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1

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. Th...

M. R. Guerin

1993-01-01

2

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-01-01

3

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

Guerin, M.R.

1993-06-01

4

GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review Abstract This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

5

The Politics of the Pipe: Clay Pipes and Tobacco Consumption in Galway, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, clay pipes and the historical record are used to explore the illicit importation of tobacco in seventeenth-century Galway, Ireland. This is part of a wider tradition of the politics of smoking, including the proliferation of the clay pipe, the widespread smuggling of tobacco, and the overtly political nineteenth-century pipes that touted nationalist emblems. Here, the juxtaposition of

Alexandra Hartnett

2004-01-01

6

Environmental tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

1992-12-01

7

Smoke Production of Nonmetallic Pipes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The smoke production of nonmetallic pipes was investigated using 'Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials,' ASTM E 662. The pipe samples consisted of two epoxy resin glass reinforced pipes, two vinyl ester resin glas...

W. H. McLain L. Nash

1995-01-01

8

[Biomarkers of tobacco smoke].  

PubMed

In order to estimate the exposure of passive and active smokers to tobacco smoke one can use the questionnaire method or laboratory examination of chemical compounds being widely accepted exposure biomarkers. Substances that make such biomarkers include some of the tobacco smoke components and its metabolites formed in the body. The study discusses two groups of biomarkers. First, includes substances that serve as exposure markers of carcinogenous properties (metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, trans,transmuconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid). Second group includes substances which role is limited to the evaluation of exposure to tobacco smoke (nicotine, cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, carbon monoxide). Sensitivity and specificity of biomakers used were evaluated, their concentration ranges in physiological fluids in non-smokers, passive-, and active smokers. The simplicity of the examination method was evaluated. Articles published during last two decades indicate that the substance that have all features that make it the most appropriate biomarker is cotinine. It can be assessed in plasma and in urine of smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:16521990

Sobczak, Andrzej; Wardas, W?adys?aw; Zieli?ska-Danch, Wioleta; Szo?tysek-Bo?dys, Izabela

2005-01-01

9

Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed.

Furrukh, Muhammad

2013-01-01

10

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

11

Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke condensate: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of mainstream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it has been tested, with the base\\/neutral fractions being the most mutagenic. In rodents, cigarette smoke induces sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei in bone marrow and lung cells. In humans,

David M. DeMarini

2004-01-01

12

Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities  

PubMed Central

Background To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. Methods PM2.5 concentrations (?g/m3) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers/100?m3) was calculated for both water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Results Cigarette and water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM2.5 concentration was 342??g/m3. Venues with a higher density of water-pipe smokers (n =14) showed a similar median PM2.5 concentration (349??g/m3) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n =13; 241??g/m3; p=0.159). The mean PM2.5 concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6??g/m3. Conclusions Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking.

Saade, Georges; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Otrock, Zaher; Connolly, Gregory N

2010-01-01

13

[Polish nurses' smoking behavior and environmental tobacco smoke exposure].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the nurses' exposure to active and passive smoking. The study population consisted of 299 nurses. Among the study population detailed questionnaire was conducted incusing sociodemographic characteristic, smoking profile and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. About 18% of nurses indicated current tobacco smoking and 25% smoking in the past. Only 13% of the study population declared complete ban of tobacco smoking in their homes and 20% indicated exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplaces. The women were most frequently exposed to inhaling tobacco smoke in bars and pubs (97%), restaurants (65%) and in private cars (64%). PMID:20301926

Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Pola?ska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Drygas, Wojciech; Kaleta, Dorota

2009-01-01

14

Carbon monoxide poisoning in narghile (water pipe) tobacco smokers.  

PubMed

Narghile (water pipe, hookah, shisha, goza, hubble bubble, argeela) is a traditional method of tobacco use. In recent years, its use has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide (CO). We present an acutely confused adolescent patient who had CO poisoning after narghile tobacco smoking. She presented with syncope and a carboxyhemoglobin level of 24% and was treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Five additional cases of CO poisoning after narghile smoking were identified during a literature search, with carboxyhemoglobin levels of 20 to 30%. Each patient was treated with oxygen supplementation and did well clinically. In light of the increasing popularity of narghile smoking, young patients presenting with unexplained confusion or nonspecific neurologic symptoms should be asked specifically about this exposure, followed by carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:22417961

La Fauci, Giovanna; Weiser, Giora; Steiner, Ivan P; Shavit, Itai

2012-01-01

15

Smoking & Tobacco Use  

MedlinePLUS

... Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS Atlas Publications and Products Printed Material Videos Interagency Committee ... and Health Promotion Home A-Z Index Site Map Policies Using this Site Link to Us All ...

16

Smoked Tobacco Products  

MedlinePLUS

... effect those around you. Breathing secondhand smoke from cigarettes is harmful to both children and adults. Learn more about the health effects ... version of this infographic. Breathing secondhand smoke from cigarettes is harmful to both children and adults. Learn more about the health effects ...

17

76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request...constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information...following measures of abuse liability (addiction): [cir] Central...food (for smokeless tobacco products). FDA believes having...

2011-08-12

18

Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components with potential carcinogenic, cardiovascular and respiratory effects have been included, the three major smoke-related causes of death are all covered by the list. Given that the currently used Hoffmann list of hazardous smoke components is based on data from the 1990s and only includes carcinogens, it is recommended that the current list of 98 hazardous components is used for regulatory purposes instead. To enable risk assessment of components not covered by this list, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) have been established from the inhalation risk values found: 0.0018 ?g day?1 for all risks, and 1.2 ?g day?1 for all risks excluding carcinogenicity, the latter being similar to previously reported inhalation TTCs.

Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

2011-01-01

19

Identification of Nicotine by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Smoking Pipe Residue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnographic sources show the spiritual importance of tobacco in Native American Societies. Archaeological evidence, such as Early Woodland Period smoking pipes, indicate that this spiritual function has been maintained for thousands of years. However, ethnobotanical research on the prehistory of tobacco smoking in Eastern North America has been hampered by a lack of direct evidence prior to the Middle Woodland

Sean M. Rafferty

2002-01-01

20

Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern.

Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

1992-01-01

21

Effect of alcohol and marihuana on tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking covaried with alcohol consumption in male social drinkers over 15 days of unrestricted alcohol availability. Increased tobacco smoking was associated with alcohol consumption in occasional, moderate, and heavy smokers. Tobacco smoking was not systematically related to marihuana smoking even though both drugs were often smoked at the same time. During ten days of concurrent access to tobacco, alcohol,

Nancy K Mello; Jack H Mendelson; Margaret L Sellers; John C Kuehnle

1980-01-01

22

Tobacco smoke: Unraveling a controversial subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarettes are a modern and industrial form of tobacco use and obviously involve more than just tobacco. A multitude of physical processes and chemical reactions occur inside the burning zone of a cigarette. Cigarette smoke is an aerosol of liquid droplets (the particulate phase) suspended within a mixture of gases and semi-volatile compounds. Two kinds of smoke with different composition

Anja Thielen; Hubert Klus; Lutz Müller

2008-01-01

23

Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations.

Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

2004-01-01

24

Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use.

Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

2008-01-01

25

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To measure occupational exposures to environmental tobacco smoke in diverse settings, including offices and production areas, and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies that restrict or ban smoking in the workplace.\\u000aDESIGN--Survey. The average weekly concentration of environmental tobacco smoke was measured with passive monitors that sample nicotine. Approximately 25 samples were placed in each worksite for 1 week.\\u000aSETTING--Twenty-five

S. Katharine Hammond; Glorian Sorensen; Richard Youngstrom; Judith K. Ockene

1995-01-01

26

Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

27

[Age and gender features of tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

On the basis of the conducted research, prevalence of tobacco smoking and its intensity are described as well as dependence on gender and age in an urban population of the middle Volga region (on the example of the city of Samara). It is proved, that in a general selection among men and women smoke: 49,37 and 14,17%; smoked before: 22,80 and 8,86%; never smoked: 27,83 and 76,97% of inspected men and women, accordingly. The contribution of the education level and marriage status are set in epidemiology of tobacco smoking dependence. Authors consider the development of public and medical measures in a fight against tobacco smoking should be realized, taking into account the gender, age, social and mental features of population, which is a difficult, but necessary process. PMID:21137205

Babanov, S A; Agarkova, I A; Ga?lis, P V

2010-01-01

28

History of marijuana use and tobacco smoking topography in tobacco-dependent adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent tobacco smokers have higher rates of marijuana (MJ) use than nonsmokers. Because MJ smoking typically involves deeper inhalation and longer breathholding than tobacco smoking, we hypothesized greater puff volume, longer puff duration and puff interval, and higher puff velocity during tobacco smoking among (1) MJ-using teens; (2) teens whose onset of MJ smoking occurred before tobacco (MBT). One hundred

A Thiri Aung; Wallace B Pickworth; Eric T Moolchan

2004-01-01

29

Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.

Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

1999-01-01

30

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4\\/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated

Juexin Xie; Xingming Wang; Guoying Sheng; Xinhui Bi; Jiamo Fu

2003-01-01

31

Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed tobacco chippers (n=35) for symptoms of diminished autonomy over tobacco use, which begins when symptoms present a barrier to smoking cessation. Although they reported each of the symptoms measured by the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist, chippers' level of autonomy was generally higher than that of regular smokers and their symptom intensity was low. The rank order of symptom

Robert J. Wellman; Joseph R. DiFranza; Constance Wood

2006-01-01

32

Influence of Tobacco Type on Smoke Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for th...

W. H. Griest M. R. Guerin

1977-01-01

33

Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health  

PubMed Central

Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Jong Hee; Moon, Jin Soo

2012-01-01

34

[What are the markers of tobacco smoking?].  

PubMed

In this updated review of tobacco smoking markers (smokers non-smokers) in various biological environments, during varied circumstances of use, we present the parameters known to be detectable to date. The focus is placed on:--certain bio-markers used in routine practice: plasmatic, urinary or salivary cotinine end-expired carbon monoxide,--certain minor tobacco alkaloids such as anabasine and anatabine, as potential bio-markers, particularly for monitoring abstinence during nicotinic substitution therapy,-- use of superficial body growths (hair and nails) as a biological environment for measuring nicotine and cotinine to monitor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and fetal exposure. PMID:15980785

Gourlain, H; Galliot-Guilley, M

2005-04-01

35

Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Tobacco smoking has been linked to the development of rheumatic diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been shown to interact with genetic factors to create a significant combined risk of disease. Smoking also affects both the course and the outcome of rheumatic

Michal Harel-Meir; Yaniv Sherer; Yehuda Shoenfeld

2007-01-01

36

Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students.  

PubMed

Background. Hookah pipe smoking is a social practice and has gained popularity, especially among South African youth. The extent of this practice among health sciences students, and their knowledge regarding the health risks, are unknown. This is important, as these students will become future health professionals possibly influencing the practice of individuals and communities.Objective. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hookah pipe smoking among students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town.Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed as a hard copy and online survey.Results. Of 228 participants, 66% had smoked a hookah pipe before, with 18% still smoking. Most began smoking in high school, with 25% initiating at university. Of the current smokers, 65% smoked occasionally socially, commonly at friends' houses for 30 - 60 min/session. A further 11% smoked cigarettes concurrently and 30% added other substances, mainly cannabis, to pipes. Most current hookah smokers had no interest in quitting (84%). Only 30% of participants had prior health information about hookah pipe smoking. Most knew that it was harmful (91%), with many not knowing why. A total of 80% of participants perceived that the practice was socially acceptable and 84% would recommend it to others.Conclusion. The poor knowledge about the dangers of hookah pipe smoking and the extent of its practice among health sciences students is alarming. These findings highlight the need for school and university health promotion campaigns, and for better regulation of hookah pipe smoking. PMID:24148170

Van der Merwe, N; Banoobhai, T; Gqweta, A; Gwala, A; Masiea, T; Misra, M; Zweigenthal, V

2013-09-30

37

Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking\\u000a cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested\\u000a much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through\\u000a litigation.

Pamela M. Ling; Stanton A. Glantz

2004-01-01

38

Environmental tobacco smoke and Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background Parkinson disease is inversely associated with cigarette smoking, but its relation with passive smoking or environmental tobacco smoke exposure is rarely examined. Methods Within a case-control study we assessed the association between Parkinson disease and living or working with active smokers. Cases were newly diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson disease (N=154) from western Washington State in 2002–2008. Age- and sex-matched controls (N=173) were neurologically normal and unrelated to cases. Results Compared with never active or passive tobacco smokers, we observed similarly reduced Parkinson disease risks for ever passive smokers only (odds ratio=0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.16–0.73) as for ever active smokers (0.35, 0.17–0.73). Among persons whose only tobacco smoke exposure was passive smoking at home, risk was inversely associated with years exposed. Conclusion These observations parallel those well-established for active smoking. However, it remains unresolved whether a true protective effect of tobacco smoke, generally detrimental to health, underlies these associations.

Nielsen, Susan Searles; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Lundin, Jessica I.; Longstreth, W.T.; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M.; Swanson, Phillip D.; Checkoway, Harvey

2011-01-01

39

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

2013-04-01

40

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

2010-04-01

41

Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic  

PubMed Central

More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

Melamede, Robert

2005-01-01

42

The Ceremony of Peace Pipe Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Anishnabeg ceremony of peace pipe smoking centered upon the theme of inner personal peace as the principle of conduct and relationship with the world wherein smoking became a prayer for wisdom, an act of thanksgiving, and a preparation for admittance to the land of peace. (JC)

Johnston, Basil

1978-01-01

43

A Pilot Study of Smokeless Tobacco in Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The substitution of smokeless tobacco for cigarette smoking is a harm reduction alternative for inveterate smokers and reduces others’ passive exposure to smoke. Two million smokers have used smokeless tobacco to quit on their own, but no formal program has employed this method of smoking cessation. We conducted a pilot study to determine if smokeless tobacco could be successfully

Ken Tilashalski; Brad Rodu; Philip Cole

1998-01-01

44

[Does tobacco smoking induce significant artificial irradiation?].  

PubMed

Artificial irradiation due to tobacco smoking is a widely accepted phenomenon, but the possible health implications are controversial. The IAEA has estimated that smoking twenty cigarettes a day induces a total "radiation exposure" of 53 mSv, but several other authors have estimated that the effective dose is only about 0.4 mSv/year. The irradiation associated with smoking results from the use of fertilizers containing a emitters and from tobacco leaf fixation of radon 222 gas of telluric origin. Critical analysis of the literature suggests that irradiation due to smoking is much closer to 0.4 mSv/year than to 53 mSv/year. In order to avoid further confusion and controversy, human exposure to such radiation should be expressed as the annual effective dose. PMID:19718986

Simon, Jacques; Rouzaud, Pierre; Payoux, Pierre; Julian, Anne; Gantet, Pierre

2009-01-01

45

State Tobacco Control Spending and Youth Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective. We examined the relationship between state-level tobacco control expenditures and youth smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. Methods. We estimated a 2-part model of cigarette demand using data from the 1991 through 2000 nationally representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students as part of the Monitoring the Future project. Results. We found that real per capita expenditures on tobacco control had a negative and significant impact on youth smoking prevalence and on the average number of cigarettes smoked by smokers. Conclusions. Had states represented by the Monitoring the Future sample and the District of Columbia spent the minimum amount of money recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of smoking among youths would have been between 3.3% and 13.5% lower than the rate we observed over this period.

Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Giovino, Gary A.; Wakefield, Melanie; Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Kloska, Deborah D.; Pechacek, Terry F.

2005-01-01

46

Tobacco smoking: the leading cause of preventable disease worldwide.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is the world's leading cause of avoidable premature mortality, reflecting the potent toxicity of tobacco smoke inhaled by smokers for decades. In the twentieth century, lung cancer was an early sentinel of the emergence of the still persisting epidemic of tobacco-caused disease. Smoking has declined in many countries, particularly the high-income countries, but low- and middle-income countries remain at risk because of the aggressive tactics of tobacco multinationals. The World Health Organization treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is a critical factor in countering these tactics and precipitating the end of the global epidemic of tobacco smoking. PMID:23566962

Samet, Jonathan M

2013-02-13

47

Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Smoking Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers,

Frank J. Chaloupka; Henry Wechsler

1995-01-01

48

The relationship of tobacco and marijuana smoking characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ongoing study of the pulmonary effects of heavy, habitual marijuana smoking, detailed marijuana and tobacco smoking histories were obtained from 467 adult regular smokers of marijuana and\\/or tobacco. Frequency and cumulative amounts of tobacco and marijuana smoking were similar for smokers and non-smokers of tobacco, except that pack-years and cigarettes\\/day at the time of the interview were both

M. S. Simmons; D. P. Tashkin

1995-01-01

49

Passive smoking in childhood—Tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of cigarette smoking varies widely in different countries, ranging, at the age of 13, from 2% to 5% (Sweden, United\\u000a States) to more than 30% (Australia, Uruguay). Even if the prevalence of smokers among male adolescents is decreasing in western\\u000a countries, it is increasing among girls and, in developing countries, male adolescent smokers still reach 40% (and up to

Roberto Ronchetti; Enea Bonci; Fernando D. Martinez

1990-01-01

50

Trends in Tobacco Smoking and Consequences on Health in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

0bjective. This paper describes the trends in tobacco sales and smoking prevalence in the French population, estimates the consequences of smoking on the mortality of this population, and discusses governmental actions: anti-tobacco campaigns, a ban on advertising, restriction of smoking in public places, and price increases.Data sources. Sales data were collected from the French tobacco monopoly, smoking prevalence data from

Catherine Hill

1998-01-01

51

Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.  

PubMed

In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed. PMID:17852769

Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

2007-10-01

52

Do expenditures on tobacco control decrease smoking prevalence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectiveness of tobacco control programmes in reducing smoking prevalence during 2001 to 2005 is examined. Tobacco control spending is found to exert no significant effects on smoking prevalence across the 50 states. Cigarette prices are found to lower prevalence of daily smokers, but exert no effect on nondaily smoking prevalence. Several reasons are suggested for why these results might conflict

Michael L. Marlow

2010-01-01

53

Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

54

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Among University Students in Jordan  

PubMed Central

Setting While waterpipe and cigarette smoking are well studied in Syria and Lebanon, data from Jordan are sparse. Objectives To characterize the relative prevalence of waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan, and to compare the demographic and environmental factors associated with each form of tobacco use. Design We surveyed 1845 students randomly recruited from four universities in Jordan. We used multivariable logistic regression controlling for clustering of individuals within universities to determine associations between demographic and environmental covariates and waterpipe tobacco and cigarette use. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 30% in the past 30 days and 56% ever, and cigarette smoking rates were 29% in the past 30 days and 57% ever. Past 30-day waterpipe tobacco smoking rates were 59% for males and 13% for females. Compared with males, females had substantially lower odds of being current waterpipe (OR=0.12, 95% CI=0.10–0.15) or cigarette (OR=0.08, 95% CI=0.05–0.14) smokers. Compared with waterpipe tobacco smoking, current cigarette smoking was more significantly associated with markers of high socioeconomic status. Conclusion Waterpipe tobacco smoking is as common as cigarette smoking among Jordanian university students. While cigarette smoking is consistently associated with high socioeconomic status, waterpipe tobacco smoking is more evenly distributed across various populations.

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Mehrotra, Purnima; Azab, Mohammed; Carroll, Mary; Afifi, Rema A.; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

55

Maternal use of cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco associated with higher infant mortality rates in cambodia.  

PubMed

In the Western Pacific Region, rural women use loose tobacco in betel quid chewing and pipe smoking. We examined the relation between maternal use of tobacco and infant mortality (IM) in a national sample of 24 296 birth outcomes in adult women (n = 6013) in Cambodia. We found that (1) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for maternal use of any tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.26); (2) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for cigarette use (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.54- 4.1), use of pipes (OR = 3.09; [95% CI = 1.86-5.11]), and betel quid chewing (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10-2.17); and (3) these associations remained after multivariable adjustment for environmental tobacco smoke, malnutrition, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, income, occupation, and urban/rural dwelling. In addition to finding the established association with cigarettes, we also found that maternal use of smokeless tobacco and pipes was associated with higher rates of infant death in Cambodia. PMID:24092813

Singh, Pramil N; Eng, Carlin; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S; Kanal, Koum

2013-09-01

56

Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.  

PubMed

Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

2006-07-08

57

What Does the “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” Mean to Tobacco Growers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However,

Kelly Tiller; Jane H. Starnes; Shiferaw T. Feleke

2010-01-01

58

Tobacco smoke mediated induction of sinonasal microbial biofilms.  

PubMed

Cigarette smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke are more susceptible to life threatening infection than non-smokers. While much is known about the devastating effect tobacco exposure has on the human body, less is known about the effect of tobacco smoke on the commensal and commonly found pathogenic bacteria of the human respiratory tract, or human respiratory tract microbiome. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common medical complaint, affecting 16% of the US population with an estimated aggregated cost of $6 billion annually. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate a correlation between tobacco smoke exposure and rhinosinusitis. Although a common cause of CRS has not been defined, bacterial presence within the nasal and paranasal sinuses is assumed to be contributory. Here we demonstrate that repetitive tobacco smoke exposure induces biofilm formation in a diverse set of bacteria isolated from the sinonasal cavities of patients with CRS. Additionally, bacteria isolated from patients with tobacco smoke exposure demonstrate robust in vitro biofilm formation when challenged with tobacco smoke compared to those isolated from smoke naïve patients. Lastly, bacteria from smoke exposed patients can revert to a non-biofilm phenotype when grown in the absence of tobacco smoke. These observations support the hypothesis that tobacco exposure induces sinonasal biofilm formation, thereby contributing to the conversion of a transient and medically treatable infection to a persistent and therapeutically recalcitrant condition. PMID:21253587

Goldstein-Daruech, Natalia; Cope, Emily K; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Vukovic, Katarina; Kofonow, Jennifer M; Doghramji, Laurel; González, Bernardo; Chiu, Alexander G; Kennedy, David W; Palmer, James N; Leid, Jeffery G; Kreindler, James L; Cohen, Noam A

2011-01-06

59

76 FR 52913 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, 44...No. 106] RIN 1513-AB78 Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment AGENCY:...

2011-08-24

60

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs.

Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

2002-01-01

61

Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

62

Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry-sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the

Anne Landman; Pamela M. Ling; Stanton A. Glantz

63

Tobacco use and smoking policy perceptions onboard an aircraft carrier.  

PubMed

Prior to implementing a shipwide no-smoking policy, the crew of U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) participated in a voluntary survey on tobacco-related matters. The survey queried participants on their tobacco-use history, subjective exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and attitudes related to smoking policy prior to the cessation of all smoking activities aboard ship. Of the 2,221 crewmembers who participated (74% response rate), 36% classified themselves as current cigarette smokers. Nonsmokers estimated their general exposure to ETS between "low" to "moderate." Of all participants, 57% were in favor of the current restricted smoking policy, including 18% of currently smoking personnel. Follow-up research is being conducted to assess the long-term impact of the no-smoking policy on changes in attitudes regarding policy, tobacco-use rates, and ETS exposure. PMID:7695554

Hurtado, S L; Shappell, S A; Bohnker, B K; Fraser, J R

1995-01-01

64

South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining the best combination of counselling/support and pharmacological therapy; (v) setting a quit date and provide suitable resources and support; (vi) frequent follow-up as often as possible via text/telephone or in person; (vii) monitoring for side-effects, relapse and on-going cessation; and (viii) if relapse occurs, providing the necessary support and encourage a further attempt when appropriate.  PMID:24148176

Van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

2013-09-30

65

[Nicotine addiction and environmental tobacco smoke exposure].  

PubMed

In present study it was aimed to determine the general characteristics of cases who cause environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. One hundred and forty five cases (53/92, F/M) who admitted to smoking cessation clinic were asked about general demographic characteristics, the history of ETS exposure in childhood and whether they cause of ETS exposure or not. Also Fagernström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and hospital anxiety depression test (HADT) were performed. The mean age of the cases was 42.2 years. It was determined that 71% of cases exposed ETS in childhood and 69% of cases cause ETS exposure. There was no effect of the number of cigarette smoked per day and the amount of packet/years on to cause ETS exposure. The cases who cause ETS exposure to be forced more than others in places that it is forbidden smoking (p= 0.045), FTND score was higher (mean= 5.9) than others (mean= 4.8) (p= 0.009). The FTND score was ? 5 in 72% of cases who cause ETS exposure and in 53.3% of others (p= 0.045). 117 of cases were performed HADT, symptoms related with anxiety and depression were detected in 45 and 54 of cases respectively. The mean anxiety score was higher in cases who cause ETS exposure (p= 0.025). The symptoms related with anxiety and depression were determined similar in cases who cause ETS exposure or not. It was identified that there was no effect of gender, education, business status, another smoker at home, history of ETS exposure in childhood, socioeconomic status and to have knowledge about passive smoking on to cause ETS exposure. Prevention of nicotine addiction to be developed by starting smoking precludes the onset of the diseases related to smoking, and also enables inhibition of ETS exposure especially at home. PMID:22233306

Doruk, Sibel; Inönü Köseo?lu, Handan; Erkorkmaz, Unal

2011-01-01

66

Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

67

Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles with surfaces highly adsorbent to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Calcic mineral particles are two orders of magnitude more abundant in smokers' lungs compared with non-smoking controls in residents of Vancouver. Such particles may thus be potential agents for the delivery of PAH carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene, to the lungs. None of the potential hazards listed above has yet been properly evaluated.

Stephens, W. E.

2003-12-01

68

Tobacco Smoke Mediated Induction of Sinonasal Microbial Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smokers and those exposed to second hand smoke are more susceptible to life threatening infection than non-smokers. While much is known about the devastating effect tobacco exposure has on the human body, less is known about the effect of tobacco smoke on the commensal and commonly found pathogenic bacteria of the human respiratory tract, or human respiratory tract microbiome.

Natalia Goldstein-Daruech; Emily K. Cope; Ke-Qing Zhao; Katarina Vukovic; Jennifer M. Kofonow; Laurel Doghramji; Bernardo González; Alexander G. Chiu; David W. Kennedy; James N. Palmer; Jeffery G. Leid; James L. Kreindler; Noam A. Cohen; Malcolm Gracie Semple

2011-01-01

69

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children: Household and Community Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the most important sources of environmental tobacco smoke exposure to young children, the authors studied the associations among urinary cotinine, reported household smoking habits, and socioeconomic variables in 575 schoolchildren aged 6–11 y. The school children were among a population of prodigious smokers in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty percent of the children were exposed to environmental tobacco

Esmé R. Jordaan; Rodney I. Ehrlich; Paul Potter

1999-01-01

70

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think

K Danishevski; A Gilmore; M McKee

2008-01-01

71

Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

72

'Imagine all that smoke in their lungs': parents' perceptions of young children's tolerance of tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their chil- dren to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influenc- ing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the home during the first

Jude Robinson; Andrew J. Kirkcaldy

2008-01-01

73

"Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

74

Analysis of Tobacco and Smoke Condensate for Penicillic Acid1  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatographic analyses of smoke condensate from commercial, unfiltered cigarettes spiked with penicillic acid (500 or 1,000 ppm), a reported carcinogenic substance from certain fungi, indicated approximately 3% of unchanged compound was transported in the smoke. Analysis of tobacco on which either Aspergillus ochraceus or Penicillium cyclopium was grown revealed microgram quantities of the compound. Small amounts of the material were also found in moldy tobacco from commercial storage. The results of these investigations suggest that fungi may be a source of carcinogenic compounds in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

Snow, J. P.; Lucas, G. B.; Harvan, D.; Pero, R. W.; Owens, Robert G.

