These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Water-Pipe Tobacco Smoking Among Middle and High School Students in Arizona  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Using a water pipe to smoke tobacco is increasing in prevalence among US college students, and it may also be common among younger adolescents. The purpose of this study of Arizona middle and high school students was to examine the prevalence of water-pipe tobacco smoking, compare water-pipe tobacco smoking with other forms of tobacco use, and determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water-pipe tobacco smoking in this population. METHODS We added items assessing water-pipe tobacco smoking to Arizona’s 2005 Youth Tobacco Survey and used them to estimate statewide water-pipe tobacco smoking prevalence among various demographic groups by using survey weights. We also used multiple logistic regression to determine which demographic characteristics had independent relationships with each of 2 outcomes: ever use of water-pipe to smoke tobacco and water-pipe tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days. RESULTS Median age of the sample was 14. Accounting for survey weights, among middle school students, 2.1% had ever smoked water-pipe tobacco and 1.4% had done so within the previous 30 days. Among those in high school, 10.3% had ever smoked from a water pipe and 5.4% had done so in the previous 30 days, making water-pipe tobacco smoking more common than use of smokeless tobacco, pipes, bidis, and kreteks (clove cigarettes). In multivariate analyses that controlled for covariates, ever smoking of water-pipe tobacco was associated with older age, Asian race, white race, charter school attendance, and lack of plans to attend college. CONCLUSIONS Among Arizona youth, water pipe is the third most common source of tobacco after cigarettes and cigars. Increased national surveillance and additional research will be important for addressing this threat to public health. PMID:19171581

Primack, Brian A.; Walsh, Michele; Bryce, Cindy; Eissenberg, Thomas

2010-01-01

2

Effects of type of smoking (pipe, cigars or cigarettes) on biological indices of tobacco exposure and toxicity.  

PubMed

Although all forms of smoking are harmful, smoking pipes or cigars is associated with lower exposure to the lethal products of tobacco products and lower levels of morbidity and mortality than smoking cigarettes. Cytochrome P-450-1A (CYP1A) is a major pathway activating carcinogens from tobacco smoke. Our primary aim was to compare CYP1A2 activity in individuals smoking pipes or cigars only, cigarettes only and in non-smokers. We studied 30 smokers of pipes or cigars only, 28 smokers of cigarettes only, and 30 non-smokers male subjects matched for age. CYP1A2 activity was assessed as the caffeine metabolic ratio in plasma. One-day urine collection was used for determining exposure to products of tobacco metabolism. Nitrosamine and benzo[a]pyrene DNA adducts were measured in lymphocytes. CYP1A2 activity was greater (p<0.0001) in cigarette smokers (median: 0.61; interquartile range: 0.52-0.76) than in pipe or cigar smokers (0.27; 0.21-0.37) and non-smokers (0.34; 0.25-0.42) who did not differ significantly. Urinary cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene levels were higher in cigarette smokers than in pipe or cigar smokers and higher in the later than in non-smokers. DNA adducts levels were significantly lower in pipe or cigar smokers than in cigarette smokers. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity (p<0.0001) and of 1-hydroxypyrene excretion in urine (p=0.0012). In this study, pipe or cigar smoking was associated with lower exposure to products of tobacco metabolism than cigarette smoking and to an absence of CYP1A2 induction. Cigarette smoking was the only independent predictor of CYP1A2 activity in smokers. However, inhalation behaviour, rather than the type of tobacco smoked, may be the key factor linked to the extent of tobacco exposure and CYP1A2 induction. Our results provide a reasonable explanation for the results of epidemiological studies showing pipe or cigar smoking to present fewer health hazards than cigarette smoking. PMID:16884817

Funck-Brentano, Christian; Raphaël, Mathilde; Lafontaine, Michel; Arnould, Jean-Pierre; Verstuyft, Céline; Lebot, Martine; Costagliola, Dominique; Roussel, Ronan

2006-10-01

3

Smoking and Tobacco Information  

Cancer.gov

Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting A fact sheet that lists some of the cancer-causing chemicals in tobacco smoke and describes the health problems caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting.

