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1

Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined prevalence rates of water pipe tobacco smoking among young people as a first step in assessing the health implications of this form of tobacco use. Methods. We examined water pipe use with data from the 2007 Florida Youth Tobacco Survey, which assessed tobacco-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors among the state's middle and high school students. Results. Four percent of middle school students and 11% of high school students reported ever having used a water pipe. Adolescent boys were significantly more likely than adolescent girls to use water pipes, and African American adolescents were significantly less likely than adolescents from other racial/ethnic backgrounds to do so. Those who indicated ever having tried cigarettes and those who reported positive attitudes toward the social nature of cigarette use were more likely to have tried water pipes. Conclusions. Water pipe use appears to be widespread among middle and high school students. Further research is needed to assess the health risks associated with water pipe tobacco smoking as well as young people's attitudes toward this form of tobacco use. PMID:19762667

Curbow, Barbara A.; Weitz, Jamie R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y.

2009-01-01

2

Does switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars reduce tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking histories, reported depth of inhalation, number of pipe and cigars (PC) smoked, serum thiocyanate (SCN) and expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels were examined in PC male smokers enrolled in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum SCN levels for all PC smokers were higher than for non-smokers and lower than for current cigarette smokers. Levels were

Judith K. Ockene; Terry F. Pechacek; Thomas M. Vogt; Kenneth H. Svendsen

1987-01-01

3

Smoked Tobacco Products  

MedlinePLUS

... referred to as clove cigarettes—are imported from Indonesia. They typically contain about 60% tobacco and 40% ... and other health conditions. Additionally, research studies from Indonesia show that kretek smoking is associated with lung ...

4

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

5

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

6

COPD and tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

COPD and tobacco smoke. M. Bartal. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation of the airways, including the parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature. The burden of COPD is increasing around the world in terms of mor- bidity and mortality in adult population. Active smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, although there is individual susceptibility to the

M. Bartal

7

Smoking and Tobacco Policy Effective Date: August 25, 2014  

E-print Network

also is prohibited. III. EXCEPTIONS Smoking Cessation Products and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking that contain tobacco or nicotine, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, hookahs, water pipes are permitted. Devices that simulate smoking through inhalation of vapor or aerosol from the device, including e-cigarettes

Ziurys, Lucy M.

8

Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes  

E-print Network

of Department) December 1992 ABSTRACT Jamaican Red Clay Tobacco Pipes. (December 1992) Kenan Paul Heidtke, B. A. , Texas Lutheran College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. L. Hamilton This thesis is a study of the red clay tobacco pipes which are found... with a special emphasis on pipes recovered from the important English colonial city of Port Royal. Until it was almost totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1692, Port Royal was the most important English city in the Caribbean. The goals...

Heidtke, Kenan Paul

2012-06-07

9

Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

Furrukh, Muhammad

2013-01-01

10

Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke condensate: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of mainstream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it has been tested, with the base\\/neutral fractions being the most mutagenic. In rodents, cigarette smoke induces sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in bone marrow and lung cells. In humans,

David M. DeMarini

2004-01-01

11

Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

1983-02-01

12

Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking Gazel Youths The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking  

E-print Network

Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ Gazel Youths 1 The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ the role of parents' long-term smoking trajectories. Maria Melchior1 , Jean;Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ Gazel Youths 2 Abstract Youths whose parents smoke tobacco may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

Questions about Smoking, Tobacco, and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Questions About Smoking, Tobacco, and Health Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En ... here. We also answer some questions about how smoking and tobacco can affect a person’s health, including ...

14

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy Introduction In 2007 the PSU Tobacco Policy Committee conducted an extensive evaluation of the PSU smoking/tobacco policy. The evaluation consisted, work, study or visit the campus from a major health concern: secondhand smoke. In the 2006 report

Bertini, Robert L.

15

University of California Policy Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment  

E-print Network

or an exclusive lease interest. Smoke/Tobacco-Free means that smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products forms of smokeless tobacco. Tobacco-Related means the use of tobacco brand or corporate name, trademark Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment 3 of 5 Smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products, electronic

Talley, Lynne D.

16

Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

17

Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Smoking & Tobacco Use Share Compartir How to Quit Tips ... stories of their suffering as a result of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Quit Tips Five ...

18

27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product...

2014-04-01

19

27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product...

2011-04-01

20

27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product...

2013-04-01

21

27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product...

2012-04-01

22

27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Packages § 41.72a Notice for pipe tobacco. (a) Product...

2010-04-01

23

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 ?g day?1 for all risks, and 1.2 ?g day?1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs. PMID:21556207

Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

2011-01-01

24

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios. PMID:10090715

Manuel, J

1999-01-01

25

Cooking smoke and tobacco smoke as risk factors for stillbirth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoke from biomass combustion produces some of the same pollutants found in tobacco smoke and ambient air, yet only one study to date has linked cooking with biomass fuels to increased risk of stillbirth. The mechanisms by which biomass smoke may cause stillbirth are through exposure to CO and particulates in biomass smoke. Using information on 19,189 ever-married women aged

Vinod Mishra; Robert D. Retherford; Kirk R. Smith

2005-01-01

26

Policy #3220 Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes and Vaporizers 1  

E-print Network

Policy #3220 ­ Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes's restrictions on the use of tobacco and smoking-related products and electronic cigarettes and vaporizers. B-containing products including, but not limited to, cigarettes, cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco and hookahs. It also

27

Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America. Methods The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11?550 adults between 25 and 64?years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including cigarettes, cigars and pipes, was surveyed among other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Santiago and Buenos Aires had the highest smoking prevalence (45.4% and 38.6%, respectively); male and female rates were similar. In other cities, men smoked more than women, most markedly in Quito (49.4% of men vs 10.5% of women). Peak male smoking prevalence occurred among the youngest two age groups (25–34 and 35–44 years old). Men and women of Buenos Aires smoked the highest number of cigarettes per day on average (15.7 and 12.4, respectively). Men initiated regular smoking earlier than women in each city (ranges 13.7–20.0?years vs 14.2–21.1?years, respectively). Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at workplace for more than 5?h per day was higher in Barquisimeto (28.7%), Buenos Aires (26.8%) and Santiago (21.5%). The highest prevalence of former smokers was found among men in Buenos Aires, Santiago and Lima (30.0%, 26.8% and 26.0% respectively). Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high in the seven CARMELA cities, although patterns of smoking varied among cities. A major health and economic burden is inevitable in urban Latin America unless effective comprehensive tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are implemented. PMID:20709777

Champagne, B M; Schargrodsky, H; Pramparo, P; Boissonnet, C; Wilson, E

2010-01-01

28

Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

29

Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts

Reinskje Talhout; Antoon Opperhuizen; Jan G. C. van Amsterdam

2006-01-01

30

Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking  

SciTech Connect

Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

1988-01-01

31

Environmental tobacco smoke in commercial aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tobacco smoke and other pollutants present in both smoking and nonsmoking cabin sections during commercial passenger flights on DC-10 aircraft were determined on four, 5-h smoking flights. The average concentrations of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, CO 2, CO, NO x, NO 2, O 3, PM2.5 and environmental tobacco smoke particles during a flight were determined with a briefcase sampling system. Concentrations of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine and CO as well as temperature, humidity and pressure were determined as a function of time during the flight. A model to predict penetration of environmental tobacco smoke from the smoking to the nonsmoking section of the passenger cabin under a variety of flight conditions is derived from the data.

Eatough, Delbert J.; Caka, Fern M.; Crawford, John; Braithwaite, Scott; Hansen, Lee D.; Lewis, Edwin A.

32

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

33

Tobacco regulation: autonomy up in smoke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, “Big Tobacco” has spread its tentacles across the developing world with devastating results. The global incidence of smoking has increased exponentially in Africa, Asia and South America and it is leading to an equally rapid increase in the incidence of smoking-induced morbidity and mortality on these continents. The World Health Organization (WHO) has tried to

C R Hooper; C Agule

2009-01-01

34

Effects of tobacco and non-tobacco cigarette smoking on endothelium and platelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial damage and platelet activation may mediate increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in tobacco cigarette smokers. Our study was designed to determine whether acute effects of tobacco smoking on endothelium and platelets could be avoided by the substitution of non-tobacco cigarettes. Twenty healthy nonsmokers smoked two tobacco cigarettes in 20 minutes and on another occasion (separated by 1 week) smoked

James W Davis; Loretta Shelton; David A Eigenberg; Charles E Hignite; Itaru S Watanabe

1985-01-01

35

A Pilot Study of Smokeless Tobacco in Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The substitution of smokeless tobacco for cigarette smoking is a harm reduction alternative for inveterate smokers and reduces others’ passive exposure to smoke. Two million smokers have used smokeless tobacco to quit on their own, but no formal program has employed this method of smoking cessation. We conducted a pilot study to determine if smokeless tobacco could be successfully

Ken Tilashalski; Brad Rodu; Philip Cole

1998-01-01

36

Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-01-01

37

Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-07-01

38

Environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in no-smoking and smoking sections of restaurants.  

PubMed Central

To characterize the effectiveness of a local ordinance that restricts smoking in restaurants to one third of the seating area, this study made simultaneous measurements of two markers of environmental tobacco smoke, respirable suspended particles and nicotine, in the smoking and no-smoking sections of seven restaurants. The mean concentrations of respirable suspended particles and nicotine were 40% and 65% lower, respectively, in the no-smoking than in the smoking sections, indicating substantial but not complete protection against exposure. PMID:8363015

Lambert, W E; Samet, J M; Spengler, J D

1993-01-01

39

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear diseases. It is also linked to cancer, and behavioural problems and neurocognitive deficits in children.Conclusions: Protecting

Kinga Polanska; Wojciech Hanke; Roberto Ronchetti; Peter Van Den Hazel; Moniek Zuurbier; Janna Koppe; Alena Bartonova

2006-01-01

40

Prescribing Exercise in Tobacco Smoking Cessation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco is one of the main causes of mortality in industrialized countries, yet there is no treatment that is wholly efficacious for helping smokers to quit the habit. Physical exercise is one of the low-cost nonpharmacologic strategies in rehabilitation therapies in several diseases and its practice offers a way of combating the harmful effects of smoking on health. Studies have

Carlos Ayán Pérez

2009-01-01

41

Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Current Draft: November 2010  

E-print Network

Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) 1 Current Draft: November 2010 Public-Place Smoking Laws and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Christopher Carpenter*, Sabina Postolek, and Casey Warman ABSTRACT Public-place smoking restrictions are the most

Silver, Whendee

42

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: Participants (N31; M21.4 years, SD2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M5.2 uses\\/month, SD4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M9.9 cigarettes\\/day, SD6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart

Thomas Eissenberg; Alan Shihadeh

2009-01-01

43

CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

University controlled properties. Smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products, and the use of unregulated days, on average, the number of hours of smokeless tobacco, e.g. chew, used: None, 93% 3% 0% 4% Hours of Smokeless Tobacco Used in Past 30 Days None *1-4 hours per day 4 or more hours per day Blank #12;Smoking

Mills, Allen P.

44

Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed Central

Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers. Images Figure 1 PMID:10350520

Benowitz, N L

1999-01-01

45

34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE  

E-print Network

34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE 34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use smoking and tobacco use is restricted. Definitions Smoking shall have the meaning specified in System Policy 34.05 Smoking. Tobacco means all forms of tobacco products including but not limited to cigarettes

46

Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

47

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke.

Robert Melamede

2005-01-01

48

Smoke & Tobacco -Free Policy For Comment 4/22/13 to 7/1/13  

E-print Network

-free environment: that smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products, and the use of unregulated nicotine products locations shall be smoke and tobacco-free. Smoking, use of smokeless tobacco products, and the use

Russell, Lynn

49

Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often a social activity. There are a variety of names for hookahs, including narghile, argileh,  

E-print Network

Hookah Hookah or water pipe smoking has been practiced for over 400 years, and is often. Using a hookah to smoke tobacco poses a serious potential health hazard to smokers and others exposed to the smoke emitted. Hookah tobacco and smoke contain many toxicants that are known to cause lung cancer

Oregon, University of

50

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

51

Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine intake is a necessary but insufficient factor in maintaining tobacco smoking behavior, and nonpharmacological factors associated with smoking play a key role. Some of these factors may influence smoking behavior by eliciting placebo effects, or responses related specifically to the belief that one is consuming a drug. Greater knowledge of placebo effects of smoking would improve our understanding of

Kenneth Perkins; Michael Sayette; Cynthia Conklin; Anthony Caggiula

2003-01-01

52

Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles with surfaces highly adsorbent to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Calcic mineral particles are two orders of magnitude more abundant in smokers' lungs compared with non-smoking controls in residents of Vancouver. Such particles may thus be potential agents for the delivery of PAH carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene, to the lungs. None of the potential hazards listed above has yet been properly evaluated.

Stephens, W. E.

2003-12-01

53

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

54

South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining the best combination of counselling/support and pharmacological therapy; (v) setting a quit date and provide suitable resources and support; (vi) frequent follow-up as often as possible via text/telephone or in person; (vii) monitoring for side-effects, relapse and on-going cessation; and (viii) if relapse occurs, providing the necessary support and encourage a further attempt when appropriate.  PMID:24148176

van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

2013-11-01

55

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think

K Danishevski; A Gilmore; M McKee

2008-01-01

56

Deposition of Tobacco Smoke Particles in a Low Ventilation Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deposition on indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism for tobacco smoke particles. We report measurements of deposition rates of environmental tobacco smoke particles in a room-size chamber. The deposition rates were determined from the changes in measured concentrations by correcting for the effects of coagulation and ventilation. The airflow turbulent intensity parameter was determined independently by measuring the air

Mindi Xu; Matty Nematollahi; Richard G. Sextro; Ashok J. Gadgil; William W. Nazaroff

1994-01-01

57

'Imagine all that smoke in their lungs': parents' perceptions of young children's tolerance of tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their chil- dren to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influenc- ing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the home during the first

Jude Robinson; Andrew J. Kirkcaldy

2008-01-01

58

Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

59

Genotoxic assessment of environmental tobacco smoke using bacterial bioassays  

SciTech Connect

The paper demonstrates that integrated chemical and bacterial mutagenicity information can be used to identify environmental tobacco smoke genotoxicants, monitor human exposure, and make comparative assessments. Approximately one-third of the environmental tobacco-smoke constituents for which there is quantitative analytical-chemistry information also have associated genotoxicity information. For example, 11 of the quantitated compounds are animal carcinogens. Work presented in this paper demonstrates that both the nonparticle-bound semi-volatile and the particulate-bound organic material contain bacterial mutagens. These environmental tobacco-smoke organics give an equivalent of about 86,000 revertants per cigarette. In addition, this article summarizes efforts to estimate environmental tobacco smoke bacterial mutagenicity, to use bacterial tests for the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke-impacted indoor environments, and to use bacterial assays for the direct monitoring of human exposure.

Claxton, L.D.; Morin, R.S.; Hughes, T.J.; Lewtas, J.

1989-01-01

60

Longitudinal effects of pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on adolescent smoking susceptibility.  

PubMed

We examined the longitudinal impact of self-reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media on adolescents' susceptibility to smoking, using in-school surveys from a culturally diverse sample. Ethnicity and acculturation also were examined as potential moderators. Middle-school students (N = 2,292) completed self-report questionnaires during the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. Chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether reported exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco media varied according to ethnicity, acculturation, and immigration status. Logistic regression models were used to examine whether pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure in 6th grade was associated with susceptibility to smoking by later grades. Recall of people smoking in television programs and pro-tobacco advertisements in stores was associated with adolescent smoking susceptibility. Exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements on television protected against susceptibility. No significant interaction effects between pro- and anti-tobacco media exposure on smoking susceptibility were found. Ethnicity and acculturation did not moderate these associations. Our longitudinal study provides evidence that pro-tobacco media and advertising increases susceptibility to smoking over time. More important, anti-tobacco advertisements are not sufficient to reduce the harmful effects of adolescent exposure to pro-tobacco media. Policy-level interventions such as restrictions in tobacco advertising may be necessary to prevent adolescent smoking. PMID:16801303

Weiss, Jie Wu; Cen, Steven; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson; Mouttapa, Michele; Schreiner, William S; Cruz, Tess Boley

2006-06-01

61

Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

Rees, Vaughan W.

2013-01-01

62

Tobacco smoke exposure induces nicotine dependence in rats  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and many other compounds that act in concert on the brain reward system. Therefore, animal models are needed that allow the investigation of chronic exposure to the full spectrum of tobacco smoke constituents. OBJECTIVES The aim of these studies was to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke leads to nicotine dependence in rats. METHODS The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs were recorded from a checklist of nicotine abstinence signs. Nicotine self-administration sessions were conducted to investigate if tobacco smoke exposure affects the motivation to self-administer nicotine. Nicotinic receptor autoradiography was used to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke affects central ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and non-?7 nAChR levels (primarily ?4?2 nAChRs). RESULTS The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine dose-dependently elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats exposed to tobacco smoke and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the untreated control rats. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced more somatic withdrawal signs in the smoke exposed rats than in the control rats. Nicotine self-administration was decreased 1 day after the last tobacco smoke exposure sessions and was returned to control levels 5 days later. Tobacco smoke exposure increased the ?7 nAChR density in the CA2/3 area and the stratum oriens and increased the non-?7 nAChR density in the dentate gyrus. CONCLUSION Tobacco smoke exposure leads to nicotine dependence as indicated by precipitated affective and somatic withdrawal signs and induces an upregulation of nAChRs in the hippocampus. PMID:19936715

Small, Elysia; Shah, Hina P.; Davenport, Jake J.; Geier, Jacqueline E.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Yamada, Hidetaka; Sabarinath, Sreedharan N.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Pauly, James R.; Gold, Mark S.; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

2013-01-01

63

Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian

64

Environmental tobacco smoke and tobacco related mortality in a prospective study of Californians, 1960-98  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To measure the relation between environmental tobacco smoke, as estimated by smoking in spouses, and long term mortality from tobacco related disease. Design Prospective cohort study covering 39 years. Setting Adult population of California, United States. Participants 118 094 adults enrolled in late 1959 in the American Cancer Society cancer prevention study (CPS I), who were followed until 1998.

James E Enstrom; Geoffrey C Kabat; Davey Smith

2003-01-01

65

The association between active smoking, smokeless tobacco, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient rest\\/sleep are limited.

Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar

2011-01-01

66

The Smoke You Don't See: Uncovering Tobacco Industry Scientific Strategies Aimed Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke Policies  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This review details the tobacco industry's scientific campaign aimed against policies addressing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and efforts to undermine US regulatory agencies from approximately 1988 to 1993. Methods. The public availability of more than 40 million internal, once-secret tobacco company documents allowed an unedited and historical look at tobacco industry strategies. Results. The analysis showed that the tobacco industry went to great lengths to battle the ETS issue worldwide by camouflaging its involvement and creating an impression of legitimate, unbiased scientific research. Conclusions. There is a need for further international monitoring of industry-produced science and for significant improvements in tobacco document accessibility. PMID:11527774

Muggli, Monique E.; Forster, Jean L.; Hurt, Richard D.; Repace, James L.

2001-01-01

67

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees  

PubMed Central

Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

68

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 41.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 41.72 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 41.72a is deemed to be...

2014-04-01

69

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 41.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 41.72 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 41.72a is deemed to be...

2013-04-01

70

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 41.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 41.72 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 41.72a is deemed to be...

2011-04-01

71

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 41.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 41.72 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 41.72a is deemed to be...

2010-04-01

72

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 41.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 41.72 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 41.72a is deemed to be...

2012-04-01

73

Prevalence of tobacco smoking among school teachers in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death worldwide, and nearly 80% of all smokers live in low to middle income countries. Previous research has suggested that smoking rates vary by occupation, with relatively low rates commonly seen among educators. Despite this fact, little is known about the smoking habits of teachers in Botswana. The objective of this study, therefore, was to investigate prevalence and correlates of tobacco use among school teachers in Botswana. Results The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Botswana was found to be relatively low. Of the 1732 participants in the study, only 3.2% reported being current smokers, 5.3% were ex-smokers and 91.5% had never smoked. Smoking was more common among male teachers when compared to females, being 10.8% and 0.4%, respectively. Factors such as school level, marital status and body mass index were found to be positively associated with tobacco smoking, whereas age, length of employment and weekly working hours were not. Conclusion This study suggests that Botswana school teachers have a low prevalence of tobacco smoking. While this result may be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place, there is still need to put in place systems to monitor compliance and programs to help those who want to quit smoking. Such protocols would represent a major step forward in further reducing the prevalence of smoking in the education profession. PMID:24283758

2013-01-01

74

Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk  

E-print Network

estrogen deficiency such as osteoporotic fracture, earlier menopause and at lower risk of endometrial cancer,menopause have been found to increase lifetime exposure to circulating Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk estrogens

2009-01-01

75

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

76

Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30?years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

2012-01-01

77

Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.  

PubMed

The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

2013-01-01

78

IMPACT OF TOBACCO SMOKING ON CORONARY RISK FACTOR PROFILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is multifactorial disease. The tobacco smoking is the major risk factor of coronary artery disease (C.A.D.) The present study tried to determine the prevalence of all the known risk factors of C.A.D. among the tobacco smoker and compared them with non smokers. Study was designed in such a way that sixty randomized tobacco smokers who attended

Janardan V. Bhatt

79

Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.  

PubMed

Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested. PMID:18855154

Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

2009-02-01

80

A Comparison of Mainstream and Sidestream Marijuana and Tobacco Cigarette Smoke Produced under Two Machine Smoking Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for

David Moir; William S. Rickert; Genevieve Levasseur; Yolande Larose; Rebecca Maertens; Paul White; Suzanne Desjardins

2008-01-01

81

Are you ready to QUIT smoking or using other tobacco products? Help is now available on campus through Quit Smoking NOW (QSN). This FREE six-week tobacco  

E-print Network

Are you ready to QUIT smoking or using other tobacco products? Help is now available on campus through Quit Smoking NOW (QSN). This FREE six-week tobacco cessation program can assist you in becoming tobacco-free. With the help of a trained smoking cessation facilitator, you can learn how to: Combat

Weston, Ken

82

[History of cigarette smoking. The effect of tobacco smoking on women's health].  

PubMed

History of cigarette smoking started on XV century, when Columb imported tobacco to Europe. Popular using of tobacco we are indebted Jaen Nicot Villeman, the name of nicotine originate from his surname. Tobacco first was exploited like a drug, however now it is a very harmful stimulant. Cigarette smoking is still an actual problem and increased risk of many diseases. Very toxic components of smoke get inside all the organs and upsetting their activities and proper running of the life processes. It is common knowledge that smoking badly influences women's health. Nicotine makes the negative influence on function of ovaries metabolism of hormones and state of osseous tissue. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with obstetrical and pediatrician complication with fetus, newborn and child. The aim of the article is to summarize the role of tobacco smoking on women's health. PMID:20301962

Zalewska, Marta; Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemi?ska, Anita; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szyma?ski, Wies?aw

2009-01-01

83

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

84

Texas state law authorizes higher health care premiums for people who use tobacco. The Texas Group Benefits Program (GBP) offers prescription drugs to help tobacco users quit using tobacco.  