1972-01-01

75

Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer: Perception-changing facts.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking's impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

Furrukh, Muhammad

2013-06-25

76

Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

77

Adolescent Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Predicts Academic Achievement Test Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral prob- lems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken

Bradley N. Collins; E. Paul Wileyto; Michael F. G. Murphy; Marcus R. Munafò

2007-01-01

78

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs\\/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship

Anne Landman; Daniel K. Cortese; Stanton Glantz

2008-01-01

79

Tobacco Smoking Produces Widespread Dominant Brain Wave Alpha Frequency Increases  

PubMed Central

The major pharmacological ingredient in tobacco smoke is nicotine, a mild stimulant known to alter brain electrical activity. The object of this study was to determine if tobacco smoking in humans produces localized or widespread neocortical dominant alpha electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency increases consistent with nicotine stimulation of the brainstem activating system in animals. Twenty-two male volunteer non-deprived tobacco smokers were studied. They were asked not to smoke for at least 1 hr before the experiment in mid-morning as part of their usual smoking schedule. In the laboratory, they sham smoked and then smoked their favorite tobacco cigarette. Two experimental sessions (#1 and #2) were conducted, separated by a one to two month interval. In both sessions, there were minor statistically significant increases in the dominant alpha frequencies after sham smoking. In both sessions, after the subjects smoked a favorite tobacco cigarette there was a significant generalized increase in dominant alpha EEG frequencies in most scalp recording sites. This study demonstrates that tobacco smoking produces widespread bilateral neocortical increases in dominant alpha EEG frequencies consistent with the stimulant effects of nicotine on the brainstem reticular activating system.

Domino, Edward F.; Ni, Lisong; Thompson, Michael; Zhang, Huilea; Shikata, Hiroki; Fukai, Hiromi; Sakaki, Takeshi; Ohya, Ippei

2009-01-01

80

Tobacco smoke exposure induces nicotine dependence in rats  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and many other compounds that act in concert on the brain reward system. Therefore, animal models are needed that allow the investigation of chronic exposure to the full spectrum of tobacco smoke constituents. OBJECTIVES The aim of these studies was to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke leads to nicotine dependence in rats. METHODS The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs were recorded from a checklist of nicotine abstinence signs. Nicotine self-administration sessions were conducted to investigate if tobacco smoke exposure affects the motivation to self-administer nicotine. Nicotinic receptor autoradiography was used to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke affects central ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and non-?7 nAChR levels (primarily ?4?2 nAChRs). RESULTS The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine dose-dependently elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats exposed to tobacco smoke and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the untreated control rats. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced more somatic withdrawal signs in the smoke exposed rats than in the control rats. Nicotine self-administration was decreased 1 day after the last tobacco smoke exposure sessions and was returned to control levels 5 days later. Tobacco smoke exposure increased the ?7 nAChR density in the CA2/3 area and the stratum oriens and increased the non-?7 nAChR density in the dentate gyrus. CONCLUSION Tobacco smoke exposure leads to nicotine dependence as indicated by precipitated affective and somatic withdrawal signs and induces an upregulation of nAChRs in the hippocampus.

Small, Elysia; Shah, Hina P.; Davenport, Jake J.; Geier, Jacqueline E.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Yamada, Hidetaka; Sabarinath, Sreedharan N.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Pauly, James R.; Gold, Mark S.; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

2013-01-01

81

Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.  

PubMed

Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong. PMID:18021907

Pierce, John P

2007-12-01

82

The association between active smoking, smokeless tobacco, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStudies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and insufficient rest\\/sleep are limited.

Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar

2011-01-01

83

Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration…

Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

84

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees  

PubMed Central

Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

85

The Smoke You Don't See: Uncovering Tobacco Industry Scientific Strategies Aimed Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke Policies  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This review details the tobacco industry's scientific campaign aimed against policies addressing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and efforts to undermine US regulatory agencies from approximately 1988 to 1993. Methods. The public availability of more than 40 million internal, once-secret tobacco company documents allowed an unedited and historical look at tobacco industry strategies. Results. The analysis showed that the tobacco industry went to great lengths to battle the ETS issue worldwide by camouflaging its involvement and creating an impression of legitimate, unbiased scientific research. Conclusions. There is a need for further international monitoring of industry-produced science and for significant improvements in tobacco document accessibility.

Muggli, Monique E.; Forster, Jean L.; Hurt, Richard D.; Repace, James L.

2001-01-01

86

Chemical studies on tobacco smoke LXVIII. Analysis of volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco products.  

PubMed

The yields of volatile N-nitrosamines in cigarette smoke are primarily dependent upon the nitrate content of the tobacco and, to some extent, on the protein content. Cellulose acetate tips, such as those found on most commercial filter cigarettes, selectively remove at least 70% of the volatile N-nitrosamines, independently of the pH of the weakly acidic or weakly alkaline smoke. So far, three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines have been detected in tobacco and tobacco smoke. During tobacco processing and smoking, N'-nitrosonornicotine is formed by nitrosation of nicotine and, to a minor degree, by nitrosation of nornicotine, whereas 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone originates from oxidative nitrosation of nicotine. N'-Nitrosoanatabine is formed by nitrosation of the second most abundant tobacco alkaloid, anatabine. The tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in the smoke arise partly from the tobacco by transfer and partly by nitrosation of the alkaloids during smoking (pyrosynthesis). Preliminary results indicate that cellulose acetate filter tips may selectively remove considerable amounts of the nonvolatile nitrosamines from the smoke. PMID:7228275

Hoffmann, D; Adams, J D; Piade, J J; Hecht, S S

1980-01-01

87

Impact of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular risk and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite declines in smoking prevalence in many Western countries, tobacco use continues to grow in global importance as a leading preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. Tobacco smoke is both prothrombotic and atherogenic, increasing the risks of acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, stroke, aortic aneurysm and peripheral vascular disease. Even very low doses of exposure increase the risk of acute

Christopher Bullen

2008-01-01

88

Perceived Enforcement of School Tobacco Policy and Adolescents' Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives School tobacco use policies are part of a comprehensive strategy for preventing or reducing adolescent cigarette smoking. This study examines the relationship between perceived tobacco policy enforcement at the school level and smoking behaviors among students. Methods 21,281 middle and high school students of 255 schools in the 2006 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted, using a school-level policy enforcement measure based on aggregated student reports, and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cigarette smoking before age 12, personal beliefs about smoking) as predictors of past-30-day cigarette smoking behaviors (e.g., any smoking, daily smoking, heavy episodic smoking, smoking on school property). Results Higher levels of perceived enforcement of anti-smoking policy at the school level were inversely associated with the prevalence of past-30-day smoking behaviors, independent of individual-level predictors. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of school policies against tobacco use may help prevent or reduce adolescents’ cigarette smoking on and outside of school property.

Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.

2009-01-01

89

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

90

Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America.MethodsThe Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including

B. M. Champagne; E. M. Sebrie; H. Schargrodsky; P. Pramparo; C. Boissonnet; E. Wilson

2010-01-01

91

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

2013-04-01

92

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

2010-04-01

93

Tobacco Use by Male Prisoners Under an Indoor Smoking Ban  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Most correctional facilities have implemented tobacco restrictions in an effort to reduce costs and improve prisoner health, but little has been done to evaluate the impact of these policy changes. Patterns of tobacco use among prisoners were explored to determine the impact of incarceration in a facility with an indoor smoking ban on tobacco use behaviors. Methods: Recently incarcerated male inmates (n = 200) were surveyed about their tobacco use prior to and during incarceration. Results: Tobacco use was prevalent prior to arrest (77.5%) and increased during incarceration (81.0%). Though the number of cigarette smokers increased during imprisonment, per-capita cigarette consumption declined by 7.1 cigarettes/day (p < .001). Despite widespread tobacco use, most participants recognized that smoking is a cause of lung cancer (96.0%) and heart disease (75.4%) and that it can be addicting (97.5%). Most tobacco users (70.0%) reported a desire to quit, with 63.0% saying they intended to try quitting in the next year. Conclusions: Indoor smoking bans do not promote cessation in prisons but may reduce the amount of tobacco consumed. Though smoking is commonplace in prisons, most prisoners recognize the risks involved and wish to quit. This creates an ideal setting for intervention. Evidence-based cessation assistance should be made freely available to all incarcerated smokers.

Ferketich, Amy K.; Murray, David M.; Bellair, Paul E.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

2011-01-01

94

Measurement of Current Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of recent exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and urinary cotinine levels were obtained on 663 never- and ex-smokers who attended a cancer screening clinic in Buffalo, New York, in 1986. Study objectives included determining the prevalence of exposure to ETS using urinary cotinine and identifying questionnaire exposure measures predictive of cotinine. Findings demonstrate that exposure to environmental tobacco

K. Michael Cummings; Samuel J. Markello; Martin Mahoney; Arvind K. Bhargava; Peter D. McElroy; James R. Marshall

1990-01-01

95

Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... things you may miss when you stop. Most people smoke for different reasons at different times. Reasons for ... without even being aware of it. ___ G. I smoke when people around me are smoking. ___ H. I smoke to ...

96

Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smokers are more likely to use marijuana than those who do not smoke tobacco. Little is known about how marijuana use affects the probability of tobacco smoking cessation. This analysis was based on 431 adults less than 45 years of age who reported recent tobacco smoking in the 1981 baseline interview in the household-based Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study

Daniel E. Ford; Hong Thi Vu; James C. Anthony

2002-01-01

97

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total

Kimberly Frost-Pineda; Barbara K. Zedler; Qiwei Liang; Hans J. Roethig

2008-01-01

98

Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

1981-01-01

99

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking

Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson; Elizabeth Procter-Gray; Audra L. Gollenberg; Michele B. Ryan; Lisa G. Barber

2008-01-01

100

Prospective Study of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Dysmenorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age. Previous studies have found an association between current cigarette smoking and prevalence of dysmenorrhea. This study investigated the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the occurrence of dysmenorrhea among women without a history of this disorder. The study population consisted of 165 newly wed, nonsmoking Chinese

Changzhong Chen; Sung-Il Cho; Andrew I. Damokosh; Dafang Chen; Guang Li; Xiaobin Wang; Xiping Xu

101

Tobacco use in shisha: studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterpipe (also known as gouza, narghile, hubble-bubble, hookah or shisha, depending on the local tradition) has been used for smoking tobacco for centuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Formerly associated almost exclusively with older males, usually of lower socioeconomic level, waterpipe smoking is now spreading to other segments of society in the region, particularly young men and women, and

2006-01-01

102

The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

2013-01-01

103

Socioeconomic Differences in the Impact of Smoking Tobacco and Alcohol Prices on Smoking in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat posed by smoking to health in India is severe. Already 1 in 5 of all adult male deaths and 1 in 20 of all adult female deaths at ages 30-69 are due to smoking and India will soon have 1 million smoking deaths a year. Increasing tobacco prices has been found to be the single most effective method

G. Emmanuel Guindon; Arindam Nandi; Frank J. Chaloupka IV; Prabhat Jha

2011-01-01

104

Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDExposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood and in utero exposure to maternal smoking are associated with adverse effects on lung growth and development.METHODSA study was undertaken of the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to ETS, and pulmonary function in 3357 school children residing in 12 Southern California communities. Current and past exposure to household ETS and

Frank D Gilliland; Kiros Berhane; Rob McConnell; W James Gauderman; Hita Vora; Edward B Rappaport; Edward Avol; John M Peters

2000-01-01

105

Households contaminated by environmental tobacco smoke: sources of infant exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine (1) whether dust and surfaces in households of smokers are contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); (2) whether smoking parents can protect their infants by smoking outside and away from the infant; and (3) whether contaminated dust, surfaces, and air contribute to ETS exposure in infants.Design: Quasi-experiment comparing three types of households with infants: (1) non-smokers who

G E Matt; P J E Quintana; M F Hovell; J T Bernert; S Song; N Novianti; T Juarez; J Floro; C Gehrman; M Garcia; S Larson

2004-01-01

106

Maternal personality disorder and babies’ exposure to tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between smoking practices and maternal personality disorder in a sample of 200 mothers\\u000a of 2-month-old babies. Maternal personality disorder was robustly associated with allowing smoking in the home and also exposing\\u000a the baby to tobacco smoke. The findings suggest that mothers with personality disorders might particularly benefit from targeting\\u000a with education and advice about reducing

Susan Conroy; Maureen N. Marks; Robin Schacht; Helen A. Davies; Paul A. Moran

2010-01-01

107

Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers  

PubMed Central

Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use.

Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

108

The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Rates: A Tobacco Control Scorecard  

Microsoft Academic Search

his article reviews studies of the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking rates with the aim of providing guidance on the importance of different policies. Based on past studies, we estimate the magnitude of effects of major tobacco control policies, how their effects depend on the manner in which the policies are implemented, the relationship between the different policies,

David T. Levy; Frank Chaloupka; Joseph Gitchell

2004-01-01

109

Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

2003-01-01

110

Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers.

Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

1997-01-01

111

Reduction of secondhand tobacco smoke in public places following national smoke-free legislation in Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmoke-free legislation eliminating tobacco smoke in all indoor public places and workplaces is the international standard to protect all people from exposure to secondhand smoke. Uruguay was the first country in the Americas and the first middle-income country in the world to enact a comprehensive smoke-free national legislation in March 2006.ObjectiveTo compare air nicotine concentrations measured in indoor public places

Adriana Blanco-Marquizo; Beatriz Goja; Armando Peruga; Miranda R Jones; Jie Yuan; Jonathan M Samet; Patrick N Breysse; Ana Navas-Acien

2010-01-01

112

Workplace tobacco policies and smoking cessation practices of physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To further our understanding of the workplace smoking policies and smoking cessation practices of physicians in Nigeria. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey distributed to 619 physicians practicing in two teaching hospitals in southwestern Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Three-hundred-seventy-three physicians who returned completed surveys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physician's self-reported workplace smoking policies, attitudes toward smoking cessation, and use of recommended smoking cessation guidelines/policies. RESULTS: Physicians rated quitting as "extremely important." The majority assessed their patients smoking status over the past three months (81%) and thought counseling smokers would help them quit (95%). However, < 1% prescribed pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in the last three months. Significant differences were found in the workplace smoking policies of the two teaching hospitals (p < 0.001). Differences were also found in the attitudes and smoking cessation practices of physicians in Hospital A and Hospital B. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians are aware of smoking and the importance of quitting but few have guidelines/policies to assist their patients with quitting. Workplace smoking policies appear to impact the smoking cessation attitudes and practices of physicians in Nigeria. Encouraging the adoption of workplace smoking restrictions, as well as training physicians to use recommended smoking cessation interventions, is critical to addressing the tobacco epidemic in Nigeria.

Nollen, Nicole L.; Adewale, Sanni; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Parakoyi, Adebayo

2004-01-01

113

Acetaldehyde in mainstream tobacco smoke: formation and occurrence in smoke and bioavailability in the smoker.  

PubMed

A review is presented of the scientific literature on the effects of sugars (mono- and disaccharides), when used as tobacco additives, on the formation of acetaldehyde in mainstream (MS) smoke and the potential bioavailablity of MS smoke acetaldehyde derived from sugars to the smoker. The experimental data supports the following conclusions. Sugars, e.g., D-glucose, D-fructose, and sucrose, do not produce greater yields of acetaldehyde in MS smoke than are produced from tobacco itself on a weight-for-weight basis. A variety of studies suggests that natural tobacco polysaccharides, including cellulose, are the primary precursors of acetaldehyde in MS smoke. In a number of different studies using commercial cigarette brands, MS smoke yields of acetaldehyde correlate (r > 0.9) with both MS smoke "tar" and carbon monoxide. MS smoke acetaldehyde yields are affected more by cigarette design characteristics that influence total smoke production, such as filter ventilation, filtration, and paper porosity, than by reducing sugars. MS smoke acetaldehyde deposits primarily in the upper respiratory tract, including the mouth, of the smoker. Acetaldehyde is rapidly metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase in the blood and elsewhere in the body, including at the blood-brain barrier. Tobacco sugar-derived MS smoke acetaldehyde from commercial cigarettes is unlikely to result in direct central nervous system effects on the smoker. PMID:12437324

Seeman, Jeffrey I; Dixon, Michael; Haussmann, Hans-Jürgen

2002-11-01

114

Detection of tobacco smoke deposition by hyperpolarized krypton-83 MRI.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of the tobacco smoke particulate matter in the lungs to the etiology of pulmonary disease in cigarette smokers, little is currently known about the spatial distribution of particle deposition or the persistence of the resulting deposits in humans, and no satisfactory technique currently exists to directly observe tobacco smoke condensate in airways. In this proof-of-principle work, hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr MRI and NMR spectroscopy are introduced as probes for tobacco smoke deposition in porous media. A reduction in the hp-83Kr longitudinal (T1) relaxation of up to 95% under near-ambient humidity, pressure and temperature conditions was observed when the krypton gas was brought into contact with surfaces that had been exposed to cigarette smoke. This smoke-induced acceleration of the 83Kr self-relaxation was observed for model glass surfaces that, in some experiments, were coated with bovine lung surfactant extract. However, a similar effect was not observed with hp-(129)Xe indicating that the 83Kr sensitivity to smoke deposition was not caused by paramagnetic species but rather by quadrupolar relaxation due to high adsorption affinity for the smoke deposits. The 83Kr T1 differences between smoke-treated and untreated surfaces were sufficient to produce a strong contrast in variable flip angle FLASH hp-83Kr MRI, suggesting that hp-83Kr may be a promising contrast agent for in vivo pulmonary MRI. PMID:17826938

Cleveland, Zackary I; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Stupic, Karl F; Wooten, Jan B; Repine, John E; Meersmann, Thomas

2007-09-10

115

The association between active smoking, smokeless tobacco, secondhand smoke exposure and insufficient sleep  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with sleep disorders in the general population. But studies examining the association between smokeless tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and insufficient rest/sleep are limited. Methods We examined the association between smoking, smokeless tobacco use (n=83,072), secondhand smoke exposure (n=28,557) and insufficient rest/sleep among adults aged ?20 years in the state-based 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined as >1 day of exposure to cigarette smoking either at home or in the workplace in the preceding 7 days. Insufficient rest/sleep was defined as not getting enough rest/sleep everyday in the preceding 30 days. Results Compared to never smokeless tobacco users, the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of insufficient rest/sleep was 1.16 (1.00–1.36) and 1.74 (1.37–2.22) among former and current users. Compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, the OR (95% CI) of insufficient rest/sleep for those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users was 2.21 (1.66–2.94). Regarding secondhand smoke exposure among non-smokers, those with second-hand smoke exposure had higher odds for insufficient rest/sleep than those without. In contrast, the odds of insufficient rest/sleep were similar among current smokers with or without secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusions In a multiethnic sample of US adults, compared to non-smokers/non-smokeless tobacco users, those who were both current smokers and current smokeless tobacco users had twice the odds of insufficient sleep. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with insufficient rest/sleep among non-smokers.

Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop

2010-01-01

116

71 FR 3313 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Demographic and Smoking/Tobacco Use...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Smoking/Tobacco Use Information From NCI Cancer Information Service Clients SUMMARY...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...Smoking/ Tobacco Use Information from NCI Cancer Information Service Clients. Type...

2006-01-20

117

Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented.

Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

2012-01-01

118

The Impact of Tobacco Control Programs on Adult Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether state tobacco control programs are effective in reducing the prevalence of adult smoking. Methods. We used state survey data on smoking from 1985 to 2003 in a quasi-experimental design to examine the association between cumulative state antitobacco program expenditures and changes in adult smoking prevalence, after we controlled for confounding. Results. From 1985 to 2003, national adult smoking prevalence declined from 29.5% to 18.6% (P<.001). Increases in state per capita tobacco control program expenditures were independently associated with declines in prevalence. Program expenditures were more effective in reducing smoking prevalence among adults aged 25 or older than for adults aged 18 to 24 years, whereas cigarette prices had a stronger effect on adults aged 18 to 24 years. If, starting in 1995, all states had funded their tobacco control programs at the minimum or optimal levels recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there would have been 2.2 million to 7.1 million fewer smokers by 2003. Conclusions. State tobacco control program expenditures are independently associated with overall reductions in adult smoking prevalence.

Farrelly, Matthew C.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Thomas, Kristin Y.; Nelson, David

2008-01-01

119

How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).?DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.?STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.?DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.?CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking

Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

2000-01-01

120

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking.MethodsBased on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http:\\/\\/legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of

Kim Klausner

2011-01-01

121

Association between Tobacco Smoking and Active Tuberculosis in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Previous case-control studies and a small number of cohort studies in high-risk populations have found an association between tobacco and active tuberculosis, but no cohort studies have been conducted in the general population on this association to date. Objectives: To investigate the association between tobacco smoking and active tuberculosis in a cohort of a general population. Methods: 17,699 participants

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Hsing-Yi Chang; Megan Murray

2009-01-01

122

Analysis and evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for chronic cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and active tobacco smoking has been shown to increase symptoms of bronchial asthma such as bronchoconstriction but effects on other respiratory symptoms remain poorly assessed. Current levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may also be responsible for the development of chronic cough in both children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of

Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Wojciech Feleszko; Quoc Thai Dinh; Anke van Mark; Elke Brinkmann; Dirk Pleimes; Axel Fischer

2007-01-01

123

Analysis of Markers of Exposure to Constituents of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 4000 chemical compounds, many of which are harmful to human health. These compounds belong to various chemical classes, including amides, imides, lactams, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, amines, hydrocarbons, ethers, and inorganic compounds. There are three types of tobacco smoke streams: the mainstream, the sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

Sylwia Narkowicz; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

124

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking.

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

125

Environmental tobacco smoke and ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort and case control studies show a 30% excess risk of ischemic heart disease in nonsmokers whose spouses smoke compared with that in nonsmokers whose spouses do not smoke. There is a nonlinear dose-response; the excess risk from actively smoking 20 cigarettes\\/day is only 80%. Large cohort studies of active smoking support the nonliner dose-response (the excess risk in smokers

Malcolm R Law; Nicholas J Wald

2003-01-01

126

Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 ?g/m3 to 612 ?g/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 ?g/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 ?g/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 ?g/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 – 96% lower than levels in Greece. Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

2007-01-01

127

Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively

ROGER A JENKINS; MICHAEL P MASKARINEC; RICHARD W COUNTS; JOHN E CATON; BRUCE TOMKINS; RALPH H ILGNER

2001-01-01

128

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the\\u000a commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public\\u000a transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main

Maria Cheraghi; Sundeep Salvi

2009-01-01

129

Damage to DNA in cervical epithelium related to smoking tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether tobacco smoking causes increased DNA modification (adducts) in human cervical epithelium. DESIGN--Comparison of DNA adducts measured by the technique of postlabelling with phosphorus-32 in normal ectocervical epithelium of smokers and non-smokers. A questionnaire on smoking habit and a urinary cotinine assay were used to identify smokers and non-smokers. SETTING--Cytology unit in large teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--39 women (11

A M Simons; D H Phillips; D V Coleman

1993-01-01

130

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use.

Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

2011-01-01

131

Tobacco smoking and oral clefts: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal smoking and non-syndromic orofacial clefts in infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy was carried out using data from 24 case-control and cohort studies. FINDINGS: Consistent, moderate and statistically significant associations were found between maternal smoking and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44) and between maternal smoking and cleft palate (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.35). There was evidence of a modest dose-response effect for cleft lip with or without cleft palate. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an association between maternal tobacco smoking and orofacial clefts is strong enough to justify its use in anti-smoking campaigns.

Little, Julian; Cardy, Amanda; Munger, Ronald G.

2004-01-01

132

Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10–14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels—having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

2009-01-01

133

[Smoking among women--strategies for fighting the tobacco epidemic].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data indicate that-globally 250 million women and 1 billion men smoke every day. Unfortunately the prevalence of smoking among women is continuing to increase and it is expected to rise from 12% noted in the first decade of this century to 20% in 2025. Women are as vulnerable as men to the dangers of tobacco and additionally the tobacco smoking can cause also female-specific cancer, respiratory diseases and can increase the risk poor pregnancy outcome. There are various recommendations from the World Health Organization which include the need for governments to introduce tobacco control strategies which are sensitive to gender. Efforts should be taken not only to sustain the downward trend in male smoking but also on reversing the levels of smoking in girls and women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the existing recommendations developed by WHO with more specific focus on promotion of gender specific action which can lead to decreasing in the prevalence of female smoking. PMID:23421100

Fronczak, Adam; Pola?ska, Kinga; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Kaleta, Dorota

2012-01-01

134

Both environmental tobacco smoke and personal smoking is related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEnvironmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported as a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. Among adults, personal smoking is a major cause of respiratory symptoms and diseases. The effects of these exposures on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among teenagers are less well known.ObjectiveThe aim was to study the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking

Linnéa Hedman; Anders Bjerg; Sigrid Sundberg; Bertil Forsberg; Eva Rönmark

2010-01-01

135

SUMMARY The effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette quitting therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to determine the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure before starting to smoke on cigarette qu- itting therapies and to determine source environment\\/individuals for ETS exposure. 230 individuals were contacted. We in- vestigated person\\/s with ETS exposure before starting to smoke, places\\/duration of exposure, sources of exposure, therapy methods\\/durations recommended. Training seminar was also assumed as a

Türkan GÜNAY; Emel CEYLAN

136

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place (thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS

Lauren M. Petrick; Mohamad Sleiman; Yael Dubowski; Lara A. Gundel; Hugo Destaillats

2011-01-01

137

Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... Initiative Global Tobacco Control Spotlight About GTSS GTSS Atlas Publications and Products Printed Material Videos Interagency Committee ... and Health Promotion Home A-Z Index Site Map Policies Using this Site Link to Us All ...