4

Nicotine and tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

5

University of California Policy Smoke and Tobacco Free Environment  

E-print Network

, the use of unregulated nicotine products, and the use of electronic smoking devices (which includes e-cigarettes of tobacco, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs, electronic cigarettes, and all, and operating electronic smoking devices and other smoking instruments. Tobacco Use includes inhaling, smoking

Talley, Lynne D.

6

COPD and tobacco smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

COPD and tobacco smoke. M. Bartal. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammation of the airways, including the parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature. The burden of COPD is increasing around the world in terms of mor- bidity and mortality in adult population. Active smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, although there is individual susceptibility to the

M. Bartal

7

34.05.99.M1 Smoking and Tobacco Use Page 1 of 3 UNIVERSITY RULE  

E-print Network

, cigars, pipes, water pipes (hookah), bidis, kreteks, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, snuff Policy 34.05 Smoking. Tobacco means all forms of tobacco products including but not limited to cigarettes

8

Smoking  

MedlinePLUS

... forms of tobacco — cigarettes, pipes, cigars, hookahs, and smokeless tobacco — are hazardous. It doesn't help to substitute ... Quit Smoking? Dealing With Addiction Smoking and Asthma Smokeless Tobacco Contact Us Print Additional resources Send to a ...

9

Smoking and Tobacco Policy Effective Date: August 25, 2014  

E-print Network

also is prohibited. III. EXCEPTIONS Smoking Cessation Products and Electronic Cigarettes Smoking that contain tobacco or nicotine, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, hookahs, water pipes are permitted. Devices that simulate smoking through inhalation of vapor or aerosol from the device, including e-cigarettes

Ziurys, Lucy M.

10

Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

Furrukh, Muhammad

2013-01-01

11

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been analyzed with respect to several components following smoking of research cigarettes in an experimental chamber. arameters analyzed and their airborne yield per cigarette included: particulate matter (10 mg) and its mutagenic activity in...

12

Questions about Smoking, Tobacco, and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... cigars, electronic cigarettes, spit and other types of smokeless tobacco, different tobacco products, nicotine, addiction, and quitting. Many ... the hazards of smoking? Are spit tobacco and snuff safe alternatives to smoking? What are the health ...

13

Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Smoking & Tobacco Use Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... More CDC Sites Campaigns and Multimedia Follow CDCTobaccoFree Smoking & Tobacco Use Media File Formats Help: How do ...

14

Smoking and Tobacco Use Cessation (Counseling to Stop Smoking or Using Tobacco Products)  

MedlinePLUS

... gov for covered items Smoking & tobacco use cessation (counseling to stop smoking or using tobacco products) How ... by tobacco use, you pay nothing for the counseling sessions if the doctor or other health care ...

15

Smoked Tobacco Products  

MedlinePLUS

... health effects of light cigarettes . Back to top Menthol Cigarettes Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants ... products, and tobacco rolling paper. Brands marketed as menthol cigarettes have enough menthol added to describe them ...

16

Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

17

Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

18

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios. PMID:10090715

Manuel, J

1999-01-01

19

Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence  

PubMed Central

Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

2008-01-01

20

Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

21

Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

22

Cigarette Smoking, Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Insulin Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To investigate whether active smoking and\\/or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with insulin sensitivity.METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and tobacco use history were measured in 1481 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). IRAS is a large mulitcenter epidemiologic study designed to explore the cross-sectional relationships among insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease risk factors and behaviors, and disease

Leora Henkin; Daniel Zaccaro; Steven Haffner; Andrew Karter; Marian Rewers; Phyliss Sholinsky; Lynne Wagenknecht

1999-01-01

23

Cigarette, Water-pipe, and Medwakh Smoking Prevalence Among Applicants to Abu Dhabi's Pre-marital Screening Program, 2011  