E-print Network

tobacco. Electronic or e-cigarettes that do not contain tobacco and are designed expressly for smoking product? Cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or any other product that contains

Rock, Chris

85

Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

1981-01-01

86

Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smokers are more likely to use marijuana than those who do not smoke tobacco. Little is known about how marijuana use affects the probability of tobacco smoking cessation. This analysis was based on 431 adults less than 45 years of age who reported recent tobacco smoking in the 1981 baseline interview in the household-based Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study

Daniel E. Ford; Hong Thi Vu; James C. Anthony

2002-01-01

87

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total

Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Barbara K. Zedler; Qiwei Liang; Hans J. Roethig

2008-01-01

88

Supporting smoking cessation in healthcare: obstacles in scientific understanding and tobacco addiction management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing efforts to reduce tobacco smoking, the smoking prevalence in many countries has remained stable for years. This may be a consequence of either lack of knowledge about effective ways to reduce smoking, or failing treatment of tobacco addiction in healthcare. This study explored gaps in the current understanding of smoking cessation and the challenges facing tobacco addiction management

Korte de D; Schayck van O. C. P; Spiegel van P; A. A. Kaptein; A. Sachs; M. Rutten-van Mölken; N. Chavannes; T. Tromp-Beelen; R. Bes; R. Allard; G. Peeters; L. Kliphuis; J. W. Schouten; Gennip van L; Ommen van R; J. Asin

2010-01-01

89

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UCSan Diego by creating a When? uc San Diego goes smoke and tobacco- smoke-free environment on all of the lIe free by UC San Diego. There will be no designated smoking areas on UC San Diego property. We ask that tobacco

Russell, Lynn

90

Removal and Leakage of Environmental Tobacco Smoke from a Model Smoking Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies on the removal of accumulated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the effectiveness of ETS leakage control were carried out in a model smoking room using carbon monoxide, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particulates, and ultrafine particles (UFP) as the ETS tracers. The study investigated the effectiveness of the designated smoking room, equipped with a displacement ventilation system under different

Man-Pun Wan; Chi-Li Wu; Tsz-Tung Chan; Christopher Y. H. Chao; Lam-Lung Yeung

2010-01-01

91

The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

2013-01-01

92

Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

2003-01-01

93

Tobacco smoke exposure during childhood: effect on cochlear physiology.  

PubMed

The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students' (8-10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ? 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

Durante, Alessandra S; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

2013-11-01

94

Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology  

PubMed Central

The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ? 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

2013-01-01

95

The Tobacco Industry's Role in the 16 Cities Study of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Do the Data Support the Stated Conclusions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency

Richard L. Barnes; S. Katharine Hammond; Stanton A. Glantz

2006-01-01

96

Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented. PMID:23113177

Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

2012-01-01

97

How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.?STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.?DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.?CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

2000-01-01

98

The contribution of low tar cigarettes to environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A series of low tar cigarettes (LTC) were smoked and the quantities of condensable mainstream (inhaled) and sidestream (between puffs) smoke compounds were determined and compared to those produced by a high tar, nonfilter cigarette. It was found that the LTC produced large quantities of sidestream smoke condensates, about equal to the high tar cigarette, and contained very high levels of toxic or cocarcinogenic phenols. On an equal weight basis, the LTC emitted more of these hazardous compounds into sidestream and environmental tobacco smoke. Higher smoke yields of a flavor additive and a sugar degradation product indicated addition of such compounds during the manufacture of LTC. It was concluded that, compared to a high tar cigarette, smoking LTC may be better for the smoker, but not for the nearby nonsmoker. Information should be developed to allow smokers to choose LTC that produce lower levels of hazardous compounds in their environmentally emitted sidestream smoke.

Chortyk, O.T.; Schlotzhauer, W.S. (Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-05-01

99

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

2014-01-01

100

Changes of smoking habits and cough in men smoking cigarettes with 30% NSM tobacco substitute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of smoking cigarettes with 30% of the tobacco replaced by NSM tobacco substitute, which lowered their tar and nicotine delivery, were studied by comparing them with the effects of conventional cigarettes in a controlled crossover trial lasting 20 months. Chest symptoms, cigarette consumption, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured each month. Two-hundred men began

S Freedman; C M Fletcher

1976-01-01

101

49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS...Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts...inspected at each annual inspection, or any other...

2010-10-01

102

Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

2014-01-01

103

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UC San Diego will go completely smoke and tobacco-free on the main campus and other UC San Diego property and universities that are smoke or tobacco-free. Who? This affects everyone on UC San Diego property, including

Russell, Lynn

104

Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle  

PubMed Central

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful. PMID:19440270

Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

2009-01-01

105

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the\\u000a commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public\\u000a transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main

Maria Cheraghi; Sundeep Salvi

2009-01-01

106

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

107

Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively

ROGER A JENKINS; MICHAEL P MASKARINEC; RICHARD W COUNTS; JOHN E CATON; BRUCE TOMKINS; RALPH H ILGNER

2001-01-01

108

Predicting regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation exposure of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particles may increase health risks, but only to the extent that the particles deposit in the respiratory tract. We describe a technique to predict regional lung deposition of environmental tobacco smoke particles. Interpretation of particle size distribution measurements after cigarette combustion by a smoking machine in a test room yields an effective emissions profile. An aerosol dynamics model is used to predict indoor particle concentrations resulting from a specified combination of smoking frequency and building factors. By utilizing a lung deposition model, the rate of ETS mass accumulation in human lungs is then determined as a function of particle size and lung airway generation. Considering emissions of sidestream smoke only, residential exposures of nonsmokers to ETS are predicted to cause rates of total respiratory tract particle deposition in the range of 0.4-0.7 {mu}g/day per kg of body weight for light smoking in a well-ventilated residence and 8-13 {mu}g/day per kg for moderately heavy smoking in a poorly ventilated residence. Emissions of sidestream plus mainstream smoke lead to predicted deposition rates about a factor of 4 higher. This technique should be useful for evaluating health risks and control techniques associated with exposure to ETS particles. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Nazaroff, W.W.; Hung, W.Y.; Sasse, A.G.B.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gadgil, A.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1993-10-01

109

Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10–14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels—having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint. PMID:18948391

Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

2009-01-01

110

SUMMARY The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette quitting therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette qu- itting therapies and to determine source environment\\/individuals for ETS exposure. 230 individuals were contacted. We in- vestigated person\\/s with ETS exposure before starting to smoke, places\\/duration of exposure, sources of exposure, therapy methods\\/durations recommended. Training seminar was also assumed as a

Türkan GÜNAY; Emel CEYLAN

111

A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

112

Tobacco Smoke in the Home and Child Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to determine the effects of tobacco smoke in the home on children's cognitive development. The study focused on 280 children, representing equal numbers of boys and girls and of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. When the participating children were 2 years old, their mothers were surveyed, interviewed, and tested to gather…

Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

113

Fox Chase scientists discover link between estrogen and tobacco smoke  

Cancer.gov

The hormone estrogen may help promote lung cancer— including compounding the effects of tobacco smoke on the disease—pointing towards potential new therapies that target the hormone metabolism, according to new research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3 by scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia.

114

Does breathing other people's tobacco smoke cause lung cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available epidemiological studies of lung cancer and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke, in which exposure was assessed by whether or not a person classified as a non-smoker lived with a smoker, were identified and the results combined. There were 10 case-control studies and three prospective studies. Overall, there was a highly significant 35% increase in the risk of

N J Wald; K Nanchahal; S G Thompson; H S Cuckle

1986-01-01

115

ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

116

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

117

Affect Regulation, Tobacco Addiction, and Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous investigators have examined the role of negative affective states and affect regulation in the initiation and development of cigarette smoking behavior, smoking cessation, and relapse prevention. Affect regulation refers to any attempt to alleviate negative mood states by means of pharmacologic-, cognitive-, behavioral-or environmentalchange methods. The psychological construct\\/process of affect regulation is examined in relation to (1) the initiation,

Timothy P. Carmody

1989-01-01

118

[Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].  

PubMed

The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low. PMID:20069266

Lang, P; Strunk, M

2010-02-01

119

Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

2014-07-01

120

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).  

PubMed

This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:18639603

Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

2008-11-01

121

The Fate of Maleic Hydrazide on Tobacco during Smoking  

PubMed Central

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process. PMID:23193377

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

122

The Fate of maleic hydrazide on tobacco during smoking.  

PubMed

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process. PMID:23193377

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

123

A Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Mortality in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. Methods Using data on 20, 033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ?7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking. Results Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86) and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80), and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24) was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36) for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01) for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women. Conclusions Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:23505526

Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Segers, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul

2013-01-01

124

[Knowledge and behaviour concerning smoking tobacco among police officers].  

PubMed

Job of a policeman belongs to the group of jobs with highest factor of psychological load. Working under high stress results in police officers reaching out for a cigarette, regardless of their knowledge about how harmful it is, believing--quite wrongly--that this will lower the stress level. The aim of the research was to determine the behaviour of policemen concerning smoking tobacco and evaluating their knowledge about its influence on health. In Poland in March and April 2008, there was research carried out using an auditory survey among 315 police officers of City Police Station in a city of almost 80 thousand people. The survey was completed by 102 people, which makes up for 32.4% of the total number of employed. Among the respondents there were 86 men (84.3%) and 16 women (15.7%). Age average of the surveyed was 37. The highest number, 76 people (74.5%) were graduates of high schools. Majority, 50 people (56.9%) had been in police service for over 15 years. Answering the questions included in the survey, concerning smoking cigarettes during two months prior to the questionnaire, 40 people (39.2%) admitted to smoking. This number included 28 people (27.4% of the total number of the studied cases) who claimed they had smoked every day, seven people (6.9%) responded they smoked almost every day and 5 people (4.9%) smoked from time to time. In the group of 30 smoked men, majority, that is 16 people answered they had smoked everywhere they wished to, disregarding signs prohibiting smoking. Evaluating the influence of smoking on health, 88 people (86.3%) claimed it was very harmful. Vast majority of the studied cases, that is 78 people (76.5%) thought their knowledge about negative effects of smoking was high enough, but almost half of the studied cases, that is 48 people (47.1%) claimed they had never heard about actions or antinicotine campaigns in Poland. Popularizing smoking among police officers who agreed to take part grounds to claim that police officers who did not agree to take part in completing the survey also smoked cigarettes. Majority of police officers who smoked, inhaled tobacco smoke disregarding their knowledge about the damaging effect of smoking. PMID:20301939

Rze?nicki, Adam; Stelmach, W?odzimierz; Plocek, Katarzyna; Kowalska, Alina

2009-01-01

125

Formation of 8-nitroguanine in tobacco cigarette smokers and in tobacco smoke-exposed Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies have shown that 8-nitroguanine (8-NO2-G) could serve as a specific biomarker of DNA damage induced by gaseous nitrogen oxides (NOx) exposure. To evaluate the effect of tobacco cigarette smoking on the DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of cigarette smoke ones, we randomly collected and determined the level of 8-NO2-G in DNA extracted from peripheral lymphocyte of 15

Yih-Shou Hsieh; Bi-Chiou Chen; Song-Jui Shiow; Hsue-Chun Wang; Jeng-Dong Hsu; Chau-Jong Wang

2002-01-01

126

Effect of maternal tobacco smoke exposure on the placental transcriptome.  

PubMed

Smoking in pregnancy increases a woman's risk of preterm delivery resulting in serious neonatal health problems and chronic lifelong disabilities for the children (e.g., mental retardation, learning problems). To study the effects of tobacco smoke on the placental transcriptome, we performed gene expression profiling on placentas from women exposed to tobacco smoke in pregnancy (N = 12) and from those without significant exposure (N = 64). Gene expression profiles were determined by Illumina HumanRef-8 v2 Expression BeadChips with 18,216 gene probes. Microarray data were normalized by quantile method and filtered for a detection P-value <0.01. Differential gene expression was determined by moderated t-statistic. A linear model was fitted for each gene given a series of arrays using lmFit function. Multiple testing correction was performed using the Benjamini and Hochberg method. Abundant levels of transcripts were found for genes encoding placental hormones (CSH1, CSHL1), pregnancy-specific proteins (PSG3, PSG4, PAPPA), and hemoglobins (HBB, HBG, HBA). Comparative analysis of smokers vs nonsmokers revealed the differential expression of 241 genes (P < 0.05). In smoker cohort, we detected high up-regulation of xenobiotic genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYB5A, COX412), collagen genes (e.g., COL6A3, COL1A1, COL1A2), coagulation genes (F5, F13A1) as well as thrombosis-related genes (CD36, ADAMTS9, GAS6). In smokers, we identified deregulated genes that show tissue non-specific induction and may be considered as general biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. Further, we also found genes specifically deregulated in the exposed placentas. Functional annotation analysis suggested processes and pathways affected by tobacco smoke exposure that may represent molecular mechanisms of smoke-induced placental abnormalities. PMID:20092892

Bruchova, H; Vasikova, A; Merkerova, M; Milcova, A; Topinka, J; Balascak, I; Pastorkova, A; Sram, R J; Brdicka, R

2010-03-01

127

Inhalation toxicity studies on cigarette smoke III. Tobacco smoke inhalation dosimetry study on rats.  

PubMed

Smoke inhalation dosimetry studies have been carried out on rats, using a new exposure system. A range of cigarettes, tobacco types and smoke concentrations was used. Penetration of smoke into the lungs was clearly demonstrated, and loads of total particulate matter (TPM) of up 1 mg were detected in the lower respiratory system of rats. The mass of TPM deposited was affected by the smoke concentration during exposure. Deposition of TPM in the head of the rat was low in relation to total respiratory system deposition. A pattern of predominantly lung deposition was achieved under the conditions used for this series of experiments. This pattern was not affected by changes in smoke dilution level, cigarette or tobacco type. PMID:968916

Binns, R; Beven, J L; Wilton, L V; Lugton, W G

1976-01-01

128

Methods for Quantification of Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Focus on Developmental Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Active and passive smoking have been associated with an array of adverse effects on health. The development of valid and accurate scales of measurement for exposures associated with health risks constitutes an active area of research. Tobacco smoke exposure still lacks an ideal method of measurement. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. However, some groups of people are more reluctant than others to disclose their smoking status and exposure to tobacco. This is particularly true for pregnant women and parents of young children, whose smoking is often regarded as socially unacceptable. For others, recall of tobacco exposure may also prove difficult. Because relying on self-report and the various biases it introduces may lead to inaccurate measures of nicotine exposure, more objective solutions have been suggested. Biomarkers constitute the most commonly used objective method of ascertaining nicotine exposure. Of those available, cotinine has gained supremacy as the biomarker of choice. Traditionally, cotinine has been measured in blood, saliva, and urine. Cotinine collection and analysis from these sources has posed some difficulties, which have motivated the search for a more consistent and reliable source of this biomarker. Hair analysis is a novel, noninvasive technique used to detect the presence of drugs and metabolites in the hair shaft. Because cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although hair analysis of cotinine holds great promise, a detailed evaluation of its potential as a biomarker of nicotine exposure, is needed. No studies have been published that address this issue. Because the levels of cotinine in the body are dependent on nicotine metabolism, which in turn is affected by factors such as age and pregnancy, the characterization of hair cotinine should be population specific. This review aims at defining the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utilization of different methods used to estimate exposure to cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:19125149

Florescu, Ana; Ferrence, Roberta; Einarson, Tom; Selby, Peter; Soldin, Offie; Koren, Gideon

2013-01-01

129

Associations between hookah tobacco smoking knowledge and hookah smoking behavior among US college students  

PubMed Central

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah’s appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking and to determine associations between this knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Students (N = 852) at the University of Florida were randomly sampled via e-mail to obtain information on demographics, hookah smoking behavior and knowledge of five exposures (e.g. tar and nicotine). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between knowledge and hookah smoking outcomes. Of the five factual knowledge items asked, 475 (55.8%) of the respondents answered none correctly. In multivariable models, correct responses to any knowledge items were not associated with lower odds of hookah smoking or susceptibility to hookah smoking in the future. Although college students are largely unaware of the toxicant exposures associated with hookah smoking, there is little association between knowledge and hookah smoking behavior. PMID:22987864

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

130

Environmental tobacco smoke and sudden infant death syndrome: a review.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), containing the developmental neurotoxicant, nicotine, is a prevalent component of indoor air pollution. Despite a strong association with active maternal smoking and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), information on the risk of SIDS due to prenatal and postnatal ETS exposure is relatively inconsistent. This literature review begins with a discussion and critique of existing epidemiologic data pertaining to ETS and SIDS. It then explores the biologic plausibility of this association, with comparison of the known association between active maternal smoking and SIDS, by examining metabolic and placental transfer issues associated with nicotine, and the biologic responses and mechanisms that may follow exposure to nicotine. Evidence indicates that prenatal and postnatal exposures to nicotine do occur from ETS exposure, but that the level of exposure is often substantially less than levels induced by active maternal smoking. Nicotine also has the capacity to concentrate in the fetus, regardless of exposure source. Experimental animal studies show that various doses of nicotine are capable of affecting a neonate's response to hypoxic conditions, a process thought to be related to SIDS outcomes. Mechanisms contributing to deficient hypoxia response include the ability of nicotine to act as a cholinergic stimulant through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding. The need for future research to investigate nicotine exposure and effects from non-maternal tobacco smoke sources in mid to late gestation is emphasized, along with a need to discourage smoking around both pregnant women and infants. PMID:16496293

Adgent, Margaret A

2006-02-01

131

Inhalation toxicity studies on cigarette smoke II. Tobacco smoke inhalation dosimetry studies on small laboratory animals.  

PubMed

A newly developed exposure system has been used to carry out smoke dosimetry studies on rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. In all species, smoke total particulate matter (TPM) deposited in significant amounts in the lower respiratory system (LRS) at dose levels ranging from 0.515 to 1.710 mg TPM/g respiratory tissue. Nasal deposition of smoke particulates did occur in all of the species examined. The significance of these dosimetry data in relation to the conduct of long-term comparative inhalation toxicity studies with tobacco smoke is discussed. PMID:968915

Binns, R; Beven, J L; Wilton, L V; Lugton, W G

1976-01-01

132

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS,

Michael G. Apte; Lara A. Gundel; Raymond L. Dod; Marion L. Russell; Brett C. Singer; Michael D. Sohn; Douglas P. Sullivan; Gee-Minn Chang; Richard G. Sextro

2004-01-01

133

[Socioeconomic costs due to tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to calculate costs attributable to smoking from both a societal and a public finance perspective. The Cost-of-Illness analysis was based on incidence data from 1995 and 1996, estimated with the attributable fraction, based on English and Danish RR-estimates respectively. The indirect costs are calculated with both the friction and the human capital method. In 1995, smoking attributable costs in Denmark amounted to 4100 million DKK with the friction method and based on Danish RR-estimates, including 3600 million in direct costs and 500 million in indirect costs. A public cash flow analysis showed a net revenue of about 3900 to 5600 million DKK. Compared with previous results for Denmark (1983), the annual costs to society increased by about 118%. It is suggested that similar Cost-of-Illness analyses are carried out at regular intervals to monitor the economic consequences of smoking in society. PMID:10895600

Rasmussen, S R; Søgaard, J

2000-06-01

134

27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages §...

2014-04-01

135

27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages §...

2012-04-01

136

27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages §...

2010-04-01

137

27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages §...

2011-04-01

138

27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Packages §...

2013-04-01

139

Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking. PMID:23861478

Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

2014-02-01

140

'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.  

PubMed

Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. PMID:22445156

Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

2012-05-01

141

Tobacco smoking and a `stimulus barrier'  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONLY one in four smokers who wish to stop, actually succeed1. The strength of the habit is hard to explain in terms of learning theory, since its manner of reinforcement is uncertain. This study considers a possible mechanism through which smoking might be positively reinforced2.

Jeanette Friedman; Thomas Horvath; Russell Meares

1974-01-01

142

For Final Review & Approval Policy Title: Smoke/Tobacco-Free Environment  

E-print Network

of smokeless tobacco products, the use of unregulated nicotine products, and the use of e to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs, electronic cigarettes, and all forms of smokeless tobacco. H. Tobacco of smokeless tobacco products, e-cigarettes, and unregulated nicotine products are strictly prohibited

Mills, Allen P.

143

From never to daily smoking in 30 months: the predictive value of tobacco and non-tobacco advertising exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the specificity of the association between tobacco advertising and youth smoking initiation. Design Longitudinal survey with a 30?month interval. Setting 21 public schools in three German states. Participants A total of 1320 sixth-to-eighth grade students who were never-smokers at baseline (age range at baseline, 10–15?years; mean, 12.3?years). Exposures Exposure to tobacco and non-tobacco advertisements was measured at baseline with images of six tobacco and eight non-tobacco advertisements; students indicated the number of times they had seen each ad and the sum score over all advertisements was used to represent inter-individual differences in the amount of advertising exposure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Established smoking, defined as smoked >100 cigarettes during the observational period, and daily smoking at follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were any smoking and smoking in the last 30?days. Results During the observation period, 5% of the never-smokers at baseline smoked more than 100 cigarettes and 4.4% were classified as daily smokers. After controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, school performance, television screen time, personality characteristics and smoking status of peers and parents, each additional 10 tobacco advertising contacts increased the adjusted relative risk for established smoking by 38% (95% CI 16% to 63%; p<0.001) and for daily smoking by 30% (95% CI 3% to 64%; p<0.05). No significant association was found for non-tobacco advertising contact. Conclusions The study confirms a content-specific association between tobacco advertising and smoking behaviour and underlines that tobacco advertising exposure is not simply a marker for adolescents who are generally more receptive or attentive towards marketing. PMID:23794549

Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

144

Outdoor tobacco smoke exposure at the perimeter of a tobacco-free university.  

PubMed

There are few studies measuring exposure to outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS). Tobacco users often gather at the boundaries of tobacco-free campuses, resulting in unintended consequences. The objective of this study was to measure exposure levels from OTS on sidewalks bordering a tobacco-free university campus. Data were collected while walking along a sidewalk adjacent to a medium traffic road between May and August 2011. Monitoring occurred during "background," "stop," and "walk-through" conditions at and near hot spot area to measure fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm; PM2.5) from OTS using a portable aerosol monitor The average PM2.5 levels during stop and walk-through conditions were significantly higher than during background conditions. PM2.5 peak occurrence rate and magnitude of peak concentration were significantly different depending on smoking occurrence. The peak occurrence rate during the stop condition was 10.4 times higher than during the background condition, and 3.1 times higher than during the walk-through condition. Average peak PM2.5 concentrations during the stop condition were 48.7% higher than during the background condition. In conclusion, individuals could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when stopping or even passing by smokers outdoors at the perimeter of tobacco-free campuses. The design and implementation of tobacco-free campus policies need to take into account the unintended consequences of OTS exposure at the boundaries. Implications: In this study, outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure was measured at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure could be determined by peak analysis. Peak occurrence rate and peak concentration for OTS exposure were identified by using peak analysis. People could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when standing or even passing by smokers at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure measurement in other outdoor locations with smokers is needed to support outdoor smoking regulation. PMID:25185388

Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Richardson, Patrick; Bratset, Hilarie; Teeters, Elizabeth; Record, Rachael; Riker, Carol; Hahn, Ellen J

2014-08-01

145

Effects of Transdermal Nicotine and Concurrent Smoking on Cognitive Performance in Tobacco-Abstinent Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers experience cognitive decrements during tobacco abstinence and boosts in performance on resumption of smoking. Few studies have examined whether smoking cessation treatments such as transdermal nicotine (TN) ameliorate these decrements or attenuate the cognitive effects of smoking. Identifying the effects of nicotine on these tobacco-related changes in performance could guide the development of more efficacious treatments. The purpose of

Bethea A. Kleykamp; Janine M. Jennings; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

146

Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Megan Murray

2007-01-01

147

Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures and

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Megan Murray

2007-01-01

148

Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking behavior has been shown to be influ- enced by individuals' perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean in- door air and youth access to tobacco are asso- ciated with residents' subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies.