138

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Thailand ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on November 8, 2004. The WHO FCTC requires all parties to inform all persons of the health consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. Each party has agreed to develop, implement and evaluate effective tobacco control programs to measure progress in reaching the

Nithat Sirichotiratana; Chairat Techatraisakdi; Khalillur Rahman; Charles W Warren; Nathan R Jones; Samira Asma; Juliette Lee

2008-01-01

139

Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the largest cancer killer in the world. This chapter discusses the role\\u000a of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of lung cancer. A general mechanistic framework is presented, in which cigarette\\u000a smoke carcinogens and their metabolically activated forms cause mutations in critical growth control genes, along with other\\u000a effects. Evidence and unresolved

Stephen S. Hecht

140

Tobacco smoke is a source of toxic reactive glycation products  

PubMed Central

Smokers have a significantly higher risk for developing coronary and cerebrovascular disease than nonsmokers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are reactive, cross-linking moieties that form from the reaction of reducing sugars and the amino groups of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. AGEs circulate in high concentrations in the plasma of patients with diabetes or renal insufficiency and have been linked to the accelerated vasculopathy seen in patients with these diseases. Because the curing of tobacco takes place under conditions that could lead to the formation of glycation products, we examined whether tobacco and tobacco smoke could generate these reactive species that would increase AGE formation in vivo. Our findings show that reactive glycation products are present in aqueous extracts of tobacco and in tobacco smoke in a form that can rapidly react with proteins to form AGEs. This reaction can be inhibited by aminoguanidine, a known inhibitor of AGE formation. We have named these glycation products “glycotoxins.” Like other known reducing sugars and reactive glycation products, glycotoxins form smoke, react with protein, exhibit a specific fluorescence when cross-linked to proteins, and are mutagenic. Glycotoxins are transferred to the serum proteins of human smokers. AGE-apolipoprotein B and serum AGE levels in cigarette smokers were significantly higher than those in nonsmokers. These results suggest that increased glycotoxin exposure may contribute to the increased incidence of atherosclerosis and high prevalence of cancer in smokers.

Cerami, Carla; Founds, Hank; Nicholl, Iain; Mitsuhashi, Tomoko; Giordano, Donna; Vanpatten, Sonya; Lee, Annette; Al-Abed, Yousef; Vlassara, Helen; Bucala, Richard; Cerami, Anthony

1997-01-01

141

[Smoking prevalence and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among school administrators].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate smoking prevalence and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among school administrators. The study population consisted of 320 administrative workers in schools from Lodz district. Among the study participants self-administrative questionnaire was conducted. The questionnaire focused on socio-demographic characteristics, detail information about active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Current tobacco smoking was indicated by 19% of women and 28% of men (p = 0.06). Only 35% of the study subjects declared willingness to give up the habit. Significantly less men than women felt that they should quit smoking (36% vs. 11.4%, p < 0.05). Only small part of the study population expected the help in quitting smoking from specialists, physicians or school. It is crucial to increase awareness among the school administrators about negative effects of smoking and to motivate them to give up the habit. About 7% of study subjects (5% of women and 11% of men, p < 0.05) declared that smoking is allowed in school building and 13% of them indicated that there are no regulations on it or did not know such regulations. PMID:21360946

Kaleta, Dorota; Pola?ska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Kowalska, Alina; Rze?nicki, Adam; Drygas, Wojciech

2010-01-01

142

A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

143

ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

144

Does breathing other people's tobacco smoke cause lung cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available epidemiological studies of lung cancer and exposure to other people's tobacco smoke, in which exposure was assessed by whether or not a person classified as a non-smoker lived with a smoker, were identified and the results combined. There were 10 case-control studies and three prospective studies. Overall, there was a highly significant 35% increase in the risk of

N J Wald; K Nanchahal; S G Thompson; H S Cuckle

1986-01-01

145

Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

2005-01-01

146

Relation of Environmental Tobacco Smoke to Diet and Health Habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that the relationship of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to cancer or cardiovascular diseases may be confounded by social class or diet because women exposed to ETS by their smoker spouse belong to lower social classes and have an unhealthy diet. In a population survey in Geneva, Switzerland, 914 female never-smokers were interviewed about sociodemographic factors,

F. Curtin; A Morabia; M. S Bernstein

1999-01-01

147

Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. METHODS: Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Evelyn P Davila; Wei Zhao; Margaret Byrne; Monica Webb; Yougie Huang; Kristopher Arheart; Noella Dietz; Alberto Caban-Martinez; Dorothy Parker; David J Lee

2009-01-01

148

Patient rights and law: tobacco smoking in psychiatric wards and the Israeli Prevention of Smoking Act.  

PubMed

In August 2001, the Israeli Ministry of Health issued its Limitation of Smoking in Public Places Order, categorically forbidding smoking in hospitals. This forced the mental health system to cope with the issue of smoking inside psychiatric hospitals. The main problem was smoking by compulsorily hospitalized psychiatric patients in closed wards. An attempt by a psychiatric hospital to implement the tobacco smoking restraint instruction by banning the sale of cigarettes inside the hospital led to the development of a black market and cases of patient exploitation in return for cigarettes. This article surveys the literature dealing with smoking among psychiatric patients, the role of smoking in patients and the moral dilemmas of taking steps to prevent smoking in psychiatric hospitals. It addresses the need for public discussion on professional caregivers' dilemmas between their commitment to uphold the law and their duty to act as advocates for their patients' rights and welfare. PMID:15362356

Kagan, Ilya; Kigli-Shemesh, Ronit; Tabak, Nili; Abramowitz, Moshe Z; Margolin, Jacob

2004-09-01

149

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) evaluation of a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS).  

PubMed

This sub-study of a randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group, clinical study compared environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) produced when 60 male and female adult smokers switched to a third-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), continued to smoke a conventional cigarette (CC), or stopped smoking (No-smoking). Concentrations of air constituents including respirable suspended particulate (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and ETS markers including solanesol-related particulate matter (Sol-PM), ultraviolet absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and 3-ethenyl pyridine (3-EP) were measured in a ventilated, furnished conference room over a 2-h period on separate occasions for each smoking condition. When the EHCSS was used, concentrations of CO and most ETS markers were in the same range as during no-smoking. Concentrations of ammonia were reduced by 41% and concentrations of other selected constituents of ETS were reduced by 87-99% in the air of a room in which EHCSS cigarettes were smoked as compared to concentrations in the same room when conventional cigarettes were smoked. Switching from conventional cigarette smoking to the EHCSS resulted in substantial reductions in concentrations of several markers of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:18639603

Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Zedler, Barbara K; Liang, Qiwei; Roethig, Hans J

2008-06-28

150

[Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].  

PubMed

The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low. PMID:20069266

Lang, P; Strunk, M

2010-02-01

151

Caught in the tapestry of tobacco: why I smoke.  

PubMed

Faced with the knowledge that smoking is dangerous, women continue to smoke cigarettes, and the number is growing. In contrast, breast cancer is being diagnosed earlier, and women are listening to the call for mammograms and examination screenings. Why then, are women not listening to the call to never start or stop smoking? In nursing today it has become necessary to put forth a greater effort to call attention to the toll of lung cancer and other smoking related diseases. There is significant disparity in smoking groups targeted for research. One particular group has been ignored in past research, the middle-aged woman. Research is needed to understand why women use tobacco products in this group and to find what is needed to discourage smoking. In this article, we explore nursing research in the area of middle-aged women and tobacco use. Interlaced throughout the literature review is the story of a 57 year old female and her experiences with smoking. PMID:22724906

Treloar, Debbie; Gunn, Jennie

2012-04-01

152

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

153

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among Hispanic women of reproductive age.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a potential health risk for women of reproductive age and their children. Household and workplace exposures were estimated for 4256 Hispanic women age 12 to 49 who participated in the Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey. Age-specific household exposure for nonsmokers was 31% to 62% for Mexican-Americans, 22% to 59% for Puerto Ricans, and 40% to 53% for Cuban-Americans. Exposure was significantly high for Puerto Rican and Mexican-American adolescents, 59% and 62%, respectively. Workplace exposure for nonsmokers was 22% to 35% for Mexican-Americans, 28% to 33% for Puerto Ricans, and 33% to 49% for Cuban-Americans. Young Mexican-American and Puerto Rican and all Cuban-American women reported high exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home or workplace. Assessment of family living and smoking patterns, understanding cultural values and norms, and household smoking control and cessation strategies that are mutually derived are useful for nurses and Hispanic and Latino populations to meet the environmental tobacco smoke health objectives for the nation. PMID:7937494

Pletsch, P K

1994-08-01

154

Pipe Smoking in the United States, 1965–1991:Prevalence and Attributable Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.National pipe-smoking prevalence data have rarely been reported, and mortality associated with pipe smoking has not been estimated.Methods.We analyzed National Health Interview Survey data from 1965, 1966, 1970, 1987, and 1991 to estimate adult pipe-smoking prevalence in the United States. For each of these years, we estimated pipe smoking-attributable mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancers of the oral

David E. Nelson; Ronald M. Davis; Jeffrey H. Chrismon; Gary A. Giovino

1996-01-01

155

A Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Mortality in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. Methods Using data on 20, 033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ?7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking. Results Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86) and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80), and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24) was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36) for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01) for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women. Conclusions Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh.

Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Segers, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul

2013-01-01

156

Attitudes toward anti-tobacco policy among California youth: associations with smoking status, psychosocial variables and advocacy actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

tudes toward anti-tobacco policies may play a role in their decisions about smoking. Tobacco control and education programs should include To prevent smoking and exposure to environ- mental tobacco smoke, California has imple- information about existing anti-tobacco policies, and should educate youth about the importance mented anti-tobacco policies, including laws restricting youth access to tobacco, and smoking and benefits of

Jennifer B. Unger; Louise Ann Rohrbach; Kim Ammann Howard; Tess Boley Cruz; C. Anderson Johnson; Xinguang Chen

1999-01-01

157

Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and pregnancy outcome among couples undergoing assisted reproduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is preventable, yet common. This study assessed relationships between maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We measured cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco smoke) in urine from 921 women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) between 1994 and 1998. We also collected information on self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke at home

J. D. Meeker; S. A. Missmer; D. W. Cramer; R. Hauser

2006-01-01

158

Chronic Pulmonary Disease and Tobacco Smoking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this first year all the necessary equipment for the execution of the smoking project using beagle dogs have been devloped and tested. Methodology for all the proposed studies, i.e., mucociliary clearance, ciliary motility, cell function, pulmonary ...

S. S. Park

1973-01-01

159

Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods likely share some of the same health risks.

Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2009-01-01

160

Relation between access to tobacco and adolescent smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the relation between rates of sales of tobacco to minors and youth smoking prevalence. Design: Repeated annual cross sectional surveys. Setting: Seventy five communities in Oregon. Participants: A random sample of students in grades 8 and 11 (ages 13 and 17 years) and retail outlets in each participating community. Main outcome measures: Thirty day and daily smoking prevalence. Results: The rate of illegal merchant sales in the communities was related to the smoking rate for 11th graders in those communities, but not for 8th graders. For every 10% increase in illegal sales rates there was an estimated 0.8% increase in 11th grade 30 day smoking prevalence and a 0.4% increase in daily smoking. Communities with lower illegal merchant sales rates had expanded use of social sources and reduced use of commercial sources by 11th graders, with the opposite pattern seen in 8th graders. Conclusions: There appears to be a relatively small positive linear relation between the community rate of sales to minors and 11th grade youth smoking prevalence in those communities. Youth adjust their tobacco sources depending on the level of commercial availability.

Dent, C; Biglan, A

2004-01-01

161

Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements.

Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

2012-01-01

162

The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban),…

Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

2009-01-01

163

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS,

Michael G. Apte; Lara A. Gundel; Raymond L. Dod; Marion L. Russell; Brett C. Singer; Michael D. Sohn; Douglas P. Sullivan; Gee-Minn Chang; Richard G. Sextro

2004-01-01

164

'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.  

PubMed

Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. PMID:22445156

Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

2012-03-06

165

Tobacco smoking as a risk factor for colon polyps.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Data from a cancer screening project among pattern makers were used to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and prevalence of colon polyps. METHODS: From 1981-1983, 549 White men were examined by flexible sigmoidoscopy and completed self-administered questionnaires including smoking histories. RESULTS: One or more colon polyps were detected in 76 men. Standardized prevalence rates (SPR) for polyps increased by smoking category (never smoked = 0.094; ex-smokers = 0.118, current smokers = 0.214) and by cigarettes per day, years of smoking, and pack-years among both current and ex-smokers. Both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps showed an association with smoking while other types of polyps and polyps with unspecified histology did not. The risk associated with smoking was greater for polyps greater than one centimeter in diameter. An interaction with occupational exposures was suggested by a greater increase in the SPR for polyps among current smokers employed as pattern makers for more than 10 years than among current smokers similarly employed for 10 years or less. CONCLUSIONS: Since at least some colon polyps are considered precursor lesions to colon cancer, one of the most common cancers in the United States, this report suggests that the possible link between colon polyps and smoking deserves further evaluation.

Zahm, S H; Cocco, P; Blair, A

1991-01-01

166

[Socioeconomic costs due to tobacco smoking].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to calculate costs attributable to smoking from both a societal and a public finance perspective. The Cost-of-Illness analysis was based on incidence data from 1995 and 1996, estimated with the attributable fraction, based on English and Danish RR-estimates respectively. The indirect costs are calculated with both the friction and the human capital method. In 1995, smoking attributable costs in Denmark amounted to 4100 million DKK with the friction method and based on Danish RR-estimates, including 3600 million in direct costs and 500 million in indirect costs. A public cash flow analysis showed a net revenue of about 3900 to 5600 million DKK. Compared with previous results for Denmark (1983), the annual costs to society increased by about 118%. It is suggested that similar Cost-of-Illness analyses are carried out at regular intervals to monitor the economic consequences of smoking in society. PMID:10895600

Rasmussen, S R; Søgaard, J

2000-06-01

167

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way.

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

168

Effects of Transdermal Nicotine and Concurrent Smoking on Cognitive Performance in Tobacco-Abstinent Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers experience cognitive decrements during tobacco abstinence and boosts in performance on resumption of smoking. Few studies have examined whether smoking cessation treatments such as transdermal nicotine (TN) ameliorate these decrements or attenuate the cognitive effects of smoking. Identifying the effects of nicotine on these tobacco-related changes in performance could guide the development of more efficacious treatments. The purpose of

Bethea A. Kleykamp; Janine M. Jennings; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

169

Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking behavior has been shown to be influ- enced by individuals' perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean in- door air and youth access to tobacco are asso- ciated with residents' subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies.

William L. Hamilton; Lois Biener; Robert T. Brennan

2008-01-01

170

Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures

Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Megan Murray

2007-01-01

171

Tobacco Smoke Exposure Before, During, and After Pregnancy and Risk of Overweight at Age 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with overweight and obesity in childhood and is strongly correlated with children's tobacco smoke exposure before and after pregnancy. We investigated the independent association of tobacco smoke exposure at various pre- and postnatal periods and overweight at age 6. A total of 1,954 children attending the 2001–2002 school entrance health examination in the

Elke Raum; Jutta Küpper-Nybelen; Andreas Lamerz; Johannes Hebebrand; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Hermann Brenner

2011-01-01

172

Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Adolescents: Urinary Cotinine and Environmental Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and urinary cotinine was studied in 434 14-y-old schoolchildren. To estimate the independent contribution of physiological and environmental variables to cotinine concentrations, we conducted a multiple regression analysis of log-transformed cotinine (R = .21, p < .0001). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was associated with sharing a household with members who smoked. The most

Roberto Bono; Roberto Russo; Enzo Scursatone; Giorgio Gilli

1996-01-01

173

Plant extract reduces tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is a major factor responsible for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although the best solution to reduce the incidence of these diseases is to quit smoking, there are still a large number of smokers. Thus, given the immunoregulatory properties of plant extracts, their capacity to reduce tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was

Elyse Y. Bissonnette; Léa-Isabelle Proulx; Annie Spahr; Marie France Janelle; Stéphane Dupuis

2006-01-01

174

Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Asthma and Wheezing in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on asthma and wheezing were investigated in 5,762 school-aged children resid- ing in 12 Southern California communities. Responses to a self- administered questionnaire completed by parents of 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students were used to ascertain children with wheez- ing or physician-diagnosed asthma. Lifetime household

FRANK D. GILLILAND; YU-FEN LI; JOHN M. PETERS

175

Lifetime tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We analyzed data from a case–control study to assess the association between lifetime tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer\\u000a incidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Incident breast cancer cases were identified in the Massachusetts Cancer Registry and population controls were sampled from\\u000a state Medicare lists and driver’s license rosters. Demographic, lifestyle, medical history, reproductive history, and passive\\u000a and active smoking exposure variables were assessed by

Thomas P. Ahern; Timothy L. Lash; Kathleen M. Egan; John A. Baron

2009-01-01

176

From never to daily smoking in 30 months: the predictive value of tobacco and non-tobacco advertising exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the specificity of the association between tobacco advertising and youth smoking initiation. Design Longitudinal survey with a 30?month interval. Setting 21 public schools in three German states. Participants A total of 1320 sixth-to-eighth grade students who were never-smokers at baseline (age range at baseline, 10–15?years; mean, 12.3?years). Exposures Exposure to tobacco and non-tobacco advertisements was measured at baseline with images of six tobacco and eight non-tobacco advertisements; students indicated the number of times they had seen each ad and the sum score over all advertisements was used to represent inter-individual differences in the amount of advertising exposure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Established smoking, defined as smoked >100 cigarettes during the observational period, and daily smoking at follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were any smoking and smoking in the last 30?days. Results During the observation period, 5% of the never-smokers at baseline smoked more than 100 cigarettes and 4.4% were classified as daily smokers. After controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, school performance, television screen time, personality characteristics and smoking status of peers and parents, each additional 10 tobacco advertising contacts increased the adjusted relative risk for established smoking by 38% (95% CI 16% to 63%; p<0.001) and for daily smoking by 30% (95% CI 3% to 64%; p<0.05). No significant association was found for non-tobacco advertising contact. Conclusions The study confirms a content-specific association between tobacco advertising and smoking behaviour and underlines that tobacco advertising exposure is not simply a marker for adolescents who are generally more receptive or attentive towards marketing.

Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

177

Ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behaviors, sources of tobacco, knowledge and attitudes toward restriction policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine racial\\/ethnic differences in adolescent smoking behavior, sources of tobacco, knowledge of and attitudes toward youth tobacco restriction policies, and perceptions of tobacco availability by adolescents. The study is important as it will add to the growing body of literature regarding tobacco use by minors, and will help policymakers and public health professionals

Grace X Ma; Steve Shive; Patricia Legos; Yin Tan

2003-01-01

178

Blood nicotine, smoke exposure and tobacco withdrawal symptoms.  

PubMed

The relationship between tobacco withdrawal symptoms and pre- and post-cigarette blood nicotine levels, pre-cigarette cotinine levels, change in nicotine level from pre- to post-cigarette, half-life for nicotine, and total smoke exposure was examined in 20 smokers. Subjects' reports of craving for cigarettes were significantly related to blood nicotine/cotinine levels and change in nicotine level from pre- to post-cigarette; questionnaire measures of confusion and number of awakenings during sleep was related to half-life for nicotine; and number of awakenings during sleep was related to behavioral measures of total smoke exposure. These results suggests some symptoms of tobacco withdrawal are related to nicotine deprivation while others are not. PMID:4091074

Hatsukami, D K; Hughes, J R; Pickens, R W

1985-01-01

179

[Chromatography analysis of tobacco smoke condensate in biology tissue].  

PubMed

Specialized analytical instrumentation for detailed analysis of nicotine, benz(alpha)pyrene, pyridine and benzene in tooth enamel and pulp of inveterate tobacco smokers is created. A Waters PPY-24 liquid chromatograph is equipped with Model M660 solvent programmer and a Model U6K sample injector is used. A Model 440 dual-wavelength detector is used to obtain absorbance ratios on dual-pen recorder. Our data show that concentration of tobacco smoke components in tooth cavity of inveterate tobacco smokers is different. The chisel tooth pulp contained considerably more nicotine and pyridine as compared with molars. The level of benzene does not change analyzed structures. The assumption of linearity between calculation of predicted retention times and concentration has been shown to be valid up to about 8,0% for all studied compounds. PMID:20157203

Zurabashvili, D Z; Chanturia, I R; Kapanadze, L R

2010-01-01

180

Earlier Age at Menopause, Work and Tobacco Smoke Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective Earlier age at menopause onset has been associated with increased all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risks. Risk of earlier age at menopause associated with primary and secondary tobacco smoke exposure was assessed. Design Cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of US women. Methods 7596 women participants (representing an estimated 79 million US women) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III were asked: time since last menstrual period, occupation, and tobacco use (including home and workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure). Blood cotinine and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regressions for the odds of earlier age at menopause, stratified on race/ethnicity in women 25-50 years and adjusted for survey design, were controlled for age, BMI, education, tobacco smoke exposure, and occupation. Results Among 5029 US women ? 25 years with complete data, earlier age at menopause was found among all smokers, and among service and manufacturing industry sector workers. Among women age 25-50 years, there was an increased risk of earlier age at menopause with both primary smoking and with SHS exposure, particularly among Black women. Conclusions Primary tobacco use and SHS exposure were associated with an increased odds of earlier age at menopause in a representative sample of US women. Earlier age at menopause was found for some women worker groups with greater potential occupational SHS exposure. Thus, control of SHS exposures in the workplace may decrease the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with earlier age at menopause in US women workers.

Fleming, Lora E; Levis, Silvina; LeBlanc, William G; Dietz, Noella A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Wilkinson, James D; Clark, John; Serdar, Berrin; Davila, Evelyn P; Lee, David J

2009-01-01

181

Use of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Constituents as Markers for Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the

Judy S. LaKind; Roger A. Jenkins; Daniel Q. Naiman; Michael E. Ginevan; Carol G. Graves; Robert G. Tardiff

1999-01-01

182

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

183

Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Adult Rat Brain Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to deleterious health effects, particularly pulmonary and cardiac disease;\\u000a yet, the general public considers ETS benign to brain function in adults. In contrast, epidemiological data have suggested\\u000a that ETS impacts the brain and potentially modulates neurodegenerative disease. The present study begins to examine yet unknown\\u000a biochemical effects of ETS on the adult mammalian

Brian F. Fuller; Mark S. Gold; Kevin K. W. Wang; Andrew K. Ottens

2010-01-01

184

Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an

A. Azevedo; A. P. Machado; H. Barros

185

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

186

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers.

2011-01-01

187

"Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Main results: The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "...prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". Conclusions: The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places.

Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

2004-01-01

188

School Tobacco Control Policies Related to Students’ Smoking and Attitudes Toward Smoking: National Survey Results, 1999-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by staff, and student smoking behavior and attitudes. Data on students’

Revathy Kumar; Patrick M. O’Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston

2005-01-01

189

Protecting children: reducing their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed

The present review examines the current status of efforts to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) among infants and young children. Estimates of the number of children exposed vary, but it is probably over 20 million or about 35% of all U.S. children. Healthy People 2010 sets as an objective the reduction, to 10%, of the proportion of children regularly exposed to tobacco smoke at home. Children with ETS exposure are at higher risk for upper respiratory illnesses, asthma, otitis media, and sudden infant death syndrome. Eight experimental or quasi-experimental studies of attempts to reduce children' ETS exposure with sample sizes of greater than 100 were conducted in the United States and published between 1990 and 2003. Most of these studies showed a significant impact on maternal smoking and on the number of cigarettes smoked in the home, although intervention-control differences were relatively small. Despite support from professional organizations and federal government groups, many pediatricians and family physicians do not routinely engage in intensive efforts to reduce children's ETS exposure. Training in techniques for reducing tobacco dependence should be included in professional education programs. Public and private insurance should reimburse providers for efforts in this area. An overall strategy for reducing children's ETS exposure should combine individual counseling and education in offices, clinics, and homes with community education and regulatory and economic policies (i.e., smoking bans and excise taxes). Additional funding is needed for studies of provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices; of the effectiveness of various communication strategies; and of office- and community-based strategies to reduce ETS exposure. PMID:15203824

Klerman, Lorraine

2004-04-01

190

Publicans and passive smoking: a survey of publicans' views on tobacco smoke in their workplaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has highlighted the risks of lung cancer and heart disease from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In the United Kingdom the government has encouraged action from employers to protect non-snioking employees, but such provision remains voluntary and is sporadic. Publicans are exposed to a high level of workplace ETS, and a small survey in Cardiff showed their concerns. Attempts

Linda M Davies

1999-01-01

191

Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that cigarette smoking kills over 1 000 000 people each year by causing lung cancer as well as many other neoplasmas. p53 mutations are frequent in tobacco-related cancers and the mutation load is often higher in cancers from smokers than from nonsmokers. In lung cancers, the p53 mutational patterns are different between smokers and nonsmokers with an

Gerd P Pfeifer; Mikhail F Denissenko; Magali Olivier; Natalia Tretyakova; Stephen S Hecht; Pierre Hainaut

2002-01-01

192

Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.  

PubMed

About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes. PMID:21910781

Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

2011-11-01

193

Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective.  

PubMed

Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland. PMID:20682485

Kaleta, Dorota; Pola?ska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Kozie?, Anna; Kwa?niewska, Magdalena; Mi?kiewicz, Paulina; Drygas, Wojciech

2010-01-01

194

The Tobacco Industry's Role in the 16 Cities Study of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Do the Data Support the Stated Conclusions?  

PubMed Central

Background Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. Objectives Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency and court records, and to evaluate the validity of the study’s conclusions. Results The tobacco industry’s purpose in conducting the 16 Cities Study was to develop data showing that workplace SHS exposures were negligible, using these data to stop smoking restrictions by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The extensive involvement of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the tobacco industry’s Center for Indoor Air Research in controlling the study was not fully disclosed. The study’s definition of “smoking workplace” included workplaces where smoking was restricted to designated areas or where no smoking was observed. This definition substantially reduced the study’s reported average SHS concentrations in “smoking workplaces” because SHS levels in unrestricted smoking workplaces are much greater than in workplaces with designated smoking areas or where no smoking occurred. Stratifying the data by home smoking status and comparing exposures by workplace smoking status, however, indicates that smoke-free workplaces would halve the total SHS exposure of those living with smokers and virtually eliminate SHS exposure for most others. Conclusions Data in the 16 Cities Study reveal that smoke-free workplaces would dramatically reduce total SHS exposure, providing significant worker and public health benefits.

Barnes, Richard L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A.

