SHS as a hazard.???Keywords: tobacco industry; risk assessment; environmental tobacco smoke; ETS; second hand smoke; SHS

Hirschhorn, N.; Bialous, S. A.

2001-01-01

352

Knowledge and attitudes about smoking and environmental tobacco smoke: a comparison of parents and children attending upper and lower income pediatric sites.  

PubMed

To define differences in knowledge and attitudes about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and smoking among different populations of parents and children, surveys about smoking and health were administered in low-income pediatric clinics and upper-income private practices using a Likert scale. Sixty-five children and 300 parents from pediatric clinics and 149 children and 300 parents from private practices participated. At the clinics 39% of parents were white, 23% graduated college, 33% smoked, and 20% allowed smoking in their home. This differed from private practices where 93% of parents were white, 77% graduated college, 13% smoked and 6% allowed smoking in their home. Parents from private practices expressed greater agreement with fact and opinion statements about ill effects of tobacco. More lower income children reported living with a smoker (45% vs 23%). These data demonstrate differences in adult knowledge and attitudes about health effects of smoking, highlighting the need for increased intervention among lower income families. PMID:18714664

Feinson, Judith A; Chidekel, Aaron

2008-06-01

353

The influence of tobacco smoking on humoral immune response in insulin dependent diabetic pregnancy.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking products have a heavy impact on the public health of developed as well as non-developed countries by being a main etiologic factor for the induction of cardiovascular diseases and tobacco-related cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking on the measurement of the humoral immune response in Egyptian pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Concentrations of serum immunoglobulin A, G and M in 35 smoking, 35 non-smoking pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and 35 matched normal women were measured by ELISA. Women were matched by age and working life with controls. Measurements suggested that diabetic smokers had decreased levels of IgG and IgM in their sera. It was found that normal individuals had mean IgA, IgG and IgM levels of 2.80 mg/ml, 9.33 mg/ml and 1.66 mg/ml, respectively while non-smoker women suffering from type 1 diabetes had mean levels of 3.47 mg/ml, 10.97 mg/ml and 2.05 mg/ml (p<0.0004,p<0.0001 andp<0.0002). However, the mean level of IgA, IgG and IgM in diabetic smoker sera was determined to be 3.33 mg/ml, 8.07 mg/ml and 1.31 mg/ml, respectively (p<0.003,p<0.0001 andp<0.0001). The obtained results suggest that toxic smoke components were immuno-suppressant and may well play a part in the complex immuno-pathogenesis interaction. The increased risk of smoking in insulin dependent diabetic pregnant women during pregnancy is a further reason to encourage pregnant women to quit tobacco smoking. PMID:23105622

Haroun, Medhat

2006-09-01

354

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

355

p53 Expression and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of p53 overexpression in feline oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and to determine, if any, the association between p53 overexpression and lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, including exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Ques- tionnaires concerning exposure to ETS and other environmental factors were sent to owners of cats presenting

L. A. SNYDER; E. R. B ERTONE; R. M. J AKOWSKI; J. J ENNINGS-RITCHIE

356

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.DATA SOURCESLiterature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.STUDY SELECTIONReview and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a

Melbourne F Hovell; Joy M Zakarian; Dennis R Wahlgren; Georg E Matt

2000-01-01

357

Reducing children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well established that children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure. Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from

Mary Jane Ashley; Roberta Ferrence

1998-01-01

358

Significance of exposure to benzene and other toxic compounds through environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to assess the uptake of benzene from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to estimate its contribution to the total body burden of benzene observed in non-smokers, two experimental studies have been conducted. Controlled exposure to high levels of ETS equivalent to 10 ppm CO for 9 h and 20 ppm for 8 h resulted in a nonsignificant

F. Adlkofer; G. Scherer; C. Conze; J. Angerer; G. Lehnert

1990-01-01

359

Exposure to indoor combustion and adult asthma outcomes: environmental tobacco smoke, gas stoves, and woodsmoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because they have chronic airway inflammation, adults with asthma may be particularly susceptible to indoor air pollution. Despite widespread exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), gas stoves, and woodsmoke, the impact of these exposures on adult asthma has not been well characterised. Methods: Data were used from a prospective cohort study of 349 adults with asthma who underwent structured

M D Eisner; E H Yelin; P P Katz; G Earnest; P D Blanc

2002-01-01

360

Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathi...