William L. Hamilton; Lois Biener; Robert T. Brennan

2008-01-01

149

ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

150

Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Asthma and Wheezing in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on asthma and wheezing were investigated in 5,762 school-aged children resid- ing in 12 Southern California communities. Responses to a self- administered questionnaire completed by parents of 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students were used to ascertain children with wheez- ing or physician-diagnosed asthma. Lifetime household

FRANK D. GILLILAND; YU-FEN LI; JOHN M. PETERS

151

Environmental tobacco smoke, carcinogenesis, and angiogenesis: a double whammy?  

PubMed

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhu and coworkers demonstrate that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in tumor angiogenesis, and provide evidence that the responsible factor in ETS is nicotine. While a weak carcinogen, nicotine promotes carcinogenesis by a number of different mechanisms. The authors' findings provide further evidence of the harmful effects of ETS and indicate the desirability of reducing exposure to it. PMID:14522247

Gazdar, Adi F

2003-09-01

152

Use of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Constituents as Markers for Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the

Judy S. LaKind; Roger A. Jenkins; Daniel Q. Naiman; Michael E. Ginevan; Carol G. Graves; Robert G. Tardiff

1999-01-01

153

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): A market cigarette study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) yield of selected analytes was determined for the 50 top-selling U.S. cigarette brand styles (1991) and the University of Kentucky Research cigarette, K1R4F. ETS was generated by smokers in an environmental test chamber. Analytes determined included real-time measurements of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particles (RSP), carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbons by flame ionization detector response

Patricia Martin; David L. Heavner; Paul R. Nelson; Katherine C. Maiolo; Charles H. Risner; Paula S. Simmons; Walter T. Morgan; Michael W. Ogden

1997-01-01

154

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

155

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 40.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 40.216 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 40.216a is deemed to be...

2014-04-01

156

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 40.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 40.216 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 40.216a is deemed to be...

2013-04-01

157

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 40.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 40.216 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 40.216a is deemed to be...

2012-04-01

158

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 40.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 40.216 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 40.216a is deemed to be...

2010-04-01

159

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...has been processed and that is removed in a package, as that term is defined in § 40.11, that does not bear the notice for smokeless tobacco prescribed in § 40.216 or the notice for pipe tobacco prescribed in § 40.216a is deemed to be...

2011-04-01

160

Ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behaviors, sources of tobacco, knowledge and attitudes toward restriction policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behavior, sources of tobacco, knowledge of and attitudes toward youth tobacco restriction policies, and perceptions of tobacco availability by adolescents. The study is important as it will add to the growing body of literature regarding tobacco use by minors, and will help policymakers and public health professionals

Grace X Ma; Steve Shive; Patricia Legos; Yin Tan

2003-01-01

161

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

162

"Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Main results: The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "...prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". Conclusions: The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places. PMID:15564219

Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

2004-01-01

163

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

2011-01-01

164

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

165

Haemoglobin adducts from aromatic amines and tobacco specific nitrosamines in pregnant smoking and non smoking women.  

PubMed

In non-smokers, haemoglobin adducts from 3- and 4-aminobiphenyl have been reported to arise mainly from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Therefore, the impact of self-reported smoking (n = 27) and exposure of non-smokers to ETS (n = 78) on haemoglobin adducts was studied in pregnant women from Homburg, Germany. In addition to 3- and 4-aminobiphenyl, adducts from seven monocyclic aromatic amines (aniline, o -, m -, and p -toluidine, 2,4-dimethylaniline, 2-ethylaniline and o -anisidine) and the adduct from tobacco-specific nitrosamines (4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)1-butanone) were determined. Five of 78 self-reported non-smoking women had plasma cotinine levels and urinary cotinine/creatinine ratios indicative of active smoking. In the remaining 73 non-smokers cotinine/creatinine ratios correlated significantly with self reported exposure to ETS. However, none of the haemoglobin adducts increased with increasing exposure to ETS or increasing cotinine/creatinine ratios. Although significantly elevated in smoking compared with non-smoking women, the mean haemoglobin adduct levels formed by tobacco-specific nitrosamines (54 7 8 9 vs 26 7 4 1 fmol g-1, p < 0 001), 3-aminobiphenyl (3 0 0 5 vs 1 4 0 1 pg g-1, p < 0 001), 4-aminobiphenyl (27 9 3 4 vs 10 2 0 7 pg g-1, p < 0 001), o -toluidine (289 25 vs 237 65 pg g-1, p < 0 001), p -toluidine (315 32 vs 197 13 pg g-1; p < 0 001), 2,4-dimethylaniline (25 5 2 9 vs 18 6 1 6 pg g-1, p < 0 05), had considerable overlappings ranges indicating lack of specificity as biomarkers to tobacco smoke exposure. Exposure to other as yet unknown environmental sources appearsto be more significant than previously thought. PMID:23899255

Birgit Branner Cornelia Kutzer Wolfgang Wickenpflug Gerhard Scherer Wolf-Dieter Heller Elmar Richter

1998-01-01

166

27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

2013-04-01

167

27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

2011-04-01

168

27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

2010-04-01

169

27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

...Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

2014-04-01

170

27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF...

2012-04-01

171

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants. Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (2) smokers who believe they have protected their children from ETS; (3) smokers who expose their children to ETS. Setting: Homes of smokers and non-smokers. Participants: Smoking and non-smoking mothers and their infants ? 1 year. Main outcome measures: ETS contamination as measured by nicotine in household dust, indoor air, and household surfaces. ETS exposure as measured by cotinine levels in infant urine. Results: ETS contamination and ETS exposure were 5–7 times higher in households of smokers trying to protect their infants by smoking outdoors than in households of non-smokers. ETS contamination and exposure were 3–8 times higher in households of smokers who exposed their infants to ETS by smoking indoors than in households of smokers trying to protect their children by smoking outdoors. Conclusions: Dust and surfaces in homes of smokers are contaminated with ETS. Infants of smokers are at risk of ETS exposure in their homes through dust, surfaces, and air. Smoking outside the home and away from the infant reduces but does not completely protect a smoker's home from ETS contamination and a smoker's infant from ETS exposure. PMID:14985592

Matt, G; Quintana, P; Hovell, M; Bernert, J; Song, S; Novianti, N; Juarez, T; Floro, J; Gehrman, C; Garcia, M; Larson, S

2004-01-01

172

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)], E-mail: ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Ryan, Michele B. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Lisa G. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)

2008-03-15

173

Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.  

PubMed

Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures. PMID:24200284

Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

2013-12-01

174

Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

175

Exploring the relationships between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia in first-degree relatives  

E-print Network

frequently put forward to explain the relationship between smoking and schizophrenia is that patients may use-effects in schizophrenia patient1 Exploring the relationships between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia in first-degree relatives

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2012-01-01

177

COPD phenotypes in biomass smoke- versus tobacco smoke-exposed Mexican women.  

PubMed

We hypothesised that biomass smoke exposure is associated with an airway-predominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotype, while tobacco-related COPD is associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype. In this cross-sectional study, female never-smokers with COPD and biomass exposure (n=21) and female ex-cigarette smokers with COPD without biomass exposure (n=22) completed computed tomography (CT) at inspiration and expiration, pulmonary function, blood gas, exercise tolerance, and quality of life measures. Two radiologists scored the extent of emphysema and air trapping on CT. Quantitative emphysema severity and distribution and airway wall thickness were calculated using specialised software. Women in the tobacco group had significantly more emphysema than the biomass group (radiologist score 2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.001; emphysema on CT 27% versus 19%, p=0.046; and a larger size of emphysematous spaces, p=0.006). Women in the biomass group had significantly more air trapping than the tobacco group (radiologist score 2.6 and 1.5, respectively; p=0.02) and also scored lower on the symptom, activities and confidence domains of the quality of life assessment and had lower oxygen saturation at rest and during exercise (p<0.05). Biomass smoke exposure is associated with less emphysema but more air trapping than tobacco smoke exposure, suggesting an airway-predominant phenotype. PMID:24114962

Camp, Pat G; Ramirez-Venegas, Alejandra; Sansores, Raul H; Alva, Luis F; McDougall, Jill E; Sin, Don D; Paré, Peter D; Müller, Nestor L; Silva, C Isabela S; Rojas, Carlos E; Coxson, Harvey O

2014-03-01

178

Smoking cessation among young people: The need for qualitative research on young people's experiences of giving up tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical research has shown that smoking cessation is beneficial in terms of reducing the subsequent risk of lung cancer even where people stop smoking when well into middle age and, in recent years, the government has identified smoking cessation as one of the key mechanisms for reducing tobacco consumption in the UK. The focus of attention has been on adults

Martyn Denscombe

2001-01-01

179

Human Resources Policy Guidelines 800.3 Tobacco Use  

E-print Network

, including, chewing tobacco, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes (that involve the use of tobacco and tobacco products) and the act of smoking or carrying a lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe or any other Human Resources Policy Guidelines 800.3 Tobacco Use Purpose: To ensure that all Rensselaer

Linhardt, Robert J.

180

Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.  

PubMed

The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n?=?81) and in-depth interviews (n?=?38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large. PMID:23421341

Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

2013-01-01

181

An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. Methods The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM2.5) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Results Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM2.5: more than 3,800 ?g/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM2.5 were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 ?g/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 ?g/m3). Discussion This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children. PMID:19351785

Sendzik, Taryn; Travers, Mark J.; Hyland, Andrew

2009-01-01

182

Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

2011-01-01

183

The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

184

Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine tobacco company documents to determine what the companies knew about the impact of cigarette prices on smoking among youth, young adults, and adults, and to evaluate how this understanding affected their pricing and price related marketing strategies. Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the

F J Chaloupka; K M Cummings; JK Horan

2010-01-01

185

Environmental Tobacco Smoking, Mutagen Sensitivity, and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although active tobacco smoking has been considered a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, few studies have evaluated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its interaction with mutagen sensitivity on the risk of head 'and neck cancer . We investigated the relationship between ETS and head and neck cancer in a case-control study of 173 previously untreated cases with

Zuo-Feng Zhang; Hal Morgenstern; Margaret R. Spitz; Donald P. Tashkin; Guo-Pei Yu; Tao C. Hsu; Stimson P

186

An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking by physicians represents a contentious issue in public health, and regardless of what country it originates from, the need for accurate, historical data is paramount. As such, this article provides an international comparison of all modern literature describing the tobacco smoking habits of contemporary physicians. METHODS: A keyword search of appropriate MeSH terms was initially undertaken to

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2007-01-01

187

Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer  

E-print Network

for publication in American Journal of Epidemiology following peer review. The definitive publisherAlcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking but no inverse dose-response relationship

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates?  

Cancer.gov

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates ? Karen Messer, JP Pierce et al Tobacco Control 2007; 16:85-90; In the 1990’s CA was the only US state to spend $3.67 per person per year on Tobacco Control. The

189

Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

Hammond, S K

1999-01-01

190

Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended. PMID:25025379

Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

2014-01-01

191

Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

192

The Effect of Tobacco Outlet Density and Proximity on Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco outlet density and residential proximity to tobacco outlets on continuous smoking abstinence 6 months after a quit attempt. Methods. We used continuation ratio logit models to examine the relationships of tobacco outlet density and tobacco outlet proximity with biochemically verified continuous abstinence across weeks 1, 2, 4, and 26 after quitting among 414 adult smokers from Houston, Texas (33% non-Latino White, 34% non-Latino Black, and 33% Latino). Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, education, gender, employment status, prequit smoking rate, and the number of years smoked. Results. Residential proximity to tobacco outlets, but not tobacco outlet density, provided unique information in the prediction of long-term, continuous abstinence from smoking during a specific quit attempt. Participants residing less than 250 meters (P = .01) or less than 500 meters (P = .04) from the closest tobacco outlet were less likely to be abstinent than were those living 250 meters or farther or 500 meters or farther, respectively, from outlets. Conclusions. Because residential proximity to tobacco outlets influences smoking cessation, zoning restrictions to limit tobacco sales in residential areas may complement existing efforts to reduce tobacco use. PMID:21164089

Cromley, Ellen K.; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Dela Mater, Richard; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2011-01-01

193

Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the effect of the tobacco industry’s marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.DESIGNPaper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.SETTING25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San

Ellen Feighery; Dina L G Borzekowski; Caroline Schooler; June Flora

1998-01-01

194

Aggravation of gastric mucosal lesions in rat stomach by tobacco cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the model of gastric mucosal injury induced by 2 mol\\/liter hypertonic saline in rats, we tested the hypothesis that tobacco cigarette smoke aggravates gastric mucosal lesions by inhibition of injury-induced gastric mucosal hyperemia. Experimental rats were treated with tobacco cigarette smoke or nicotine-free smoke from nontobacco cigarettes, and controls breathed room air. Gastric mucosal blood flow was measured by

Fumihiro Iwata; Xiang-Yang Zhang; Felix W. Leung

1995-01-01

195

Reported measures of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: trials and tribulations  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—This report extends previous summaries of reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure measures, reviews the empirical evidence of their validity for children's exposure, and discusses future research.?DATA SOURCES—Studies were identified by computer search and from the authors' research.?STUDY SELECTION—Studies were selected for inclusion of nicotine and/or cotinine and quantitative reported measures of ETS exposure.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Five studies found significant associations between reported quantitative exposure of children to ETS and either environmental nicotine or urine cotinine assays. Correlation coefficients between parent reports and nicotine ranged from 0.22 to 0.75. Coefficients for cotinine ranged from 0.28 to 0.71. Correlations increased over time and were stronger for parents' reports of their own smoking as a source of children's exposure than for reports of exposure from others.?CONCLUSIONS—Empirical studies show general concordance of reported and either environmental or biological measures of ETS exposure. Relationships were moderate, and suggest sufficient validity to be employed in research and service programs. Future studies need to identify the differences in types of reported or objective measures, population characteristics, etc, contributing to observed variability in order to understand better the conditions under which more valid reported ETS exposure and other measures can be obtained. Reported and either environmental or biological measures should be used in combination, and existing measures should be directed to interventions that may reduce ETS exposure among children.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; children; nicotine; cotinine PMID:10982901

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.; Emmons, K.

2000-01-01

196

Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin ? chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

2014-01-01

197

Environmental tobacco smoke as a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in settled household dust.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Dust and surfaces may remain contaminated long after active smoking has ceased (called 'thirdhand' smoke). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke found in settled house dust (SHD). We investigated whether tobacco smoke is a source of PAHs in SHD. House dust was collected from 132 homes in urban areas of Southern California. Total PAHs were significantly higher in smoker homes than nonsmoker homes (by concentration: 990 ng/g vs 756 ng/g, p = 0.025; by loading: 1650 ng/m(2) vs 796 ng/m(2), p = 0.012). We also found significant linear correlations between nicotine and total PAH levels in SHD (concentration, R(2) = 0.105; loading, R(2) = 0.385). Dust collected per square meter (g/m(2)) was significantly greater in smoker homes and might dilute PAH concentration in SHD inconsistently. Therefore, dust PAH loading (ng PAH/m(2)) is a better indicator of PAH content in SHD. House dust PAH loadings in the bedroom and living room in the same home were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.468, p < 0.001) suggesting PAHs are distributed by tobacco smoke throughout a home. In conclusion, tobacco smoke is a source of PAHs in SHD, and tobacco smoke generated PAHs are a component of thirdhand smoke. PMID:22397504

Hoh, Eunha; Hunt, Richard N; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Chatfield, Dale A; Wittry, Beth C; Rodriguez, Edgar; Matt, Georg E

2012-04-01

198

Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

199

The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset: a methodological review.  

PubMed

The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known. Existing reviews clearly demonstrate that increasing the prices of tobacco products reduces smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. However, only a small number of studies included in existing reviews have examined smoking onset (the transition between never smoking and smoking). Moreover, existing reviews provide limited quality assessment of the data and methods utilised. This paper systematically searches for and critically reviews studies that examine the impact of tobacco prices or taxes on smoking onset. Most studies reviewed have important methodological limitations, including recall bias; a general failure to apply diagnostic tests, to discuss the choice of estimators and distributional assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analysis; and a reliance on empirical approaches that are methodologically weak. On the whole, existing studies do not provide strong evidence that tobacco prices or taxes affect smoking onset. PMID:23475754

Guindon, Godefroy Emmanuel

2014-03-01

200

A Pilot Study of Concurrent Lead and Cotinine Screening for Childhood Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Effect on Parental Smoking  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether a biomarker screening approach for tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) conducted concurrently with lead screening at well-child visits would increase parental smoking cessation and implementation of home smoking restrictions. Design Observational, quasi-experimental. Setting Pediatric clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Subjects Eighty parents who smoked and their children presenting for well-child visits. Intervention Children in the intervention group had serum cotinine measured with lead screening. Laboratory results were sent to providers and parents and a counselor proactively contacted parents to offer an eight-session telephone intervention to help parents stop smoking. The comparison group, a historical control, received usual care. Measures Parental smoking, engagement in tobacco treatment, and home and car smoking policies 8 weeks later. Analysis Mean/standard deviation for continuous data or frequency/percentage for categorical data. Results Eighty-four percent of eligible parents agreed to have their child tested for TSE along with lead testing. Measurable cotinine was identified in 93% of children. More parents in the intervention group received tobacco treatment than in the comparison group (74% vs. 0%) and more parents reported 7-day point-prevalent abstinence from smoking at 8 weeks (29% vs. 3%). Conclusion These data demonstrate the feasibility of adding cotinine measurement to routine well-child lead screening to document TSE in small children. Data suggest providing this information to parents increases engagement in tobacco treatment and prompts smoking cessation. PMID:23971524

Joseph, Anne; Murphy, Sharon; Thomas, Janet; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Wang, Qi; Briggs, Anna; Doyle, Brandon; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

201

Smoke-Free Homes for Smoke-Free Babies: The Role of Residential Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Low Birth Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure may negatively affect birth outcomes, especially\\u000a birth weight. This study evaluates the effect of residential ETS exposure on the risk of having a low birth weight (LBW) infant\\u000a and investigates whether there is a dose–response relationship. This retrospective cohort study comprised 2,206 women who\\u000a participated in the 2004–2005 North Carolina

Corina Pogodina; Larissa R. Brunner Huber; Elizabeth F. Racine; Elena Platonova

2009-01-01

202

Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C

2012-01-01

203

Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed Central

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C.

2012-01-01

204

Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation - Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.

P M Ling; S A Glantz

2004-01-01

205

Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

2014-01-01

206

Viewing Tobacco Use in Movies Does It Shape Attitudes that Mediate Adolescent Smoking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Social cognitive theory posits that children develop intentions and positive expectations (utilities) about smoking prior to initiation. These attitudes and values result, in part, from observing others modeling the behavior. This study examines, for the first time, the association between viewing tobacco use in movies and attitudes toward smoking among children who have never smoked a cigarette. Design\\/ Setting:

James D. Sargent; Madeline A. Dalton; Michael L. Beach; Leila A. Mott; Jennifer J. Tickle; M. Bridget Ahrens; Todd F. Heatherton

207

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Ventilation in 20 Social Venues in Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor air quality and ventilation systems of 20 indoor public venues in the Perth Metropolitan area were investigated. This included 4 licensed restaurants, 2 licensed sporting clubs, 6 coffee shops (including a smoking café in a non-smoking shopping centre), 5 taverns, 2 night-clubs and a major hotel. Indicators of tobacco smoke and ventilation were monitored, the ventilation system was

P. Dingle; P. Tapsell; I. Tremains; R. Tan

2002-01-01

208

"Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

Sebrie, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

2007-01-01

209

The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths caused by smoking in an Eastern European nation: results from the Albania SimSmoke simulation model.  

PubMed

The Albania SimSmoke simulation model is used to examine the effects of tobacco control policies. The model is used to consider the projected trends in smoking prevalence and associated smoking-attributable deaths in the absence of new policies, and then to examine the effect of new policies that are consistent with the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) on these outcomes. The model shows that significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases. Acomprehensive strategy to further reduce smoking rates should include a media campaign complete with programs to publicize and enforce clean air laws, a comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, advertising bans, and youth access laws. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps to identify important information needed for both modeling and policymaking. The effectiveness of future tobacco control policy will require proper surveillance and evaluation schemes for Albania. PMID:19256288

Levy, David T; Ross, Hana; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Shuperka, Roland; Rusta, Meriglena

2008-12-01

210

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.?DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.?RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).?CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco on-screen are significantly more likely to have an advanced smoking status and more favourable attitudes toward smoking than adolescents who choose non-smoking stars. This finding supports the proposition that the portrayal of tobacco use in contemporary motion pictures, particularly by stars who are admired by adolescents, contributes to adolescent smoking.???Keywords: adolescent smoking; movies; media influences PMID:11226355

Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

2001-01-01

211

Characterization of toxic metals in tobacco, tobacco smoke, and cigarette ash from selected imported and local brands in Pakistan.  

PubMed

In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

Ajab, Huma; Yaqub, Asim; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

2014-01-01

212

Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Results: Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14–0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43–1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04–1.34). Interpretation: Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level. PMID:23460630

Mecredy, Graham C.; Diemert, Lori M.; Callaghan, Russell C.; Cohen, Joanna E.

2013-01-01

213

On-line single particle analysis of environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a major component in indoor and outdoor air pollution. It has been estimated that ETS accounts for approximately 2.7% of fine organic aerosol emissions in the Los Angeles area and the adverse health effects of cigarette emissions have been well documented. Particulate analysis by conventional analytical methods, such as GC/MS, do not provide information on individual aerosol particles due to the off-line collection and sampling procedures. Aerosol Time-Flight Mass Spectrometry is an on-line analytical technique that is uniquely capable of single particle analysis, simultaneously providing information on particle size and chemical composition. It will be demonstrated that this technique can be used to show how the chemical composition of ETS particles changes as a function of size. Data demonstrating the ability to monitor chemical composition and size change as a function of time will also be presented.