2006-01-01

195

Chemoprevention of tobacco-smoke lung carcinogenesis in mice after cessation of smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Male strain A/J mice were exposed for 6 h per day, 5 days per week to a mixture of 89% cigarette sidestream smoke and 11% mainstream smoke. Total suspended particulate concentrations were 137 mg/m(3). In experiment 1, animals were exposed for 5 months to tobacco smoke and given a 4 month recovery period in air. Lung tumor multiplicity was 2.4 and incidence 89%. Animals exposed to filtered air had 1.0 tumor per lung (65% incidence). In animals kept for 5 months in smoke, removed into air and then fed a diet containing a mixture of myoinositol and dexamethasone, tumor multiplicity was 1.0 and incidence was 62%. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in animals exposed to smoke and identical to values seen in controls. In animals fed a diet containing 250 mg/kg each of phenethyl isothiocyanate and benzyl isothiocyanate during the entire 9 months, lung tumor multiplicity was 2.1 and incidence 96%, not significantly different from animals exposed to smoke and fed control diet. In experiment 2, animals were exposed for 5 months to smoke, followed by a 4 month recovery period in air and were fed during the entire period a diet containing either D-limonene or 1, 4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenoisocyanate (p-XSC). In animals exposed to tobacco smoke and fed control diet, lung tumor multiplicity was 2.8, whereas in the animals fed D-limonene it was 2. 6 and in the animals fed p-XSC it was 2.4. The differences to the controls were statistically not significant. It was concluded that myoinositol-dexamethasone successfully prevents the development of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors even if administered when the animals have 'quit' smoking. On the other hand, agents otherwise shown to prevent lung tumor formation following administration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone or benzo[a]pyrene were ineffective against tobacco smoke. PMID:10783321

Witschi, H; Uyeminami, D; Moran, D; Espiritu, I

2000-05-01

196

The Healthy People 2010 smoking prevalence and tobacco control objectives: results from the SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) set a goal of reducing the adult smoking prevalence to 12% by 2010. Smoking prevalence rates do not appear to be declining at or near the rate targeted in the HP2010 goals. The purpose of this paper is to examine the attainability of HP2010 smoking prevalence objectives through the stricter tobacco control policies suggested in

David T. Levy; Leonid Nikolayev; Elizabeth Mumford; Christine Compton

2005-01-01

197

Tobacco advertising and coverage of smoking and health in women's magazines.  

PubMed

This study examines the extent of tobacco advertising and the coverage of smoking and health in all Irish produced women's magazines for 1989-93. There were 805 pieces in 402 magazines of which 684 (85%) were tobacco advertisements, 48 (5.7%) were new briefs; 27 (3.4%) were advice columns; 16 (2%) were feature articles; 15 (1.9%) were health promotion advertisements dealing with smoking and pregnancy; 10 (1.2%) were letters and 5 (0.61%) were editorials. Topics covered by the 106 articles on smoking were: smoking cessation-43 (40.6%); general health issues 35 (33%); smoking in pregnancy-4 (3.8%) and passive smoking 17 (16%). Of the 106 articles, 4 were negative about measures to control smoking. Four cigarette brands accounted for 70% of the advertisements. No tobacco advertisement carried the warning that "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" or "Smoking kills". The 385002 cm2 of space devoted to tobacco advertising and negative messages about the dangers of tobacco and health represents 1.95% of total magazine space and is 14.5 times greater than the 26575 cm2 of positive messages about the dangers of smoking. That these magazines advertise tobacco without adequately covering the harmful effects of tobacco would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in their stated concern for women's health and lends further strength to the principle of a total ban on all tobacco advertising. PMID:7960651

Howell, F

198

Adolescent smoking decline during California's tobacco control programme  

PubMed Central

Objective: California's comprehensive tobacco control programme was 13 years old in 2002; by then, children entering adolescence at the start of the programme were young adults. This study examines whether adolescent smoking declined over this period, whether any decline carried through to young adulthood, and whether it was specific to California. Setting and participants: Most data were from the 1990–2002 California Tobacco Surveys (CTS) (adolescents 12–17 years, > 5000/survey, young adults 18–24 years, > 1000/survey). Additional data were from the national 1992/93–2001/02 Current Population Survey (CPS) (young adults 18–24 years, > 15 000/survey). Results: Over the 13 year period in California, ever puffing declined by 70% in 12–13 year olds, by 53% in 14–15 year olds from 1992–2002, and by 34% in 16–17 year olds from 1996–2002 (CTS). As noted, the decline commenced progressively later in each older group. Smoking experimentation (1+ cigarettes) and established smoking (> 100 cigarettes in lifetime) showed similar patterns. Compared to 1990, the percentage of California young adults (CTS data) who ever experimented declined by 14%, with half of the decline from 1999–2002. CPS young adult smoking prevalence (established and now smoke everyday or some days) was constant in the rest of the USA over the entire period, but California showed a recent 18% decline from 1998/99 to 2001/02. Conclusions: California's comprehensive programme may have kept new adolescent cohorts from experimenting with cigarettes. Low young adolescent experimentation rates at programme start appeared to carry through to young adulthood, resulting in a recent drop in young adult smoking prevalence in California not observed in the rest of the USA.

Pierce, J; White, M; Gilpin, E

2005-01-01

199

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Introduction Thailand ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on November 8, 2004. The WHO FCTC requires all parties to inform all persons of the health consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. Each party has agreed to develop, implement and evaluate effective tobacco control programs to measure progress in reaching the goals of the WHO FCTC. Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) was developed to provide data on youth tobacco use to countries for their development of youth-based tobacco control programs. Data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation of the tobacco control programs implemented by the Ministry of Public Health. Results Overall, about 1 in 10 Thai students are current smokers, this number including 4 times more boys than girls (17% versus 3.9%). Almost 2 in 10 Thai students start smoking before the age of 10, and almost 7 in 10 students are reported to have been exposed to smoke from others in public places. About 4 in 10 students are reported to have an object with a cigarette brand logo on it. Conclusion The key for Thailand is to implement and enforce the provisions on indirect tobacco advertising, smoking in public places, selling tobacco to youths under 18 years of age, and to use the data from the GYTS to monitor progress toward achieving the goals of the WHO FCTC. When these goals are met, tobacco consumption and exposure in Thailand will have declined substantially.

Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Techatraisakdi, Chairat; Rahman, Khalillur; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira; Lee, Juliette

2008-01-01

200

Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

2012-01-01

201

Health outcomes associated with long-term regular cannabis and tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not cannabis (tobacco-only group, n=80), or used neither substance (control group, n=123). Participants completed a survey addressing substance use, diagnosed medical conditions, health concerns relating to smoking cannabis/tobacco, and general health (measured using the Physical Health Questionnaire and the Short Form 36). Several significant differences were found among the four groups. With regard to diagnosed medical conditions, the three smoking groups reported significantly higher rates of emphysema than did the control group (ps<.001). However, all members of the cannabis-only group diagnosed with emphysema were former regular tobacco smokers. Total general health scores, general health subscales, and items addressing smoking-related health concerns also revealed several significant group differences, and these tended to show worse outcomes for the two tobacco smoking groups. Findings suggest that using tobacco on its own and mixing it with cannabis may lead to worse physical health outcomes than using cannabis alone. PMID:23501136

Rooke, Sally E; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

2013-01-28

202

Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

2012-12-01

203

Effects of 24 Hours of Tobacco Withdrawal and Subsequent Tobacco Smoking Among Low and High Sensation Seekers  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that high sensation seekers are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, initiate smoking at an earlier age, and smoke greater amounts of cigarettes. This study examined the influence of sensation-seeking status on tobacco smoking following deprivation in regular tobacco users. Methods: Twenty healthy tobacco-smoking volunteers with low or high impulsive sensation-seeking subscale scores completed 2 consecutive test days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Each week, a range of self-report, performance, and cardiovascular assessments were completed during ad libitum smoking on Day 1 and before and after the paced smoking of a tobacco cigarette containing 0.05, 0.6, or 0.9 mg of nicotine following 24 hr of tobacco deprivation on Day 2. In addition, self-administration behavior was analyzed during a 2-hr free access period after the initial tobacco administration. Results: In high sensation seekers, tobacco smoking independent of nicotine yield ameliorated deprivation effects, whereas amelioration of deprivation effects was dependent on nicotine yield among low sensation seekers. However, this effect was limited to a small subset of measures. Subsequent cigarette self-administration increased in a nicotine-dependent manner for high sensation seekers only. Conclusions: Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers were more sensitive to the withdrawal relieving effects of nonnicotine components of smoking following 24 hr of deprivation on selective measures and more sensitive to nicotine yield during subsequent tobacco self-administration. These results are consistent with studies suggesting that factors driving tobacco dependence may vary as a function of sensation-seeking status.

Perkins, Kenneth A.; Zimmerman, Eli; Robbins, Glenn; Kelly, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

204

Acute effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking: a double-blind, placebo-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking usually involves heating flavored tobacco with charcoal and inhaling the resulting smoke after it has passed through water. Waterpipe tobacco smoking increases heart rate and produces subjective effects similar to those reported by cigarette smokers. These responses are thought to be nicotine-mediated, though no placebo-control studies exist. Accordingly, this double-blind, placebo-control study compared the acute physiological and subjective effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking to those produced when participants used a waterpipe to smoke a flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. Methods Occasional waterpipe tobacco smokers (N=37; 2–5 monthly smoking episodes for ? 6 months) completed two double-blind, counterbalanced sessions that differed by product: preferred brand/flavor of waterpipe tobacco or flavor-matched, tobacco-free preparation. For each 45-minute, ad lib smoking episode blood and expired air CO were sampled, cardiovascular and respiratory response were measured, and subjective response was assessed. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking significantly increased mean (±SEM) plasma nicotine concentration (3.6±0.7 ng/ml) and heart rate (8.6±1.4 bpm) while placebo did not (0.1±0.0 ng/ml; 1.3±0.9 bpm). For carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired air CO, significant increases were observed for tobacco (3.8±0.4%; 27.9±2.6 ppm) and for placebo (3.9±0.4%; 27.7±3.3 ppm) with no differences across condition. Independent of condition, symptoms of nicotine/tobacco abstinence (e.g., “urges to smoke”, “anxious”) were reduced and direct effects (e.g., “dizzy”, “satisfy”) increased. Discussion These results from the first placebo-control study of waterpipe tobacco smoking demonstrate that waterpipe-induced heart rate increases are almost certainly mediated by nicotine though the subjective effects observed in these occasional smokers were not.

Blank, Melissa D.; Cobb, Caroline O.; Kilgalen, Barbara; Austin, Janet; Weaver, Michael F.; Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

205

Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe and understand the relationship between the tobacco and gambling industries in connection to their collaborative efforts to prevent smoke-free casinos and gambling facilities and fight smoke-free policies generally. Methods: Analysis of tobacco industry documents available online (accessed between February and December 2003). Results: The tobacco industry has worked to convince the gambling industry to fight against smoke-free environments. Representatives of the gambling industry with ties to the tobacco industry oppose smoke-free workplaces by claiming that smoke-free environments hurt gambling revenue and by promoting ventilation as a solution to secondhand smoke. With help from the tobacco industry, the gambling industry has become a force at the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers opposing smoke-free ventilation standards for the hospitality industry. Conclusion: Tobacco industry strategies to mobilise the gambling industry to oppose smoke-free environments are consistent with past strategies to co-opt the hospitality industry and with strategies to influence policy from behind the scenes. Tobacco control advocates need to be aware of the connections between the tobacco and gambling industries in relation to smoke-free environments and work to expose them to the public and to policy makers.

Mandel, L; Glantz, S

2004-01-01

206

The effects of tobacco control policies on smoking rates: a tobacco control scorecard.  

PubMed

This article reviews studies of the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking rates with the aim of providing guidance on the importance of different policies. Based on past studies, we estimate the magnitude of effects of major tobacco control policies, how their effects depend on the manner in which the policies are implemented, the relationship between the different policies, and the barriers to implementation. The most successful campaigns have implemented a combination of tobacco control policies. Of those policies, substantial evidence indicates that higher taxes and clean air laws can have a large impact on smoking rates. Evidence also indicates that media campaigns when implemented with other policies are important. Research on greater access to treatment and telephone support hotlines indicates a strong potential to increase quit rates and may be important in affecting heavier smokers. Direct evidence on the effects of advertising bans and health warnings is mixed, but these policies appear to be important in some of the countries that have had success in reducing smoking rates. School education programs and limits on retail sales are not likely to have much impact if implemented alone, but may be more important when combined with other policies. PMID:15235381

Levy, David T; Chaloupka, Frank; Gitchell, Joseph

207

The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part II: Casing ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a study in which the effects of adding a range of ingredients to tobacco on the chemistry of cigarette mainstream smoke are assessed. The examination of smoke chemistry has concentrated on those constituents in smoke that regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada believe to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. In this part of

Richard R. Baker; José R. Pereira da Silva; Graham Smith

2004-01-01

208

Sex differences in nicotine versus nonnicotine reinforcement as determinants of tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine replacement is less effective for smoking cessation in women than men. A possible explanation is that nicotine intake may be a less reinforcing consequence of tobacco smoking in women versus men, whereas nonnicotine aspects of smoking may be more reinforcing. Recent research suggests that nicotine self-administration is less robust in women, that women may reduce their smoking to a

Kenneth A. Perkins

1996-01-01

209

Occupational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Study in Lisbon Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data

Solange A. Pacheco; Fátima Aguiar; Patrícia Ruivo; Maria Carmo Proença; Michael Sekera; Deborah Penque; Tânia Simões

2012-01-01

210

Smoking and Tobacco Use Cessation (Counseling to Stop Smoking or Using Tobacco Products)  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: Home Your Medicare coverage Share Your Medicare Coverage Is my test, item, or service covered? ... use tobacco are covered. Your costs in Original Medicare You pay 20% of the Medicare-approved amount ...

211

MR and GR functional SNPs may modulate tobacco smoking susceptibility.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that stress is involved in all aspects of smoking behavior, including initiation, maintenance and relapse. The mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors are expressed in several brain areas and play a key role in negative feedback of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. As nicotine increases the activation of the HPA axis, we wondered if functional SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in MR and GR coding genes (NR3C2 rs5522 and NR3C1 rs6198, respectively) may be involved in smoking susceptibility. The sample included 627 volunteers, of which 514 were never-smokers and 113 lifetime smokers. We report an interaction effect between rs5522 and rs6198 SNPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of the NR3C2 rs5522 Val allele in NR3C1 rs6198 G carriers was 0.18 (P = 0.007), while in rs6198 G noncarriers the OR was 1.83 (P = 0.027). We also found main effects of the NR3C1 rs6198 G allele on number of cigarettes smoked per day (P = 0.027) and in total score of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (P = 0.007). These findings are consistent with a possible link between NR3C2 and NR3C1 polymorphisms and smoking behavior and provide a first partial replication for a nominally significant GWAS finding between NR3C2 and tobacco smoking. PMID:23543128

Rovaris, Diego L; Mota, Nina R; de Azeredo, Lucas A; Cupertino, Renata B; Bertuzzi, Guilherme P; Polina, Evelise R; Contini, Verônica; Kortmann, Gustavo L; Vitola, Eduardo S; Grevet, Eugenio H; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Bau, Claiton H D

2013-03-31

212

The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles  

PubMed Central

Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

Scott, DA; Palmer, RM

2003-01-01

213

Women and waterpipe tobacco smoking in the eastern mediterranean region: allure or offensiveness.  

PubMed

The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide, despite evidence indicating its adverse health effects. Women and young people seem more likely to be choosing waterpipe tobacco smoking over cigarettes. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand better whether and why waterpipe smoking is a more acceptable form of tobacco use than cigarettes for women in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and to understand whether the strategies used by multi-national corporations to attract women to cigarette smoking were perceived to be relevant in the context of waterpipe tobacco use. Focus groups (n?=?81) and in-depth interviews (n?=?38) were conducted with adults in Lebanon, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Discussions were thematically analyzed and recurrent themes identified. One of the themes which emerged was the negative image of women smoking waterpipes. Moreover, the sexual allure conveyed through waterpipe smoking as well as waterpipe tobacco smoking as a symbol of emancipation was illustrated. The latter was mainly expressed in Lebanon, in contrast with Egypt where traditional gender roles depict women smoking waterpipes as disrespectful to society. Understanding the social aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking is crucial to planning future interventions to control waterpipe tobacco smoking among women and in society at large. PMID:23421341

Khalil, Joanna; Afifi, Rima; Fouad, Fouad M; Hammal, Fadi; Jarallah, Yara; Mohamed, Mostafa; Nakkash, Rima

2013-01-01

214

DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

215

An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. Methods The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM2.5) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Results Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM2.5: more than 3,800 ?g/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM2.5 were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 ?g/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 ?g/m3). Discussion This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

Sendzik, Taryn; Travers, Mark J.; Hyland, Andrew

2009-01-01

216

The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth  

PubMed Central

Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%). Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

2012-01-01

217

CFTR Modulation by the Tobacco Smoke Toxin Acrolein  

PubMed Central

Objectives Evidence indicates that decreased mucociliary clearance (MCC) is a major contributing feature to chronic rhinosinusitis. Tobacco-smoke exposure is thought to inhibit transepithelial Cl? secretion – a major determinant of airway surface liquid hydration and MCC. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of acrolein exposure (a prominent tobacco smoke toxin) on vectorial Cl? transport through the major apical anion channel CFTR in sinonasal epithelium. Study Design In vitro investigation. Methods Primary murine nasal septal (MNSE, wild type and transgenic CFTR?/?) cultures were exposed to acrolein in Ussing chambers and effects on Cl? secretion investigated using pharmacologic manipulation. Cellular cAMP signaling and cytotoxicity were also investigated. Results Acrolein stimulated Cl? secretion (?ISC – change in short-circuit current in µA/cm2) at concentrations similar to smoker’s airways (100 ?M, 15.8 +/? 2.2 vs. 2.4 +/? 0.8(control); p<0.0001), suppressed forskolin-stimulated Cl? transport at 300 ?M (13.3 +/? 1.2 vs. 19.9 +/? 1.0; p < 0.01}, and completely abolished all transport at 500 ?M (?1.1+/? 1.6). Stimulated Cl? secretion was solely reliant upon the presence of CFTR (confirmed in transgenic CFTR?/? MNSE), but independent of cAMP signaling. Inhibition at higher concentrations was not secondary to cellular cytotoxicity. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that acrolein has complex, but pronounced interaction with the major apical Cl? transport mechanism that utilizes CFTR. Further investigations are required to determine acrolein’s impact as a tobacco smoke constituent on mucociliary transport.

Alexander, Nathan S.; Blount, Angela; Zhang, Shaoyan; Skinner, Daniel; Hicks, Stephen B.; Chestnut, Michael; Kebbel, Frederick A.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Woodworth, Bradford A.

2012-01-01

218

An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking by physicians represents a contentious issue in public health, and regardless of what country it originates from, the need for accurate, historical data is paramount. As such, this article provides an international comparison of all modern literature describing the tobacco smoking habits of contemporary physicians. METHODS: A keyword search of appropriate MeSH terms was initially undertaken to

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2007-01-01

219

Cigarette and Tobacco Consumption: Have Anti-Smoking Policies Made a Difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of cigarette and tobacco products in Australia is modelled using the rational addiction theory of Becker and Murphy. The model incorporates information on advertising by cigarette and tobacco producers and by anti-smoking organisations, measures of anti-smoking policies such as advertising prohibitions and workplace bans, and demographic factors. Our result show that the Becker-Murphy model works well.

P. Bardsley; N. Olekans

1998-01-01

220

Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design: We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results: The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert

Peggy Ann Lopipero; Lisa A Bero

2010-01-01

221

The Elimination Half-Life of Urinary Cotinine in Children of Tobacco-Smoking Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is strongly associated with childhood morbidity. Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, is a useful marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine levels in infants are higher than in older children or adults exposed to the same reported quantity of ETS. One hypothesis to explain this difference is that the urinary elimination half-life of cotinine

J. W. Leong; N. D. Dore; K. Shelley; E. J. Holt; I. A. Laing; L. J. Palmer; P. N. LeSouef

1998-01-01

222

Tobacco taxes and starting and quitting smoking: does the effect differ by education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses duration analysis to investigate the role of tobacco taxes in starting and quitting smoking. Applying a variety of parametric duration models to a sample of Irish women, it finds that in general tobacco taxes do influence starting and quitting smoking in the expected direction. It also finds that the effect for starting differs by education but in

David Madden

2007-01-01

223

Brain Reactivity to Smoking Cues Prior to Smoking Cessation Predicts Ability to Maintain Tobacco Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background Developing means to identify smokers at high risk for relapse could advance relapse prevention therapy. We hypothesized that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reactivity to smoking-related cues, measured prior to a quit attempt, could identify smokers with heightened relapse vulnerability. Methods Twenty-one nicotine-dependent women underwent fMRI prior to quitting smoking, during which smoking-related and neutral images were shown. These smokers also were tested for possible attentional biases to smoking-related words using a computerized emotional Stroop (ES) task previously found to predict relapse. Smokers then made a quit attempt and were grouped based on outcomes (abstinence versus slip: smoking 1 cigarette after attaining abstinence). Pre-quit fMRI and ES measurements in these groups were compared. Results Slip subjects had heightened fMRI reactivity to smoking-related images in brain regions implicated in emotion, interoceptive awareness, and motor planning and execution. Smoking cue-induced insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) reactivity correlated with an attentional bias to smoking-related words. A discriminant analysis of ES and fMRI data predicted outcomes with 79% accuracy. Additionally, smokers who slipped had decreased fMRI functional connectivity between an insula-containing network and brain regions involved in cognitive control, including the dACC and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, possibly reflecting reduced top-down control of smoking-related cue-induced emotions. Conclusions These findings suggest that the insula and dACC are important substrates of smoking relapse vulnerability. The data also suggest that relapse-vulnerable smokers can be identified prior to quit attempts, which could enable personalized treatment, improve tobacco-dependence treatment outcomes, and reduce smoking-related morbidity and mortality.

Janes, Amy C.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Richardt, Sarah; Frederick, Blaise deB.; Chuzi, Sarah; Pachas, Gladys; Culhane, Melissa A.; Holmes, Avram J.; Fava, Maurizio; Evins, A. Eden; Kaufman, Marc J.

2010-01-01

224

Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

Zheng, Pinpin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

2013-08-02

225

Tobacco control and the inequitable socio-economic distribution of smoking: smokers’ discourses and implications for tobacco control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warning: this article contains strong language.This paper focuses on the ways in which social context structures smokers’ views of, and reactions to, tobacco control. This exploratory study examined the interactions between tobacco control and smokers’ social contexts and how this may be contributing to inequalities in smoking. We found in our sample that higher socio-economic status (SES) smokers are more

Katherine L. Frohlich; Blake Poland; Eric Mykhalovskiy; Stephanie Alexander; Catherine Maule

2010-01-01

226

College Students' Perception of Philip Morris's Tobacco-Related Smoking Prevention and Tobacco-Unrelated Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of 2 Philip Morris corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs—a tobacco-related smoking prevention versus a tobacco-unrelated program—on college students' perceived CSR motive, attitudes toward Philip Morris, and behavioral intentions to support the company. Using 2 college student samples in the United States and South Korea, this study found that the tobacco-unrelated program and a positively perceived

Yeon Soo Kim; Youjin Choi

2012-01-01

227

Tobacco marketing and adolescent smoking: more support for a causal inference.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This prospective study examined the effect of tobacco marketing on progression to established smoking. METHODS: Massachusetts adolescents (n = 529) who at baseline had smoked no more than 1 cigarette were reinterviewed by telephone in 1997. Analyses examined the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing at baseline on progression to established smoking, controlling for significant covariates. RESULTS: Adolescents who, at baseline, owned a tobacco promotional item and named a brand whose advertisements attracted their attention were more than twice as likely to become established smokers (odds ratio = 2.70) than adolescents who did neither. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in tobacco marketing often precedes, and is likely to facilitate, progression to established smoking. Hence, restrictions on tobacco marketing and promotion could reduce addiction to tobacco.

Biener, L; Siegel, M

2000-01-01

228

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. METHODS: A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. RESULTS: Some of the earliest surveys revealed

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2008-01-01

229

Carcinogenic Risk of Lead-210 and Polonium-210 in Tobacco Smoke: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is concerned with the possible carcinogenic risk to man from the presence of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco smoke. It includes a data base on such topics as background levels of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco and tobacco smok...

C. C. Travis E. L. Etnier K. A. Kirkscey

1978-01-01

230

Use in augmenting or enhancing the aroma or taste of smoking tobacco compositions and smoking tobacco articles of branched chain olefinic alcohols  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Described is the use in augmenting or enhancing the aroma or taste of smoking tobaccos or smoking tobacco articles of members of the novel compound genus defined according to the structure: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of methyl and isopropyl and wherein in each of the compounds one of the dashed lines represents a carbon-carbon double bond and each of the other of the dashed lines represent carbon-carbon single bonds.

Boden; Richard M. (Monmouth Beach, NJ)

1984-07-03

231

Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed.

2012-01-01

232

Argileh smoking among university students: a new tobacco epidemic.  

PubMed

The recent global increase in argileh use represents the modern renaissance of an old public health threat and a new tobacco epidemic. This study examined argileh smoking knowledge and attitudes in a sample of university students in Beirut as determinants of argileh smoking. Data were collected cross-sectionally through self-administered questionnaires from 416 students at the American University of Beirut through stratified cluster sampling. The proportion of ever-smokers in this study was 43%, compared with the 30% reported 4 years ago. A total of 28.3% of the surveyed students were current argileh smokers, and the average initiation age was 16 years. Compared with argileh smokers, significantly greater proportions of nonsmokers had positive attitudes about argileh banning and more accurate knowledge about argileh. Argileh smoking among Lebanese young is on the rise. Students demonstrated partial knowledge and moderate to favorable attitudes concerning argileh smoking. Possible public health interventions are discussed in light of the social and cultural context of argileh use to neutralize this emerging global public health threat. PMID:15203779

Chaaya, Monique; El-Roueiheb, Zana; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Azar, Grace; Nasr, Joumana; Al-Sahab, Ban

2004-06-01

233

Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4

Hammond, S K

1999-01-01

234

Smoke free families: a tobacco control program for pregnant women and their families.  

PubMed

Tobacco use during pregnancy continues to cause health problems for women and children. Nurses can facilitate smoking cessation during pregnancy through the use of tobacco control guidelines and counseling tailored to pregnant women. In this article, the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: Clinical Practice Guideline is reviewed; the Smoke Free Families program, which is tailored for pregnancy, stage matched, and includes second-hand smoke control assistance, is described; and two models for integrating smoking cessation counseling into prenatal services are offered. PMID:11843018

Pletsch, Pamela K; Morgan, Sarah

235

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in “smoke-free” bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second

Gera E. Nagelhout; Ute Mons; Shane Allwright; Romain Guignard; François Beck; Geoffrey T. Fong; Hein de Vries; Marc C. Willemsen

2011-01-01

236

Residual tobacco smoke: measurement of its washout time in the lung and of its contribution to environmental tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking entails inhaling millions of fine particles with each puff, and it is intuitive that after smoking a cigarette it will take a certain time to washout residual tobacco smoke (RTS) from the lungs with subsequent breaths. Objectives To study the washout time of 0.3–1.0?µm particles after the last puff in 10 volunteer smokers by using equipment capable of measuring particle concentration in real time in the exhaled air. Result Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lung RTS washout time was 58.6 (23.6)?s, range 18–90?s, and corresponded to 8.7 (4.6) subsequent breathings. The contribution of individual and overall RTS to indoor pollution was calculated by subtracting incremental background particle concentration from room concentration after 10 consecutive re?entries of smokers after the last puff into a room of 33.2?m3, with an air exchange rate per hour in the range of 0.2–0.4. Mean (SD) individual RTS contribution consisted of 1402 (1490) million particles (range 51–3611 million), whereas RTS increased room 0.3–1.0?µm particle concentration from a baseline of 22?283?particles/l to a final room concentration of 341?956?particles/l, corresponding to a total increase in particulate matter (2.5) from a background of 0.56 up to 3.32?µg/m3. Conclusion These data reveal a definite although marginal, role of RTS as a source of hidden indoor pollution. Further studies are needed to understand the relevance of this contribution in smoke?free premises in terms of risk exposure; however, waiting for about 2?min before re?entry after the last puff would be enough to avoid an unwanted additional exposure for non?smokers.

Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; De Marco, Cinzia; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

2007-01-01

237

Prevalence and determinants of tobacco smoking among HIV patients in North Eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

People living with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection who smoke tobacco are more likely to develop several opportunistic infections, and also suffer complications from antiretroviral medication than the non smokers of tobacco. The burden of tobacco smoking amongst people living with this infection is poorly understood in the African population. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and determinants of tobacco smoking among HIV patients in North Eastern Nigeria. We enrolled 312 adult HIV sero-positive patients attending the Federal Medical Centre Yola, Nigeria. A modified World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended questionnaire was used to obtain information from consented subjects. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among HIV patients was 22.1%. The male to female ratio of smokers was 2:1. Peer pressure (25.8%) and pleasure (25.8%) were reported as the most common reasons for smoking tobacco. Multivariate analysis shows that male gender, age ranged 40-49 years, alcohol drinking and CD4 T lymphocyte count <200 cells/mm3 were positively associated with tobacco smoking. The prevalence of tobacco smoking among HIV patients in North Eastern Nigeria was high. Therefore, smoking should be discouraged in people living with HIV to reduce their morbidity and mortality. PMID:20175412

Desalu, O O; Oluboyo, P O; Olokoba, A B; Adekoya, A O; Danburam, A; Salawu, F K; Midala, J

2009-06-01

238

Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the effect of the tobacco industry’s marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.DESIGNPaper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.SETTING25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San

Ellen Feighery; Dina L G Borzekowski; Caroline Schooler; June Flora

1998-01-01

239

Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children  

PubMed Central

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (? = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (? = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses.

Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2005-01-01

240

Narghile (water pipe) smoking influences platelet function and (iso-)eicosanoids.  

PubMed

The biological effects of smoking water pipe on haemostasis and the eicosanoid system is unknown. Water pipe smoking is familiar to approximately 1 billion people around the world. Considering this quite impressive number, we investigated the potential effect of smoking the Narghile on oxidation injury by monitoring parameters of the (iso)eicosanoid system. Patients were allowed to smoke a water pipe once daily for 14 days. Blood was drawn from 7 healthy adult non-cigarette smoking male volunteers before and immediately after the first smoking of the water pipe and additionally after 6 hours. One and 2 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn again before and after smoking. A total of 7 blood samples was drawn during the study, and parameters of in vivo oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha, malondialdehyde [MDA]) and haemostasis (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-DH-TXB2]) were investigated. A single smoking session increased oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha: p=0.03; MDA: p=0.001) and 11-DH-TXB2 (p=0.00003) significantly, and repeated daily smoking induced a persistent long-lasting oxidation injury reflected by elevated prevalues but a smaller response to the actual water pipe smoke. These findings indicate a significant increase of in vivo oxidative stress by regular water pipe smoking. PMID:14575812

Wolfram, Roswitha M; Chehne, Fahdi; Oguogho, Anthony; Sinzinger, Helmut

2003-11-21

241

Olfactory and gustatory sensory changes to tobacco smoke in pregnant smokers.  

PubMed

Models of smoking behavior change include addiction, social, and behavioral concepts. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of two biologic factors, olfactory and gustatory responses to tobacco smoke, as potentially powerful contributors to smoking behavior change among pregnant women. Data were obtained from 209 pregnant smokers. The majority of women reported olfactory (62%) and gustatory (53%) aversions to tobacco. Aversions first appeared during the first trimester of pregnancy. Women who experienced olfactory aversions were more likely also to experience gustatory aversions. Olfactory aversions were associated with women smoking less. Aversions to tobacco smoke are common among pregnant smokers, are associated with women smoking less, and could help explain pregnant women's smoking patterns. PMID:18161772

Pletsch, Pamela K; Pollak, Kathryn I; Peterson, Bercedis L; Park, Jeongok; Oncken, Cheryl A; Swamy, Geeta K; Lyna, Pauline

2008-02-01

242

Olfactory and Gustatory Sensory Changes to Tobacco Smoke in Pregnant Smokers  

PubMed Central

Models of smoking behavior change include addiction, social, and behavioral concepts. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of two biologic factors, olfactory and gustatory responses to tobacco smoke, as potentially powerful contributors to smoking behavior change among pregnant women. Data were obtained from 209 pregnant smokers. The majority of women reported olfactory (62%) and gustatory (53%) aversions to tobacco. Aversions first appeared during the first trimester of pregnancy. Women who experienced olfactory aversions were more likely also to experience gustatory aversions. Olfactory aversions were associated with women smoking less. Aversions to tobacco smoke are common among pregnant smokers, are associated with women smoking less, and could help explain pregnant women’s smoking patterns.

Pletsch, Pamela K.; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Peterson, Bercedis L.; Park, Jeongok; Oncken, Cheryl A.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lyna, Pauline

2012-01-01

243

Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C

2012-01-01

244

Results of survey for assessing awareness level regarding radiological hazards of tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

Human consumption of tobacco is as old as human history. However, injurious health effects due to tobacco smoking may not be evident to the public at large. This article presents results of a questionnaire based on a survey carried out in the metropolitan city of Lahore of Pakistan with an aim to understand the awareness level of the general population about the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking. Some 3600 participants from different educational backgrounds from all segments of the society participated in this survey. Analysis of the data collected concluded that the awareness level of the representative participants regarding the radiological hazards associated with tobacco smoking was alarmingly poor. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the government authorities in Health and Environment departments to enlighten the general public in this respect to avoid tobacco-smoking-associated health risks. PMID:19218585

Tahir, S N A

2009-02-14

245

Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

246

"Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

Sebrie, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

2007-01-01

247

Inflammatory bowel disease and tobacco smoke--a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study was carried out in Stockholm, Sweden between 1984 and 1987 to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood and the subsequent development of inflammatory bowel disease. Information on smoking was obtained by a postal questionnaire. The relative risk of Crohn's disease in current smokers compared with those who had never

P G Persson; A Ahlbom; G Hellers

1990-01-01

248

Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children's exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban

Dee Burton; John W. Graham; C. Anderson Johnson; Antti Uutela; Erkki Vartiainen; Raymond F. Palmer

2010-01-01

249

Predictors of Support for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Bans in State Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major threat to public health, associated with a number of serious diseases, and a leading cause of death. Previous research demonstrates that enactment of government policies mandating clean indoor air is effective in creating more smoke-free public places and decreasing the incidence of smoking. Both researchers and community activists have an interest in

Peter A. Andersen; David B. Buller; Jenifer H. Voeks; Ron Borland; Donald Helme; Erwin P. Bettinghaus; Walter F. Young

2006-01-01

250

Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation - Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation.

P M Ling; S A Glantz

2004-01-01

251

Proposed Identification of Environmental Tobacco Smoke as a Toxic Air Contaminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (secondhand smoke) as of mid-2005 produced by the California Air Resources Board and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as part of the process of identifying ETS as a toxic air contaminant. Part A of the report includes information about the chemical composition of secondhand smoke and

2005-01-01

252

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Coronary Heart Syndromes: Absence of an Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns about possible cardiovascular and especially coronary effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) derive from the reported effects of active smoking. Despite similarities, however, ETS has composition and physical characteristics different from the mainstream smoke (MS) that active smokers inhale and appears relatively more chemically inert and less biologically active. ETS doses to nonsmokers are small and often below the

G. B. Gori

1995-01-01

253

Community-Based Interventions for Smokers: The COMMIT Field Experience. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Smoking Control and the COMMIT Experience-Summary and Overview(Trends in the Magnitude of Smoking as a Public Health Problem, Activities of the Tobacco Industry, COMMIT and the Evolution of the National Cancer Institute's Smoking and Tob...

1995-01-01

254

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Ventilation in 20 Social Venues in Perth, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor air quality and ventilation systems of 20 indoor public venues in the Perth Metropolitan area were investigated. This included 4 licensed restaurants, 2 licensed sporting clubs, 6 coffee shops (including a smoking café in a non-smoking shopping centre), 5 taverns, 2 night-clubs and a major hotel. Indicators of tobacco smoke and ventilation were monitored, the ventilation system was

P. Dingle; P. Tapsell; I. Tremains; R. Tan

2002-01-01

255

Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: An ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country’s level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Results Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country’s TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = ?.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). Conclusions Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers. Concerns about passive smoking seem central in the implementation of tobacco control measures, stressing the importance of continuing to educate the public about the harm from passive smoking.

2012-01-01

256

Tobacco Taxes: Large Disparities in Rates for Smoking Products Trigger Significant Market Shifts to Avoid Higher Taxes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009, CHIPRA increased and equalized federal excise tax rates for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, and small cigars. Though CHIPRA also increased federal excise tax rates for pipe tobacco and large cigars, it raised the pipe tobacco tax to a rate sig...

2012-01-01

257

Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

2012-06-05

258

Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The objectives of this study are to examine how tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and social smoking influences are associated with smoking susceptibility among youth of never smokers, and occasional and daily smoking among youth of current smokers. Methods Data were collected in 2005-2006 from grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, as part of the SHAPES-On study. A series of multi-level logistic regression analyses were performed to understand how student- and school-level factors are associated with three smoking behaviour outcomes: smoking susceptibility among never smokers, occasional smoking, and daily smoking. Results The number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was found to be associated with the likelihood of a never smoker being susceptible to future smoking (OR 1.03, 95CI% 1.01, 1.05). We also identified that being surrounded by smoking social influences, specifically family and close friends, can substantially increase the likelihood that never smokers are at risk for future smoking or that youth are already occasional or daily smokers. Conclusions We identified that the number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was associated with an increased odds of being susceptible to future smoking among male never smokers. Smoking social models surrounding youth also appears to have an important impact on their smoking behaviour regardless of their smoking status. It is important for youth smoking prevention programs to begin early, interrupt youths' susceptibility to future smoking, and focus on subgroups that are at higher risk of smoking. The government should consider the impact of tobacco retailer density on youth smoking behaviour, and be cautious when granting licenses for establishments to sell tobacco products.

2011-01-01

259

Rapid Communication: Effects of Tobacco Processing on the Quantity of Benzo[a]Pyrene in Mainstream Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon produced during incomplete combustion of organic compounds and is one of the more carcinogenic PAHs detected in tobacco smoke. Addition of organic compounds during tobacco processing increases the likelihood of finding elevated concentrations of BaP in mainstream smoke when compared to smoke from unprocessed tobacco. To test this hypothesis, the tobacco from Marlboro

Lin Alicia Martin; Sherell Byrd; Robert Milofsky

2003-01-01

260

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Restaurants without Separate Ventilation Systems for Smoking and Nonsmoking Dining Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the author examined (a) levels of airborne pollutants from environmental tobacco smoke in 8 restaurants, and (b) changes in urinary cotinine and nicotine levels among 97 nonsmoking subjects (i.e., 40 restaurant employees, 37 patrons, and 20 referents). Airborne pollutant levels were significantly lower in the control environments than in the nonsmoking dining rooms in which smoking was

Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

2003-01-01

261

Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in young adolescents following implementation of smoke-free policy in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated acute and chronic exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a cohort of young adolescents using urinary cotinine and hair nicotine testing after recent implementation of Italian smoke free legislation.Study subjects were 372 Italian young adolescents, between 10 and 16 years of age from the principal city of Sicily, Palermo. Urine and hair samples were collected between November

M. Pellegrini; M. C. Rotolo; S. La Grutta; F. Cibella; O. Garcia-Algar; A. Bacosi; G. Cuttitta; R. Pacifici; S. Pichini

2010-01-01

262

Non-invasive biological fluid matrices analysed to assess exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Human biomonitoring (analysis of biological fluids) is increasingly being used for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants. Smoking tobacco is a significant source of indoor air pollution and is harmful to human health. The aim of this research was to find both the best non-invasive matrices (from among saliva, urine, semen and sweat) for evaluating environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and the relationships between thiocyanates (biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure) and other inorganic ions in these matrices collected from active and passive smokers and also non-smokers. PMID:21559054

Demkowska, Ilona; Polkowska, Zaneta; Namie?nik, Jacek

2011-05-11

263

Scientific analysis of second-hand smoke by the tobacco industry, 1929-1972.  

PubMed

The 1972 U.S. surgeon general's report The Health Consequences of Smoking was the first to include a warning about exposure to second-hand smoke. Because the tobacco industry has a record of withholding the results of their research from the public, we searched the internal tobacco industry documents and compared internal industry research on second-hand smoke to what the industry published in the open scientific literature through 1972. We found chemical analyses, sensory evaluations, and discussions of sidestream cigarette smoke (the smoke emitted by the cigarette between puffs, the main component of second-hand smoke), beginning in 1929. American Tobacco Company research in the 1930s indicated that, compared with mainstream smoke, sidestream smoke was produced in larger quantities and contained, per cigarette, 2 times more nicotine and 12 times more ammonia. Research funded by the Tobacco Industry Research Committee in the 1950s revealed that sidestream smoke contained, per unit cigarette, higher concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, per unit mass, including four times more 3,4 benzopyrene. In 1956 and 1957, respectively, Philip Morris and R. J. Reynolds also began to research sidestream smoke. In 1961, Philip Morris began to do sensory evaluation and modification of sidestream odor during product development. This sensory evaluation of sidestream smoke was the first biological testing of sidestream smoke by a tobacco company. Prior to the release of the 1972 U.S. surgeon general's report, the tobacco industry published the majority of its findings in the open scientific literature and does not appear to have perceived second-hand smoke as a threat to human health. PMID:16085530

Schick, Suzaynn; Glantz, Stanton

2005-08-01

264

Smoking, social class, and gender: what can public health learn from the tobacco industry about disparities in smoking?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To discover how the tobacco industry considers social class and gender in its efforts to market cigarettes in the USA, particularly to socially disadvantaged young women. Methods: A systematic on-line search of tobacco industry documents using selected keywords was conducted, and epidemiological data on smoking rates reviewed. Results: The two largest cigarette manufacturers in the USA consider "working class" young adults to be a critical market segment to promote growth of key brands. Through their own market research, these companies discovered that socially disadvantaged young women do not necessarily desire a "feminine" cigarette brand. Conclusions: Considering the tobacco industry's efforts, alongside the persistent and growing disparities in cigarette smoking by social class, and the narrowing of differences in smoking by gender, it is concluded that additional tobacco control resources ought to be directed toward working class women.

Barbeau, E; Leavy-Sperounis, A; Balbach, E

2004-01-01

265

Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on peak flow variability.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine whether exposure to various indoor pollutants is associated with a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a diagnosis of asthma, or more variable peak flow rates. Four hundred and twenty-six children aged 8-11 years in four junior schools at three locations recorded respiratory symptoms and diagnosis of asthma using the ISAAC questionnaire. Daily peak flow measurements were taken during two six-week periods (winter and summer). Symptoms in children with and without asthma were not related to gas fires, cookers, smokers, or pets in the home. However, the variability of lung function, expressed as the coefficient of variation, in all children was increased with a household smoker. Environmental tobacco smoke increases airways variability in children with and without asthma. Its effects were not apparent from a questionnaire completed by parents, and the coefficient of variation of serially measured peak flows was a more sensitive indicator of lung function. PMID:10325706

Fielder, H M; Lyons, R A; Heaven, M; Morgan, H; Govier, P; Hooper, M

1999-03-01

266

Menthol sensory qualities and smoking topography: a review of tobacco industry documents  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about the potential effects of menthol on smoking topography—how a person smokes a cigarette. Methods A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 1 June 2010 and 9 August 2010. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 252 documents related to menthol and smoking topography. Results The tobacco industry knew that menthol has cooling, anaesthetic and analgesic properties that moderate the harshness and irritation of tobacco. Owing to its physiological effects, menthol contributes to the sensory qualities of the smoke and affects smoking topography and cigarette preference. Conclusion Our review of industry studies suggests that the amount of menthol in a cigarette is associated with how the cigarette is smoked and how satisfying it is to the smoker. If menthol in cigarettes was banned, as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is currently considering, new/experimental smokers might choose not to smoke rather than experience the harshness of tobacco smoke and the irritating qualities of nicotine. Similarly, established menthol smokers might choose to quit if faced with an unpleasant smoking alternative.

McCandless, Phyra M

2011-01-01

267

Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.  

PubMed

The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. PMID:22858449

Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

2012-07-31

268

A global toxicogenomic analysis investigating the mechanistic differences between tobacco and marijuana smoke condensates in vitro.  

PubMed

Like tobacco smoking, habitual marijuana smoking causes numerous adverse pulmonary effects. However, the mechanisms of action involved, especially as compared to tobacco smoke, are still unclear. To uncover putative modes of action, this study employed a toxicogenomics approach to compare the toxicological pathways perturbed following exposure to marijuana and tobacco smoke condensate in vitro. Condensates of mainstream smoke from hand-rolled tobacco and marijuana cigarettes were similarly prepared using identical smoking conditions. Murine lung epithelial cells were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of the smoke condensates for 6h. RNA was extracted immediately or after a 4h recovery period and hybridized to mouse whole genome microarrays. Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) exposure was associated with changes in xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage response. These same pathways were also significantly affected following marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) exposure. Although the effects of the condensates were largely similar, dose-response analysis indicates that the MSC is substantially more potent than TSC. In addition, steroid biosynthesis, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways were more significantly affected following MSC exposure, whereas M phase cell cycle pathways were more significantly affected following TSC exposure. MSC exposure also appeared to elicit more severe oxidative stress than TSC exposure, which may account for the greater cytotoxicity of MSC. This study shows that in general MSC impacts many of the same molecular processes as TSC. However, subtle pathway differences can provide insight into the differential toxicities of the two complex mixtures. PMID:23542559

Maertens, Rebecca M; White, Paul A; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

2013-03-28

269

Induction of apoptosis with tobacco smoke and related products in A549 lung epithelial cells in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study has investigated the ability of tobacco smoke, and ingredients of tobacco smoke, to induce apoptosis in the airway epithelial cell line A549. METHOD: A549 cells were treated with 80 ?g\\/ml Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC), 10 mM Nicotine, 10 ?M paraldehyde, 10 ?M hydrogen peroxide, 1 ?M Taxol® (Paclitaxel), 100%, 50% and 25% cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Following

Lindsay Ramage; Amanda C Jones; Clifford J Whelan

2006-01-01

270

Contribution of tobacco smoke to environmental benzene exposure in Germany  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents including benzene were measured in the living rooms of 10 nonsmoking households and 20 households with at least one smoker situated in the city and suburbs of Munich. In the city, the median benzene levels during the evening, when all household members were at home, were 8.1 and 10.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking and smoking homes, respectively. The corresponding levels of 3.5 and 4.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} were considerably lower in the suburbs. Median time-integrated 1-week benzene concentrations in the city were 10.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in nonsmoking homes and 13.1 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in smoking homes. In the suburbs, the corresponding values were 3.2 and 5.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. No difference was found between smoking and nonsmoking households located either in the city or in the suburbs. There was no statistically significant difference between benzene exposure of non-smokers in smoking and nonsmoking homes. Nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households in the city had significantly higher exposure to benzene compared to their counterparts living in the suburban. Nonsmokers from all households with smokers were significantly more exposed to benzene than nonsmokers living in the nonsmoking households (personal samplers: 13.2 vs. 7.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.05; benzene in exhalate: 2.6 vs. 1.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, p < 0.01; trans-muconic acid excretion in urine: 73 vs. 62 {mu}g/g creatinine), but the contribution of ETS to the total benzene exposure was relatively low compared to that from other sources. Analysis of variance showed that at most 15% of the benzene exposure of nonsmokers living in smoking homes was attributable to ETS. For nonsmokers living in nonsmoking households benzene exposure from ETS was insignificant.

Scherer, G.; Ruppert, T.; Daube, H. [Analytisch-Biologisches Forschungslabor, Muenchen (Germany)

1995-12-31

271

Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.  

PubMed Central

Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma.

Gold, D R

2000-01-01

272

A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan  

PubMed Central

The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities.

2009-01-01

273

Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertis- ing to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets, and to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth- targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n=103172) gathered from

Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath; Sherry Emery; Henry Saffer; Frank J. Chaloupka; Glen Szczypka; Brian Flay; Patrick M. O'Malley; Lloyd D. Johnston

2006-01-01

274

The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of three main tobacco types (flue-cured FC, air-cured AC and sun-cured SC) and two tobacco-based materials (reconstituted tobacco - recon RT and expanded stem) on the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke. AC and SC tobaccos had the most evident impact. The amount of tobacco in mixtures M1, M2 and M3 as well as the addition of expanded stems had an impact on the amount of CO formed in the cigarette smoke. There is weak correlation between CO content in the smoke and the chemical composition of the tobacco. Draw resistance had an impact on CO production. The research results are of great importance, since tobacco selection is the first step in the production of cigarettes with reduced emission of harmful elements contained in the smoke. PMID:23612614

Djulan?i?, Nermina; Radoji?i?, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

2013-03-01

275

US Adult Attitudes and Practices Regarding Smoking Restrictions and Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Changes in the Social Climate From 2000 -2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smok- ing bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and non- smokers regarding smoking bans

Robert C. McMillen; Jonathan P. Winickoff; Jonathan D. Klein; Michael Weitzman

2010-01-01

276

THE ROLE OF TOBACCO CONTROL POLICIES IN REDUCING SMOKING AND DEATHS CAUSED BY SMOKING IN AN EASTERN EUROPEAN NATION: RESULTS FROM THE ALBANIA SIMSMOKE SIMULATION MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Albania SimSmoke simulation model is used to examine the effects of tobacco control policies. The model is used to consider the projected trends in smoking prevalence and associated smoking-attributable deaths in the absence of new policies, and then to examine the effect of new policies that are consistent with the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) on these

David T. Levy; Hana Ross; Eduard Zaloshnja; Roland Shuperka; Meriglena Rust

277

An Epidemiologic Study Comparing Fetal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Three Southeast Asian Countries  

PubMed Central

The high prevalence of smoking in Southeast Asia (SEA) means pregnant women face exposure to tobacco smoke that may affect the health of their fetus. This study determined fetal exposure to tobacco smoke by meconium analysis for cotinine in 3 locations in SEA: Bulacan Province, Philippines (N=316), Bangkok, Thailand (N=106) and Singapore City (N=61). Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke was 71.1% (1.3% active; 69.8% passive) in Bulacan, 57.5% (0.9% active; 58.6% passive) in Bangkok and 54.1% (11.5% active; 42.0% passive) in Singapore. Fetal exposure to tobacco smoke (by meconium analysis) was 1.3% (Bulacan), 4.7% (Bangkok) and 13.1% (Singapore); however, a large proportion of infants who tested positive for cotinine (65%) were born to mothers who gave no history of either active or passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Fetal exposure to tobacco smoke is a major health problem.

Ostrea, Enrique M.; Villanueva-UY, Esterlita; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Punnakanta, Luephorn; Batilando, Melissa JP; Agarwal, Pratibha; Pensler, Elizabeth; Corrion, Melissa; Ramos, Erwin F.; Romero, Joshua; Thomas, Ronald L.

2009-01-01

278

Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples). However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load)\\/non-lung cancer mortality

Bruce N Leistikow; Zubair Kabir; Gregory N Connolly; Luke Clancy; Hillel R Alpert

2008-01-01

279

Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data from the Global

Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Abdurahman Abdo; Adamson S Muula

2007-01-01

280

Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach  

PubMed Central

There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

281

Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

282

Questionnaire Assessment of Lifetime and Recent Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a sample of 149 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1986, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire responses on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. They also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports o...

D. B. Coultas G. T. Peake J. M. Samet

1989-01-01

283

Prospective study of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and dysmenorrhea.  

PubMed Central

Dysmenorrhea is a common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age. Previous studies have found an association between current cigarette smoking and prevalence of dysmenorrhea. This study investigated the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the occurrence of dysmenorrhea among women without a history of this disorder. The study population consisted of 165 newly wed, nonsmoking Chinese women (in Shenyang, China), who intended to get pregnant and who had no past history of dysmenorrhea at the time of enrollment. These women completed a baseline questionnaire interview upon enrollment and were prospectively followed by daily diary. Dysmenorrhea was defined as a diary recording of abdominal pain or low back pain for at least 2 days during a menstrual period. A subject's ETS exposure was defined as the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at home by household members over an entire menstrual cycle before the menstrual period. A logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of ETS on the risk of dysmenorrhea, with adjustment for age, body mass index, education, season, area of residence, occupation, shift work, perceived stress, passive smoking at work, and occupational exposure to chemical hazards, dust, and noise. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for autocorrelations as a result of multiple cycles per subject. This report is based on 625 prospectively followed menstrual cycles with complete baseline and diary data. ETS exposure was reported in 77% of cycles, within which average daily exposures throughout the cycle ranged from 0.02 to 10. 3 cigarettes. The incidence of dysmenorrhea was 9.7% and 13.3% among nonexposed and exposed cycles, respectively. Among ETS-exposed cycles, there was a positive dose-response relationship between the numbers of cigarettes smoked and the relative risk of dysmenorrhea. The adjusted odds ratios of dysmenorrhea associated with "low," "middle," and "high" tertiles of ETS exposure versus no exposure were 1.1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-2.6], 2.5 (CI, 0.9-6.7), and 3.1 (CI, 1.2-8.3), respectively. The findings were consistent with those of analyses limited to the first follow-up menstrual cycle from each woman. These data suggest a significant dose-response relationship between exposure to ETS and an increased incidence of dysmenorrhea in this cohort of young women.

Chen, C; Cho, S I; Damokosh, A I; Chen, D; Li, G; Wang, X; Xu, X

2000-01-01

284

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure.  

PubMed

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, we discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. We considered the relation between nicotine and saliva continine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level. That is, for each cell (smoking home and work, smoking home but nonsmoking work, and so forth), there was high correlation between average continine and 24-hour time-weighted average (TWA) nicotine concentrations. However, on the individual level, the correlations, although significant, were not biologically meaningful. A consideration of cotinine and nicotine or 3-EP on a subset of the study whose only exposure to ETS was exclusively at work or exclusively at home showed that home exposure was a more important source of ETS than work exposure. PMID:10765410

LaKind, J S; Jenkins, R A; Naiman, D Q; Ginevan, M E; Graves, C G; Tardiff, R G

1999-06-01

285

Beliefs about Tobacco Industry (mal)Practices and Youth Smoking Behaviour: Insight for Future Tobacco Control Campaigns (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine how student beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to occasional and regular\\u000a smoking among 9th to 12th graders. These findings can provide insight for developing new tobacco industry denormalization\\u000a messages for youth smoking populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional data were collected from 14,767 grade 9 to 12 students attending 22 secondary schools within one Public Health\\u000a Region

Scott T. Leatherdale; Robert Sparks; Victoria A. Kirsh

2006-01-01

286

Prevalence of tobacco smoking in adults with tuberculosis in South Africa [Short communication].  