R. A. Jenkins M. A. Palausky R. W. Counts

1995-01-01

361

The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

2012-01-01

362

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We

1999-01-01

363

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.DATA SOURCESMedline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.DATA SYNTHESISInterventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated

Paula M Lantz; Peter D Jacobson; Kenneth E Warner; Jeffrey Wasserman; Harold A Pollack; Julie Berson; Alexis Ahlstrom

2000-01-01

364

Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.DATA SOURCESLiterature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California,

Melanie Wakefield; Frank Chaloupka

2000-01-01

365

MICROENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO CALIFORNIANS POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Using the 1987-88 California Activity Pattern (CAP) Survey, this report examines various microenvironmental aspects of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that were not explored in earlier reports. hese topics include: (1) predictors of those individuals with t...

366

Validation of a Five-Question Survey to Assess a Child's Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To study the potentially adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in young children, a short five-question survey was developed to identify routine exposure to ETS in a large epidemiological study.METHODS: The survey is administered to parents of a healthy cohort of children starting at age 3 months. To validate the survey, urinary cotinine levels were measured

Jennifer A Seifert; Colleen A Ross; Jill M Norris

2002-01-01

367

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

368

Minority women and tobacco: Implications for smoking cessation interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quitting smoking is the single most important preventive health behavior a woman can perform to significantly reduce her chances\\u000a of morbidity and premature mortality. Minority women are an extremely important population to target for smoking cessation\\u000a intervention. Rates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are markedly higher among women of certain minority\\u000a groups. In addition, smoking prevalence rates

Teresa K. King; Belinda Borrelli; Carolyn Black; Bernardine M. Pinto; Bess H. Marcus

1997-01-01

369

Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

1999-01-01

370

Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?  

PubMed Central

Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking.

Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

2009-01-01

371

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

372

Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population  

PubMed Central

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and smoking cessation and relapse has not been studied. In a large military sample entering Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT), where tobacco use is prohibited, we investigated (i) the prevalence of agreement with a statement that tobacco companies have misled the public about the health consequences of smoking and (ii) the association of this acknowledgement with smoking status upon entry into BMT (N?=?36 013). At baseline, 56.6% agreed that tobacco companies have been deceptive, and agreement was a strong predictor of smoking status [smokers less likely to agree, odds ratio (OR)?=?0.39, P < 0.01]. At 12-month follow-up, we examined the association between industry perception at baseline and current smoking status (N?=?20 672). Recruits who had been smoking upon entry into BMT and who had acknowledged industry deception were less likely to report current smoking (OR?=?0.84, P?=?0.01). These findings suggest that anti-industry attitudes may affect smoking relapse following cessation.

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; DeBon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

373

Physiological Effects of Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Passive Observation Study  

PubMed Central

This study explored infant physiologic responses of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a longitudinal passive observation study with a control group. Fifteen smoking and 15 non-smoking mothers were initially contacted in hospital maternity units, with home visits made when their infants were 2, 4, and 6 weeks old. Exposure to ETS was measured using infant urinary nicotine and cotinine levels. The physiologic effects of infant ETS exposure were measured by rectal temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. The smoking mothers in this sample were poorer, had less education, and were less likely to be married than the mothers who did not smoke. At birth, the infants of smoking mothers had higher diastolic blood pressure than infants of non-smoking mothers (p < .008). Mothers who smoke cigarettes should be educated that maternal smoking behavior can affect an infant's cardiovascular function. Parents should also be counseled about the risks of smoking in close proximity and/or in an enclosed space with an infant, especially in a motor vehicle.