Prather, K.A.; Morrical, B.O. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

1995-12-01

214

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Restaurants without Separate Ventilation Systems for Smoking and Nonsmoking Dining Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the author examined (a) levels of airborne pollutants from environmental tobacco smoke in 8 restaurants, and (b) changes in urinary cotinine and nicotine levels among 97 nonsmoking subjects (i.e., 40 restaurant employees, 37 patrons, and 20 referents). Airborne pollutant levels were significantly lower in the control environments than in the nonsmoking dining rooms in which smoking was

Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

2003-01-01

215

Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale. PMID:23421019

Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2012-01-01

216

Menthol sensory qualities and smoking topography: a review of tobacco industry documents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about the potential effects of menthol on smoking topography—how a person smokes a cigarette. Methods A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 1 June 2010 and 9 August 2010. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 252 documents related to menthol and smoking topography. Results The tobacco industry knew that menthol has cooling, anaesthetic and analgesic properties that moderate the harshness and irritation of tobacco. Owing to its physiological effects, menthol contributes to the sensory qualities of the smoke and affects smoking topography and cigarette preference. Conclusion Our review of industry studies suggests that the amount of menthol in a cigarette is associated with how the cigarette is smoked and how satisfying it is to the smoker. If menthol in cigarettes was banned, as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is currently considering, new/experimental smokers might choose not to smoke rather than experience the harshness of tobacco smoke and the irritating qualities of nicotine. Similarly, established menthol smokers might choose to quit if faced with an unpleasant smoking alternative. PMID:21504930

McCandless, Phyra M

2011-01-01

217

Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discover how the tobacco industry considers social class and gender in its efforts to market cigarettes in the USA, particularly to socially disadvantaged young women. Methods: A systematic on-line search of tobacco industry documents using selected keywords was conducted, and epidemiological data on smoking rates reviewed. Results: The two largest cigarette manufacturers in the USA consider "working class" young adults to be a critical market segment to promote growth of key brands. Through their own market research, these companies discovered that socially disadvantaged young women do not necessarily desire a "feminine" cigarette brand. Conclusions: Considering the tobacco industry's efforts, alongside the persistent and growing disparities in cigarette smoking by social class, and the narrowing of differences in smoking by gender, it is concluded that additional tobacco control resources ought to be directed toward working class women. PMID:15175523

Barbeau, E; Leavy-Sperounis, A; Balbach, E

2004-01-01

218

The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of three main tobacco types (flue-cured FC, air-cured AC and sun-cured SC) and two tobacco-based materials (reconstituted tobacco - recon RT and expanded stem) on the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke. AC and SC tobaccos had the most evident impact. The amount of tobacco in mixtures M1, M2 and M3 as well as the addition of expanded stems had an impact on the amount of CO formed in the cigarette smoke. There is weak correlation between CO content in the smoke and the chemical composition of the tobacco. Draw resistance had an impact on CO production. The research results are of great importance, since tobacco selection is the first step in the production of cigarettes with reduced emission of harmful elements contained in the smoke. PMID:23612614

Djulan?i?, Nermina; Radoji?i?, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

2013-01-01

219

Influence of Traditional Tobacco Use on Smoking Cessation among American Indians  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine the influence of traditional tobacco use on smoking cessation among American Indian adult smokers. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey of self-identified American Indians was conducted from 2008 to 2009. A total of 998 American Indian adults (18 years and older) from the Midwest, participated in the study. Measurements Traditional tobacco use and method of traditional use were both assessed. Commercial tobacco use (current smoking) was obtained through self-reported information as well as the length of their most recent quit attempt. We also assessed knowledge and awareness of pharmacotherapy for current smokers. Findings Among participants in our study, 33.3% were current smokers and they reported smoking an average of 10 cigarettes per day. American Indian current smokers who used traditional tobacco reported greater number of days abstinent during their last quit attempt compared to those who do not use traditional tobacco (p=0.01). However, it appears that this protective effect of traditional tobacco use is diminished if the person smokes traditional tobacco. Finally, very few (less than 20% of current smokers) were aware of more recent forms of pharmacotherapy such as Chantix or Bupropion. Conclusions American Indians appear to show low levels of awareness of effective pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation but those who use `traditional tobacco' report somewhat longer periods of abstinence from past quit attempts. PMID:21306597

Daley, Christine M.; Faseru, Babalola; Nazir, Niaman; Solomon, Cheree; Greiner, K. Allen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Choi, Won S.

2011-01-01

220

Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertis- ing to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets, and to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth- targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n=103172) gathered from

Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath; Sherry Emery; Henry Saffer; Frank J. Chaloupka; Glen Szczypka; Brian Flay; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston

2006-01-01

221

Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach  

PubMed Central

There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

222

Mechanisms of tobacco smoke toxicity on pulmonary macrophage cells.  

PubMed

The enhanced morbidity from nonspecific respiratory infections found in smokers may be attributable to chemically-induced defects in the respiratory tract defense mechanisms that are organized around the alveolar macrophage. We have isolated by filtration and gas chromatography several cytotoxic components and single chemicals of the vapor phase of tobacco smoke and studied their cytotoxic effects on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The filtered gas phase of cigarette smoke or acrolein suppresses phagocytic uptake and intracellular digestion of staphylococci when exposed in vitro; produces marked morphologic changes in the cytoplasmic membrane; inhibits cellular adhesion; disturbs glycolysis and arachidonic metabolism; inhibits calcium and magnesium ATPase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and probably endoperoxide E-isomerase, but not sodium and potassium ATPase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase or lactic dehydrogenase in a dose-response fashion. Furthermore, in vivo studies show that acrolein exposure suppresses antibacterial defenses of the lung. These cellular deficiencies may be responsible for a significant component of altered host resistance in smokers who suffer increased morbidity from nonspecific respiratory infections. PMID:3862614

Green, G M

1985-01-01

223

Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples). However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load)\\/non-lung cancer mortality

Bruce N Leistikow; Zubair Kabir; Gregory N Connolly; Luke Clancy; Hillel R Alpert

2008-01-01

224

US Adult Attitudes and Practices Regarding Smoking Restrictions and Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Changes in the Social Climate From 2000 -2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smok- ing bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and non- smokers regarding smoking bans

Robert C. McMillen; Jonathan P. Winickoff; Jonathan D. Klein; Michael Weitzman

2010-01-01

225

*For more information on the effects of smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, use of smokeless tobacco and unregulated nicotine products on people and the environment, see Appendix.  

E-print Network

*For more information on the effects of smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, use of smokeless, and the environment: A. Smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco or unregulated nicotine products (such as electronic the UCSB community and the environment from the harmful effects of smoking, secondhand smoke, smokeless

Bigelow, Stephen

226

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure.  

PubMed

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva continine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average continine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whose only exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure. PMID:10765410

LaKind, J S; Jenkins, R A; Naiman, D Q; Ginevan, M E; Graves, C G; Tardiff, R G

1999-06-01

227

ADHD diagnosis may influence the association between polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster have been shown to be involved in tobacco smoking susceptibility. Considering that attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) not only increases the risk but may also influence the molecular mechanisms of tobacco smoking, we analyzed the association between polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and tobacco smoking among individuals with or without ADHD. The sample included 1,118 subjects divided into four groups according to smoking status and ADHD diagnosis. Our results demonstrate that the minor alleles of two polymorphisms (rs578776 and rs3743078) in the CHRNA3 gene are associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking only among patients with ADHD. These alleles have been shown in previous studies to be protective factors for smoking in subjects without ADHD. These findings add to existing evidence that ADHD may exert an important modifying effect on the genetic risk of smoking and should be considered in tobacco smoking association studies. PMID:24375168

Polina, Evelise R; Rovaris, Diego L; de Azeredo, Lucas A; Mota, Nina R; Vitola, Eduardo S; Silva, Katiane L; Guimarães-da-Silva, Paula O; Picon, Felipe A; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A; Grevet, Eugenio H; Bau, Claiton H D

2014-06-01

228

Predicted Effect of California Tobacco Control Funding on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs, 2012-2016  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains the results of a new model of the effect of the California tobacco control program on smoking behavior and healthcare expenditure, and forecasts four alternative funding scenarios for the California tobacco control program. We use time series regression analysis of aggregate data on tobacco control program funding, smoking behavior and health care expenditures in California compared to

James Lightwood; Stanton A. Glantz

2011-01-01

229

Beliefs about Tobacco Industry (mal)Practices and Youth Smoking Behaviour: Insight for Future Tobacco Control Campaigns (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine how student beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to occasional and regular\\u000a smoking among 9th to 12th graders. These findings can provide insight for developing new tobacco industry denormalization\\u000a messages for youth smoking populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional data were collected from 14,767 grade 9 to 12 students attending 22 secondary schools within one Public Health\\u000a Region

Scott T. Leatherdale; Robert Sparks; Victoria A. Kirsh

2006-01-01

230

Attenuation of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by treatment with a soluble epoxide  

E-print Network

the tail vein). Immunohistochemistry of the lung tissue showed epoxide hydrolase concentrated locally by daily s.c. injection to spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to filtered air or tobacco smoke

Hammock, Bruce D.

231

E-Cigarette Vapor May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. E-Cigarette Vapor May Be Less Toxic Than Tobacco Smoke: Study But researcher says the ... health effects, some of these metals are extremely toxic even in very low amounts," he added. Saffari ...

232

COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. Tobacco smoke, most people would say. Prob-  

E-print Network

COPYRIGHT 2003 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;Tobacco smoke, most people would say. Prob- ably too ways to stop tumors before they spread By W. Wayt Gibbs Whatcausescancer? CAREFULLY CHOREOGRAPHED dance

Duesberg, Peter

233

Nicotine dependence symptoms among young never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo extend previous observations that secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with nicotine markers in children, we investigated if SHS exposure is associated with self-reports of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms among young never-smokers.

Mathieu Bélanger; Jennifer O'Loughlin; Chizimuzo T. C. Okoli; Jennifer J. McGrath; Maninder Setia; Louise Guyon; André Gervais

2008-01-01

234

Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

235

Naturally occurring nitrosatable amines. II. Secondary amines in tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previously described method for isolation and identification of naturally occurring secondary amines has been applied to tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate (''tar''). Pyrrolidine and dimethylamine are the predominant amines found in both substances.

George M. Singer; William Lijinsky

1976-01-01

236

Pulmonary Prostacyclin Synthase Overexpression Chemoprevents Tobacco Smoke Lung Carcinogenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pulmonary production of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) by lung-specific overexpression of prostacyclin synthase decreases lung tu- mor incidence and multiplicity in chemically induced murine lung cancer models. We hypothesized that pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overex- pression would prevent lung carcinogenesis in tobacco-smoke exposed mice. Murine exposure to tobacco smoke is an established model of inducing pulmonary adenocarcinomas and allows for the

Robert L. Keith; York E. Miller; Tyler M. Hudish; Carlos E. Girod; Sylk Sotto-Santiago; Wilbur A. Franklin; Raphael A. Nemenoff; Thomas H. March; S. Patrick Nana-Sinkam; Mark W. Geraci

2004-01-01

237

Tobacco Smoking and Depression – Results from the WHO\\/ISBRA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To elucidate the relationship between tobacco smoking and depression, and to estimate the impact of other substance dependencies. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: A total of 1,849 men and women were interviewed face-to-face using a validated structured questionnaire. According to their tobacco smoking behavior, participants were grouped into never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers. Measurements: Data were generated through the WHO\\/ISBRA

G. A. Wiesbeck; H.-C. Kuhl; Ö. Yaldizli; F. M. Wurst

2008-01-01

238

Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth.  

PubMed

Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14-19. Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points-in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011 (N = 942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-2009 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-2011. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

2014-06-01

239

Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to ?0.01

Jibao Cai; Baizhan Liu; Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su

2002-01-01

240

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

241

Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

Jiang, Nan

2011-01-01

242

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in

Norbert Hirschhorn; Stella Aguinaga Bialous

2001-01-01

243

QUESTIONNAIRE ASSESSMENT OF LIFETIME AND RECENT EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a sample of 140 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1966, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire response on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. hey also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports of environmental tobacco smo...

244

The use of a novel tobacco treatment process to reduce toxicant yields in cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Institute of Medicine has encouraged the pursuit and development of potential reduced-exposure products (PREPs) – tobacco products that substantially reduce exposure to one or more tobacco toxicants and can reasonably be expected to reduce the risk of one or more specific diseases or other adverse health effects. One potential approach is to reduce levels of some smoke toxicant

Chuan Liu; Yves DeGrandpré; Andrew Porter; Alexander Griffiths; Kevin McAdam; Richard Voisine; France Côté; Christopher Proctor

2011-01-01

245

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on the effects of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and ill health in Sweden.Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden.Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner

J Foulds; L Ramstrom; M Burke; K Fagerstro?m

2003-01-01

246

Regional cerebral blood flow and plasma nicotine after smoking tobacco cigarettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis for this research is that only in some brain areas, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after tobacco smoking is correlated with arterial plasma nicotine concentrations. Twenty-one healthy adult tobacco smokers of both genders were studied after overnight tobacco abstinence. H215O water was used to measure rCBF. Six separate scans were taken about 12 min apart with the subjects'

Edward F. Domino; Lisong Ni; Yanjun Xu; Robert A. Koeppe; Sally Guthrie; Jon-Kar Zubieta

2004-01-01

247

Educational Inequalities in Perinatal Outcomes: The Mediating Effect of Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective Socioeconomic status (SES) is adversely associated with perinatal outcomes. This association is likely to be mediated by tobacco exposure. However, previous studies were limited to single perinatal outcomes and devoted no attention to environmental tobacco exposure. Therefore, this study aimed firstly to explain the role of maternal smoking in the association between maternal education and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA), and secondly to explain whether environmental tobacco smoke mediates these associations further. Study Design This study was nested in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. Analyses were done in a sample of 3821 pregnant women of Dutch origin, using logistic regression analysis. Results Least educated women, who were more often smoking and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, had a significantly higher risk of PTB (OR 1.95 [95% CI: 1.19–3.20]), LBW (OR 2.41 [95% CI: 1.36–4.27]) and SGA (OR 1.90 [95% CI 1.32–2.74]) than highly educated women. The mediating effect of smoking in the least educated women was 43% for PTB, 55% for LBW and 66% for SGA. Environmental tobacco smoke did not explain these associations further. After adjustment for maternal smoking, the association between lower maternal education and pregnancy outcomes was no longer significant. Conclusions Smoking explains to a considerable extent the association between lower maternal education and adverse perinatal outcomes. Therefore, tobacco-interventions in lower educated women should be primarily focussed on maternal smoking to reduce PTB, LBW, and SGA. Additional attention to environmental tobacco exposure does not seem to reduce educational inequalities in perinatal outcomes. PMID:22590643

van den Berg, Gerrit; van Eijsden, Manon; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

2012-01-01

248

Density and proximity of tobacco outlets to homes and schools: relations with youth cigarette smoking.  

PubMed

This study investigated the associations of youth cigarette smoking with tobacco outlet densities and proximity of tobacco outlets to youth homes and schools across different buffers in 45 midsized California communities. The sample comprised 832 youths who were surveyed about their smoking behaviors. Inclusion criteria included both home and school addresses within city boundaries. Observations in the 45 cities were conducted to document addresses of tobacco outlets. City- and buffer-level demographics were obtained and negative binomial regression analyses with cluster robust standard errors were conducted. All models were adjusted for youth gender, age, and race. Greater densities of tobacco outlets within both a 0.75 and 1-mile buffer of youth homes were associated with higher smoking frequency. Neither tobacco outlet densities around schools nor distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from home or school were associated with youths past-30-day smoking frequency. Lower population density and percent of African Americans in areas around homes and lower percent of unemployed in areas around schools were associated with greater smoking frequency. Results of this study suggest that restricting outlet density within at least 1-mile surrounding residential areas will help to reduce youth smoking. PMID:24254336

Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Mair, Christina; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B; Jackson, Phoenix; Watson, Derrik

2014-10-01

249

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic and Myeloid Leukemias by Cytogenetic Subtype  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens known to damage somatic and germ cells. We investigated the effect tobacco smoke on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML), especially subtypes of pre-natal origin like ALL with translocation t(12;21) or high-hyperdiploidy (51–67 chromosomes). Methods We collected information on exposures to tobacco smoking before conception, during pregnancy, and after birth in 767 ALL cases, 135 AML cases, and 1,139 controls (1996–2008). Among cases, chromosome translocations, deletions, or aneuploidy were identified by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Results Multivariable regression analyses for ALL and AML overall showed no definite evidence of associations with self-reported (yes/no) parental prenatal active smoking and child's passive smoking. However, children with history of paternal prenatal smoking combined with postnatal passive smoking had a 1.5-fold increased risk of ALL (95% CI: 1.01–2.23), compared to those without smoking history (ORs for pre- or postnatal smoking only were close to one). This joint effect was seen for B-cell precursor ALL with t(12;21) (OR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.04–4.16), but not high hyperdiploid B-cell ALL. Similarly, child's passive smoking was associated with an elevated risk of AML with chromosome structural changes (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.01–7.58), but not aneuploidy. Conclusions our data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoking before were associated with increased risks of childhood ALL and AML; and risks varied by timing of exposure (before and/or after birth) and cytogenetic subtype, based on imprecise estimates. Impact Parents should limit exposures to tobacco smoke before and after the child's birth. PMID:23853208

Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bartley, Karen; Schiffman, Joshua; Ma, Xiaomei; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Chang, Jeffrey S.; Selvin, Steve; Fu, Cecilia H.; Ducore, Jonathan; Smith, Martyn T.; Buffler, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

250

Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to

Leslie K Jacobsen; Theodore A Slotkin; W Einar Mencl; Stephen J Frost; Kenneth R Pugh

2007-01-01

251

Knowledge, attitudes and preventive efforts of Malaysian medical students regarding exposure to environmental tobacco and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longitudinal study was conducted to determine changes in knowledge, attitudes and preventive efforts of Malaysian medical students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. There were significant improvements in knowledge about cigarette smoking and in knowledge, attitudes and efforts concerning environmental exposure to tobacco

ANN STIRLING FRISCH; MARGOT KURTZ; KHADIJAH SHAMSUDDIN

1999-01-01

252

Parental Smoking in the Vicinity of Children and Tobacco Control Policies in the European Region  

PubMed Central

Objective To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. Results A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1%) were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3%) and a tenth (10.0%) of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.001). Parents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR?=?1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. Significance Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking. PMID:23437236

Kovess, Viviane; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Boyd, Anders; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro; Eke, Ceyda; Golitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Susser, Ezra

2013-01-01

253

Public Health Under Attack: The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

We describe the tobacco industry’s response to the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Tobacco industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco/Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and industry Web sites were analyzed. LexisNexis and the Library of Congress’s Thomas Web site were searched for legislative history. We found that the tobacco industry considered ASSIST a major threat because of its emphasis on policy and creation of local tobacco control infrastructures. The industry mobilized resources for a well-coordinated attack on ASSIST. Although industry executives were sometimes frustrated in their efforts, they ultimately had a chilling effect on ASSIST. This evidence suggest that tobacco control advocates should expect a vigorous response from the tobacco industry to policy advocacy efforts, particularly at the local level. PMID:14759933

White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

254

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

255

Effects of tobacco smoke inhalation on the developing mouse embryo and fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant C57BL or mutant curly tail mice were exposed to tobacco smoke in a smoking machine for 10 min, three times a day, either on the day of conception (day 0) and days 1 and 2, or on days 3, 4, and 5, or from day 0 through day 17. In the first two cases, the embryonic development was subsequently

Mary J. Seller; Kulwinder S. Bnait

1995-01-01

256

Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

2012-01-01

257

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2013-01-01

258

Distribution of Exposure Concentrations and Doses for Constituents of Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS

Judy S. LaKind; Michael E. Ginevan; Daniel Q. Naiman; Anthony C. James; Roger A. Jenkins; Michael L. Dourson; Susan P. Felter; Carol G. Graves; Robert G. Tardiff

1999-01-01

259

Composition of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from international cigarettes Part II: Nine country follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by cigarettes from nine countries was examined to determine selected component yields and ETS marker ratios. The countries tested included: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, Japan, Korea, and the United States. Six leading brand styles from each country were smoked in an environmental test chamber. Concentrations of the gas phase ETS components CO,

Paul R. Nelson; Fred W. Conrad; Susan P. Kelly; Katherine C. Maiolo; Joel D. Richardson; Michael W. Ogden

1998-01-01

260

Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to

Theodore A Slotkin

2004-01-01

261

Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

1985-05-01

262

Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in tobacco smoke, and pathways for formation of OH and peroxyl species. Tobacco smoke provides a new perspective of radical generation in a relatively well-defined biomass burning process.

Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

2012-12-01

263

Tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Austrian and German males.  

PubMed

The millstone around the neck of tobacco control in Europe has been the influence of the tobacco industry on the governments of German speaking countries. This study attempts to estimate non-lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking in Austria during 1967-2006 and in Germany during 1973-2006. National estimates of the annual smoking-attributable fractions (SAF) were calculated for all ages in males, using lung cancer mortality rates as indicators of "tobacco smoke load" associated with cancer from active and passive smoking. In both countries non-lung cancer rates showed a nearly perfect linear correlation with lung cancer rates (R (2) = 0.95 in Austria and 0.94 in Germany) with a slope of 1.86 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.71-1.99) in Austria and 1.77 (95% CI: 1.60-1.93) in Germany. In 2006 SAF of male cancer mortality for all ages were 61% in Austria (sensitivity range [SR]: 45%-70%) without autocorrelation and 61% in Germany (SR: 41-75%), if adjusted for possible autocorrelation. The similarity of the results is in line with the poor tobacco control measures in both countries until recently. Cancer prevention programs in Austria and Germany should focus on tobacco control, because 61% of male cancer mortality was associated with tobacco smoke load. PMID:21072602

Borsoi, Livia; Leistikow, Bruce; Neuberger, Manfred

2010-12-01

264

[Tobacco advertising, does it increase smoking among teenagers? Data from California.].  

PubMed

The tobacco industry has continued to conduct large and effective promotional campaigns to increase tobacco sales and to ensure that there is a continuing pool of new smokers who are now mainly adolescents. This paper describes how these activities have changed in the United States in recent years and the evidence of their impact particularly on adolescents. Over the past decade, Statewide tobacco control programs have become increasingly popular in the United States. These programs use public monies to conduct mass media campaigns, to restructure the environment to emphasize a smoke free society and to mobilize the population to take action to prevent young people from being influenced to start to smoke.Programs that aim to prevent initiation need to be grounded in a knowledge of the time-related process by which adolescents become addicted. The smoking uptake process begins before experimenting with cigarettes with the development of a cognitive predisposition to smoke often in the pre-teen years. We present evidence that tobacco promotional activities play a major role in encouraging non-smoking adolescents to become at risk to experiment and to develop early signs of dependence prior to becoming adults.Effective tobacco control programs focus on countering the influence of the tobacco industry on adolescents, dampening demand with higher prices and barriers to easy access to cigarettes. These public health programs have started to show major results in reducing the most preventable cause of death in developed countries. PMID:15826598

Pierce, J P; García, M; Saltó, E; Schiaffino, A; Fernández, E

2002-12-01

265

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure  

SciTech Connect

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-06-01

266

Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z. [Rovinj Crotia J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01

267

Tobacco Smoking Using Midwakh Is an Emerging Health Problem - Evidence from a Large Cross-Sectional Survey in the United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Introduction Accurate information about the prevalence and types of tobacco use is essential to deliver effective public health policy. We aimed to study the prevalence and modes of tobacco consumption in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), particularly focusing on the use of Midwakh (Arabic traditional pipe). Methods We studied 170,430 UAE nationals aged ?18 years (44% males and 56% females) in the Weqaya population-based screening program in Abu Dhabi residents during the period April 2008–June 2010. Self-reported smoking status, type, quantity and duration of tobacco smoked were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study findings; prevalence rates used the screened sample as the denominator. Result The prevalence of smoking overall was 24.3% in males and 0.8% in females and highest in males aged 20–39. Mean age (SD) of smokers was 32.8 (11.1) years, 32.7 (11.1) in males and 35.7 (12.1) in females. Cigarette smoking was the commonest form of tobacco use (77.4% of smokers), followed by Midwakh (15.0%), shisha (waterpipe) (6.8%), and cigar (0.66%). The mean durations of smoking for cigarettes, Midwakh, shisha and cigars were 11.4, 9.3, 7.6 and 11.0 years, respectively. Conclusions Smoking is most common among younger UAE national men. The use of Midwakh and the relatively young age of onset of Midwakh smokers is of particular concern as is the possibility of the habit spreading to other countries. Comprehensive tobacco control laws targeting the young and the use of Midwakh are needed. PMID:22720071

Al-Houqani, Mohammed; Ali, Raghib; Hajat, Cother

2012-01-01

268

[The factors influencing tobacco smoking in the middle school age pupils of Moscow].  