PubMed

We conducted a tobacco prevalence survey among 707 in-patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Current smoking status was expanded to include both patients who self-reported at the time of TB diagnosis and patients who stopped smoking in the 2-month period before diagnosis. Six per cent reported current smoking at the time of TB diagnosis, 26% within 2 months before TB diagnosis. Human immunodeficiency virus status (73% positive) was not associated with current smoking. Classifying current smoking status among newly diagnosed TB patients should be extended to include smoking at time of the onset of TB symptoms. PMID:23827797

Lam, C; Martinson, N; Hepp, L; Ambrose, B; Msandiwa, R; Wong, M L; Apelberg, B; Tamplin, S; Golub, J E

2013-07-03

287

Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in

Timo J Partanen; Harri U Vainio; I Anneli Ojajärvi; Timo P Kauppinen

1997-01-01

288

Pulmonary Prostacyclin Synthase Overexpression Chemoprevents Tobacco Smoke Lung Carcinogenesis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased pulmonary production of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) by lung-specific overexpression of prostacyclin synthase decreases lung tu- mor incidence and multiplicity in chemically induced murine lung cancer models. We hypothesized that pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overex- pression would prevent lung carcinogenesis in tobacco-smoke exposed mice. Murine exposure to tobacco smoke is an established model of inducing pulmonary adenocarcinomas and allows for the

Robert L. Keith; York E. Miller; Tyler M. Hudish; Carlos E. Girod; Sylk Sotto-Santiago; Wilbur A. Franklin; Raphael A. Nemenoff; Thomas H. March; S. Patrick Nana-Sinkam; Mark W. Geraci

2004-01-01

289

Tobacco Smoking and Depression – Results from the WHO\\/ISBRA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To elucidate the relationship between tobacco smoking and depression, and to estimate the impact of other substance dependencies. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: A total of 1,849 men and women were interviewed face-to-face using a validated structured questionnaire. According to their tobacco smoking behavior, participants were grouped into never smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers. Measurements: Data were generated through the WHO\\/ISBRA

G. A. Wiesbeck; H.-C. Kuhl; Ö. Yaldizli; F. M. Wurst

2008-01-01

290

Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to ?0.01

Jibao Cai; Baizhan Liu; Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su

2002-01-01

291

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in\\u000a regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount\\u000a of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked\\u000a for a possible association

Julia de B Machado; Plínio VM Filho; Guilherme O Petersen; José M Chatkin

2011-01-01

292

Urinary Cotinine in Children and Adults during and after Semiexperimental Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary cotinine (U-cotinine) as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure was evaluated in 14 children (age 4–11 y) and in 7 adults who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at an air nicotine level of 110 mg\\/m3 for 2 h in a bus. Nicotine in air and U-cotinine were measured by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry before, during, and after the

Stefan Willers; Gunnar Skarping; Marianne Dalene; Staffan Skerfving

1995-01-01

293

Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

Jiang, Nan

2011-01-01

294

Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood and in utero exposure to maternal smoking are associated with adverse effects on lung growth and development.?METHODS—A study was undertaken of the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to ETS, and pulmonary function in 3357 school children residing in 12 Southern California communities. Current and past exposure to household ETS and exposure to maternal smoking in utero were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents of 4th, 7th, and 10th grade students in 1993.Standard linear regression techniques were used to estimate the effects of in utero and ETS exposure on lung function, adjusting for age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, height, weight, asthma, personal smoking, and selected household characteristics.?RESULTS—In utero exposure to maternal smoking was associated with reduced peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (-3.0%, 95% CI -4.4 to -1.4), mean mid expiratory flow (MMEF) (-4.6%, 95% CI -7.0 to -2.3), and forced expiratory flow (FEF75) (-6.2%, 95% CI -9.1 to -3.1), but not forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Adjusting for household ETS exposure did not substantially change these estimates. The reductions in flows associated with in utero exposure did not significantly vary with sex, race, grade, income, parental education, or personal smoking. Exposure to two or more current household smokers was associated with reduced MMEF (-4.1%, 95% CI -7.6 to -0.4) and FEF75 (-4.4%, 95% CI -9.0 to 0.4). Current or past maternal smoking was associated with reductions in PEFR and MMEF; however, after adjustment for in utero exposure, deficits in MMEF and FEF75 associated with all measurements of ETS were substantially reduced and were not statistically significant.?CONCLUSIONS—In utero exposure to maternal smoking is independently associated with decreased lung function in children of school age, especially for small airway flows.??

Gilliland, F.; Berhane, K.; McConnell, R.; Gauderman, W; Vora, H.; Rappaport, E.; Avol, E.; Peters, J.

2000-01-01

295

Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.  

PubMed

This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

2012-04-04

296

Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.  

PubMed

This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

Ribisl, Kurt M

2011-06-20

297

The Effect of Support for Action Against the Tobacco Industry on Smoking Among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We investigated associations between tobacco industry denor- malization attitudes and the smoking behavior of young adults (aged 18 to 29 years). Methods. We analyzed data from 9455 young adults in the 2002 California Tobacco Survey. Results. The data showed that 27.4% of young adults were \\

Pamela M. Ling; Torsten B. Neilands; Stanton A. Glantz

2007-01-01

298

Revealing the mechanism of tissue damage due to tobacco use: finally, a smoking gun?  

PubMed

This commentary highlights the article by Li et al that presents a compelling case for a mechanism by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) induces damage to the extracellular matrix, a key element in the pathogenesis of tobacco-related disease. PMID:23499459

Furmanski, Philip

2013-03-13

299

Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strat- egy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10 035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to

James F. Thrasher; Jeffrey D. Niederdeppe; Christine Jackson; Matthew C. Farrelly

2006-01-01

300

Intentions to quit smoking in substance-abusing teens exposed to a tobacco program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993–94, fifty-five clients at an adolescent residential drug treatment facility with an innovative tobacco prevention, education and cessation program reported their tobacco attitudes, intentions, and behavior at admission and discharge. Of entering clients, 93% were current smokers and 93% felt the facility should help clients quit smoking. Clients interested in quitting increased from 61% at admission to 87% at

Catherine A. McDonald; Sue Roberts; Nancy Descheemaeker

2000-01-01

301

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on the effects of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and ill health in Sweden.Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden.Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner

J Foulds; L Ramstrom; M Burke; K Fagerstro?m

2003-01-01

302

Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.

Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

303

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.METHODSAnalysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in

Norbert Hirschhorn; Stella Aguinaga Bialous

2001-01-01

304

The tobacco industry's past role in weight control related to smoking  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard, Brown & Williamson and British American Tobacco) that were Defendants in tobacco litigation settled in 1998. Findings are dated from 1949 to 1999. Results: The documents revealed the strategies planned and used by the industry to enhance effects of smoking on weight and appetite, mostly by chemical modifications of cigarettes contents. Appetite-suppressant molecules, such as tartaric acid and 2-acetylpyridine were added to some cigarettes. Conclusion: These tobacco companies played an active and not disclaimed role in the anti-appetite effects of smoking, at least in the past, by adding appetite-suppressant molecules into their cigarettes.

Jacot-Sadowski, Isabelle; Diethelm, Pascal A.; Barras, Vincent; Cornuz, Jacques

2012-01-01

305

THE ROLE OF TOBACCO SMOKE INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL DAMAGE IN VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS  

PubMed Central

The majority of individuals chronically exposed to tobacco smoke will eventually succumb to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, despite the major cardiovascular health implications of tobacco smoke exposure, concepts of how such exposure specifically results in cardiovascular cell dysfunction that leads to CVD development are still being explored. Moreover, surprisingly little is known about the effects of prenatal and childhood tobacco smoke exposure on adult CVD development. Herein, it is proposed that the mitochondrion is a central target for environmental oxidants, including tobacco smoke. By virtue of its multiple, essential roles in cell function including energy production, oxidant signaling, apoptosis, immune response, and thermogenesis, damage to the mitochondrion will likely play an important role in the development of multiple common forms of human disease, including CVD. Specifically, this review will discuss the potential role of tobacco smoke and environmental oxidant exposure in the induction of mitochondrial damage which is related to CVD development. Furthermore, mechanisms of how mitochondrial damage can initiate and/or contribute to CVD are discussed, as are experimental results that are consistent with the hypothesis that mitochondrial damage and dysfunction will increase CVD susceptibility. Aspects of both adult and developmental (fetal and childhood) exposure to tobacco smoke on mitochondrial damage, function and disease development are also discussed, including the future implications and direction of studies involving the role of the mitochondrion in influencing disease susceptibility mediated by environmental factors.

Yang, Zhen; Harrison, Corey M.; Chuang, Gin; Ballinger, Scott W.

2007-01-01

306

Effects of In Utero and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function in Boys and Girls with and without Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether the effects of in utero exposure to maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on lung function vary by sex or asthma status, we examined medical history and tobacco smoke exposure data for 5,263 participants in the Children's Health Study. At study enrollment, parents or guardians of each subject completed a questionnaire, and lung function was

YU-FEN LI; FRANK D. GILLILAND; KIROS BERHANE; ROB M C CONNELL; W. JAMES GAUDERMAN; EDWARD B. RAPPAPORT; JOHN M. PETERS

307

Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to

Leslie K Jacobsen; Theodore A Slotkin; W Einar Mencl; Stephen J Frost; Kenneth R Pugh

2007-01-01

308

Tobacco smoke influence on heart rate, body temperature, and locomotor activity daily rhythms as assessed by radiotelemetry in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using radiotelemetry, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke on heart rate (H), body temperature (T) and locomotor activity (A) daily rhythms in rats. The tobacco smoke intoxication was produced with a smoking apparatus. H, T, and A data were captured by radiotelemetry. The study was divided into three periods: a 1-week control period (P1), a 1-week

A. L. Pelissier; L. Attolini; M. Gantenbein; B. Bruguerolle

1997-01-01

309

Marijuana and tobacco use among young adults in Canada: are they smoking what we think they are smoking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors characterized marijuana smoking among young adult Canadians, examined the co-morbidity of tobacco and marijuana\\u000a use, and identified correlates associated with different marijuana use consumption patterns. Data were collected from 20,275\\u000a individuals as part of the 2004 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. Logistic regression models were conducted to examine\\u000a characteristics associated with marijuana use behaviors among young adults (aged

Scott T. Leatherdale; David G. Hammond; Murray Kaiserman; Rashid Ahmed

2007-01-01

310

Correlates of Continued Tobacco Use and Intention to Quit Smoking Among Russian Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tobacco use among cancer patients is associated with adverse health outcomes. Little attention has been paid to tobacco use\\u000a among cancer patients in developing countries, including Russia, where tobacco use is extremely high, and there is little\\u000a public health infrastructure to address this issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  This study examined medical, socio-demographic, and psychological correlates of smoking status and intention to quit smoking

Robert A. Schnoll; Somasundaram Subramanian; Elisa Martinez; Paul F. Engstrom

311

Public Health Under Attack: The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

We describe the tobacco industry’s response to the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Tobacco industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco/Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and industry Web sites were analyzed. LexisNexis and the Library of Congress’s Thomas Web site were searched for legislative history. We found that the tobacco industry considered ASSIST a major threat because of its emphasis on policy and creation of local tobacco control infrastructures. The industry mobilized resources for a well-coordinated attack on ASSIST. Although industry executives were sometimes frustrated in their efforts, they ultimately had a chilling effect on ASSIST. This evidence suggest that tobacco control advocates should expect a vigorous response from the tobacco industry to policy advocacy efforts, particularly at the local level.

White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

2004-01-01

312

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

313

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

314

Home Exposures to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Allergic Symptoms among Young Children in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Research relating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures have focused on childhood asthma. There have been fewer studies with conflicting results performed on associations of ETS exposures with allergic symptoms. We are interested to see if ETS exposures in the homes are associated with allergic symptoms among preschool children in Singapore where public smoking is banned. Methods: A cross-sectional study

M. S. Zuraimi; K. W. Tham; F. T. Chew; P. L. Ooi; Koh David

2008-01-01

315

Protection From Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke: Policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive summary Scientific evidence has firmly established that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), a pollutant that causes serious illnesses in adults and children. There is also indisputable evidence that implementing 100% smoke-free environments is the only effective way to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. Moreover, several countries

2007-01-01

316

Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke. Policy recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has firmly established that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), a pollutant that causes serious illnesses in adults and children. There is also indisputable evidence that implementing 100% smoke-free environments is the only effective way to protect the population from the harmful effects of exposure to SHS. Moreover, several countries and hundreds

2007-01-01

317

Tobacco marketing awareness on youth smoking susceptibility and perceived prevalence before and after an advertising ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) was implemented in the United Kingdom in 2003. This study is the first to assess its impact on young people, examining smoking susceptibility (intention to smoke among never smokers) and perceived prevalence across three British cross-sectional samples (aged 11-16) before and after the introduction of the ban. Methods: Three in- home surveys

Crawford Moodie; Anne Marie MacKintosh; Abraham Brown; Gerard B. Hastings

2008-01-01

318

Modeling geographic and demographic variability in residential concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke using national data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in sociodemographic and geographic subpopulations in the United States for the purpose of screening-level risk assessment. We developed regression models to characterize smoking using the

Teresa Chahine; Bradley Schultz; Valerie Zartarian; S V Subramanian; John Spengler; James Hammitt; Jonathan I Levy

2011-01-01

319

Distribution of Exposure Concentrations and Doses for Constituents of Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, we describe distributions of ETS

Judy S. LaKind; Michael E. Ginevan; Daniel Q. Naiman; Anthony C. James; Roger A. Jenkins; Michael L. Dourson; Susan P. Felter; Carol G. Graves; Robert G. Tardiff

1999-01-01

320

Composition of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from international cigarettes Part II: Nine country follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by cigarettes from nine countries was examined to determine selected component yields and ETS marker ratios. The countries tested included: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, Japan, Korea, and the United States. Six leading brand styles from each country were smoked in an environmental test chamber. Concentrations of the gas phase ETS components CO,

Paul R. Nelson; Fred W. Conrad; Susan P. Kelly; Katherine C. Maiolo; Joel D. Richardson; Michael W. Ogden

1998-01-01

321

Inhaled steroid\\/tobacco smoke particle interactions: a new light on steroid resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inhaled steroid resistance is an obstacle to asthma control in asthmatic smokers. The reasons of this phenomenon are not yet entirely understood. Interaction of drug particles with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) could change the aerodynamic profile of the drug through the particle coagulation phenomenon. Aim of the present study was to examine whether steroid particles interact with smoke when

Giovanni Invernizzi; Ario Ruprecht; Cinzia De Marco; Roberto Mazza; Gabriele Nicolini; Roberto Boffi

2009-01-01

322

Bladder cancer, tobacco smoking, coffee and alcohol drinking in Brescia, northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between tobacco smoking, the consumption of coffee and alcohol and bladder cancer was investigated in a hospital-based case-control study in Brescia, northern Italy. A total of 172 incident cases (135 men and 37 women) and 578 controls (398 men and 180 women) were enrolled. As expected, cigarette smoking was strongly associated with bladder cancer. The odds ratios (OR)

Francesco Donato; Paolo Boffetta; Raffaella Fazioli; Vito Aulenti; Umberto Gelatti; Stefano Porru

1997-01-01

323

Increased IgE antibody responses in rats exposed to tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

Raised serum IgE levels were found in a high proportion of rats that had been exposed to tobacco smoke twice daily 5 days a week for 8 wk in a Dontenville-type smoking machine. Levels above 1 ng/ml of IgE were found in nine of 20 animals exposed to cigarette smoke and in five of 20 rats exposed to smoke from cigarettes with 1.45% phenylmethyloxidiazole added for possible protection against the effects of the smoke. None of the 20 control rats exhibited similarly increased serum IgE. Exposure to tobacco smoke did not significantly affect the serum concentrations of IgM and IgG. The development of specific IgE and IgG antibodies was also influenced by tobacco smoke exposure. Rats exposed to ovalbumin aerosol developed increased levels of IgG and IgE antibodies, whereas no effect on the development of antibody titers was found in rats immunized by the subcutaneous route. This study demonstrates that exposure to tobacco smoke increases serum IgE levels and enhances sensitization via the airways by a local effect, thus supporting the mucosal theory of atopy.

Zetterstroem, O.N.; Nordvall, S.L.; Bjoerksten, B.A.; Ahlstedt, S.; Stelander, M.

1985-05-01

324

Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

2012-01-01

325

Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to

Theodore A Slotkin

2004-01-01

326

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Child Development: A Case-control Study on Hong Kong Chinese Toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during prenatal and early childhood period and developmental delay among Hong Kong Chinese toddlers. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 392 children with newly diagnosed developmental delay and 393 controls with normal development. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect household smoking history. The main outcome measures

ML TANG

327

Smokeless Tobacco or Health: An International Perspective. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Epidemiology (The Smokeless Tobacco Problem: Risk Groups in North America, Surveillance of and Knowledge About Cancer Associated With Smokeless Tobacco Use, Smokeless Tobacco Use in India); Clinical and Pathological Effects (Oral Mucosal...

1992-01-01

328

THE IMPACT OF MATERNAL SMOKING IN KENTUCKY AND EFFECT OF THE GIVING INFANTS AND FAMILIES TOBACCO-FREE STARTS PILOT PROJECT ON SMOKING CESSATION AND BIRTH OUTCOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking during pregnancy remains a significant public health issue despite knowledge about the adverse maternal and fetal health effects. This research had six purposes: identifying effective smoking cessation strategies for low income pregnant women; identifying characteristics of Kentucky women who smoke during pregnancy; estimating the role of smoking on birth outcomes in Kentucky; exploring the impact of tobacco reduction on

Joyce Madeline Robl

2012-01-01

329

Tax, price and cigarette smoking: evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data for this study come from tobacco industry documents contained in the Youth and Marketing database created by the Roswell Park Cancer Institute and available through http:// roswell.tobaccodocuments.org, supplemented with documents obtained from http://www.tobaccodocuments.org. Results: Tobacco company documents provide clear evidence on the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette smoking, describing how tax related and other price increases lead to significant reductions in smoking, particularly among young persons. This information was very important in developing the industry's pricing strategies, including the development of lower price branded generics and the pass through of cigarette excise tax increases, and in developing a variety of price related marketing efforts, including multi-pack discounts, couponing, and others. Conclusions: Pricing and price related promotions are among the most important marketing tools employed by tobacco companies. Future tobacco control efforts that aim to raise prices and limit price related marketing efforts are likely to be important in achieving reductions in tobacco use and the public health toll caused by tobacco.

Chaloupka, F; Cummings, K; Morley, C.; Horan, J.

2002-01-01

330

Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extremely important. As one of the volatile elements it can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis.

Sorak-Pokrajac, M.; Dermelj, M.; Slejkovec, Z. [Rovinj Crotia J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01

331

Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence.

Lisa Henriksen; Ellen C. Feighery; Nina C. Schleicher; David W. Cowling; Randolph S. Kline; Stephen P. Fortmann

2008-01-01

332

A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control. PMID:20390676

Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

2010-03-01

333

Tobacco Smoking Leads to Extensive Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (–24.40% methylation; p?=?2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers.

Zeilinger, Sonja; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjorg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin

2013-01-01

334

Challenging the epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking: tactics of tobacco industry expert witnesses  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyse the statements given by tobacco industry defence witnesses during trial testimonies and depositions in second?hand smoke cases and in parallel, to review criticisms of epidemiology in industry?funded publications in order to identify strategies for discrediting epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking health effects. Methods A collection of depositions and trial testimony transcripts from tobacco industry?related lawsuits filed in the United States during the 1990s, was compiled and indexed by the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). Statements in DATTA made by expert witnesses representing the tobacco industry relating to the health effects of passive smoking were identified and reviewed. Industry?supported publications within the peer?reviewed literature were also examined for statements on exposure misclassification, meta?analysis, and confounding. Results The witnesses challenged causation of adverse health effects of passive smoking by citing limitations of epidemiologic research, raising methodological and statistical issues, and disputing biological plausibility. Though not often cited directly by the witnesses, the defence tactics mirrored the strategies used in industry?funded reports in the peer?reviewed literature. Conclusion The tobacco industry attempted to redirect the focus and dialogue related to the epidemiologic evidence on passive smoking. This approach, used by industry experts in trial testimony and depositions, placed bias as a certain alternative to causation of diseases related to passive smoking and proposed an unachievable standard for establishing the mechanism of disease.

Francis, John A; Shea, Amy K

2006-01-01

335

Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure  

SciTech Connect

The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-06-01

336

Determinants of children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): A study in Southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking has been repeatedly found to be the most important determinant of children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Here, we further investigated predictors for the urinary cotinine\\/creatinine ratio (CCR, ng\\/mg) in 1220 preschool children for the year 1996. Children from smoking homes (35.1%) had significantly higher CCR than children from nonsmoking homes (mean: 55.5 vs. 14.9 ng\\/mg). The

Gerhard Scherer; Ursula Krämer; Irmtrud Meger-Kossien; Kirsten Riedel; Wolf-Dieter Heller; Elke Link; Johannes-Georg Gostomzyk; Johannes Ring; Heidrun Behrendt

2004-01-01

337

Drugs on the internet, part III: tobacco and smoking on the web.  

PubMed

This study examines the types of tobacco- and smoking-related websites that are available on the Internet. The search terms used were nicotine, tobacco, and cigarette. These terms were searched in the engines Google and Yahoo as well as video-sharing website YouTube and analyzed based on the search engine results pages (SERPs) that were produced. The results returned the following categories of websites: health information and news, smoking cessation, product ads/sales, history of tobacco and smoking, prosmoking/pleasure, smoking prevention/control, and miscellaneous. Results showed fluctuations in the number of search engine results by search term and date. There also was variable quality and availability of informative resources for Internet users due to lack of quality control criteria and regulation. PMID:23050592

Morgan, Melissa; Montagne, Michael

2012-10-11

338

Plutonium-239, /sup 240/Pu and /sup 210/Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke  

SciTech Connect

The /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the /sup 210/Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of /sup 210/Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers.

Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

1985-08-01

339

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of solanesol was compromised--as it had been in the chamber experiments.

Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

2004-03-02

340

Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts  

PubMed Central

Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals’ perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents’ subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more ‘antismoking’ if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms.

Hamilton, William L.; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T.

2008-01-01

341

Tobacco and the Clinician: Interventions for Medical and Dental Practice. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Strategies for Office-Based Smoking Cessation Assistance (Overview of Office-Based Smoking Cessation Assistance, Trends in Physicians' Smoking Behavior and Patterns of Advice To Quit, The Health Professional's Responsibility in Smoking C...

1994-01-01

342

Identification of tobacco smoke components in indoor breathable particles by SEM-EDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoke is one of the greatest sources of indoor particles, which has been linked with serious health effects. Consequently, there has been a widespread interest in analysing tobacco related indoor particulate matter (PM). Nevertheless, the majority of performed studies focused on bulk chemical composition of tobacco related PM, but the knowledge of individual tobacco smoke particles is still limited. Therefore, more information on PM should be provided, namely concerning morphological and chemical characterisation of individual particles. Aiming to further understand the impact of tobacco smoke on human health, this work studied the influence of tobacco smoke on chemical and morphological characteristics of PM 10 and PM 2.5, collected at one site influenced by smoking and at one reference (non-smoking) site. Chemical and morphological characteristics of 4000 individual particles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray microanalysis (by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer - EDS). Cluster analysis (CA) was used to classify different particle groups that occurred in PM, aiming the identification of the respective emission sources. The results showed that tobacco smoke influenced the characteristics of both fine and coarse particles, this influence being stronger for fine fraction. The abundance of particles associated with tobacco smoke was 27% and 5% for PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, respectively; as expected, those particles were not identified in PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 of the reference (non-smoking) site. The results showed that at both sites PM was also influenced by outdoor sources. For PM 2.5-10, outdoor particles essentially originated from natural sources accounting for 35% and 15% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively. For PM 2.5, outdoor particles account for 38% and 29% at the smoking and reference sites, respectively; these particles showed considerable contribution (13% and 17%) from anthropogenic sources (mainly from traffic emissions). In general SEM-EDS showed to be a useful technique to complement characterisation of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10, and to identify the respective emission sources.

Slezakova, K.; Pires, J. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

2011-02-01

343

Life course socioeconomic conditions, passive tobacco exposures and cigarette smoking in a multiethnic birth cohort of U.S. women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low socioeconomic status (SES) and exposure to passive tobacco smoke are associated with increased risk of smoking in adults,\\u000a but the influences of these factors in earlier life periods on adult smoking behavior are not well understood. We investigated\\u000a the relationship of SES and passive tobacco exposure over the lifecourse with adult smoking status in a multiethnic cohort\\u000a of U.S.

Parisa Tehranifar; Yuyan Liao; Jennifer S. Ferris; Mary Beth Terry

2009-01-01

344

Health policymakers' knowledge and opinions of physicians smoking and tobacco policy control in Lao PDR  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a regulation on smoke-free health facilities and institutions was adopted by the Lao government. Little is known about health policymakers’ knowledge and opinions regarding tobacco policy control, including physicians’ behaviour. This paper aims to describe the knowledge of Lao health policymakers and their opinions regarding physicians tobacco use and national smoking policy control. Methods In 2007, we made a qualitative explorative study with data from a purposive sample of 18 key informants through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. The key informants, who were heads of departments, directors of hospitals and directors of centres, mainly worked at the national level, and some provincial levels. Content analysis was used. Results Policymakers perceived the inadequate implementation of a smoke-free regulation and policy as being a barrier and that the general public may not accept physicians smoking, since they are regarded as role models. Most of the respondents mentioned that regulations or laws related to control of smoking in health institutions are available in Laos, but they lacked detailed knowledge of them probably because regulations as well as the smoke-free policy documents were not widely disseminated. The respondents agreed that anti-smoking education should be integrated in the training curricula, especially in the medical schools, and that the provision of counselling on health consequences from smoking and methods of smoking cessation was important. Conclusion This study contributes to tobacco policy evidence and to knowledge regarding factors related to the uptake of evidence into policymaking. Dissemination and implementation of a tobacco control policy nationally, and integration of tobacco cessation training programs in the curricula were found to be productive approaches for improvement.

2012-01-01

345

Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.  

PubMed

PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

2011-02-01

346

Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review methodology. We synthesized data qualitatively. Results We included 58 papers reporting on 56 studies. The main motives for waterpipe tobacco smoking were socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment. Peer pressure, fashion, and curiosity were additional motives for university and school students while expression of cultural identity was an additional motive for people in the Middle East and for people of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. Awareness of the potential health hazards of waterpipe smoking was common across settings. Most but not all studies found that the majority of people perceived waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarette smoking. Waterpipe smoking was generally socially acceptable and more acceptable than cigarette smoking in general. In Middle Eastern societies, it was particularly more acceptable for women’s use compared to cigarette use. A majority perceived waterpipe smoking as less addictive than cigarette smoking. While users were confident in their ability to quit waterpipe smoking at any time, willingness to quit varied across settings. Conclusions Socializing, relaxation, pleasure and entertainment were the main motives for waterpipe use. While waterpipe users were aware of the health hazards of waterpipe smoking, they perceived it as less harmful, less addictive and more socially acceptable than cigarette smoking and were confident about their ability to quit.