Flanders-Stepans, Mary Beth; Fuller, Sara G

1999-01-01

374

The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: A pathway to complete tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This article outlines a theoretical framework for research concerning secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevention as a means to curtail the tobacco industry. Methods: The Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) assumes interlocking social contingencies of reinforcement (i.e., rewards or punishments) from the highest level of society (e.g., taxing cigarette sales) to physiological reactions to nicotine that influence smoking and SHSe. We review selected research concerning both policy and clinical efforts to restrict smoking and/or SHSe. Results: Research to date has focused on smoking cessation with modest to weak effects. The BEM and empirical evidence suggest that cultural contingencies of reinforcement should be emphasized to protect people from SHSe, especially vulnerable children, pregnant women, the ill, the elderly, and low-income adults who have not “elected” to smoke. Doing so will protect vulnerable populations from industry-produced SHSe and may yield more and longer-lasting cessation. Conclusions: Interventions that reduce SHSe may serve as a Trojan horse to counter the tobacco industry. Future studies should: (a) guide policies to restrict SHSe; (b) develop powerful community and clinical interventions to reduce SHSe; (c) test the degree to which policies and other contexts enhance the effects of clinical interventions (e.g., media programs disclosing the disingenuous marketing by the industry); and (d) investigate the effects of all health care providers’ ability to reduce SHSe and generate an antitobacco culture, by advising all clients to avoid starting to smoke, to protect their children from SHSe, and to quit smoking.

Hughes, Suzanne C.

2009-01-01

375

Effects of maternal tobacco smoking, sleeping position, and sleep state on arousal in healthy term infants  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate whether a history of maternal tobacco smoking affected the maturation of arousal responses and whether sleeping position and infant age alters these relations. Design: Healthy term infants (13 born to mothers who did not smoke and 11 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy) were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: (a) two to three weeks after birth, (b) two to three months after birth, and (c) five to six months after birth. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold in response to air jet stimulation were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) when infants slept both prone and supine. Results: Maternal smoking significantly elevated arousal threshold in QS when infants slept supine at 2–3 months of age (p<0.05). Infants of smoking mothers also had fewer spontaneous arousals from QS at 2–3 months in both prone (p<0.05) and supine (p<0.001) sleeping positions. In infants of non-smoking mothers, arousal thresholds were elevated in the prone position in AS at 2–3 months (p<0.01) and QS at 2–3 weeks (p<0.05) and 2–3 months (p<0.001). Conclusions: Maternal tobacco smoking significantly impairs both stimulus induced and spontaneous arousal from QS when infants sleep in the supine position, at the age when the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome is highest.

Horne, R; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Vitkovic, J; Lacey, B; Andrew, S; Cranage, S; Chau, B; Greaves, R; Adamson, T

2002-01-01

376

Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban  

PubMed Central

This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children’s exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki.

BURTON, DEE; GRAHAM, JOHN W.; JOHNSON, C. ANDERSON; UUTELA, ANTTI; VARTIAINEN, ERKKI; PALMER, RAYMOND F.

2010-01-01

377

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Conclusions: Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence.

Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerstrom, K

2003-01-01

378

Collection and analysis of Nicotine as a marker for environmental tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nicotine is a potential marker for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) because it is unique to tobacco smoke and is a major constituent of the smoke. An air sampling method is presented which efficiently collects both particulate and vapor phase nicotine. Two filters are assembled in tandem in a personal sampling cassette. The first filter collects total or size fractional particules and the second is treated with sodium bisulfate to collect vapor phase nicotine and nicotine which has volatilized from the paniculate material collected on the first filler. The nicotine is then desorbed from the filters and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen sensitive detection. The sampling method was evaluated in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and smoking rate. It was then employed in a field study of particulate exposures of railroad office workers and railroad mechanics to determine the portion of the particulate exposure attributable to environmental tobacco smoke. The method was found to be efficient and sensitive for the determination of nicotine levels in air.