PubMed

The high prevalence of tobacco smoking among modern-day children and adolescents largely determines a poor prognosis of human health in future. Smoking prevention among children and adolescents in general educational facilities is the most promising measure to solve this sociomedical problem. The investigation was undertaken to study smoking prevalence among middle school age pupils, to identify the major factors contributing to their taking up smoking, and to define information sources and the pupils' awareness about the negative impact of smoking. PMID:21845771

Dedukh, E L; Ruchkina, N A; Mirskaia, N B

2011-01-01

269

A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control. PMID:20390676

Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

2010-03-01

270

Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

2014-01-01

271

Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice  

PubMed Central

Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

2014-01-01

272

Contexts of tobacco use and perspectives on smoking cessation among a sample of urban American Indians.  

PubMed

American Indians have the highest prevalence of cigarette use in the United States, but there is a shortage of knowledge about American Indians' own perspectives on smoking and cessation. The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to obtain information on American Indians' views that would be useful for subsequent intervention planning and development. Four focus groups were conducted with urban American Indians living in Maryland to explore the sociocultural contexts of tobacco use and their perspectives on various mainstream and culturally-specific smoking cessation strategies and service delivery models. Tobacco interventions targeting American Indians should increase service access, address negative experiences with medications, emphasize empowerment for behavior change, explicitly distinguish ceremonial tobacco from cigarette use, and send culturally-relevant messages. Smoking cessation programs and health promotion efforts may be perceived as more relevant by the target population if they incorporate an understanding of the social and cultural facets of smoking behavior. PMID:20453355

Gryczynski, Jan; Feldman, Robert; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Kanamori, Mariano; Chen, Lu; Roth, Susan

2010-05-01

273

The impact of tobacco control expenditures on smoking initiation and cessation.  

PubMed

Between 1997 and 2007, smoking prevalence declined from 33% to 28% in Switzerland. Over the same period, funding for tobacco control activities significantly increased, resulting in the implementation of a large variety of national and regional interventions. In this paper, I exploit variation over time and across cantons of tobacco control expenditures to examine the impact of these policies on smoking decisions. I use retrospective smoking information from the Swiss Health Survey (2007) and find that tobacco control expenditures decreased the probability of smoking initiation among adolescents and young adults and increased cessation rates in the general population of smokers. I estimate that if funding had been kept at the 1997 level, there would have been 107,000 additional smokers in 2007. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24038447

Marti, Joachim

2014-12-01

274

Plutonium-239, /sup 240/Pu and /sup 210/Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the /sup 210/Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of /sup 210/Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

1985-08-01

275

Life-history correlates of environmental tobacco smoke: A study on nonsmoking Hong Kong Chinese wives with smoking versus nonsmoking husbands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, passive smoking) often use nonsmoking wives with smoking discordant husbands. To see whether there were differences in exposures and behavior patterns among never-smoked wives with never-smoked vs ever-smoked husbands, the life-history profiles of 136 ever-married women with mean age of 59 were analyzed on 97 quantifiable variables. Overall, the results

Linda C. Koo; John H. C. Ho; Ragnar Rylander

1988-01-01

276

A descriptive study of smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine waterpipe smoking and beliefs about waterpipe smoking in a sample of college students from a public university in Virginia. Data Sources A web-based survey was sent to 1,000 undergraduate students recruiting them to participate in the study. Measures from the investigator-developed Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Waterpipe Questionnaire were used to capture belief-based components of the TRA related to waterpipe use. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions Of the sample (n=223), 73% of males and 63% of females reporting ever smoking tobacco using a waterpipe and 23% of males and 7% of females reporting current waterpipe smoking. Of the sample 29% of males and 10% of females were current cigarette smokers and 25% of males and 13% of females were current marijuana users. Common beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking are also presented. Implications for Practice Nurse Practitioner’s working with college students need to be aware of the multiple forms of tobacco that students may engage in. They also should be aware of the common beliefs about waterpipe smoking. This information is useful when targeting and counseling patients about alternative tobacco products like waterpipe smoking. PMID:23279274

Noonan, Devon

2012-01-01

277

Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals’ perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents’ subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more ‘antismoking’ if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms. PMID:17947246

Hamilton, William L.; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T.

2008-01-01

278

The Association Between Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Smoking and Support for Tobacco Control Measures  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study examined the association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the natural history of smoking who also completed a web-based assessment of implicit attitudes toward smoking (N = 1,337). Multiple regression was used to test the association between covariates (sex, age, educational attainment, parent status, and smoking status), implicit attitude toward smoking, and explicit attitude toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. The moderating effect of the covariates on the relation between attitudes and support for policies was also tested. Results: Females, those with higher educational attainment, parents, and nonsmokers expressed more support for tobacco control policy measures. For nonsmokers, only explicit attitude was significantly associated with support for policies. For smokers, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significantly associated with support. The effect of explicit attitude was stronger for those with lower educational attainment. Conclusions: Both explicit and implicit smoking attitudes are important for building support for tobacco control policies, particularly among smokers. More research is needed on how to influence explicit and implicit attitudes to inform policy advocacy campaigns. PMID:22581941

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2013-01-01

279

Life course socioeconomic conditions, passive tobacco exposures and cigarette smoking in a multiethnic birth cohort of U.S. women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low socioeconomic status (SES) and exposure to passive tobacco smoke are associated with increased risk of smoking in adults,\\u000a but the influences of these factors in earlier life periods on adult smoking behavior are not well understood. We investigated\\u000a the relationship of SES and passive tobacco exposure over the lifecourse with adult smoking status in a multiethnic cohort\\u000a of U.S.

Parisa Tehranifar; Yuyan Liao; Jennifer S. Ferris; Mary Beth Terry

2009-01-01

280

Using breath carbon monoxide to validate self-reported tobacco smoking in remote Australian Indigenous communities  

PubMed Central

Background This paper examines the specificity and sensitivity of a breath carbon monoxide (BCO) test and optimum BCO cutoff level for validating self-reported tobacco smoking in Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (NT). Methods In a sample of 400 people (?16 years) interviewed about tobacco use in three communities, both self-reported smoking and BCO data were recorded for 309 study participants. Of these, 249 reported smoking tobacco within the preceding 24 hours, and 60 reported they had never smoked or had not smoked tobacco for ?6 months. The sample was opportunistically recruited using quotas to reflect age and gender balances in the communities where the combined Indigenous populations comprised 1,104 males and 1,215 females (?16 years). Local Indigenous research workers assisted researchers in interviewing participants and facilitating BCO tests using a portable hand-held analyzer. Results A BCO cutoff of ?7 parts per million (ppm) provided good agreement between self-report and BCO (96.0% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity). An alternative cutoff of ?5 ppm increased sensitivity from 96.0% to 99.6% with no change in specificity (93.3%). With data for two self-reported nonsmokers who also reported that they smoked cannabis removed from the analysis, specificity increased to 96.6%. Conclusion In these disadvantaged Indigenous populations, where data describing smoking are few, testing for BCO provides a practical, noninvasive, and immediate method to validate self-reported smoking. In further studies of tobacco smoking in these populations, cannabis use should be considered where self-reported nonsmokers show high BCO. PMID:20170528

2010-01-01

281

Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background Costs of tobacco?related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. Aim To estimate the health?related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Methods Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking?attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of US$1.3 million for a life lost. Results In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was US$532 million for active smoking and US$156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to US$9.4 billion. Conclusion The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke?free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere. PMID:16565461

McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

2006-01-01

282

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Policy Statement on Smoking  

E-print Network

EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Policy Statement on Smoking (Revised 1/12/2009) Authority: Issued Health Science Complex. II. Smoking Restrictions Smoking (use or possession of a lighted cigarette, lighted cigar, lighted pipe, or any other lighted tobacco product) must not occur within the no smoking

283

Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma.  

PubMed Central

Because the morbidity and mortality from adult asthma have been increasing, the identification of modifiable environmental exposures that exacerbate asthma has become a priority. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may adversely affect adults with asthma. To study the effects of ETS better, we developed a survey instrument to measure ETS exposure in a cohort of adults with asthma living in northern California, where public indoor smoking is limited. To validate this survey instrument, we used a passive badge monitor that measures actual exposure to ambient nicotine, a direct and specific measure of ETS. In this validation study, we recruited 50 subjects from an ongoing longitudinal asthma cohort study who had a positive screening question for ETS exposure or potential exposure. Each subject wore a passive nicotine badge monitor for 7 days. After the personal monitoring period, we readministered the ETS exposure survey instrument. Based on the survey, self-reported total ETS exposure duration ranged from 0 to 70 hr during the previous 7 days. Based on the upper-range boundary, bars or nightclubs (55 hr) and the home (50 hr) were the sites associated with greatest maximal self-reported exposure. As measured by the personal nicotine badge monitors, the overall median 7-day nicotine concentration was 0.03 microg/m(3) (25th-75th interquartile range 0-3.69 microg/m(3)). Measured nicotine concentrations were highest among persons who reported home exposure (median 0.61 microg/m(3)), followed by work exposure (0.03 microg/m(3)), other (outdoor) exposure (0.025 microg/m(3)), and no exposure (0 microg/m(3); p = 0.03). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between self-reported ETS exposure duration and directly measured personal nicotine concentration during the same 7-day period was 0.47, supporting the survey's validity (p = 0.0006). Compared to persons with no measured exposure, lower-level [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4-8.8] and higher-level ETS exposures (OR 6.8; 95% CI, 1.4-32.3) were associated with increased risk of respiratory symptoms. A brief, validated survey instrument can be used to assess ETS exposure among adults with asthma, even with low levels of exposure. This instrument could be a valuable tool for studying the effect of ETS exposure on adult asthma health outcomes. PMID:11564616

Eisner, M D; Katz, P P; Yelin, E H; Hammond, S K; Blanc, P D

2001-01-01

284

Internal tobacco industry research on olfactory and trigeminal nerve response to nicotine and other smoke components.  

PubMed

Evidence has shown that factors other than the central pharmacological effects of nicotine are important in promoting smoking behavior. One such non-nicotine effect includes sensory stimulation, which may promote smoking by developing learned associations with nicotine's rewarding effects, or by constituting a rewarding experience independent of nicotine. The present study used internal tobacco industry documents to examine industry efforts to understand and manipulate stimulation of the sensory nerves by tobacco smoke, and the influence of sensory stimulation on smoker behavior. Research focused on sensory nerves of the head and neck, including the olfactory nerve, which carries flavor and odor, and the trigeminal nerve, which carries irritant information. The tobacco industry maintained a systematic research program designed to elucidate an understanding of responses of sensory nerves to nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke, and attempted to develop nicotine-like compounds that would enhance sensory responses in smokers. Industry research appeared intended to aid in the development of new products with greater consumer appeal. The potential influence of sensory response in enhancing nicotine dependence through an associative mechanism was acknowledged by the tobacco industry, but evidence for research in this area was limited. These findings add to evidence of industry manipulation of sensory factors to enhance smoking behavior and may have implications for development of more effective treatment strategies, including more "acceptable" nicotine replacement therapies. PMID:17978985

Megerdichian, Christine L; Rees, Vaughan W; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

2007-11-01

285

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: An analysis controlling for tobacco industry affiliation  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between smoking and AD after controlling for study design, quality, secular trend, and tobacco industry affiliation of the authors, electronic databases were searched, 43 individual studies met the inclusion criteria. For evidence of tobacco industry affiliation http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu was searched. One fourth (11/43) of individual studies had tobacco affiliated authors. Using random effects meta-analysis, 18 case control studies without tobacco industry affiliation yielded a non-significant pooled odds ratio of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.75–1.10), while 8 case control studies with tobacco industry affiliation yielded a significant pooled odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.98) suggesting that smoking protects against AD. In contrast, 14 cohort studies without tobacco industry affiliation yielded a significantly increased relative risk of AD of 1.45 (95%CI, 1.16–1.80) associated with smoking and the three cohort studies with tobacco industry affiliation yielded a non-significant pooled relative risk of 0.60 (95% CI 0.27–1.32). A multiple regression analysis showed that case-control studies tended to yield lower average risk estimates than cohort studies (by ?0.27±0.15, P=.075), lower risk estimates for studies done by authors affiliated with the tobacco industry (by ?0.37±0.13, P=.008), no effect of the quality of the journal in which the study was published (measured by impact factor, P=0.828), and increasing secular trend in risk estimates (0.031/year ±.013, P=.02). The average risk of AD for cohort studies without tobacco industry affiliation of average quality published in 2007 was estimated to be 1.72±0.19 (P<.0005). The available data indicate that smoking is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:20110594

Cataldo, Janine K.; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A

2009-01-01

286

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

287

Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

2013-06-01

288

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

2011-05-01

289

The Tobacco Industry’s Role in the 16 Cities Study of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Do the Data Support the Stated Conclusions?  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. Objectives Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency and court records, and to evaluate the validity of the study’s conclusions. Results The tobacco industry’s purpose in conducting the 16 Cities Study was to develop data showing that workplace SHS exposures were negligible, using these data to stop smoking restrictions by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The extensive involvement of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the tobacco industry’s Center for Indoor Air Research in controlling the study was not fully disclosed. The study’s definition of “smoking workplace” included workplaces where smoking was restricted to designated areas or where no smoking was observed. This definition substantially reduced the study’s reported average SHS concentrations in “smoking workplaces” because SHS levels in unrestricted smoking workplaces are much greater than in workplaces with designated smoking areas or where no smoking occurred. Stratifying the data by home smoking status and comparing exposures by workplace smoking status, however, indicates that smoke-free workplaces would halve the total SHS exposure of those living with smokers and virtually eliminate SHS exposure for most others. Conclusions Data in the 16 Cities Study reveal that smoke-free workplaces would dramatically reduce total SHS exposure, providing significant worker and public health benefits. PMID:17185281

Barnes, Richard L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A.

2006-01-01

290

Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively new four-story office building with an approximate volume of 1.3 million ft3. The exchange of outside air in the building was determined to be between 0.6 and 0.7 air changes per hour. Eighty-seven area samples (excluding background) were collected at 29 locations over the course of 6 days of sampling. Locations included offices and cubicles occupied by smokers and nonsmokers, common areas, and the computer and mail rooms. Twenty-four nonsmoking subjects wore personal sampling systems to collect breathing zone air samples on each of 3 days in succession. This generated a total of seventy-two 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposure samples. In all samples, respirable suspended particulate matter, ultraviolet light-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, and 3-ethenyl pyridine were determined. With the exception of a few locations, tobacco-specific airborne constituents were determined in all samples. Not surprisingly, areas with the highest ETS constituent concentrations were offices and cubicles of smokers. Median and 95th percentile concentrations for all area samples, excluding background, were determined to be 1.5 and 8.7 microg/m3 for nicotine, and 8.2 and 59 microg/m3 for ETS-specific particles (as solanesol-related particulate matter, Sol-PM), respectively. Personal exposure concentrations of ETS components were similar to those levels found in the area samples (median nicotine and Sol-PM concentrations were 1.24 and 7.1 microg/m3, respectively), but the range of concentrations was somewhat smaller. For example, the 95th percentile 8-h TWA nicotine and ETS-specific particle (as Sol-PM) concentrations were 3.58 and 21.9 microg/m3, respectively. Intrasubject variation of daily concentrations ranged from 20% to 60%, depending on the component. Self-reported proximity to smokers was supported by higher ETS concentrations determined from the personal monitors, but only to a modest extent. Although smoking was completely unrestricted inside the main office areas of the facility, ETS levels, either areal or from personal exposure measurements, were lower than those estimated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration to be present in such facilities. PMID:11687910

Jenkins, R A; Maskarinec, M P; Counts, R W; Caton, J E; Tomkins, B A; Ilgner, R H

2001-01-01

291

Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

Hirshbein, Laura

2012-01-01

292

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and brain development: the case of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke, inhaled by active firsthand smokers and their entourage, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many children are passively exposed to secondhand smoke worldwide. Infants and young children account for the largest global disease burden associated with prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke, probably due to underdeveloped neurological, immune, and respiro-circulatory systems. There is an increasingly robust association between tobacco smoke exposure, before and after birth, and executive function problems in children, adding to current and future disease burden estimates in public health. This review summarizes research advancements which address the link between environmental tobacco smoke and the development of attention deficits and hyperactive behavior, both as symptoms and as part of a mental health disorder in childhood. The multiple effects of tobacco smoke inhalation are best understood in terms of disruptions in normative processes involving cellular communication, structural development, and epigenetic influences which have the potential to become intergenerational. It is concluded that public health efforts be directed toward increasing parental awareness and compliance with existing guidelines that recommend no safe level of exposure. PMID:23545330

Pagani, Linda S

2014-07-01

293

Women and Tobacco Use  

MedlinePLUS

... ENews Home > Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Women and Tobacco Use Smoking and tobacco use pose ... smoking-related diseases. Key Facts About Smoking Among Women Smoking is directly responsible for 80 percent of ...

294

Tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess tobacco use and smoking cessation among third-year dental students in southern Brazil. The Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire was used in eight dental schools in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Of the 663 eligible students, 576 (87%) participated. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.9-25.3%], and 61.6% (95% CI: 54.9-68.3%) of students reported having smoked at least once in their lifetime. The prevalence of dental students who had smoked ?100 cigarettes in their lifetime was 17.1% (95% CI: 12.5-21.7%). Being frequently exposed to other smokers at home or in other places (second-hand smoke) increased the likelihood of current smoking by two- to threefold. Approximately 6.1% (95% CI: 3.5-8.7%) of the students reported that they currently wanted to stop smoking and 7.5% (95% CI: 5.3-9.6%) had tried to stop smoking in the last year. Friends and family were the most frequent sources of help or counselling, and only a limited proportion of students received help from health professionals. Tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoking is widespread among dental students in southern Brazil. Smoking-cessation initiatives targeting health care students are urgently needed. PMID:25123054

Musskopf, Marta L; Fiorini, Tiago; Haddad, Daniel C; Susin, Cristiano

2014-12-01

295

A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m(3) of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m(3) of LPS and 87.5ng/m(3) of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

Markowicz, P; Löndahl, J; Wierzbicka, A; Suleiman, R; Shihadeh, A; Larsson, L

2014-11-15

296

[Influence of tobacco smoking on amylase activity in serum persons occupational exposed to heavy metals].  

PubMed

The newest conducted investigations showed the significant role of tobacco smoking in inducing pathological changes in pancreas. Additionally exposure to heavy metals presents on polluted environment influences on function this organ. However, the mechanism of development of these changes has not been fully recognised. The aim of this study is to prove the influence of tobacco smoking on total amylase and termolabile amylase activity in serum of smoking and nonsmoking healthy persons and workers at cooper foundry in Legnica occupationally exposed to heavy metals: cadmium, arsenic, lead. Blood has been collected from 28 healthy persons and 60 founders. The enzyme total activity has been determined using the colorimetric method with substrate 1,2-odilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6-methylresorufin) ester. The thermolability activity has been determined using the thermolability test. It has been noted significant higher total amylase and thermolabile amylase activity in serum of smoking healthy persons (p < 0.0002; p < 0.002) and of non-smoking (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) and smoking founders (p < 0.0004; p < 0.001) comparison with non-smoking healthy persons. It hasn't been found significant differences in total and thermolabile amylase activity in smoking founders and non-smoking founders. The fact that there are significant differences in serum amylase activity in serum of smoking and nonsmoking founders in comparison with nonsmoking healthy persons prove a significant influence of exposure to heavy metals on exocrine function of pancreas. PMID:19189531

Sliwi?ska-Mosso?, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina; Zuchniewicz, Agnieszka; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

2008-01-01

297

Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts. Method: Published reviews and the current literature were searched for relevant articles. Results: The most consistently elevated biomarker in people exposed to SHS was 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), urinary metabolites of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The tobacco specificity of this biomarker as well as its clear relation to an established lung carcinogen are particularly appropriate for its application in studies of SHS exposure. Conclusion: The results of the available carcinogen derived biomarker studies provide biochemical data which support the conclusion, based on epidemiologic investigations, that SHS causes lung cancer in non-smokers. PMID:14985617

Hecht, S

2004-01-01

298

Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample (N = 4100) of intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. The data were collected using a pretested modified version of the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 3923 students from 72 intermediate and secondary schools for males and females in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ever having smoked prevalence was 17.3%, and the current smoking prevalence was 10.7%. The most important independent predictors of smoking were academic performance (odds ratio [OR]: 5.32), having friends who used khat (OR: 3.23), and having friends who used tobacco (OR: 2.88). Conclusions: Understanding the factors and predictors associated with tobacco use are crucial to identifying high-risk groups to design tobacco prevention and control programs. For the first time, a strong and statistically significant association was identified between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. Because the use of khat is increasingly spreading outside of its traditional areas to Europe and America, this finding may have an important impact on tobacco control efforts internationally. PMID:24159909

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

299

Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. Methods: A case–control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. Results: The social environment (odds ratio [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco. PMID:25317292

Afanador, Laura del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro

2014-01-01

300

Residual tobacco smoke pollution in used cars for sale: air, dust, and surfaces.  