2013-01-01

347

Use of smokeless tobacco, cigarette smoking, and hypercholesterolemia.  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which regular use of smokeless tobacco is associated with hypercholesterolemia (greater than or equal to 6.2 mmol/L) among 2,840 adult males. The confounding effects of age, education, physical fitness, body fatness, and other tobacco use were also examined. After adjustment, smokeless tobacco users were 2.5 times, heavy smokers were 2 times and mild/moderate smokers were 1.5 times more likely to have hypercholesterolemia than non-users of tobacco. Cigarette smokers did not differ significantly from users of smokeless tobacco regarding hypercholesterolemia. Users of smokeless tobacco were younger and less educated compared to non-users of tobacco, while smokers were less educated and less physically fit.

Tucker, L A

1989-01-01

348

Analysis and evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for chronic cough  

PubMed Central

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and active tobacco smoking has been shown to increase symptoms of bronchial asthma such as bronchoconstriction but effects on other respiratory symptoms remain poorly assessed. Current levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may also be responsible for the development of chronic cough in both children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of tobacco smoke exposure as potential causes of chronic cough. A panel of PubMed-based searches was performed relating the symptom of cough to various forms of tobacco smoke exposure. It was found that especially prenatal and postnatal exposures to ETS have an important influence on children's respiratory health including the symptom of cough. These effects may be prevented if children and pregnant women are protected from exposure to ETS. Whereas the total number of studies adressing the relationship between cough and ETS exposure is relatively small, the present study demonstrated that there is a critical amout of data pointing to a causative role of environmental ETS exposure for the respiratory symptom of cough. Since research efforts have only targeted this effect to a minor extent, future epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to further unravel the relation between ETS and cough.

Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix; Feleszko, Wojciech; Dinh, Quoc Thai; van Mark, Anke; Brinkmann, Elke; Pleimes, Dirk; Fischer, Axel

2007-01-01

349

Waterpipe smoking: analysis of the aroma profile of flavored waterpipe tobaccos.  

PubMed

In the last years the habit of smoking waterpipes has spread worldwide, especially among young people and emerged as global health issue. Although research is now under way for no less than 40 years in the field of waterpipe smoking, in comparison to cigarette smoking there is still insufficient knowledge on the real composition and the toxicity of the smoke inhaled and the resulting levels of exposure against particular hazardous ingredients. In most cases for waterpipe smoking a highly flavored tobacco called "moassel" is used. However, the number, quantity and toxicity of the added flavorings are widely unknown. In this study the static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) was used to identify 79 volatile flavor compounds present in waterpipe tobacco. Among these eleven compounds were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that waterpipe tobacco contains high amounts of the fragrance benzyl alcohol as well as considerable levels of limonene, linalool and eugenol, all of which are known as being allergenic in human skin. The proposed SHS-GC-MS method has been validated and found to be accurate, simple and characterized by low limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.016 to 4.3 µg/g tobacco for benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, respectively. The identification and characterization of waterpipe tobacco ingredients indeed reveals crucial for the assessment of potential health risks that may be posed by these additives in smokers. PMID:24054646

Schubert, Jens; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

2013-06-21

350

Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: An analysis controlling for tobacco industry affiliation  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between smoking and AD after controlling for study design, quality, secular trend, and tobacco industry affiliation of the authors, electronic databases were searched, 43 individual studies met the inclusion criteria. For evidence of tobacco industry affiliation http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu was searched. One fourth (11/43) of individual studies had tobacco affiliated authors. Using random effects meta-analysis, 18 case control studies without tobacco industry affiliation yielded a non-significant pooled odds ratio of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.75–1.10), while 8 case control studies with tobacco industry affiliation yielded a significant pooled odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75–0.98) suggesting that smoking protects against AD. In contrast, 14 cohort studies without tobacco industry affiliation yielded a significantly increased relative risk of AD of 1.45 (95%CI, 1.16–1.80) associated with smoking and the three cohort studies with tobacco industry affiliation yielded a non-significant pooled relative risk of 0.60 (95% CI 0.27–1.32). A multiple regression analysis showed that case-control studies tended to yield lower average risk estimates than cohort studies (by ?0.27±0.15, P=.075), lower risk estimates for studies done by authors affiliated with the tobacco industry (by ?0.37±0.13, P=.008), no effect of the quality of the journal in which the study was published (measured by impact factor, P=0.828), and increasing secular trend in risk estimates (0.031/year ±.013, P=.02). The average risk of AD for cohort studies without tobacco industry affiliation of average quality published in 2007 was estimated to be 1.72±0.19 (P<.0005). The available data indicate that smoking is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.

Cataldo, Janine K.; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A

2009-01-01

351

The Philippines is Marlboro country for youth smoking: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000 to 2007 Marlboro clearly became the most preferred brand in both boys and girls. Further, Marlboro smokers were found to exhibit a stronger commitment to smoking, to smoke more frequently, and to hold more positive images of smoking compared to other brand smokers. Tobacco control efforts in the Philippines may benefit from educational and policy initiatives that lead to aggressive counter marketing efforts to address the industry's efforts to portray positive images of smoking. PMID:23185836

Page, Randy M; West, Joshua H

2012-01-01

352

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

2011-03-30

353

Evaluation of In Vitro Assays For Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vitro toxicology studies of tobacco and tobacco smoke have been used to understand why tobacco use causes cancer and to assess the toxicological impact of tobacco product design changes. The need for toxicology studies has been heightened given that the FDA’s newly granted authority over tobacco products requires mandating performance standards for tobacco products and evaluate manufacturers’ health claims. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps. Methods PubMed database searches were used to identify tobacco-related in vitro toxicology studies published since 1980. Articles published prior to 1980 with high relevance also were identified. The data was compiled to examine: 1) goals of the study; 2) methods for collecting test substances; 3) experimental designs; 4) toxicological endpoints, and; 5) relevance to cancer risk. Results A variety of in vitro assays are available to assess tobacco and tobacco smoke that address different modes of action, mostly using non-human cell models. Smokeless tobacco products perform poorly in these assays. While reliable as a screening tool for qualitative assessments, the available in vitro assays have been poorly validated for quantitative comparisons of different products. Assay batteries have not been developed, although they exist for non-tobacco assessments. Extrapolating data from in vitro studies to human risks remains hypothetical. Conclusions In vitro toxicology methods are useful for screening toxicity, but better methods are needed for today’s context of regulation and evaluation of health claims.

Wan, J.; Johnson, M.; Schilz, J.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Rice, J.R.; Shields, P.G.

2009-01-01

354

Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

2013-06-01

355

Environmental tobacco smoke is just as damaging to DNA as mainstream smoke.  

PubMed Central

This study demonstrates the ability of tar isolated from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to nick DNA in mammalian cells. Solutions of ETS tar behave similarly to aqueous solutions of cigarette tar from mainstream smoke. Both solutions contain the tar semiquinone radical, and this radical associates with the DNA in viable rat alveolar macrophages. Solutions of tar from ETS cause single-strand DNA breaks in rat thymocytes in proportion to the amount of tar present, until a plateau is reached. ETS tar solutions, like mainstream tar solutions, produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide appears to be an essential component of the mechanism by which both ETS tar and mainstream tar cause DNA damage in rat thymocytes, as catalase substantially protects against DNA damage. Glutathione also protects against DNA nicking by both ETS and mainstream tar solutions by scavenging radicals and/or oxidants. The chelator diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid also provides partial (40%) protection. The studies demonstrate that the water-soluble components of ETS tar can enter cells, associate with, and then nick DNA. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5.

Bermudez, E; Stone, K; Carter, K M; Pryor, W A

1994-01-01

356

Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up

Suzy Ker; David Owens

2008-01-01

357

Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health risk assessment.  

PubMed Central

This article addresses concepts of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure assessment relevant for health risk assessment based on human studies. We present issues that should be considered when selecting a method for ETS exposure assessment for the purposes of health risk assessment and review data on ETS exposure levels in the workplace and in home environments. Two types of estimates are needed for a quantitative risk assessment of the health effects resulting from occupational ETS exposure: (italic)a(/italic)) an unbiased estimate of the exposure-effect (or dose-response) relation between ETS and the health effect of interest, and (italic)b(/italic)) estimates of the distribution of ETS exposure in different workplaces. By combining the estimated exposure-effect relation with information on exposure distribution for a population of interest, we can calculate the proportions of disease cases attributable to occupational ETS exposure as well as the excess number of cases due to specified exposure conditions. Several dimensions of the exposure profile should be considered when assessing ETS exposure for estimating the exposure-effect relation, including the magnitude of exposure and the biologically relevant time specificity of exposure. The magnitude of exposure is determined by the ETS source strength, environmental factors modifying concentrations, and duration of exposure. Time specificity considerations include the latency period for each health outcome of interest, the time-exposure profile relevant for different disease mechanisms, and the sensitive age period with regard to health effects. The most appropriate indicator of ETS exposure depends on these factors and on the time period that can be assessed with different methods. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4

Jaakkola, M S; Samet, J M

1999-01-01

358

Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively new four-story office building with an approximate volume of 1.3 million ft3. The exchange of outside air in the building was determined to be between 0.6 and 0.7 air changes per hour. Eighty-seven area samples (excluding background) were collected at 29 locations over the course of 6 days of sampling. Locations included offices and cubicles occupied by smokers and nonsmokers, common areas, and the computer and mail rooms. Twenty-four nonsmoking subjects wore personal sampling systems to collect breathing zone air samples on each of 3 days in succession. This generated a total of seventy-two 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) personal exposure samples. In all samples, respirable suspended particulate matter, ultraviolet light-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, and 3-ethenyl pyridine were determined. With the exception of a few locations, tobacco-specific airborne constituents were determined in all samples. Not surprisingly, areas with the highest ETS constituent concentrations were offices and cubicles of smokers. Median and 95th percentile concentrations for all area samples, excluding background, were determined to be 1.5 and 8.7 microg/m3 for nicotine, and 8.2 and 59 microg/m3 for ETS-specific particles (as solanesol-related particulate matter, Sol-PM), respectively. Personal exposure concentrations of ETS components were similar to those levels found in the area samples (median nicotine and Sol-PM concentrations were 1.24 and 7.1 microg/m3, respectively), but the range of concentrations was somewhat smaller. For example, the 95th percentile 8-h TWA nicotine and ETS-specific particle (as Sol-PM) concentrations were 3.58 and 21.9 microg/m3, respectively. Intrasubject variation of daily concentrations ranged from 20% to 60%, depending on the component. Self-reported proximity to smokers was supported by higher ETS concentrations determined from the personal monitors, but only to a modest extent. Although smoking was completely unrestricted inside the main office areas of the facility, ETS levels, either areal or from personal exposure measurements, were lower than those estimated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration to be present in such facilities. PMID:11687910

Jenkins, R A; Maskarinec, M P; Counts, R W; Caton, J E; Tomkins, B A; Ilgner, R H

359

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and brain development: The case of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke, inhaled by active firsthand smokers and their entourage, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many children are passively exposed to secondhand smoke worldwide. Infants and young children account for the largest global disease burden associated with prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke, probably due to underdeveloped neurological, immune, and respiro-circulatory systems. There is an increasingly robust association between tobacco smoke exposure, before and after birth, and executive function problems in children, adding to current and future disease burden estimates in public health. This review summarizes research advancements which address the link between environmental tobacco smoke and the development of attention deficits and hyperactive behavior, both as symptoms and as part of a mental health disorder in childhood. The multiple effects of tobacco smoke inhalation are best understood in terms of disruptions in normative processes involving cellular communication, structural development, and epigenetic influences which have the potential to become intergenerational. It is concluded that public health efforts be directed toward increasing parental awareness and compliance with existing guidelines that recommend no safe level of exposure. PMID:23545330

Pagani, Linda S

2013-03-29

360

An examination of different smoking patterns among Canadian youth: new insight for tobacco control programming.  

PubMed

Patterns of smoking can vary among youth smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine three different patterns of smoking among youth (daily smoking, smoking sporadically on weekdays and weekends, and smoking during weekdays only), and to examine the sociodemographic characteristics that are associated with each smoking pattern in a representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data were collected as part of the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) from 31,396 students in grades 9 to 12 from secondary schools in 9 Canadian provinces. Data from the YSS were used to assess smoking behaviors and sociodemographic factors that are associated with smoking patterns among youth. We used logistic regression models to examine factors associated with week day only and some day smoking patterns relative to daily smoking patterns. Results indicate that among current youth smokers, the majority are daily smokers (62.0%), followed by some day (23.5%) and week day only (13.5%) smokers. Students who smoke some days were more likely than daily smokers to share cigarettes with others; however, they were less likely than daily smokers to have a parent, step-parent or guardian who smokes cigarettes and less likely to have close friends who smoke cigarettes. Conversely, students who smoke week days only were less likely than daily smokers to have a sibling who smokes cigarettes. These data suggest that the school environment continues to play an important role in reducing youth smoking rates in Canada, especially among youth who only smoke week days. The high percentage of week day only smokers suggests that current school-level tobacco control initiatives may be insufficient for preventing youth smoking onset. PMID:23254206

Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

2012-10-08

361

Individual differences in salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase in mothers and their infants: relation to tobacco smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke exposure affects the activity of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Statistics reveal 41 million children in the U.S. are regularly exposed to tobacco smoke, but we know little about the effects of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on HPA and SNS activity in early childhood. This study assayed cotinine (a metabolite of nicotine), cortisol, and alpha-amylase (sAA) in the saliva of mother-infant dyads from 197 low income and ethnically diverse families. The dyads were identified as tobacco smoke exposed (N = 82) or nonexposed (N = 115) based on maternal self-reports of smoking and salivary cotinine levels greater or less than 10 ng/ml. As expected, higher rates of maternal smoking behavior were associated with higher levels of cotinine in mothers' and their infants' saliva. On average, smoking mothers' salivary cotinine levels were 281 times higher compared to their nonsmoking counterparts, and 23 times higher compared to their own infant's salivary cotinine levels. Infants of smoking mothers had salivary cotinine levels that were four times higher than infants with nonsmoking mothers. Mothers who smoked had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower sAA activity compared to nonsmoking mothers. There were no associations between maternal smoking behavior, infant's salivary cotinine levels, or tobacco exposure group, and cortisol or sAA measured in infant's saliva. The findings are discussed in relation to the influence of smoking tobacco on the validity of salivary biomarkers of stress. PMID:17943979

Granger, Douglas A; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael; Kivlighan, Katie T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K; Wiegand, Lauren E

2007-11-01

362

Tobacco smoking and other suspected antecedents of nonmedical psychostimulant use in the United States, 1995.  

PubMed

This study investigates the extent to which tobacco smoking is associated with the nonmedical use of psychostimulants and the temporal order of the age of first use for tobacco and psychostimulants within a nationally representative sample of United States household residents. At the same time, alcohol use and other suspected determinants of psychostimulant use are investigated and held constant, using multiple regression models. Data were taken from public use files of the 1995 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to derive estimated relative odds of using stimulants for tobacco smokers versus nonsmokers, holding constant other potentially distorting influences. This study provides recent evidence on tobacco smoking as one of the potentially malleable risk factors for the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs. PMID:10419222

Wu, L T; Anthony, J C

1999-07-01

363

Biological basis of tobacco addiction: Implications for smoking-cessation treatment  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use became common all over the world after discovery of Americas. Tobacco, a plant carries in its leaves an alkaloid called nicotine, which is responsible not only for several pathophysiological changes in the body but also develops tolerance to its own action with repeated use. Studies suggest that the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor that mediates nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure and mood modulation. Repeated exposure to nicotine develops neuroadaptation of the receptors, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms appear on stoppage of tobacco use, which are characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among others. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation should reduce withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects.

Jiloha, R. C.

2010-01-01

364

DNA adducts in human tissues: biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs, and studies have revealed either specific adducts related to smoking or increased levels of adducts in the lung, bronchus, larynx, bladder, cervix, and oral mucosa of smokers. In a limited number of studies, the adducts and the carcinogens responsible for them have been identified. Some studies have demonstrated higher levels of adducts in the white blood cells of smokers, while other studies indicate other sources of genotoxic agents, including diet, can contribute to the DNA damage observed in these cells.

Phillips, D H

1996-01-01

365

Early exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and the development of allergic diseases in 4 year old children in Malmö, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have shown an association between secondhand tobacco smoke and allergy development in children. Furthermore, there is an increased risk of developing an allergy if the parents have an allergy. However, there are only few studies investigating the potential synergistic effect of secondhand tobacco smoke and allergic heredity on the development of an allergy. METHODS: The study was

Kristina Hansen; Elisabeth Mangrio; Martin Lindström; Maria Rosvall

2010-01-01

366

Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

367

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey.…

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

2005-01-01

368

NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.

Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Pinkerton, Kent E. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: kepinkerton@ucdavis.edu

2008-07-15

369

The effects of tobacco smoke on plasma alpha- and gamma-tocopherol levels in passive and active cigarette smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is one of the causes of oxidative stress that is leading to attenuation of the antioxidative body protective barrier by means of decreasing the levels of intra- and extracellular antioxidants. The effect of tobacco smoke on plasma levels of two main forms of Vitamin E, ?- and ?-tocopherol, in passive smokers (urinary cotinine concentration 50–500?g\\/L) and active smokers

Andrzej Sobczak; Dariusz Go?ka; Izabela Szo?tysek-Bo?dys

2004-01-01

370

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results revealed that sex, belonging to a

Holly E. R. Morrell; Lee M. Cohen; Donna Bacchi; Joel West

2005-01-01

371

Cancer of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Pet Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case-control study of nasal cancer in pet dogs was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke increases risk. Cases (n = 103) were selected from a teaching hospital during 1986-1990. Controls (n - 378) with other forms of cancer were selected from the same study base. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was evaluated by determining

John S. Reif; Christa Bruns

372

Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?  

PubMed

A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future. PMID:23139384

Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

2012-11-08

373

The Relationship Between Tobacco Advertisements and Smoking Status of Youth in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the relationship between tobacco advertisements, counter-advertisements, and smoking status among Indian youth. Materials and Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data was used; the data encompassed a representative two-stage probability sample of 60,001 students aged 13-15 years in 24 states in India. These students were interviewed with an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed

Payal B Shah; Mangesh S Pednekar; Prakash C Gupta; Dhirendra N Sinha

374

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor Against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American\\u000a young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N=145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised\\u000a (AAAS-R); the shortened Individualism\\/Collectivism (INDCOL) Scale; a Tobacco and Drug Use Survey; and a background survey.\\u000a Multiple

Aashir Nasim; Rosalie Corona; Faye Belgrave; Shawn O. Utsey; Niloofar Fallah

2007-01-01

375

Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke concentrations and mutagenicity for several indoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source for indoor air pollution. Although ETS-caused indoor air pollution has been well studied in the developed countries, few studies have examined ETS indoor air pollution in China, which currently has the largest population of tobacco smokers. In this study, respirable-particulate (RP) from ETS-contaminated (RP-ETS) indoor air was collected and measured in 5

Renqing Zhou; Shengben Li; Yingqiao Zhou; Alfred Haug

2000-01-01

376

Staff representations and tobacco-related practices in a psychiatric hospital with an indoor smoking ban.  

PubMed

The present study describes representations about smoking and practices related to patient smoking among staff of a large public psychiatric hospital. A survey was performed using a specially designed questionnaire. The return rate was 72.4% (n?=?155). A large proportion of staff recognized the importance of both smoking status and mental health for patient's well-being (46.9%), and believed that smoking cessation was possible for psychiatric patients (58.6%). However, the role of the psychiatric hospital was perceived as providing information (85.3%) and helping to diminish cigarette consumption (51%), rather than proposing smoking cessation (29.5%). Staff daily practice included reminding patients of smoking restrictions (43.9%), managing cigarettes (46.5%), and nicotine replacement therapy (24.3%). A principal component analysis of tobacco-related practices revealed two main factors (59.8% of variance): basic hospital actions (factor 1) and more specialized interventions (factor 2), which were significantly associated with higher worries about personally developing smoke-related illnesses (Spearman r?=?0.38, P?tobacco and a higher level of worry about this. The discussion highlights the need to redefine roles and expectancies of mental health staff, and improve training and collaboration with experts, in order to improve efficiency concerning tobacco issues. PMID:23773346

Keizer, Ineke; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Bruegger, Aurélia; Croquette, Patrice; Khan, Aqal Nawaz

2013-06-16

377

School-based tobacco-control programming and student smoking behaviour.  

PubMed

The study examined the association of a school-based tobacco-control program with students' smoking behaviour over time using three cross-sectional, provincial census datasets (grade 10 students in 1999, grade 11 students in 2000, grade 12 students in 2001). Data were collected from all secondary schools in Prince Edward Island (Canada) using the Tobacco module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). The proportion of regular smokers increased from grade 10 (22.3%) to grade 12 (27.8%, chi(2) = 10.35, df = 1, p < 0.001). Being exposed to different school-based tobacco programs and policies in grades 10 and 11 was not associated with the smoking behaviour of grade 12 students. The strongest predictors of smoking behaviour were having friends or close family members who smoke. This preliminary evidence suggests that programs and policies associated with banning smoking and enforcing smoking restrictions at school may be insufficient unless they also address the influence of smoking peers and family members and link to comprehensive programming within the broader context of other community and policy level interventions. PMID:19804681

Murnaghan, D A; Leatherdale, S T; Sihvonen, M; Kekki, P

2009-01-01

378

Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs Over Four Years Following a Campus Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a four year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (n = 4947) enrolled at a large mid-western university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco use was banned on campus. Additionally, campus-wide tobacco cessation

William V. Lechner; Ellen Meier; Mary Beth Miller; Josh L. Wiener; Yvon Fils-Aime

2012-01-01

379

Do Tobacco Taxes Influence Starting and Quitting Smoking? A Duration Analysis Approach Using Evidence from a Sample of Irish Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses duration analysis to investigate factors influencing starting and quitting smoking, in particular the role of tobacco taxes. Applying a variety of parametric duration models, including a split population model, to a sample of Irish women, it finds mixed results regarding the effect of tobacco taxes. In general the coefficient on tobacco taxes is in the expected direction

David Madden

2002-01-01

380

Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.  

PubMed

Background: Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. Results: There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Conclusions: Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors. PMID:23621209

Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

2013-01-01

381

Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that greater exposure to smoking in films is associated with trying smoking among adolescents. Design Cross sectional survey of 4919 schoolchildren aged 9-15 years, and assessment of occurrence of smoking in 601 films. Setting Randomly selected middle schools in Vermont and New Hampshire, USA. Main outcome measure Number of schoolchildren who had ever tried smoking a cigarette. Results The films contained a median of 5 (interquartile range 1-12) occurrences of smoking. The typical adolescent had seen 17 of 50 films listed. Exposure to smoking in films varied widely: median 91 (49-152) occurrences. The prevalence of ever trying smoking increased with higher categories of exposure: 4.9% among students who saw 0-50 occurrences of smoking, 13.7% for 51-100 occurrences, 22.1% for 101-150, and 31.3% for >150. The association remained significant after adjustment for age; sex; school performance; school; parents' education; smoking by friend, sibling, or parent; and receptivity to tobacco promotions. The adjusted odds ratios of ever trying smoking for students in the higher categories of exposure, compared with students exposed to 0-50 occurrences of smoking in films, were 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.4), and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.8). These odds ratios were not substantially affected by adjustment for parenting style or for personality traits of the adolescent. Conclusion In this sample of adolescents there was a strong, direct, and independent association between seeing tobacco use in films and trying cigarettes, a finding that supports the hypothesis that smoking in films has a role in the initiation of smoking in adolescents. What is already known on this topicSmoking is often depicted in films, and watching films is a favourite activity of adolescentsAdolescents whose favourite actors smoke in films are more likely to have tried smokingWhat this study addsAdolescents' exposure to smoking in films varies widelyAdolescents with higher exposure are significantly more likely to have tried smoking, even when other factors linked with adolescent smoking have been taken into accountThis study supports the hypothesis that depictions of smoking in films influence adolescents to smoke

Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Mott, Leila A; Tickle, Jennifer J; Ahrens, M Bridget; Heatherton, Todd F

2001-01-01

382

Smoking, disease, and obdurate denial: the Australian tobacco industry in the 1980s  

PubMed Central

Objective: To contrast the Australian tobacco industry's awareness of the diseases caused by smoking with their aggressive public denial on the relation between smoking and disease in the 1980s. Design: Analysis of 325 industry documents from the world wide web. Results: In the 1980s Australian cigarette manufacturers were informed constantly by the international industry of the medical consensus that smoking caused disease. In addition Philip Morris (Australia) Limited received reports of Philip Morris' international biological research programme and visited its Richmond research facility; and WD&HO Wills part funded, co-managed, and contributed research to the British American Tobacco groups' biological research programme. Despite this knowledge, the Australian manufacturers had a policy of arguing to their employees, decision makers, and the general public that questions of smoking and disease were unresolved. The industry catalogued the literature, developed arguments against the main claims made by health groups, and attacked public health advocates who made statements linking smoking to death and disease. Industry studies suggested that a 20–30% minority of the Australian public agreed with the industry on smoking and disease, diminishing across the decade. Conclusion: Australian manufacturers were clearly negligent in the 1980s, deliberately working to undermine Australians' understandings of the diseases caused by smoking despite their own private knowledge. Continuing scepticism about smoking and disease, corresponding with the industry's deceptions, exists in Australian smokers today, suggesting that their actions may have slowed the rate of decline in smoking prevalence. These revelations provide important evidence for Australian litigation and advocacy.

Carter, S; Chapman, S

2003-01-01

383

Reversible and permanent effects of tobacco smoke exposure on airway epithelial gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the US. The risk of dying from smoking-related diseases remains\\u000a elevated for former smokers years after quitting. The identification of irreversible effects of tobacco smoke on airway gene\\u000a expression may provide insights into the causes of this elevated risk.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we measured gene expression in large airway epithelial

Jennifer Beane; Paola Sebastiani; Gang Liu; Jerome S Brody; Marc E Lenburg; Avrum Spira

2007-01-01

384

[Interferences smoking-tobacco industry: a "political reality"].  

PubMed

Tobacco use is a real and hard to beat pandemia, caused mainly by well organized, very persistent and extremly aggressive efforts of the tobacco industry. There is nothing to much for industry, and the ones that stand and fight against this pandemia must be very aware of the unethical and unfair methods used by the enemy. PMID:23424952

Mih?l?an, Florin

385

Tobacco dependence: adolescents’ perspectives on the need to smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the need for a better understanding of the perspective of Canadian youths on tobacco dependence, a qualitative study using ethnographic techniques was conducted to describe the patterns of language that they use to describe tobacco dependence and the meaning that it has for them. The study was comprised of three inter-related phases: (1) A secondary analysis of 47

Joy L. Johnson; Joan L. Bottorff; Barbara Moffat; Pamela A. Ratner; Jean A. Shoveller; Chris Y. Lovato

2003-01-01

386

'Waiting until they got home': gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland.  