PubMed Central

Background: This study assesses self-reported tobacco use prevalence (cigarette, water-pipe, and medwakh) among applicants to Abu Dhabi's Premarital Screening program during 2011. Methods: Premarital Screening data reported to the Health Authority – Abu Dhabi from April to December 2011 were utilized to estimate tobacco use prevalence among applicants. Smoking prevalence was examined by nationality, age group and gender. Results: Overall, 24.7% of Premarital Screening Program applicants were current smokers; 11.5% smoked cigarettes, 5.9% smoked medwakh (hand-held pipe), 4.8% smoked water-pipe and 2.5% smoked a combination (more than one type). Men (19.2%) were more likely than women (3.5%) to be current cigarette smokers. Women were much less likely to smoke medwakh (0.1%) than men (11.5%), with male UAE Nationals having the highest medwakh smoking prevalence (16.1%). The overall prevalence of water-pipe smoking was 6.8% among men and 2.8% for women with the highest water-pipe smoking prevalence (10.2%) among Arab expatriate men. Conclusions: Variations in tobacco use prevalence among Premarital Screening Program applicants reflect preferences for different modes of tobacco consumption by nationality, age group and gender. Enforcement of tobacco control laws, including implementation of clean indoor air laws and tobacco tax increases, and targeted health education programs are required to reduce tobacco consumption and concomitant tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24404364

Aden, Bashir; Karrar, Sara; Shafey, Omar; Al Hosni, Farida

2013-01-01

24

Measuring Infant Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to measure infant exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are needed to identify infants at highest risk for ETS-related health problems. The purpose of this study was to validate measures sensitive to changes in levels of infant exposure to ETS and to develop a predictive model of infant exposure to ETS. Fifteen infants of smoking mothers were followed from

Mary Beth Flanders Stepans; Sara G. Fuller

1999-01-01

25

Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior.  

PubMed

This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relation between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of neuroticism and psychoticism than do ex-smokers or nonsmokers. The literature also reveals a strong association between smoking and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. Understanding the psychological factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence can further the development and improvement of therapeutic strategies to be used in smoking-cessation programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education. PMID:18026659

Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Botelho, Clóvis

2007-01-01

26

CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

CLEARING THE AIR UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free Campus Survey Results 2013 Presented by: Julie Chobdee and Cassandra Greenawalt UCR Smoke/Tobacco-Free Policy Implementation Committee #12;Background In a letter Riverside, effective January 2nd, 2014, is prohibiting smoking and the use of tobacco products at all

Mills, Allen P.

27

Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

2014-07-01

28

CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke  

MedlinePLUS

... 26% of adults smoke in both states. Fewer people smoke in the West (about 16%), and more people smoke in the Southeast (about 22%) and Midwest (about ... onitor tobacco use and prevention policies P rotect people from tobacco smoke O ffer help to quit W arn about ...

29

Bladder cancer and black tobacco cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was planned in the Hérault (Mediterranean) region of France where bladder cancer mortality and incidence rates are high. In the present paper, variations in bladder cancer risk according to various smoking-related variables, in particular time of exposure and type of tobacco, are examined. This case-control study with 219 male incident cases and 794 male population controls randomized

I. Momas; J. P. Daures; B. Festy; J. Bontoux; F. Gremy

1994-01-01

30

Clemson University Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

), kreteks, bidis, electronic cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff and any non-FDA approved and smoke-related products, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, water pipes (hookah

Duchowski, Andrew T.

31

Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

32

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 7: The

33

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 12: Population

34

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 8: Changes

35

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 11: State

36

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 9: Cigars:

37

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 14: Changing

38

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 6: Community-Based

39

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 2: Smokeless

40

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 13: Risks

41

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 15: Those

42

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 3: Major

43

Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

44

Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.  

PubMed

Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies. PMID:24217845

Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

2013-01-01

45

South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining the best combination of counselling/support and pharmacological therapy; (v) setting a quit date and provide suitable resources and support; (vi) frequent follow-up as often as possible via text/telephone or in person; (vii) monitoring for side-effects, relapse and on-going cessation; and (viii) if relapse occurs, providing the necessary support and encourage a further attempt when appropriate.  PMID:24148176

van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

2013-11-01

46

Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking

Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

2013-01-01

47

"Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

48

Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

49

Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard.  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke, which contains over 50 known carcinogens and many other toxic agents, is a health hazard for nonsmokers who are regularly exposed to it while at work. Involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke annoys and irritates many healthy nonsmokers. Serious acute health effects are probably limited to the one fifth of the population with pre-existing health conditions that are aggravated by exposure to tobacco smoke. The consequences of long-term exposure include decreased lung function and lung cancer. Existing air quality standards for workplaces do not directly specify an acceptable level for tobacco smoke. The evidence on the composition of tobacco smoke and on the health hazards of involuntary exposure suggests that there may not be a "safe" level for such exposure. PMID:6498670