PubMed

Regular tobacco use in the enclosed environment of a car raises concerns about longer-term contamination of a car's microenvironment with residual secondhand smoke pollutants. This study (a) developed and compared methods to measure residual contamination of cars with secondhand smoke, (b) examined whether cars of smokers and nonsmokers were contaminated by secondhand smoke, and (c) how smoking behavior and restrictions affected contamination levels. Surface wipe, dust, and air samples were collected in used cars sold by nonsmokers (n = 20) and smokers (n = 87) and analyzed for nicotine. Sellers were interviewed about smoking behavior and restrictions, and car interiors were inspected for signs of tobacco use. Cars of smokers who smoked in their vehicles showed significantly elevated levels of nicotine (p < .001) in dust, on surfaces, and in the air compared with nonsmoker cars with smoking ban. When smokers imposed car smoking bans, air nicotine levels were significantly lower (p < .01), but dust and surface contamination levels remained at similar levels. Smoking more cigarettes in the car and overall higher smoking rate of the seller were significantly associated with higher secondhand smoke contamination of the car (p < .001). Use of a cutpoint for nicotine levels from surface wipe samples correctly identified 82% of smoker cars without smoking bans, 75% of smoker cars with bans, and 100% of nonsmoker cars. Surface nicotine levels provide a relatively inexpensive and accurate method to identify cars and other indoor environments contaminated with residual secondhand smoke. Disclosure requirements and smoke-free certifications could help protect nonsmoking buyers of used cars. PMID:19023838

Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Chatfield, Dale; Ma, Debbie S; Romero, Romina; Uribe, Anna

2008-09-01

301

Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Utero and the Risk of Stillbirth and Death in the First Year of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined the association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in a cohort of 25,102 singleton children of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, from September 1989 to August 1996. Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (odds

Kirsten Wisborg; Ulrik Kesmodel; Tine Brink Henriksen; Sjurdur Fródi Olsen; Niels Jørgen Secher

302

Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

303

Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

2013-01-01

304

NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.

Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Pinkerton, Kent E. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: kepinkerton@ucdavis.edu

2008-07-15

305

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

2005-01-01

306

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results revealed that sex, belonging to a

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Donna Bacchi; Joel West

2005-01-01

307

Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke concentrations and mutagenicity for several indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source for indoor air pollution. Although ETS-caused indoor air pollution has been well studied in the developed countries, few studies have examined ETS indoor air pollution in China, which currently has the largest population of tobacco smokers. In this study, respirable-particulate (RP) from ETS-contaminated (RP-ETS) indoor air was collected and measured in 5

Renqing Zhou; Shengben Li; Yingqiao Zhou; Alfred Haug

2000-01-01

308

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor Against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American\\u000a young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N=145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised\\u000a (AAAS-R); the shortened Individualism\\/Collectivism (INDCOL) Scale; a Tobacco and Drug Use Survey; and a background survey.\\u000a Multiple

Aashir Nasim; Rosalie Corona; Faye Belgrave; Shawn O. Utsey; Niloofar Fallah

2007-01-01

309

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.DESIGN AND SETTING632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10–19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent

Jennifer J Tickle; James D Sargent; Madeline A Dalton; Michael L Beach; Todd F Heatherton

2001-01-01

310

Association between tobacco control policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents in 29 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the associations between well-known, cost-effective tobacco control policies at country level and smoking prevalence among 15-year-old adolescents. Design Multi-level modelling based on the 2005-06 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study, a cross-national study at individual level, and with country-level variables from the Tobacco Control Scale and published country-level databases. Setting Twenty-nine European countries. Participants A total of

Anne Hublet; Holger Schmid; Els Clays; Emmanuelle Godeau; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Luk Joossens; Lea Maes

2009-01-01

311

Fast analysis of nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke by megabore capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel fast megabore capillary gas chromatographic (MCGC) method for analysis of 7 nicotine related alkaloids in tobacco and cigarette smoke, including nicotine, nornicotine, myosmine, nicotyrine, anabasine, anatabine and 2,3-dipyridyl, was developed. The use of megabore capillary column GC methodology, equipped with flame ionization detector (FID), provided rapid, unambiguous nicotine related alkaloids analysis. One gram flue-cured tobacco (or Cambridge filter

Jibao Cai; Baizhan Liu; Ping Lin; Qingde Su

2003-01-01

312

Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

2014-01-01

313

Smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural tobacco-growing communities.  

PubMed

Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members' perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance versus those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-min interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD = 13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6%) and Caucasian (99.5%). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

Butler, Karen M; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J

2014-06-01

314

Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.  

PubMed

Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008

Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

2014-06-15

315

Jeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases,  

E-print Network

Jeffrey E. Harris, September 15, 1997, Page 1 Cigarette Smoking Practices, Smoking-Related Diseases and burial benefits by spouses of deceased veterans. My analysis considers only cigarette smoking-related disease and disability; a more complete study would include the effects of smoking cigar and pipe tobacco

Gabrieli, John

316

CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... rates are higher among people with a lower education level. For example, nearly 1 in 2 of all US adults who have a GED smoke; only around 6% of people with a graduate degree smoke. About 31% of people who live below the poverty level smoke. Although the number of teenagers in ...

317

Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter?writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

2006-01-01

318

Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents. Design Cross sectional survey of 4919 schoolchildren aged 9-15 years, and assessment of occurrence of smoking in 601 films. Setting Randomly selected middle schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Main outcome measure Number of schoolchildren who had ever tried smoking a cigarette. Results The films contained a median of 5 (interquartile range 1-12) occurrences of smoking. The typical adolescent had seen 17 of 50 films listed. Exposure to smoking in films varied widely: median 91 (49-152) occurrences. The prevalence of ever trying smoking increased with higher categories of exposure: 4.9% among students who saw 0-50 occurrences of smoking, 13.7% for 51-100 occurrences, 22.1% for 101-150, and 31.3% for >150. The association remained significant after adjustment for age; sex; school performance; school; parents' education; smoking by friend, sibling, or parent; and receptivity to tobacco promotions. The adjusted odds ratios of ever trying smoking for students in the higher categories of exposure, compared with students exposed to 0-50 occurrences of smoking in films, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.4), and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.8). These odds ratios were not substantially affected by adjustment for parenting style or for personality traits of the adolescent. Conclusion In this sample of adolescents there was a strong, direct, and independent association between seeing tobacco use in films and trying cigarettes, a finding that supports the hypothesis that smoking in films has a role in the initiation of smoking in adolescents. What is already known on this topicSmoking is often depicted in films, and watching films is a favourite activity of adolescentsAdolescents whose favourite actors smoke in films are more likely to have tried smokingWhat this study addsAdolescents' exposure to smoking in films varies widelyAdolescents with higher exposure are significantly more likely to have tried smoking, even when other factors linked with adolescent smoking have been taken into accountThis study supports the hypothesis that depictions of smoking in films influence adolescents to smoke PMID:11744562

Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Mott, Leila A; Tickle, Jennifer J; Ahrens, M Bridget; Heatherton, Todd F

2001-01-01

319

An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974-2004  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking by physicians represents a contentious issue in public health, and regardless of what country it originates from, the need for accurate, historical data is paramount. As such, this article provides an international comparison of all modern literature describing the tobacco smoking habits of contemporary physicians. Methods A keyword search of appropriate MeSH terms was initially undertaken to identify relevant material, after which the reference lists of manuscripts were also examined to locate further publications. Results A total of 81 English-language studies published in the past 30 years met the inclusion criteria. Two distinct trends were evident. Firstly, most developed countries have shown a steady decline in physicians' smoking rates during recent years. On the other hand, physicians in some developed countries and newly-developing regions still appear to be smoking at high rates. The lowest smoking prevalence rates were consistently documented in the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom. Comparison with other health professionals suggests that fewer physicians smoke when compared to nurses, and sometimes less often than dentists. Conclusion Overall, this review suggests that while physicians' smoking habits appear to vary from region to region, they are not uniformly low when viewed from an international perspective. It is important that smoking in the medical profession declines in future years, so that physicians can remain at the forefront of anti-smoking programs and lead the way as public health exemplars in the 21st century. PMID:17578582

Smith, Derek R; Leggat, Peter A

2007-01-01

320

Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

2012-01-01

321

Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. Data sources: Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. Study selection: Studies were included (n?=?84) if they reported the effects of any population-level tobacco control intervention on smoking behaviour or attitudes in individuals or groups with different demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. Data extraction: Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data synthesis: Data were synthesised using graphical (“harvest plot”) and narrative methods. No strong evidence of differential effects was found for smoking restrictions in workplaces and public places, although those in higher occupational groups may be more likely to change their attitudes or behaviour. Smoking restrictions in schools may be more effective in girls. Restrictions on sales to minors may be more effective in girls and younger children. Increasing the price of tobacco products may be more effective in reducing smoking among lower-income adults and those in manual occupations, although there was also some evidence to suggest that adults with higher levels of education may be more price-sensitive. Young people aged under 25 are also affected by price increases, with some evidence that boys and non-white young people may be more sensitive to price. Conclusions: Population-level tobacco control interventions have the potential to benefit more disadvantaged groups and thereby contribute to reducing health inequalities. PMID:18426867

Thomas, S; Fayter, D; Misso, K; Ogilvie, D; Petticrew, M; Sowden, A; Whitehead, M; Worthy, G

2008-01-01

322

Tobacco smoking effect on HIV-1 pathogenesis: role of cytochrome P450 isozymes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among the HIV-1-infected population. In addition to diminished immune response, smoking has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication and decrease response to antiretroviral therapy, perhaps through drug–drug interaction. However, the mechanism by which tobacco/nicotine increases HIV-1 replication and mediates drug–drug interaction is poorly understood. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss the effects of smoking on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Since they propose a role for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, the authors briefly converse the role of CYP enzymes in tobacco-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Finally, the authors focus on the role of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2A6, in tobacco/nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress in HIV-1 model systems monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and neurons, which may be responsible for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Expert opinion Recent findings suggest that CYP-mediated oxidative stress is a novel pathway that may be involved in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, including HIV-1 replication and drug–drug interaction. Thus, CYP and CYP-associated oxidative stress pathways may be potential targets to develop novel pharmaceuticals for HIV-1-infected smokers. Since HIV-1/TB co-infections are common, future study involving interactions between antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs that involve CYP pathways would also help treat HIV-1/TB co-infected smokers effectively. PMID:23822755

Ande, Anusha; McArthur, Carole; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

2014-01-01

323

Science, Politics, and Ideology in the Campaign Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

The issue of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the harms it causes to nonsmoking bystanders has occupied a central place in the rhetoric and strategy of antismoking forces in the United States over the past 3 decades. Beginning in the 1970s, anti-tobacco activists drew on suggestive and incomplete evidence to push for far-reaching prohibitions on smoking in a variety of public settings. Public health professionals and other antismoking activists, although concerned about the potential illness and death that ETS might cause in nonsmokers, also used restrictions on public smoking as a way to erode the social acceptability of cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This strategy was necessitated by the context of American political culture, especially the hostility toward public health interventions that are overtly paternalistic. PMID:12036788

Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

2002-01-01

324

A multilevel analysis examining the association between school-based smoking policies, prevention programs and youth smoking behavior: evaluating a provincial tobacco control strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n 5 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multi- level logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with smoking preven- tion programs only was

D. A. Murnaghan; S. T. Leatherdale; M. Sihvonen; P. Kekki

2007-01-01

325

Comparative study of smoke condensates from 1R4F cigarettes that burn tobacco versus ECLIPSE cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous chemical and toxicological studies indicate that smoke from ECLIPSE®, a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco, is simplified and reduced in specific chemicals believed to be associated with smoking-related diseases, and demonstrates reduced smoke toxicity and biological activity in vitro when compared to conventional tobacco burning cigarettes. These data led to the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate

Daniel R. Meckley; Johnnie R. Hayes; K. R. Van Kampen; Paul H. Ayres; Arnold T. Mosberg; James E. Swauger

2004-01-01

326

A pilot study of Not On Tobacco: a stop smoking programme for adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents findings from the pilot study of a gender-sensitive adolescent smoking cessation programme called Not On Tobacco (N-O-T). N-O-T is a school-based programme designed to help teenagers stop smoking or reduce cigarette use among those who are unable to quit completely. A total of 29 adolescents from three high schools in West Virginia participated (19 females and 10 males ranging

Geri A. Dino; Kimberly A. Horn; Heather Meit

1998-01-01

327

Tobacco smoking in relation to body fat mass and distribution in a general population sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of variable amounts of tobacco smoking on body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio among current smokers.DESIGN: Population-based cohort study.SUBJECTS: A total of 22 059 apparently healthy men and women, who enrolled in the Greek EPIC cohort, aged 25–84 years, who had never smoked (14 751) or were current cigarette smokers (7308).MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index and

C Bamia; A Trichopoulou; D Lenas; D Trichopoulos

2004-01-01

328

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.DESIGNCross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.SETTINGLarge health plan in Northern California, USA.PARTICIPANTS16 524 men aged 15–89 years and 26 197 women aged 15–105 years who never smoked.RESULTSSixty eight per cent of men

C Iribarren; G D Friedman; A L Klatsky; M D Eisner

2001-01-01

329

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Not On Tobacco Program for Adolescent Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health researchers and practitioners emphasize the need for effective, adoptable, and available youth smoking cessation\\u000a interventions. Scarce resources demand that such interventions also be cost effective. This study describes a cost-effectiveness\\u000a analysis (CEA) of the American Lung Association’s Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) national and international teen smoking cessation\\u000a program. N-O-T has been rigorously evaluated as an effective and adoptable

Geri Dino; Kimberly Horn; Abdullahi Abdulkadri; Iftekhar Kalsekar; Steven Branstetter

2008-01-01

330

Evidence That Smokeless Tobacco Use Is a Gateway for Smoking Initiation in Young Adult Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that smokeless tobacco (SLT) serves as a gateway drug for smoking among young adult males.Methods. A cohort (n = 7,865) of U.S. Air Force recruits who claimed to have never smoked cigarettes was followed prospectively for 1 year. The participants were male, 32.9% were ethnic minorities, and their average age was

C. Keith Haddock; Mark Vander Weg; Margaret DeBon; Robert C. Klesges; G. Wayne Talcott; Harry Lando; Alan Peterson

2001-01-01

331

Anti-tobacco television advertising and indicators of smoking cessation in adults: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertising and smoking cessation. Cessation rates in 2001 among a cohort of 2061 smokers who participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation be- tween 1988 and 1993 and completed a follow-up survey in 2001 were merged with the 2000-01 television advertising exposure data

A. Hyland; M. Wakefield; Cheryl Higbee; G. Szczypka; K. M. Cummings

2006-01-01

332

Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

Wiener, R. Constance

2014-01-01

333

Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco.  

PubMed

Even though marijuana smoke contains carcinogens and more tar than tobacco smoke and marijuana intoxication has been implicated as a risk factor for injuries, relatively little epidemiologic evidence has identified marijuana use as a risk factor for ill health. This study is the first to examine the health effects of smoking marijuana by comparing the medical experience of "daily" marijuana smokers who never smoked tobacco (n = 452) with a demographically similar group of nonsmokers of either substance (n = 450). Marijuana smoking status was determined during multiphasic health checkups at Kaiser Permanente medical centers between July 1979 and December 1985. Medical records were reviewed for as long as 2 years after the checkups. Frequent marijuana smokers had small increased risks of outpatient visits for respiratory illnesses (relative risk [RR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.41), injuries (RR = 1.32; CI = 1.10, 1.57), and other types of illnesses (RR = 1.09; CI = 1.02, 1.16) compared with nonsmokers; their risk of being admitted to a hospital was elevated but not statistically significant (RR = 1.51; CI = 0.93, 2.46). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, race, education, marital status, and alcohol consumption. Daily marijuana smoking, even in the absence of tobacco, appeared to be associated with an elevated risk of health care use for various health problems. PMID:8337854

Polen, M R; Sidney, S; Tekawa, I S; Sadler, M; Friedman, G D

1993-06-01

334

Tobacco Smoking Leads to Extensive Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (–24.40% methylation; p?=?2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers. PMID:23691101

Zeilinger, Sonja; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjorg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin

2013-01-01

335

Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module. Majority of the students indicated that topics about health effects, nicotine addiction and its treatment, counselling, prevention of relapse were important or very important in training about tobacco smoking. Conclusion Medical educators should consider revising medical curricula to improve training about tobacco smoking cessation in medical schools. Our results should be supported by surveys from other medical schools in developing countries of Asia. PMID:21080923

2010-01-01

336

Media advocacy, tobacco control policy change and teen smoking in Florida  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether media advocacy activities implemented by the Florida Tobacco Control Program contributed to increased news coverage, policy changes and reductions in youth smoking. Methods A content analysis of news coverage appearing in Florida newspapers between 22 April 1998 and 31 December 2001 was conducted, and patterns of coverage before and after the implementation of media advocacy efforts to promote tobacco product placement ordinances were compared. Event history analysis was used to assess whether news coverage increased the probability of enacting these ordinances in 23 of 67 Florida counties and ordinary least square (OLS) regression was used to gauge the effect of these policies on changes in youth smoking prevalence. Results The volume of programme?related news coverage decreased after the onset of media advocacy efforts, but the ratio of coverage about Students Working Against Tobacco (the Florida Tobacco Control Program's youth advocacy organisation) relative to other topics increased. News coverage contributed to the passage of tobacco product placement ordinances in Florida counties, but these ordinances did not lead to reduced youth smoking. Conclusion This study adds to the growing literature supporting the use of media advocacy as a tool to change health?related policies. However, results suggest caution in choosing policy goals that may or may not influence health behaviour. PMID:17297073

Niederdeppe, Jeff; Farrelly, Matthew C; Wenter, Dana

2007-01-01

337

Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.  

PubMed

This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR?=?1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR?=?1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking. PMID:23700202

Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

2013-12-01

338

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in the USA (Minnesota trial and the Master Settlement Agreement) and available on the internet. Search terms included: risk assessment, low dose exposure, and the names of key players and organisations.?RESULTS/CONCLUSION—The tobacco industry developed a well coordinated, multi-pronged strategy to create doubt about research on exposure to SHS by trying to link it to the broader discussion of risk assessment of low doses of a number of toxins whose disease burden may still be a matter of scientific debate, thus trying to make SHS their equivalent; and by attempting, through third party organisations and persons, to impugn the agencies using risk assessment to establish SHS as a hazard.???Keywords: tobacco industry; risk assessment; environmental tobacco smoke; ETS; second hand smoke; SHS PMID:11740031

Hirschhorn, N.; Bialous, S. A.

2001-01-01

339

Perinatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure Increases Vascular Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in Non-Human Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest that events occurring during fetal and early childhood development influence disease susceptibility. Similarly, molecular studies in mice have shown that in utero exposure to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased adult atherogenic susceptibility and mitochondrial damage; however, the molecular effects of similar exposures in primates are not yet known. To determine

David G. Westbrook; Peter G. Anderson; Kent E. Pinkerton; Scott W. Ballinger

2010-01-01

340

Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.DATA SOURCESLiterature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.STUDY SELECTIONReview and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a

Melbourne F Hovell; Joy M Zakarian; Dennis R Wahlgren; Georg E Matt

2000-01-01

341

Influence of Asthma on the Validity of Reported Lifelong Environmental Tobacco Smoke in the EGEA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the short-term reproducibility and the validity of reported ETS (environmental tobacco smoke) exposure, with a special emphasis on the potential misclassification related to personal or family history of asthma. Analyses were based on the data on the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy (EGEA), a

Valérie Siroux; Philippe Guilbert; Nicole Le Moual; Marie-Pierre Oryszczyn; Francine Kauffmann

2004-01-01

342

The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

2012-01-01

343

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We

1999-01-01

344

The use of cigarette equivalents to assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of the cigarette equivalent (CE) concept for estimating exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is reviewed. CE is a legitimate conceptual device for reporting and comparing ETS exposures. However, extension of the CE concept to predicting potential increases in health risk is fraught with numerous assumptions and is, therefore, not as often used or as well

Michael W. Ogden; Patricia Martin

1997-01-01

345

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Cognitive Abilities among U.S. Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted from 1988 to 1994, to investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive abilities among U.S. children and adolescents 6-16 years of age. Serum coti- nine was used as a biomarker of ETS exposure. Children were included in the sample if their serum cotinine

Kimberly Yolton; Kim Dietrich; Peggy Auinger; Bruce P. Lanphear; Richard Hornung

2004-01-01

346

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure, respiratory and cardiovascular health in restaurant and bar workers in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a well established health hazard, being causally associated to lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. ETS regulations have been developed worldwide to reduce or eliminate exposure in most public places. Restaurants and bars constitute an exception. Restaurants and bar workers experience the highest ETS exposure levels across several occupations, with correspondingly increased health risks. In Mexico,

Tonatiuh Barrientos Gutierrez

2009-01-01

347

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.DATA SOURCESMedline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.DATA SYNTHESISInterventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated

Paula M Lantz; Peter D Jacobson; Kenneth E Warner; Jeffrey Wasserman; Harold A Pollack; Julie Berson; Alexis Ahlstrom

2000-01-01

348

Possible interaction between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and therapy in children with asthma.  

PubMed

1. The aim of the study was to determine the carbachol and albuterol responsiveness in treated and untreated asthmatic and allergic children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke assessed by urinary cotinine measurements. 2. Forty-six asthmatic and allergic children with normal spirometric values were recruited. The doubling dose, concentration of carbachol producing a 2-fold increase in specific airway resistance (SRaw) was determined and 200 micrograms of albuterol were administered via a Volumatic(R) spacer. The percentage of bronchodilatation was defined as the difference between the largest obtained SRaw and the post-beta2 SRaw divided by the largest SRaw. Data were compared by a Mann-Whitney U-test. 3. The 23 children with a high urinary cotinine, compared with the 23 children without urinary cotinine, had a decreased doubling dose (108.2+/-14.7 micrograms versus 160.9+/-19.5 micrograms; P=0.04) and an increased percentage of bronchodilatation (74.8+/-1.4% versus 68.8+/-1.8%; P=0.03). A prophylactic anti-inflammatory treatment induced a weaker bronchial reactivity to carbachol and a slightly greater bronchodilatation in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. 4. Environmental tobacco smoke increases bronchial reactivity in asthmatic and allergic children. This effect might be reduced by anti-inflammatory therapy. The bronchodilator response may be enhanced in exposed children and may be caused by one or several direct interactions between tobacco smoke compounds and albuterol. PMID:9680495

Dubus, J C; Oddoze, C; Badier, M; Guillot, C; Bruguerolle, B

1998-08-01

349

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

350

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis was carried out to calculate a pooled estimate of relative risk of lung cancer following exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to determine whether there was any heterogeneity in the pooled estimates according to selected characteristics of the studies. A total of 35 case-control and five cohort studies providing quantitative estimates of the association between lung cancer

Lijie Zhong; Mark S Goldberg; Marie-Élise Parent; James A Hanley

2000-01-01

351

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

352

Adaptation of an amphibian mucociliary clearance model to evaluate early effects of tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATIONALE: Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent process. By the time clinical manifestations require medical attention, several structural and functional changes have already occurred. The respiratory system has to undergo an iterative process of injury, healing and remodeling

J Gustavo Zayas; Darryl W O'Brien; Shusheng Tai; Jie Ding; Leonard Lim; Malcolm King

2004-01-01

353

Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

354

Pushing up smoking incidence: plans for a privatised tobacco industry in Moldova.  