Hammond, S. Katharine; Leaderer, Brian P.; Roche, Anne C.; Schenker, Marc

379

Predictors of hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity in vocational school students  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking, hazardous drinking and physical inactivity during adolescence are risk factors that are associated with poorer health in adulthood. The identification of subgroups of young people with a high prevalence of one or more of these risk factors allows an optimised allocation of preventive measures. This study aimed at investigating hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity as well as their associations and demographic predictors in vocational school students. Methods Out of 57 contacted vocational schools in Switzerland, a total of 24 schools participated in a survey assessing gender, age, immigrant background, educational attainment and vocational field as well as the above mentioned health risk factors. Out of the 2659 students present in 177 included vocational school classes, 2647 (99.5%) completed the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the demographic predictors of each health risk factor and a multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate predictors of different risk factor combinations. Results Of the surveyed students, 79.4% showed at least one risk factor, 43.6% showed two or more and 9.6% showed all three health risk factors. Hazardous drinking was more prevalent in male, physical inactivity was more prevalent in female vocational school students. The proportion of students with low physical activity and tobacco smoking increased with increasing age. While the combination of hazardous drinking and tobacco smoking was higher in males, the other risk factor combinations were observed particularly among females. Conclusions Multiple risk factors were ascertained in a significant proportion of vocational school students. Specifically, tobacco smoking and hazardous drinking were coexistent. The study underlines the need for preventive measures in specific subpopulations of adolescents and young adults with lower educational level.

2013-01-01

380

In vitro effect of tobacco smoke components on the functions of normal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

The function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has previously been shown to be impaired in smokers in comparison with healthy nonsmokers. Potent inhibition of PMN chemotaxis has been achieved with whole tobacco smoke, the gas phase of smoke, and a water-soluble extract of whole smoke. In the present work several aspects of PMN function were studied after exposure to water-soluble fraction of the particle phase of tobacco smoke collected on glass fiber filters. These tests included capillary tube random migration, chemotaxis under agarose, phagocytosis of yeasts, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium dye reduction, and whole-blood bactericidal activity. The water extract of the particle fraction of smoke had a high content of nicotine when compared with the levels achieved in plasma of smokers and a much lower concentration of aldehydes when compared with the gas phase of smoke. It had no cytotoxic effect and did not affect phagocytosis, oxygen consumption, or bactericidal activity. Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction of both resting and stimulated PMNs was significantly decreased only with the most concentrated solution. The tested solutions exerted a dose-related depressive effect on capillary tube random migration, whereas the random migration measured in the agarose chemotaxis test was normal. Nevertheless, the chemotactic response to a caseine solution was significantly decreased. The same tests were performed in the presence of several concentrations of a nicotine solution and the only test to be affected was the capillary tube random migration, and, that only at a very high concentration. The results of this study contribute to the more precise delineation of the extent of the dysfunction of PMNs exposed to tobacco smoke components and indicate that deleterious products are released from the particle phase of the smoke, which deposits all along the respiratory tree. PMID:7228386

Corberand, J; Laharrague, P; Nguyen, F; Dutau, G; Fontanilles, M; Gleizes, B; Gyrard, E

1980-12-01

381

Sequential discriminant classification of environments with different levels of exposure to tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

The use of biomarkers permits the detection of smoking having taken place in an environment. However, no single biomarker is able to differentiate clearly between different types of environments. Multivariate classification models have helped us to differentiate between outdoors, non-smoking indoors, well ventilated smoking indoors, and smoking environments without good air exchange. We found that the variables that enabled us to classify environments most accurately were indoor temperature, 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethyltoluene. A successful prediction rate of 86.5% was obtained by applying both direct fitting and cross validation discriminant (leave-one-out) analyses. Our results show that although a good air exchange ratio decreases the levels of volatile organic compounds in indoor air due to tobacco smoke, significant contamination still remains. PMID:24908649

Besalú, Emili; Castellanos, Mar; Sanchez, Juan M

2014-08-15

382

Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children  

SciTech Connect

To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

1985-11-01

383

The "We Card" program: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" as industry self-preservation.  

PubMed

The "We Card" program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Apollonio, Dorie E; Malone, Ruth E

2010-07-01

384

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system.

Scott, J Elliott

2004-01-01

385

Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status  

PubMed Central

Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse.

Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

2012-01-01

386

Smoking among Lao medical doctors: challenges and opportunities for tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is an increasing threat to health in low-income and middle-income countries and doctors are recognised as important role models in anti-smoking campaigns. Objectives The study aimed to identify the smoking prevalence of medical doctors in Laos, their tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, and their involvement in and capacity for tobacco pr