PubMed

The introduction in March 2006 of legislation banning smoking in public places in Scotland raised concerns that smokers would smoke more at home and so increase the exposure of those living with them to tobacco smoke. Drawing on interviews from two qualitative studies conducted after the implementation of the legislation, this article uses a gendered analysis to explore where and why smokers, who lived with non-smokers including children, continued to smoke in their homes. Although very few people attributed any increased home smoking to being a direct consequence of the legislation, many who already smoked there continued, and most women reported little or no disruption to their home smoking post-legislation. Also, because of the changing social environment of smoking, and other life circumstances, a minority of women had increased their levels of home smoking. Compared to the men in these studies, women, particularly those who didn't work outside the home, had restricted social lives and thus were less likely to have smoked in public places before the legislation and spent more time socialising in the homes of other people. In addition, women with children, including women who worked outside their homes, were more likely to spend sustained periods of time caring for children compared to fathers, who were more likely to leave the home to work or socialise. Although home smoking was linked to gendered caring responsibilities, other issues associated with being a smoker also meant that many women smokers chose to keep smoking in their homes. PMID:20580143

Robinson, Jude; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Greaves, Lorraine; Martin, Claudia

2010-05-20

387

Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effects of population tobacco control interventions on social inequalities in smoking. Data sources: Medical, nursing, psychological, social science and grey literature databases, bibliographies, hand-searches and contact with authors. Study selection: Studies were included (n?=?84) if they reported the effects of any population-level tobacco control intervention on smoking behaviour or attitudes in individuals or groups with different demographic or socioeconomic characteristics. Data extraction: Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Data synthesis: Data were synthesised using graphical (“harvest plot”) and narrative methods. No strong evidence of differential effects was found for smoking restrictions in workplaces and public places, although those in higher occupational groups may be more likely to change their attitudes or behaviour. Smoking restrictions in schools may be more effective in girls. Restrictions on sales to minors may be more effective in girls and younger children. Increasing the price of tobacco products may be more effective in reducing smoking among lower-income adults and those in manual occupations, although there was also some evidence to suggest that adults with higher levels of education may be more price-sensitive. Young people aged under 25 are also affected by price increases, with some evidence that boys and non-white young people may be more sensitive to price. Conclusions: Population-level tobacco control interventions have the potential to benefit more disadvantaged groups and thereby contribute to reducing health inequalities.

Thomas, S; Fayter, D; Misso, K; Ogilvie, D; Petticrew, M; Sowden, A; Whitehead, M; Worthy, G

2008-01-01

388

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.?DATA SOURCES—Medline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated were categorised using a typology with seven categories (school based, community interventions, mass media/public education, advertising restrictions, youth access restrictions, tobacco excise taxes, and direct restrictions on smoking). Novel and largely untested interventions were described using nine categories.?CONCLUSIONS—Youth smoking prevention and control efforts have had mixed results. However, this review suggests a number of prevention strategies that are promising, especially if conducted in a coordinated way to take advantage of potential synergies across interventions. Several types of strategies warrant additional attention and evaluation, including aggressive media campaigns, teen smoking cessation programmes, social environment changes, community interventions, and increasing cigarette prices. A significant proportion of the resources obtained from the recent settlement between 46 US states and the tobacco industry should be devoted to expanding, improving and evaluating "youth centred" tobacco prevention and control activities.???Keywords: youth smoking prevention; teen cessation programmes; community interventions; policy

Lantz, P.; Jacobson, P.; Warner, K.; Wasserman, J.; Pollack, H.; Berson, J.; Ahlstrom, A.

2000-01-01

389

Tobacco smoking effect on HIV-1 pathogenesis: role of cytochrome P450 isozymes.  

PubMed

Introduction: Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among the HIV-1-infected population. In addition to diminished immune response, smoking has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication and decrease response to antiretroviral therapy, perhaps through drug-drug interaction. However, the mechanism by which tobacco/nicotine increases HIV-1 replication and mediates drug-drug interaction is poorly understood. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the effects of smoking on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Since they propose a role for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, the authors briefly converse the role of CYP enzymes in tobacco-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Finally, the authors focus on the role of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2A6, in tobacco/nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress in HIV-1 model systems monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and neurons, which may be responsible for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Expert opinion: Recent findings suggest that CYP-mediated oxidative stress is a novel pathway that may be involved in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, including HIV-1 replication and drug-drug interaction. Thus, CYP and CYP-associated oxidative stress pathways may be potential targets to develop novel pharmaceuticals for HIV-1-infected smokers. Since HIV-1/TB co-infections are common, future study involving interactions between antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs that involve CYP pathways would also help treat HIV-1/TB co-infected smokers effectively. PMID:23822755

Ande, Anusha; McArthur, Carole; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

2013-07-04

390

The impact of tobacco use in women: exploring smoking cessation strategies.  

PubMed

The incidence of lung cancer in women has escalated during the last several decades. Lung cancer death rates in women also have risen and now exceed the number of deaths from breast cancer. Tobacco use accounts for more than 30% of all cancer deaths. Currently, 22 million adult women smoke, and more than 1.5 million adolescent females are smokers (American Cancer Society, 2000a). The use of tobacco by young female adolescents is on the rise, and those who are current smokers typically began smoking prior to high school graduation. Oncology nurses have an opportunity in inpatient and outpatient settings to impact the smoking habits of females, regardless of age. This article presents the guidelines for assisting women in smoking cessation. Clinical implications are presented that all oncology nurses should consider implementing in their practice setting. PMID:11899366

Bell, R M; Tingen, M S

391

Smokeless Tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

... QUIT (1-877-448-7848). Talk with a smoking cessation counselor about quitting smokeless tobacco - call NCI's Smoking ... chat. For smokeless tobacco information, click on the "Quitting Smoking" button in the LiveHelp pop-up - have a ...

392

Comparative study of smoke condensates from 1R4F cigarettes that burn tobacco versus ECLIPSE cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco in the SENCAR mouse dermal tumor promotion assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous chemical and toxicological studies indicate that smoke from ECLIPSE®, a cigarette that primarily heats rather than burns tobacco, is simplified and reduced in specific chemicals believed to be associated with smoking-related diseases, and demonstrates reduced smoke toxicity and biological activity in vitro when compared to conventional tobacco burning cigarettes. These data led to the hypothesis that cigarette smoke condensate

Daniel R. Meckley; Johnnie R. Hayes; K. R. Van Kampen; Paul H. Ayres; Arnold T. Mosberg; James E. Swauger

2004-01-01

393

Measuring exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco marketing among adolescents: intercorrelations among measures and associations with smoking status.  

PubMed

Exposure to tobacco-related marketing has been implicated as one of the risk factors for tobacco use among adolescents. However, tobacco-related marketing exposure has been measured in different ways in different studies, including perceived pervasiveness, receptivity, recognition, recall, and affect. It is not known whether these measures represent one or more underlying constructs and how these underlying constructs are associated with adolescent smoking status. This study analyzed data from 5,870 eighth-grade students in California, collected in 1996-1997 as part of the Independent Evaluation of the California Tobacco Control, Prevention, and Education Program. An exploratory factor analysis of multiple measures of tobacco-related marketing exposure revealed four distinct factors: perceived pervasiveness of protobacco marketing, perceived pervasiveness of antitobacco marketing, recognition of specific anti-tobacco advertisements, and receptivity to protobacco marketing. Receptivity to pro-tobacco marketing showed the strongest association with smoking status; higher levels of receptivity were associated with higher levels of smoking. Two measures of exposure to anti-tobacco marketing (perceived pervasiveness of anti-tobacco marketing and recognition of specific anti-tobacco ads) were highest among established smokers and lowest among susceptible nonsmokers. The same pattern was evident for perceived pervasiveness of pro-tobacco marketing. Results suggest that exposure to tobacco-related marketing is a multidimensional construct, and each dimension may have a unique contribution to the process of smoking initiation. Because adolescents are exposed to numerous pro- and anti-tobacco messages, it is important to develop anti-tobacco media campaigns that can successfully counter pro-tobacco marketing efforts. Potential strategies include targeting the susceptible nonsmokers who are at high risk for smoking and developing messages to decrease receptivity. PMID:11317421

Unger, J B; Cruz, T B; Schuster, D; Flora, J A; Johnson, C A

394

Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. METHODS: Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through

Dana E Rollison; Ross C Brownson; H Leroy Hathcock; Craig J Newschaffer

2008-01-01

395

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Malignant Lymphoma in Pet Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline malignant lymphoma occurs commonly in domestic cats and may serve as a model for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Several studies have suggested that smoking may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To evaluate whether exposure to household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may increase the risk of feline malignant lymphoma, the authors conducted a case-control study of this relation in

Elizabeth R. Bertone; Laura A. Snyder; Antony S. Moore

396

Gas and particulate-phase specific tracer and toxic organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoke constituents are worthy of concern and characterized as carcinogens. Different experiment conditions may affect the environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents. A study was undertaken in a 75.5-m3 spare office to evaluate ETS constituents in a real environment. Thirty-four volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including three ETS tracers: nicotine, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), 19 carbonyl compounds, 54 semi-volatile compounds (24

Xinhui Bi; Guoying Sheng; Yanli Feng; Jiamo Fu; Juexin Xie

2005-01-01

397

Evidence That Smokeless Tobacco Use Is a Gateway for Smoking Initiation in Young Adult Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that smokeless tobacco (SLT) serves as a gateway drug for smoking among young adult males.Methods. A cohort (n = 7,865) of U.S. Air Force recruits who claimed to have never smoked cigarettes was followed prospectively for 1 year. The participants were male, 32.9% were ethnic minorities, and their average age was

C. Keith Haddock; Mark Vander Weg; Margaret DeBon; Robert C. Klesges; G. Wayne Talcott; Harry Lando; Alan Peterson

2001-01-01

398

Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Infants in Southern Thailand: A Study of Urinary Cotinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a survey to assess the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 1-year-old infants in Thailand. Of the\\u000a 725 infants, it was reported that 73.3% had household smoking and 40.7% had detectable urinary cotinine. Twenty-five infants\\u000a (3.4%) had urinary cotinine in the range of adult heavy smokers. The prevalence of ETS exposure was significantly higher in\\u000a infants with

Wanaporn Anuntaseree; Ladda Mo-suwan; Chitchamai Ovatlarnporn; Chanpa Tantana; Arinda Ma-a-lee

2008-01-01

399

Tobacco use and readiness to quit smoking in low?income HIV?infected persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aim was to identify covariates of smoking status and readiness to quit that encompassed key sociodemographic and health status variables, health-related quality of life, drug use and unprotected sex, and tobacco use variables in a cohort of low-income persons living with HIV. We also examined the impact of HIV diagnosis on smoking cessation. The sample (N5428) was mostly

Jack E. Burkhalter; Carolyn M. Springer; Rosy Chhabra; Jamie S. Ostroff; Bruce D. Rapkin

2005-01-01

400

A 32-country comparison of tobacco smoke derived particle levels in indoor public places  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To compare tobacco smoke-derived particulate levels in transportation and hospitality venues with and without smoking in 32 countries using a standardised measurement protocol.Methods:The TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor was used to measure the concentration of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) in 1822 bars, restaurants, retail outlets, airports and other workplaces in 32 geographically dispersed countries

A Hyland; M J Travers; C Dresler; C Higbee; K M Cummings

2008-01-01

401

Smoking in immigrants: do socioeconomic gradients follow the pattern expected from the tobacco epidemic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although socioeconomic patterns of smoking across the different stages of the tobacco epidemic have been well researched, less is known about these patterns among immigrant populations. This paper aims to assess the smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic gradients among three immigrant populations. Methods: Three cross-sectional studies, using structured face-to-face interviews, were conducted in three representative (for socioeconomic status) samples

V. Nierkens; Vries de H; K. Stronks

2006-01-01

402

Smoking mull: a grounded theory model on the dynamics of combined tobacco and cannabis use among adult men.  

PubMed

Issue addressed Australians' use of cannabis has been increasing. Over a third of Australians (35.4%) have used cannabis at some time in their lives and 10.3% are recent users. Almost two-thirds of cannabis users combine cannabis with tobacco. The aim of this study was to understand the process of mulling - smoking tobacco and cannabis together - using a grounded theory approach. Methods Twenty-one in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with men aged 25-34 and living on the North Coast of New South Wales. Interviews explored participants' smoking practices, histories and cessation attempts. Results A model describing mulling behaviour and the dynamics of smoking cannabis and tobacco was developed. It provides an explanatory framework that demonstrates the flexibility in smoking practices, including substance substitution - participants changed the type of cannabis they smoked, the amount of tobacco they mixed with it and the devices they used to smoke according to the situations they were in and the effects sought. Conclusion Understanding these dynamic smoking practices and the importance of situations and effects, as well as the specific role of tobacco in mulling, may allow health workers to design more relevant and appropriate interventions. So what? Combining tobacco with cannabis is the most common way of smoking cannabis in Australia. However, tobacco cessation programmes rarely address cannabis use. Further research to develop evidence-based approaches for mull use would improve cessation outcomes. PMID:24168742

Banbury, A; Zask, A; Carter, S M; van Beurden, E; Tokley, R; Passey, M; Copeland, J

2013-10-01

403

Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0%) were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34), acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64), suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84), otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33) (p > 0.05) and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05). For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58), 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93) for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81). Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30) and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04) (p < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India.

2012-01-01

404

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples  

PubMed Central

Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed—one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18. Daily waterpipe use was reported by 19%, weekly use by 41%, and monthly use by 29%. Waterpipe use was more common during the weekend (75%) than during weekdays (43%). Forty-four percent reported spending ?60 min smoking tobacco during a waterpipe session. The majority of waterpipe users owned a waterpipe (57%) and purchased it on the Internet (71%). Many waterpipe users smoked the sweetened and flavored tobacco (i.e., maassel), and fruit flavors were the most popular (54%). Past month use of cigarettes, tobacco products other than cigarettes or waterpipe, and alcohol was 54%, 33%, and 80% respectively, and 36% reported past-month marijuana use. Most waterpipe users were confident about their ability to quit (96%), but only a minority (32%) intended to quit. Most waterpipe users believed waterpipe tobacco smoking was less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. These results are from small convenience samples; more detailed study of a larger group of randomly sampled U.S. waterpipe tobacco smokers will be valuable in understanding this behavior and developing effective strategies to prevent it.

Smith-Simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

405

Effects of Tobacco Smoking in Pregnancy on Offspring Intelligence at the Age of 5  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding.

Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schi?ler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina R?ndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

2012-01-01

406

Neonatal urinary cotinine correlates with behavioral alterations in newborns prenatally exposed to tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Altered behavior due to prenatal smoke exposure was examined in 25 neonates born from smoking mothers who consumed at least 5 cigarettes/d during the entire gestation. Data were compared with 25 matched neonates born from nonsmoking mothers. Neonatal behavior was evaluated using the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). Antenatal exposure to tobacco smoke at the end of the pregnancy was determined by measurement of urinary cotinine. Newborns from smoking mothers showed significant lower scores in various BNBAS items compared with neonates from nonsmoking mothers. A strong correlation was observed between infant irritability and urinary cotinine in newborns from smoker and nonsmoking mothers and with number of daily smoked cigarettes and maternal nicotine daily intake of infants exposed to active maternal smoking. Linear regression analysis showed that urinary cotinine was the best predictor of infant irritability (r(2) = 0.727). The latter was also associated to the neonate's low level of attention and poor response to inanimate auditory stimuli. Among infants from nonsmoking mothers, paternal smoking significantly correlated with infant urinary cotinine and infant irritability, being also the best predictor of irritability (r(2) = 0.364). Neonatal behavior can be significantly altered in a dose-dependent manner even after modest prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:17237732

Mansi, Giuseppina; Raimondi, Francesco; Pichini, Simona; Capasso, Letizia; Sarno, Micaela; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Romano, Alfonso; Paludetto, Roberto

2007-02-01

407

Tobacco withdrawal symptoms and urges to smoke in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.  

PubMed

We compared tobacco withdrawal in pregnant and non-pregnant smokers abstaining from smoking for 24h. Female smokers completed an internet-based questionnaire, including the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale-Revised (MNWS). They also rated additional withdrawal items and strength of urge to smoke. Consenting women were randomized to either: (i) abstain from smoking for 24h or (ii) smoke as usual. After 24h they rated their withdrawal again. We included a 'smoking as usual' group as we wished to establish that smoking abstinence increased withdrawal symptoms. Two-hundred and seventy-five women completed both the initial and the 24h questionnaire and reported abstaining (n=115, 17% pregnant) or smoking (n=160, 21% pregnant) as requested. Exclusively among abstinent smokers, we compared symptoms for the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. After 24h pregnant women had significantly lower scores than non-pregnant women for the mean MNWS (p=0.004) and for three individual MNWS symptoms (angry, p=0.010; anxious, p=0.048; impatient, p=0.011), with adjustments for baseline cigarette consumption and baseline withdrawal scores. Overall, on the first day of smoking abstinence, pregnant women are likely to report less severe tobacco withdrawal than non-pregnant women. PMID:22958869

Ussher, Michael; Etter, Jean-Francois; Giatras, Nikoletta; Coleman, Tim

2012-07-23

408

Parental Smoking and Adolescent Smoking Initiation: An Intergenerational Perspective on Tobacco Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Adolescence is an important period of risk for the development of lifelong smoking behaviors. Compelling, although inconsistent, evidence suggests a relation- ship between parental smoking and the risk of smoking initiation during adoles- cence. This study investigates unresolved issues concerning the strength and nature of the association between parent smoking and offspring smoking initiation. METHODS.We enrolled 564 adolescents aged 12

Stephen E. Gilman; Richard Rende; Julie Boergers; David B. Abrams; Stephen L. Buka; Melissa A. Clark; Suzanne M. Colby; Brian Hitsman; Alessandra N. Kazura; Lewis P. Lipsitt; Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson; Michelle L. Rogers; Cassandra A. Stanton; Laura R. Stroud; Raymond S. Niaura

2010-01-01

409

Metabolites of a Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen in Children Exposed to Secondhand or Thirdhand Tobacco Smoke in Their Homes  

PubMed Central

Background People exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) inhale the lung carcinogen NNK which is metabolized to NNAL and its glucuronides. These urinary metabolites, termed total NNAL, can be quantified. A related compound, iso-NNAL, has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to smoke constituent residues on surfaces (thirdhand tobacco smoke). There is limited information in the literature on levels of total NNAL in children exposed to SHS. Methods We recruited 79 parent child dyads from homes where the enrolled parent was a cigarette smoker, and visited their homes. Parents were asked questions, home ambient air quality was evaluated, and children provided urine samples. Urine was analyzed for total NNAL, total cotinine, total nicotine, and iso-NNAL. Results Ninety percent of the children had detectable total NNAL in urine; total nicotine and total cotinine were also detected in most samples. There were significant positive relationships between biomarker levels and exposure of children in the home. Levels were highest in homes with no smoking restrictions. African-American children had significantly higher levels than other children. iso-NNAL was not detected in any urine sample. Conclusions There was nearly universal exposure of children to the lung carcinogen NNK, due mainly to exposure to SHS from adult smokers in their homes. Impact Homes with adult smokers should adopt restrictions to protect their children from exposure to a potent lung carcinogen.

Thomas, Janet L.; Guo, Hongfei; Carmella, Steven G.; Balbo, Silvia; Han, Shaomei; Davis, Andrew; Yoder, Andrea; Murphy, Sharon E.; An, Larry C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Hecht, Stephen S.

2011-01-01

410

2 HR 1256 - Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... to the person who sells or distributes the product ... to prevent the sale and distribution of tobacco ... products that are sold or distributed through means ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

411

Examining the effects of tobacco treatment policies on smoking rates and smoking related deaths using the SimSmoke computer simulation model  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To develop a simulation model to predict the effects of different smoking treatment policies on quit rates, smoking rates, and smoking attributable deaths. Methods: We first develop a decision theoretic model of quitting behaviour, which incorporates the decision to quit and the choice of treatment. A model of policies to cover the costs of different combinations of treatments and to require health care provider intervention is then incorporated into the quit model. The policy model allows for the smoker to substitute between treatments and for policies to reduce treatment effectiveness. The SimSmoke computer simulation model is then used to examine policy effects on smoking rates and smoking attributable deaths. Results: The model of quit behaviour predicts a population quit rate of 4.3% in 1993, which subsequently falls and then increases in recent years to 4.5%. The policy model suggests a 25% increase in quit rates from a policy that mandates brief interventions and the coverage of all proven treatments. Smaller effects are predicted from policies that mandate more restricted coverage of treatments, especially those limited to behavioural treatment. These policies translate into small reductions in the smoking rate at first, but increase to as much as a 5% reduction in smoking rates. They also lead to substantial savings in lives. Conclusions: Tobacco treatment policies, especially those with broad and flexible coverage, have the potential to increase smoking cessation substantially and decrease smoking rates in the short term, with fairly immediate reductions in deaths.

Levy, D; Friend, K

2002-01-01

412

Tobacco advertising/promotions and adolescents' smoking risk in Northern Africa.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive tobacco advertising/promotion bans are effective against adolescent smoking but many developing countries have implemented only partial bans. This study examines the association between advertising/promotions exposure and adolescent cigarette smoking risk in North Africa, and possible mediation of this association by parent and peer smoking. METHODS: Adolescent data (n=12 329) from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed (Libya, 2007; Egypt, 2005; Morocco, 2006; Tunisia 2007; and Sudan, 2005). Current smoking (any cigarette use in the past 30 days) and never-smokers' initiation susceptibility (composite of openness to accepting a cigarette from a friend and intention to start smoking in the next year) outcomes were examined. Advertising/promotion exposures included media and in-person contacts. Weighted univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Current smoking prevalence ranged from 5.6% (Egypt) to 15.3% (Tunisia) among boys, and 1.1% (Libya and Egypt) to 2.0% (Morocco and Sudan) among girls. Initiation susceptibility ranged from 14.1% (Sudan) to 25.0% (Tunisia) among boys, and from 13.3% (Sudan) to 15.0% (Libya) among girls. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents reported exposure to at least one type of advertising/promotion. In multivariable analyses adjusting for demographics, each type of advertising/promotion was significantly and positively associated with boys' current smoking status; most advertising/promotion exposure types were also positively associated with initiation susceptibility among boys and girls. Peer smoking only partially mediated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced. PMID:23303288

Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Ledford, E Cannon; Andersen, Lori; Johnson, Carolyn C

2013-01-01

413

BLUNTED VAGAL REACTIVITY PREDICTS STRESS-PRECIPITATED TOBACCO SMOKING  

PubMed Central

Rationale Long-term smoking can lead to changes in autonomic function, including decreased vagal tone and altered stress responses. One index of the inability to adapt to stress may be blunted vagal reactivity. Stress is a primary mechanism involved in relapse to smoking, but mechanisms leading to stress-precipitated relapse are not well understood. Objectives Using an experimental paradigm of stress-precipitated smoking behavior, we examined whether autonomic reactivity mediates the relationship between stress and smoking. High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a putative measure of vagal tone and the ratio of low-to-high frequency HRV (LF/HF), a measure of sympathovagal balance were assessed. Methods Using a within-subjects design, 32 nicotine dependent 15-hour abstinent smokers (a subgroup from McKee et al. (2011)) were exposed to individualized script-driven imagery of stressful and relaxing scenarios and assessed on the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-lib smoking. HRV was monitored throughout each laboratory session (maximum 60 min following imagery). Results As expected, stress and ad-lib smoking additively decreased HF-HRV and increased LF/HF. Blunted stress-induced HF-HRV responses reflecting decreased vagal reactivity were associated with less time to initiate smoking and increased craving relief and reinforcement from smoking. These relationships were specific to HF-HRV following stress as neither baseline HF-HRV, HF-HRV following relaxing imagery, or LF/HF predicted smoking behavior. Conclusions The current findings are the first to experimentally demonstrate that stress-precipitated decreased vagal reactivity predicts the ability to resist smoking. Findings suggest that strategies that normalize vagal reactivity in early abstinent smokers may lead to improved smoking cessation outcomes.

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Sinha, Rajita; Lampert, Rachel; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Anderson, George M.; Lavery, Meaghan E.; Yanagisawa, Katherine; McKee, Sherry A.

2011-01-01

414

Secondhand tobacco smoke concentrations in motor vehicles: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Motor vehicles represent important microenvironments for exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). While some countries and cities have banned smoking in cars with children present, more data are needed to develop the evidence base on SHS exposure levels in motor vehicles to inform policy and education practices aimed at supporting smoke-free motor vehicles when passengers are present.Objective:To assess exposure to secondhand

M R Jones; A Navas-Acien; J Yuan; P N Breysse

2009-01-01

415

Minority women and tobacco: Implications for smoking cessation interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quitting smoking is the single most important preventive health behavior a woman can perform to significantly reduce her chances\\u000a of morbidity and premature mortality. Minority women are an extremely important population to target for smoking cessation\\u000a intervention. Rates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are markedly higher among women of certain minority\\u000a groups. In addition, smoking prevalence rates

Teresa K. King; Belinda Borrelli; Carolyn Black; Bernardine M. Pinto; Bess H. Marcus

1997-01-01

416

Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.?METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in the USA (Minnesota trial and the Master Settlement Agreement) and available on the internet. Search terms included: risk assessment, low dose exposure, and the names of key players and organisations.?RESULTS/CONCLUSION—The tobacco industry developed a well coordinated, multi-pronged strategy to create doubt about research on exposure to SHS by trying to link it to the broader discussion of risk assessment of low doses of a number of toxins whose disease burden may still be a matter of scientific debate, thus trying to make SHS their equivalent; and by attempting, through third party organisations and persons, to impugn the agencies using risk assessment to establish SHS as a hazard.???Keywords: tobacco industry; risk assessment; environmental tobacco smoke; ETS; second hand smoke; SHS

Hirschhorn, N.; Bialous, S. A.

2001-01-01

417

The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude  

PubMed Central

Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.

2011-01-01

418

Effect of tobacco chewing, tobacco smoking and alcohol on all-cause and cancer mortality: A cohort study from Trivandrum, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the risk of all-cause, cancer and tobacco-related cancer mortality associated with tobacco chewing, tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Design: Prospective community-based cohort study initiated in 1996. Participants: 167343 adult subjects, aged 34 and older, living in 13 panchayaths (rural municipal administrative units) in South India, were regularly followed-up for a mean duration of 6.5 years. Main outcome

Kunnambath Ramadas; Catherine Sauvaget; Gigi Thomas; Jean-Marie Fayette; Somanathan Thara; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

2010-01-01

419

Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We

1999-01-01

420

Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.DATA SOURCESLiterature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released