PubMed

Moldova, one of the former Soviet republics and Europe's poorest country, has so far resisted pressure to privatise its tobacco industry. This paper examines the policies pursued by the transnational tobacco companies in Moldova in order to inform the ongoing debate about tobacco industry privatisation. We analysed relevant internal industry documents made public through litigation. The documents suggest that although a competitive tender for the state owned monopoly was later announced, British American Tobacco (BAT) and the German manufacturer Reemtsma each initially sought to secure a closed deal, with BAT accusing Reemtsma of underhand tactics. Imperial Tobacco, which now owns Reemstma, was unable to comment on these allegations as it only acquired Reemstma after the events in question. BAT sought to acquire a monopoly position, bolstered by excise rules developed by the company that would uniquely favour its products. Despite hoping to establish a monopoly, it planned intensive marketing, as if in a competitive market, aiming to target young urban dwellers, particularly opinion leaders. In so doing it predicted that smoking uptake would increase, especially among women. The documents also suggest that BAT was aware of the sensitive nature of its plans to cull the processing workforce and aimed to present "sanitised" information on future employment levels to the Moldovans. The potential for tobacco industry privatisation to undermine tobacco control and promote cigarette consumption is highlighted and is consistent with economic theory. Countries planning tobacco industry privatisation should ensure a transparent and competitive privatisation process, seek to prevent the predicted increase in consumption by implementing effective tobacco control policies and consider the impacts on employment. Multilateral financial organisations promoting tobacco industry privatisation could ensure their loan conditions protect public health by making the implementation of tobacco control policies a pre-requisite for privatisation. PMID:15823388

Gilmore, Anna B; Radu-Loghin, Cornel; Zatushevski, Irina; McKee, Martin

355

Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

2009-01-01

356

TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT: SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE CONSTITUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Cigarette smoking is unrivaled among developmental toxicants in terms of total adverse impact on the human population. According to the American Lung Association, smoking during pregnancy is estimated to account for 20 to 30 percent of low-weight babies, up to 14 per...

357

Effect of counselling mothers on their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the efficacy of behavioural counselling for smoking mothers in reducing young children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Design Randomised double blind controlled trial. Setting Low income homes in San Diego county, California. Participants 108 ethnically diverse mothers who exposed their children (aged <4 years) to tobacco smoke in the home. Intervention Mothers were given seven counselling sessions over three months. Main outcome measures Children's reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from mothers in the home and from all sources; children's cotinine concentrations in urine. Results Mothers' reports of children's exposure to their smoke in the home declined in the counselled group from 27.30 cigarettes/week at baseline, to 4.47 at three months, to 3.66 at 12 months and in the controls from 24.56, to 12.08, to 8.38. The differences between the groups by time were significant (P=0.002). Reported exposure to smoke from all sources showed similar declines, with significant differences between groups by time (P=0.008). At 12 months, the reported exposure in the counselled group was 41.2% that of controls for mothers' smoke (95% confidence interval 34.2% to 48.3%) and was 45.7% (38.4% to 53.0%) that of controls for all sources of smoke. Children's mean urine cotinine concentrations decreased slightly in the counselled group from 10.93 ng/ml at baseline to 10.47 ng/ml at 12 months but increased in the controls from 9.43 ng/ml to 17.47 ng/ml (differences between groups by time P=0.008). At 12 months the cotinine concentration in the counselled group was 55.6% (48.2% to 63.0%) that of controls. Conclusions Counselling was effective in reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar counselling in medical and social services might protect millions of children from environmental tobacco smoke in their homes. PMID:10926589

Hovell, Melbourne F; Zakarian, Joy M; Matt, Georg E; Hofstetter, C Richard; Bernert, J Thomas; Pirkle, James

2000-01-01

358

Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. METHODS: We used data from

Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson S Muula

2008-01-01

359

Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

1999-01-01

360

Adolescents' Responses to Anti-tobacco Advertising: Exploring the Role of Adolescents' Smoking Status and Advertisement Theme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-smoking media directed at adolescents use many different message themes, but little evidence exists as to which is most effective. Additionally, little is known about how teens who smoke respond to anti-tobacco ads. This study examined smoking and nonsmoking adolescents' responses to three popular thematic approaches: (1) endangering others, (2) negative life circumstances, and (3) industry manipulation. Sixteen groups of

Erin L. Sutfin; Lisa R. Szykman; Marian Chapman Moore

2008-01-01

361

Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

2014-01-01

362

Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population  

PubMed Central

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and smoking cessation and relapse has not been studied. In a large military sample entering Air Force Basic Military Training (BMT), where tobacco use is prohibited, we investigated (i) the prevalence of agreement with a statement that tobacco companies have misled the public about the health consequences of smoking and (ii) the association of this acknowledgement with smoking status upon entry into BMT (N?=?36 013). At baseline, 56.6% agreed that tobacco companies have been deceptive, and agreement was a strong predictor of smoking status [smokers less likely to agree, odds ratio (OR)?=?0.39, P < 0.01]. At 12-month follow-up, we examined the association between industry perception at baseline and current smoking status (N?=?20 672). Recruits who had been smoking upon entry into BMT and who had acknowledged industry deception were less likely to report current smoking (OR?=?0.84, P?=?0.01). These findings suggest that anti-industry attitudes may affect smoking relapse following cessation. PMID:19528314

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; DeBon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

363

Heart rate and blood pressure responses to tobacco smoking among African-American adolescents.  

PubMed Central

Ethnic differences in both physiological response to and health consequences of tobacco smoking-some of which have been attributed to ethnic preferences for menthol cigarettes-have been described in the literature. We compared acute physiological responses to smoking in African-American and European-American adolescent menthol cigarette smokers seeking smoking cessation treatment. One-hundred- twenty-eight adolescents (32% African-American, 71% female; mean age 15.16 +/- 1.32 years, mean Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score 6.73 +/- 1.53, cigarettes per day (CPD) 16.9 +/- 2.64) participated in an experimental session during which they smoked one menthol cigarette of their usual brand. Blood pressure, heart rate, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured before and after smoking; mean puff volume (mL), puff duration (sec) and maximal puff velocity (mL/sec) during smoking were also determined. Two sample t-tests were performed to assess ethnic differences in smoking topography; analysis of covariance was used to determine whether heart rate and blood pressure after smoking one menthol cigarette varied by ethnicity, after controlling for baseline physiological measures. No significant ethnic differences were observed in either smoking topography or acute cardiovascular response to smoking. These preliminary findings warrant extension to a broader group of nontreatment-seeking adolescent smokers of both ethnicities. PMID:15233486

Moolchan, Eric T.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Sehnert, Shelley S.

2004-01-01

364

What is tobacco smoke? Sociocultural dimensions of the association with cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

The definition of smoking as the inhalation of the smoke of burned tobacco that may occur occasionally or habitually as a consequence of a physical addiction to some chemicals, primarily nicotine, cannot be fully accepted today since several clinical, biological, metabolic, epidemiologic, statistic and socio-economic factors which play a basic role in determining individual damage due to smoking are missing in this assessment. The analysis of findings shows undoubtedly that several constituents of cigarette smoking play a strong role in the development and progression of cardiovascular damage, primarily atherosclerotic lesions. Nicotine and its metabolites, carbon monoxide and thiocyanate seem to be the most specific markers of damage that, in the time, becomes irreversible. Cigarette smoking is addictive because of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal causes many side effects of quitting smoking as well as nicotine itself usually increases cardiovascular risk. Therefore, what is smoking? Smoking must be defined as a chemical toxicosis which is able to cause detrimental effects either of acute or chronic type on different structures of the body being some of these like cardiovascular system, respiratory system and epithelial glands target organs. Smoking also causes physical addiction, primarily due to nicotine, that adversely influences smoking cessation. From these observations there is evidence that a large number of socio-economic and epidemiologic implications arise in smokers and that requires the necessity of specific structures which may help to face up the problem. PMID:20550508

Leone, Aldo; Landini, Linda; Leone, Aurelio

2010-01-01

365

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants without separate ventilation systems for smoking and nonsmoking dining areas.  

PubMed

In this study, the author examined (a) levels of airborne pollutants from environmental tobacco smoke in 8 restaurants, and (b) changes in urinary cotinine and nicotine levels among 97 nonsmoking subjects (i.e., 40 restaurant employees, 37 patrons, and 20 referents). Airborne pollutant levels were significantly lower in the control environments than in the nonsmoking dining rooms in which smoking was not permitted, and the levels were significantly lower in the dining rooms in which smoking was not permitted than in the dining rooms in which smoking was permitted. Levels of urinary cotinine and nicotine increased among subjects in the dining rooms in which smoking was permitted, and the increase was significantly greater in employees than patrons. There was a significant positive correlation between levels of urinary nicotine increase and the levels of airborne nicotine and solanesol. The results of this study support the restriction of smoking to designated areas that have separate ventilation systems, or the prohibition of smoking in restaurants. PMID:12899210

Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang

2003-02-01

366

The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: A pathway to complete tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This article outlines a theoretical framework for research concerning secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevention as a means to curtail the tobacco industry. Methods: The Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) assumes interlocking social contingencies of reinforcement (i.e., rewards or punishments) from the highest level of society (e.g., taxing cigarette sales) to physiological reactions to nicotine that influence smoking and SHSe. We review selected research concerning both policy and clinical efforts to restrict smoking and/or SHSe. Results: Research to date has focused on smoking cessation with modest to weak effects. The BEM and empirical evidence suggest that cultural contingencies of reinforcement should be emphasized to protect people from SHSe, especially vulnerable children, pregnant women, the ill, the elderly, and low-income adults who have not “elected” to smoke. Doing so will protect vulnerable populations from industry-produced SHSe and may yield more and longer-lasting cessation. Conclusions: Interventions that reduce SHSe may serve as a Trojan horse to counter the tobacco industry. Future studies should: (a) guide policies to restrict SHSe; (b) develop powerful community and clinical interventions to reduce SHSe; (c) test the degree to which policies and other contexts enhance the effects of clinical interventions (e.g., media programs disclosing the disingenuous marketing by the industry); and (d) investigate the effects of all health care providers’ ability to reduce SHSe and generate an antitobacco culture, by advising all clients to avoid starting to smoke, to protect their children from SHSe, and to quit smoking. PMID:19776346

Hughes, Suzanne C.

2009-01-01

367

Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke: Emerging Evidence and Arguments for a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda  

PubMed Central

Background: There is broad consensus regarding the health impact of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure, yet considerable ambiguity exists about the nature and consequences of thirdhand smoke (THS). Objectives: We introduce definitions of THS and THS exposure and review recent findings about constituents, indoor sorption–desorption dynamics, and transformations of THS; distribution and persistence of THS in residential settings; implications for pathways of exposure; potential clinical significance and health effects; and behavioral and policy issues that affect and are affected by THS. Discussion: Physical and chemical transformations of tobacco smoke pollutants take place over time scales ranging from seconds to months and include the creation of secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). THS persists in real-world residential settings in the air, dust, and surfaces and is associated with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. Much still needs to be learned about the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, health risks, and policy implications of THS. Conclusion: The existing evidence on THS provides strong support for pursuing a programmatic research agenda to close gaps in our current understanding of the chemistry, exposure, toxicology, and health effects of THS, as well as its behavioral, economic, and sociocultural considerations and consequences. Such a research agenda is necessary to illuminate the role of THS in existing and future tobacco control efforts to decrease smoking initiation and smoking levels, to increase cessation attempts and sustained cessation, and to reduce the cumulative effects of tobacco use on morbidity and mortality. PMID:21628107

Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Destaillats, Hugo; Gundel, Lara A.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Singer, Brett C.; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rehan, Virender; Talbot, Prue; Schick, Suzaynn; Samet, Jonathan; Wang, Yinsheng; Hang, Bo; Martins-Green, Manuela; Pankow, James F.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2011-01-01

368

Nicotine Content of Domestic Cigarettes, Imported Cigarettes and Pipe Tobacco in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background There are many different kinds of cigarettes and tobacco available in the market. Since nicotine content of various brands of cigarettes are very variable, therefore evaluation and comparison of nicotine content of different brands of cigarettes is important. The goal of the present study was to determine and compare nicotine content of various domestic and imported cigarettes available in the area. Methods Fourteen popular imported brands and nine popular domestic brands of cigarettes and three available brands of tobaccos were investigated for the amounts of nicotine content. Nicotine was extracted from each cigarette and tobacco samples and was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Findings The amount of nicotine in each cigarette was from 6.17 to 12.65 mg (1.23 ± 0.15 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) in domestic cigarettes. It was between 7.17-28.86 mg (1.80 ± 0.25 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) for imported cigarette, and between 30.08- 50.89 mg (3.82 ± 1.11 percent) for the pipe nicotine. There was significant difference in nicotine amount between imported and domestic brands of cigarettes. There was also no significant difference in nicotine content between light and normal cigarettes in imported brands. Conclusion Nicotine content of all tested cigarettes, imported and domestic brands, were higher than the international standard. PMID:24494133

Taghavi, Sahar; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moalemzadeh-Haghighi, Hamideh; Nassirli, Hooriyeh; Eshraghi, Pyman; Jalali, Navid; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

2012-01-01

369

The influence of societal individualism on a century of tobacco use: modelling the prevalence of smoking  

E-print Network

Smoking of tobacco is predicted to cause approximately six million deaths worldwide in 2014. Responding effectively to this epidemic requires a thorough understanding of how smoking behaviour is transmitted and modified. Here, we present a new mathematical model of the social dynamics that cause cigarette smoking to spread in a population. Our model predicts that more individualistic societies will show faster adoption and cessation of smoking. Evidence from a new century-long composite data set on smoking prevalence in 25 countries supports the model, with direct implications for public health interventions around the world. Our results suggest that differences in culture between societies can measurably affect the temporal dynamics of a social spreading process, and that these effects can be understood via a quantitative mathematical model matched to observations.

Lang, John C; De Sterck, Hans

2014-01-01

370

Divergent socio-economic gradients in smoking by type of tobacco use in India.  

PubMed

We describe the relationship between socio-economic status and current bidi or cigarette smoking among Indian men aged ?15 years. The prevalence of bidi smoking was 13.7% (95%CI 13.3-14.1) and that of cigarette smoking was 6.3% (95%CI 6.1-6.6). bidi smoking was concentrated among the socio-economically disadvantaged, while cigarette smoking was common among men with higher status occupations and greater levels of education and household wealth. This suggests that India has not transitioned to the later stages of the tobacco epidemic, and underscores the need for prevention and control strategies adapted to current patterns of consumption across socio-economic groups in India. PMID:24365564

Corsi, D J; Subramanian, S V

2014-01-01

371

Lessons learned from the tobacco industry's efforts to prevent the passage of a workplace smoking regulation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the implementation of tobacco industry strategies to prevent a workplace smoking regulation. METHODS: Tobacco industry internal documents were identified; hearing transcripts for the affiliations, arguments, and positions regarding the regulation of testifiers were coded; and media coverage was analyzed. RESULTS: Tobacco industry strategies sought to increase business participation and economic discussions at public hearings and to promote unfavorable media coverage of the regulation. The percentage of business representatives opposing the regulation grew from 18% (5 to 28) to 57% (13 of 23) between the hearings. Economic arguments opposing the regulation rose from 25% (7 of 28) to 70% (16 of 23). Press coverage was neutral and did not increase during the period of the regulatory hearings. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco industry was successful in implementing 2 of its 3 strategies but was not able to prevent passage of the comprehensive workplace regulation. PMID:11111269

Mangurian, C V; Bero, L A

2000-01-01

372

The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation  

PubMed Central

The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Malone, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

373

Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking  

PubMed Central

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 ?Sv/y (average 79.7 ?Sv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 ?Sv/y (average 67.1 ?Sv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 ?Sv/y (average 104.7 ?Sv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 ?Sv/y (average 251.5 ?Sv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). PMID:19440399

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-01-01

374

Smoking among Lao medical doctors: challenges and opportunities for tobacco control  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is an increasing threat to health in low-income and middle-income countries and doctors are recognised as important role models in anti-smoking campaigns. Objectives The study aimed to identify the smoking prevalence of medical doctors in Laos, their tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes, and their involvement in and capacity for tobacco prevention and control efforts. Methods This was a cross-sectional national survey by a researcher-administered, face-to-face questionnaire implemented at provincial health facilities throughout the central (including national capital), northern and southern regions of Laos in 2007. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Results Of the 855 participants surveyed, 9.2% were current smokers and 18.4% were ex-smokers; smoking was least common in the central region (p<0.05) and far more prevalent in males (17.3% vs 0.4%; p<0.001). Smoking was concentrated among older doctors (p <0.001). Over 84% of current smokers wanted to quit, and 74.7% had made a recent serious attempt to do so. Doctors had excellent knowledge and positive attitudes to tobacco control, although smokers were relatively less knowledgeable and positive on some items. While 78% of doctors were engaged in cessation support, just 24% had been trained to do so, and a mere 8.8% considered themselves ‘well prepared’. Conclusion The willingness of doctors to take up their tobacco control role and the lower smoking rates among younger respondents offers an important window of opportunity to consolidate their knowledge, attitudes, skills and enthusiasm as cessation advocates and supports. PMID:21106548

Morrow, Martha; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Hansana, Visanou; Phommachanh, Sysavanh; Tomson, Tanja

2010-01-01

375

Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status  

PubMed Central

Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

2012-01-01

376

Rural-Urban Differences in the Social Climate Surrounding Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Report From the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Objective: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. Design: Data were…

McMillen, Robert; Breen, Julie; Cosby, Arthur G.

2004-01-01

377

Trends in tobacco smoking among adolescents in Lyon, France  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide information that may promote more effective cancer prevention, we identified factors associated with regular smoking among adolescents in Lyon, France. School grades where these factors began to influence regular smoking were also identified. Seven consecutive cross-sectional anonymous surveys were conducted in three public schools, beginning in grade 6ème (average age 11.5 years) in 1993 and ending in grade

A. J Sasco; R. M Merrill; J.-P Gérard; G Freyer

2003-01-01

378

Does smoke-free legislation and smoking outside bars increase feelings of stigmatization among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.  

PubMed

This study examined whether smokers' perceived level of stigmatization changed after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation and whether smokers who smoked outside bars reported more perceived stigmatization. Longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey was used, involving a nationally representative sample of 1447 smokers aged 15 years and older. Whether smoke-free legislation increases smokers' perceived stigmatization depends on how smokers feel about smoking outside. The level of perceived stigmatization did not change after the implementation of smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands, possibly because most Dutch smokers do not feel negatively judged when smoking outside. PMID:22921198

Nagelhout, Gera E; Willemsen, Marc C; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas; Hitchman, Sara C; Crone, Matty R; Fong, Geoffrey T; van der Heiden, Sander; de Vries, Hein

2012-11-01

379

Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.?DATA SOURCES—Literature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California, Massachusetts, Arizona, Oregon, and Florida.?STUDY SELECTION—All studies, reports, and commentaries that provided information on aspects of programme implementation and evaluation.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Statewide comprehensive programmes show high levels of advertising recall and generally positive improvement in smoking related beliefs and attitudes among teenagers. More fully funded programmes lead to increased mass media campaign advertising and community initiatives; a greater capacity to implement school based smoking prevention programmes; and an increase in the passage of local ordinances that create smoke free indoor environments and reduce cigarette sales to youth. The combination of programme activity and increased tobacco tax reduce cigarette consumption more than expected as a result of price increases alone, and these effects seem to apply to adolescents as well as adults. Programmes are associated with a decline in adult smoking prevalence, with these effects observed to date in California, Massachusetts, and Oregon. Arizona and Florida have yet to examine change in adult prevalence associated with programme exposure. California and Massachusetts have demonstrated relative beneficial effects in teenage smoking prevalence, and Florida has reported promising indications of reduced prevalence. Arizona has yet to report follow up data, and Oregon has found no change in teenage smoking, but has only two years of follow up available. One of the most critical factors in programme success is the extent of programme funding, and consequent level of programme implementation, and the degree to which this is undermined by the tobacco industry and other competitors for funding.?CONCLUSIONS—Despite the different strengths and combinations of programme messages and strategies used in these comprehensive programmes, there is evidence that they lead to change in factors that influence teenage smoking, and to reductions in teenage smoking.???Keywords: comprehensive tobacco control programmes; teenage smoking PMID:10841854

Wakefield, M.; Chaloupka, F.

2000-01-01

380

Tobacco smoking in Tanzania, East Africa: population based smoking prevalence using expired alveolar carbon monoxide as a validation tool  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of tobacco smoking in an urban East African population while using a simple validation procedure to examine the degree of under reporting in men and women. Design: A cross sectional population based study in adults (15 years and over) with sampling from a well maintained census register. Setting: Ilala Ilala, a middle income district of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Subjects: An age and sex stratified random sample of 973 men and women. Main outcome measures: Self reported smoking status with correction by exhaled alveolar carbon monoxide (EACO). Results: From the 605 participants (response rate 67.9%) age standardised (new world population) smoking prevalence, based on questionnaire and EACO, was 27.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 20.8% to 33.2%) in males and 5.0% (95% CI 2.8% to 7.2%) in females. The age specific prevalence of smoking was highest in the age group 35–54 years (34.3%) for men and in the over 54 years group (16%) for women. Of those classified as smokers, 7.3% of men and 27.3% of women were reclassified as current smokers based on EACO (? 9 parts per million), after they had reported themselves to be an ex- or non-smoker in the questionnaire. Conclusions: The data suggest: (1) high rates of smoking among men in an urban area of East Africa; and (2) the importance of validating self reports of smoking status, particularly among women. PMID:12198270

Jagoe, K; Edwards, R; Mugusi, F; Whiting, D; Unwin, N

2002-01-01

381

Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students  

PubMed Central

Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Weglicki, Linda S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

2014-01-01

382

Tobacco industry research and efforts to manipulate smoke particle size: implications for product regulation.  

PubMed

Over the past half-century of cigarette design, tobacco manufacturers have prioritized efficiency of delivery alongside ease of inhalation and use. As a result, the modern cigarette is uniquely effective at facilitating the absorption of nicotine as well as carcinogens and other toxins. The present study draws on internal tobacco company documents to assess industry consideration of the role of smoke particle size as a potentially controllable influence over inhalation patterns and lung exposure. Tobacco manufacturers evaluated particle size manipulation both as a means of controlling physical and sensory product attributes and as a possible approach to reducing health hazards related to exposure. Industry scientists concluded that the smoke aerosol particle distribution of conventional cigarettes, constructed within common parameters, falls within a narrow and effective inhalation range. However, the internal findings suggest that differences in smoke particle size distribution are possible through less conventional approaches to product design. We propose that particle size be included among the many design features to be considered in emerging tobacco product regulation. However, the present review does not address whether particle size regulation would be a plausible means of substantially reducing addictiveness or harmfulness of cigarettes, and therefore we do not propose it as a high-priority target for regulation. PMID:18418784

Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N; Henningfield, Jack E; Farone, William A

2008-04-01

383

Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States) [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ali, Nawal N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States) [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2012-09-01

384

Tobacco display and brand communication at the point of sale: implications for adolescent smoking behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background In England, point-of-sale (PoS) displays in larger shops were prohibited in April 2012, with an exemption for smaller retailers until 2015. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tobacco displays and brand communication at the PoS and adolescent smoking behaviour, and to assess the potential benefits likely to accrue from this legislation. Methods Self-completion questionnaire survey in students aged 11–15?years in March 2011. Results The odds of ever-smoking doubled for those visiting shops almost daily relative to less than once a week (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.55), and susceptibility increased by around 60% (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.10). Noticing tobacco on display every time during store visits increased the odds of susceptibility more than threefold compared with never noticing tobacco (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.54). For each additional tobacco brand recognised at the PoS, the adjusted odds of being an ever-smoker increased by 5% (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and of susceptibility by 4% (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05). The association between frequency of visiting stores and susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. Conclusions Exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and brands in displays were associated with smoking susceptibility. The association between PoS display exposure and smoking susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. These findings suggest that a one-off, comprehensive tobacco display ban is the recommended approach for countries considering a display ban. PMID:23449398

Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John; McNeill, Ann; Ratschen, Elena; Szatkowski, Lisa

2014-01-01

385

Religious Officials' knowledge, attitude, and behavior towards smoking and the new tobacco law in Kahramanmaras, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco control effort should be first started in people that are looked upon as role models for the general population. We aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of religious officials towards smoking and the new tobacco law. Method The study group was comprised of 492 Imams and 149 Quran course instructors working in Kahramanmaras city of Turkey, 641 religious officials in total, and our survey form was applied on 406 (63.3%) of those religious officials who agreed to participate in the study. Results Twenty-eight (6.9%) participants were current smokers and 35 (8.6%) were ex-smokers. 99.8% of the religious officials believed that smoking was harmful and/or prohibited in terms of religion. While 43.6% respondents thought smoking was "haram" (forbidden by Islam), 56.2% believed it was "makruh" (something regarded as reprehensible, though not forbidden by God according to Islam). 85.2% of the participants were aware of the recent tobacco law. 55.5% of the respondents, who were aware of the recent tobacco law, evaluated their knowledge level on the law as adequate, whereas 44.5% evaluated it as inadequate 92.4% of the participants noted that religious officials should play active roles in tobacco control effort. Conclusion Smoking rate among religious officials is much lower than that of general public. In order to help religious officials to take a more active role on this issue, they should be trained on the subject and appropriate platforms should be established. PMID:21797994

2011-01-01

386

Pathophysiology of tobacco smoke exposure: recent insights from comparative and redox proteomics.  

PubMed

First-hand and second-hand tobacco smoke are causally linked to a huge number of deaths and are responsible for a broad spectrum of pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases as well as adverse effects on female reproductive function. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of different chemical species, which exert their negative effects on macromolecules and biochemical pathways, both directly and indirectly. Many compounds can act as oxidants, pro-inflammatory agents, carcinogens, or a combination of these. The redox behavior of cigarette smoke has many implications for smoke related diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (both radicals and non-radicals), reactive carbonyl compounds, and other species may induce oxidative damage in almost all the biological macromolecules, compromising their structure and/or function. Different quantitative and redox proteomic approaches have been applied in vitro and in vivo to evaluate, respectively, changes in protein expression and specific oxidative protein modifications induced by exposure to cigarette smoke and are overviewed in this review. Many gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques have already been used successfully to obtain clues about smoke effects on different proteins in cell cultures, animal models, and humans. The further implementation with other sensitive screening techniques could be useful to integrate the comprehension of cigarette smoke effects on human health. In particular, the redox proteomic approach may also help identify biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke useful for preventing these effects or potentially predictive of the onset and/or progression of smoking-induced diseases as well as potential targets for therapeutic strategies. PMID:24272816

Colombo, Graziano; Clerici, Marco; Giustarini, Daniela; Portinaro, Nicola M; Aldini, Giancarlo; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

2014-01-01

387

Smoking, disease, and obdurate denial: the Australian tobacco industry in the 1980s  

PubMed Central

Objective: To contrast the Australian tobacco industry's awareness of the diseases caused by smoking with their aggressive public denial on the relation between smoking and disease in the 1980s. Design: Analysis of 325 industry documents from the world wide web. Results: In the 1980s Australian cigarette manufacturers were informed constantly by the international industry of the medical consensus that smoking caused disease. In addition Philip Morris (Australia) Limited received reports of Philip Morris' international biological research programme and visited its Richmond research facility; and WD&HO Wills part funded, co-managed, and contributed research to the British American Tobacco groups' biological research programme. Despite this knowledge, the Australian manufacturers had a policy of arguing to their employees, decision makers, and the general public that questions of smoking and disease were unresolved. The industry catalogued the literature, developed arguments against the main claims made by health groups, and attacked public health advocates who made statements linking smoking to death and disease. Industry studies suggested that a 20–30% minority of the Australian public agreed with the industry on smoking and disease, diminishing across the decade. Conclusion: Australian manufacturers were clearly negligent in the 1980s, deliberately working to undermine Australians' understandings of the diseases caused by smoking despite their own private knowledge. Continuing scepticism about smoking and disease, corresponding with the industry's deceptions, exists in Australian smokers today, suggesting that their actions may have slowed the rate of decline in smoking prevalence. These revelations provide important evidence for Australian litigation and advocacy. PMID:14645945

Carter, S; Chapman, S

2003-01-01

388

Perceived Effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on Adolescent Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Methods: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. Results: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Conclusion: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking. PMID:22973136

Hizlinda, Tohid; Noriah, Mohd Ishak; Noor Azimah, Muhammad; Farah Naaz, Momtaz Ahmad; Anis Ezdiana, Abdul Aziz; Khairani, Omar

2012-01-01

389

Tobacco smoking, personality and sex factors in auditory vigilance performance.  

PubMed

A total of 120 university students comprising equal groups of male and female non-smokers, smokers not smoking and smokers smoking; were compared for performance on a 60 min auditory vigilance task. Non-smokers consistently detected more signals throughout the test. A significant interaction showed that while non-smokers detected fewer signals as the test progressed, smokers increased their number of detections. There were no sex differences and no overall EPI differences in scores, although extraverted non-smokers gave significantly higher scores than introverted non-smokers with the converse being present for smokers. The results are discussed in relation to hippocampal functions and indicate that smoking should be taken into account in experiments involving sustained attention. PMID:890223

Tong, J E; Leigh, G; Campbell, J; Smith, D

1977-08-01

390

75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...21 CFR Part 1140 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0136] RIN 0910-AG33 Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

2010-05-18

391

A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes.  

PubMed

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM(10)) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine = 15 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 255microg/m(3)) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine = 7 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 192 microg/m(3)). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within non-smoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas. PMID:14660114

Cenko, Clinton; Pisaniello, Dino; Esterman, Adrian

2004-02-01

392

The prevalence of tobacco smoking and attitudes of Polish pulmonologists towards smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Pulmonologists can play an important role in smoking prevention and control. The aim of this study was to assess smoking prevalence among Polish pulmonologists and physicians' behaviour towards smoking patients. Material and methods: The study was performed in 2006 during national congress of Polish Respiratory Society. The survey was performed using a questionnaire including questions regarding age, sex, professional

Anna Ciesielska

393

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2010-01-01

394

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2012-01-01

395

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2014-01-01

396

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2011-01-01

397

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2013-01-01

398

A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

2008-01-01

399

Subliminal Processing of Smoking-Related and Affective Stimuli in Tobacco Addiction  

PubMed Central

Cognitive processing biases toward smoking-related and affective cues may play a role in tobacco dependence. Because processing biases may occur outside conscious awareness, the current study examined processing of smoking-related and affective stimuli presented at subliminal conditions. A pictorial subliminal repetition priming task was administered to three groups: (1) Nonsmokers (n = 56); (2) Smokers (?10 cigarettes/day) who had been deprived from smoking for 12 h (n = 47); and (3) Nondeprived smokers (n = 66). Prime stimuli were presented briefly (17 ms) and were followed by a mask (to render them unavailable to conscious awareness) and then a target. Participants were required to make a speeded classification to the target. A posttask awareness check was administered to ensure that participants could not consciously perceive the briefly presented primes (i.e., smoking paraphernalia, neutral office supplies, and happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions). The groups differed in the degree to which they exhibited a processing bias for smoking-related stimuli, F(2, 166) = 4.99, p = .008. Deprived smokers exhibited a bias toward processing smoking (vs. neutral office supply) stimuli, F(1, 46) = 5.67, p = .02, whereas nondeprived smokers and nonsmokers did not (ps > .22). The three groups did not differ in the degree to which they exhibited a subliminal processing bias for affective stimuli. Tobacco deprivation appears to increase smokers’ subliminal processing of smoking-related (vs. neutral) stimuli but does not influence subliminal processing of affective stimuli. Future research should investigate whether subliminal biases toward smoking-related stimuli influence relapse. PMID:18729684

Leventhal, Adam M.; Waters, Andrew J.; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Tapia, Evelina; Miller, Elizabeth; Li, Yisheng

2009-01-01

400

Bugs, Drugs & Smoke  

E-print Network

tobacco and stop people from smoking, tobacco companies wereand to stop tobacco use Switzerland, 2006. No smoking areastop there. Yuhta continued tobacco advertising and restricting to research anti-smoking

WHO

2012-01-01

401

German Tobacco Industry’s Successful Efforts to Maintain Scientific and Political Respectability to Prevent Regulation of Secondhand Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Germany is one of the few industrialized nations in which the tobacco industry remains a legitimate force in business, government, science and society at large. Though Germany has been an international leader in environmental protection, the German tobacco industry has been successful in preventing the translation of knowledge of the dangers of pollution from secondhand smoke into effective

Jennifer McCarthy

2006-01-01

402

Current cigarette smoking among in-school American youth: results from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. In the developed nations where the burden from infectious diseases is lower, the burden of disease from tobacco use is especially magnified. Understanding the factors that may be associated with adolescent cigarette smoking may aid in the design of prevention programs. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2004

Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson S Muula; Seter Siziya

2009-01-01

403

Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco

Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

2012-01-01

404

Measurements and modeling of environmental tobacco smoke leakagefrom a simulated smoking room  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect ofvarious design and operating parameters on smoking room performance.Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room witha smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made ofair flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, twogas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakageflows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance andnon-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakagemechanism are presented. The results indicate that the first priority foran effective smoking room is to depressurize it with respect to adjoiningnon-smoking areas. Another important ETS leakage mechanism is the pumpingaction of the smoking room door. Substituting a sliding door for astandard swing-type door reduced this source of ETS leakagesignificantly. Measured results correlated well with model predictions(R2 = 0.82-0.99).

Wagner, J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.A.; Fisk,W.J.; Alevantis, L.E.; Waldman, J.M.

2002-03-01

405

Application of a modified gaseous exposure system to the in vitro toxicological assessment of tobacco smoke toxicants.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of over 6,000 individual chemical constituents. Approximately 150 of these have been identified as 'tobacco smoke toxicants' due to their known toxicological effects. A number of these toxicants are present in the gaseous phase of tobacco smoke. This presents a technical challenge when assessing the toxicological effects of these chemicals in vitro. We have adapted a commercially available tobacco smoke exposure system to enable the assessment of the contribution of individual smoke toxicants to the overall toxicological effects of whole mainstream cigarette smoke (WS). Here we present a description of the exposure system and the methodology used. We use the example of a gaseous tobacco smoke toxicant, ethylene oxide (EtO), a Group 1 IARC carcinogen and known mutagen, to illustrate how this methodology can be applied to the assessment of genotoxicity of gaseous chemicals in the context of WS. In the present study we found that EtO was positive in Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1042, a strain that is sensitive to tobacco smoke. However, EtO did not increase the mutagenicity of the WS mixture when it was added at greatly higher concentrations than those found typically in WS. The findings presented here demonstrate the suitability of this exposure system for the assessment of the mutagenic potential of gases in vitro. Whilst we have focused on tobacco smoke toxicants, this system has broad application potential in studying the biological effects of exposure to a wide range of gaseous compounds that are present within complex aerosol mixtures. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:662-672, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24889675

Breheny, Damien; Cunningham, Fiona; Kilford, Joanne; Payne, Rebecca; Dillon, Deborah; Meredith, Clive

2014-10-01

406

[Tobacco smoking among the primary and high school children in the administrative district of Sokó?ka].  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is the most serious health and social problem. Most of the elderly smokers start smoking at age of 13 to 15 years. The aim of the thesis was to survey the tobacco smoking and the knowledge about the harmfulness of the tobacco smoking among the young people. The investigated material is the 365 persons' group of boys and girls from the 13 schools in the administrative district of Sokó?ka, who took part in the antinicotine educational program. The questionnaire was used before the program was started. Even though the investigated people evaluated their knowledge about the harmfulness of tobacco smoking very well, they still attempt this risky behavior. More often the young people smoke in order to impress their friends. 18% boys and girls attempted smoking in the primary schools and 35% in the high schools. The survey shows that every third pupil in the primary schools recived the proposal of smoking. Among the investigated people the proportion of smokers is lower as compared to the others of the similar age group in Poland in 1998. Experimenting on smoking is dangerous as the proportion of smokers is rising with their age. It is necessary to introduce the prophylactic actions in every type of school. The programs should be concentrated on preventing the youth from the risky addictions and reducing the risky factors. PMID:17474603

Micun, Lidia

2002-01-01

407

The role of the CCR1 receptor in the inflammatory response to tobacco smoke in a mouse model  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim was to create pathological changes in mice relevant to human smoke exposure that can be used to further understand the mechanisms and pathology of smoke-induced inflammatory disease. Methods Mice were exposed to tobacco smoke or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to generate an inflammatory infiltrate within the lungs. Results Tobacco smoke exposure over a 4 day period led to neutrophilia in the lungs of BALB/c mice. Within the inflammatory exudates, significant changes were also seen in protein levels of IL-1B, IL-6, MIP-2, KC (IL-8) and TIMP-1 as measured by ELISA. Further protein changes, as measured via multiplex analysis revealed increased levels of MMP-9, MDC, LIF and MCP-1, amongst other mediators. Major changes in whole lung tissue gene expression patterns were observed. The neutrophilia seen after smoke exposure was steroid-insensitive, relative to doses of steroid needed to reduce LPS-driven neutrophilia in controls. This exposes pathological switches that are changed upon exposure to tobacco smoke, rendering steroids less effective under these conditions. Challenge of chemokine receptor type 1 (CCR1) KO mice in the tobacco smoke model showed that lack of this gene protected the mice from smoke-induced inflammation. Conclusions This suggests the CCR1 receptor has a key role in the pathogenesis of smoke-induced inflammation. PMID:20387089

Onnervik, Per-Ola; Lindahl, Maria; Svitacheva, Naila; Stampfli, Martin; Thim, Kerstin; Smailagic, Amir; Virtala, Robert

2010-01-01

408

Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

2007-01-01

409

Tobacco Smoking, Quitting, and Relapsing Among Adult Males in Mainland China: The China Seven Cities Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Despite an estimated 1 million tobacco-related deaths annually in China, public health officials face overwhelming barriers to implementing effective tobacco control policies and programs. Models of effective tobacco control can be adapted for Chinese tobacco use and culture based on reliable and valid data regarding predictors of smoking and abstaining. Methods: As part of the China Seven Cities Study to assess the role of rapid social, economic, and cultural change on tobacco use and related health practices and outcomes, 4,072 adult male smokers provided data in 3 annual waves. Measures included current smoking, nicotine dependence, readiness for quitting, perceived stress, hostility, depressive symptoms, as well as covariates (e.g., age, marital status, educational attainment, and family income). Results: Odds of being abstinent at Wave 3 were increased by: lower nicotine dependence at Wave 1 and becoming less dependent between Waves 1 and 3; progressing beyond the contemplation stage between Waves 1 and 3; perceiving less stress, whether initially at Wave 1 or over time from Wave 1 to Wave 3; and lower hostility scores at Wave 1 and decreased hostility from Wave 1 to Wave 3. Among those who quit, odds of remaining abstinent rather than relapsing by Wave 3 were higher among those who were less dependent at Wave 1 and who became less dependent from Wave 1 to Wave 3; and those who showed decreases in hostility from Wave 1 to Wave 3. Conclusions: The public health challenge posed by very high prevalence of male smoking in China can be met by policies and programs that lead to successful long-term cessation. This can only be done successfully by designing interventions based on knowledge of the country’s smokers and the current study suggests several elements. PMID:22581939

Trinidad, Dennis R.; Palmer, Paula H.; Xie, Bin; Johnson, C. Anderson

2013-01-01

410

Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.  

PubMed

Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

2014-04-01

411

Early and late auditory sensory gating: moderating influences from schizotypal personality, tobacco smoking status, and acute smoking.  

PubMed

Early (P50) and late (P200) auditory sensory gating were assessed in low and high schizotypal personality groups using Raine's Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire. We also assessed the impact of smoking as it relates to low and high schizotypal personalities. Low and high schizoptypal personality groups were divided into subgroups of participants who either smoked or did not smoke tobacco cigarettes. Participants were 39 (18 men) right-handed undergraduates. Using a paired-tone paradigm (40 pairs, 70 dB, 1000 Hz), smokers were tested while abstaining from smoking, and 5 min after smoking. Non-smokers were tested similarly without smoking. Midline and hemispheric sites were evaluated at frontal (F3/Fz/F4), fronto-central (FC3/FCz/FC4), central (C3/Cz/C4), centro-parietal (CP3/CPz/CP4), and parietal (P3/Pz/P4) regions. P50 sensory gating was better at midline sites than left/right hemispheric sites, whereas there was no difference in activation with respect to location for P200 sensory gating. Cz had better P50 sensory gating than other midline regions, whereas Fz, FCz and Cz had better P200 sensory gating than CPz and Pz. Hemispheric comparisons were made. At the central region for non-smokers, high schizotypys showed poorer P50 sensory gating than low schizotypys. Among low schizotypys, smokers showed poorer P50 sensory gating than non-smokers at the fronto-central and central regions smokers showed better P200 sensory gating than non-smokers at the central region. Smoking had no acute impact on either early (P50) or late (P200) sensory gating. Our data support the notion that early sensory gating and late sensory gating represent different sensory gating mechanisms with respect to low and high schizotypy personalities. Individual differences in early and late sensory gating need further investigation. PMID:17292483

Wan, Li; Crawford, Helen J; Boutros, Nash

2007-05-30

412

Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, GSTM1\\/T1 polymorphisms and oxidative stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) is known to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal exposure to ETS and oxidative stress for neonates, as well as the effect of maternal genetic polymorphisms, glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and GSTT1, on this relationship.We used the radioimmunoassay to measure the urinary concentration of cotinine

Eun-Young Park; Yun-Chul Hong; Kwan-Hee Lee; Moon-Whan Im; Eunhee Ha; Young Ju Kim; Mina Ha

2008-01-01

413

Effect of tobacco smoking on various histological types of lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a population-based case\\/control study the differential lung cancer risk patterns due to tobacco smoking habits of various histological types have been investigated. The cases were 1432 deaths from lung cancer in the years 1980–1987, of which the histological type was known for 627 individuals. There was 54% squamous cell carcinoma, 24% small-cell carcinoma and 17% adenocarcinoma. Controls were

Wieslaw Jedrychowski; Heiko Becher; Jiirgen Wahrendorf; Zenona Basa-Cierpialek; Krystyna Gomola

1992-01-01

414

The swollen joint, the thickened artery, and the smoking gun: tobacco exposure, citrullination and rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune diseases result from an interplay between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. These interacting etiopathogenetic\\u000a components converge in a critical step preceding disease, the loss of tolerance to self. In this review, we examine the evidences\\u000a linking tobacco smoking with the initiation and perpetuation of inflammation affecting both the synovial membrane and the\\u000a endothelial lining in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Natalí Serra-Bonett; Martín A. Rodríguez

2011-01-01

415

Tobacco cigarette smoke attenuates duodenal ulcer margin hyperemia in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hyperemia at the duodenal ulcer margin is important for ulcer healing. We studied the effect of tobacco cigarette smoke on the hyperemia at the margin of mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcer. Duodenal mucosal blood flow values measured by iodo[14C]antipyrine (IAP) autoradiography and hydrogen gas clearance (HGC) were compared. Twenty-four hours after rats were injected with an ulcerogenic dose of mepirizole, they

Fumihiro Iwata; Oscar U. Scremin; Felix W. Leung

1995-01-01

416

Gas-phase organics in environmental tobacco smoke: 2. Exposure-relevant emission factors and indirect exposures from habitual smoking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sorption of emitted gas-phase organic compounds onto material surfaces affects environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) composition and exposures indoors. We have introduced a new metric, the exposure relevant emission factor (EREF) that accounts for sorptive uptake and reemission to give the mass of individual ETS constituents available for exposure over a day in which smoking occurs. This paper describes month-long experiments to investigate sorption effects on EREFs and potential ETS exposures under habitual smoking conditions. Cigarettes were smoked in a 50-m 3 furnished room over a 3-h period 6-7 days per week, with continuous ventilation at 0.3, 0.6, or 2.1 h -1. Organic gas concentrations were measured every few days over 4-h "smoking", 10-h "post-smoking" and 10-h "background" periods. Concentration patterns of volatile ETS components including 1,3-butadiene, benzene and acrolein were similar to those calculated for a theoretical non-sorbing tracer, indicating limited sorption. Concentrations of ETS tracers, e.g. 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and nicotine, and lower volatility toxic air contaminants including phenol, cresols, and naphthalene increased as experiments progressed, indicating mass accumulation on surfaces and higher desorption rates. Daily patterns stabilized after week 2, yielding a steady daily cycle of ETS concentrations associated with habitual smoking. EREFs for sorbing compounds were higher under steady cycle versus single-day smoking conditions by ˜50% for 3-EP, and by 2-3 times for nicotine, phenol, cresols, naphthalene, and methylnaphthalenes. Our results provide relevant information about potential indirect exposures from residual ETS (non-smoker enters room shortly after smoker finishes) and from reemission, and their importance relative to direct exposures (non-smoker present during smoking). Under the conditions examined, indirect exposures accounted for a larger fraction of total potential exposures for sorbing versus non-sorbing compounds, and at lower versus higher ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation can reduce indirect exposures to very low levels for non-sorbing ETS components, but indirect routes accounted for ˜50% of potential nicotine exposures during non-smoking periods at all ventilation rates.

Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

417

Acute exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induces changes in the oxidative and inflammatory markers in mouse lung  

PubMed Central

Context Tobacco smoking represents a global public health threat, claiming approximately 5 million lives a year. Waterpipe tobacco use has become popular particularly among youth in the past decade, buttressed by the perception that the waterpipe “filters” the smoke, rendering it less harmful than cigarette smoke. Objective In this study, we examined the acute exposure of waterpipe smoking on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice, and compared that to cigarette smoking. Materials and methods Mice were divided into three groups; fresh air control, cigarette and waterpipe. Animals were exposed to fresh air, cigarette, or waterpipe smoke using whole body exposure system one hour daily for 7 days. Results Both cigarette and waterpipe smoke exposure resulted in elevation of total white blood cell count, as well as absolute count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes (P < 0.01). Both exposures also elevated proinflammatory markers such as TNF-? and IL-6 in BALF (P < 0.05), and oxidative stress markers including GPx activity in lungs (P < 0.05). Moreover, waterpipe smoke increased catalase activity in the lung (P < 0.05). However, none of the treatments altered IL-10 levels. Discussion and conclusion Results of cigarette smoking confirmed previous finding. Waterpipe results indicate that, similar to cigarettes, exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke is harmful to the lungs. PMID:22906173

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammed; Dodin, Arwa; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2013-01-01