Collishaw, N E; Kirkbride, J; Wigle, D T

1984-01-01

50

Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees  

PubMed Central

Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

2013-01-01

51

Tobacco smoke exposure induces nicotine dependence in rats  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE Tobacco smoke contains nicotine and many other compounds that act in concert on the brain reward system. Therefore, animal models are needed that allow the investigation of chronic exposure to the full spectrum of tobacco smoke constituents. OBJECTIVES The aim of these studies was to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke leads to nicotine dependence in rats. METHODS The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the negative affective aspects of nicotine withdrawal. Somatic signs were recorded from a checklist of nicotine abstinence signs. Nicotine self-administration sessions were conducted to investigate if tobacco smoke exposure affects the motivation to self-administer nicotine. Nicotinic receptor autoradiography was used to investigate if exposure to tobacco smoke affects central ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and non-?7 nAChR levels (primarily ?4?2 nAChRs). RESULTS The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine dose-dependently elevated the brain reward thresholds of the rats exposed to tobacco smoke and did not affect the brain reward thresholds of the untreated control rats. Furthermore, mecamylamine induced more somatic withdrawal signs in the smoke exposed rats than in the control rats. Nicotine self-administration was decreased 1 day after the last tobacco smoke exposure sessions and was returned to control levels 5 days later. Tobacco smoke exposure increased the ?7 nAChR density in the CA2/3 area and the stratum oriens and increased the non-?7 nAChR density in the dentate gyrus. CONCLUSION Tobacco smoke exposure leads to nicotine dependence as indicated by precipitated affective and somatic withdrawal signs and induces an upregulation of nAChRs in the hippocampus. PMID:19936715

Small, Elysia; Shah, Hina P.; Davenport, Jake J.; Geier, Jacqueline E.; Yavarovich, Kate R.; Yamada, Hidetaka; Sabarinath, Sreedharan N.; Derendorf, Hartmut; Pauly, James R.; Gold, Mark S.; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.

2013-01-01

52

Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

53

Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

Rees, Vaughan W.

2013-01-01

54

Human Resources Policy Guidelines 800.3 Tobacco Use  

E-print Network

, including, chewing tobacco, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes (that involve the use of tobacco and tobacco products) and the act of smoking or carrying a lighted cigar, cigarette, pipe or any other

Linhardt, Robert J.

55

Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30?years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

2012-01-01

56

MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE HOME USING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the theoretical and practical development of a multi-compartment indoor air quality model designed for predicting pollutant concentrations from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home. he model is developed using transfer functions for each compartment, ...

57

[Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].  

PubMed

The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (?4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

Melkadze, N

2013-02-01

58

The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.  

PubMed

Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. PMID:25130679

Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

2014-09-01

59

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

60

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates...rates under 26 U.S.C. 5701(f) and (g), respectively: Product Tax rate...the inclusion of cigarette papers or tubes in a package bearing a 'pipe...

2013-04-01

61

27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.  

...TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates...rates under 26 U.S.C. 5701(f) and (g), respectively: Product Tax rate...the inclusion of cigarette papers or tubes in a package bearing a 'pipe...

2014-04-01

62

The Role of Home Smoking Bans in Limiting Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Hungary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16-70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally…

Paulik, Edit; Maroti-Nagy, A.; Nagymajtenyi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

2013-01-01

63

Socioeconomic Differences in the Impact of Smoking Tobacco and Alcohol Prices on Smoking in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat posed by smoking to health in India is severe. Already 1 in 5 of all adult male deaths and 1 in 20 of all adult female deaths at ages 30-69 are due to smoking and India will soon have 1 million smoking deaths a year. Increasing tobacco prices has been found to be the single most effective method

G. Emmanuel Guindon; Arindam Nandi; Frank J. Chaloupka IV; Prabhat Jha

2011-01-01

64

Removal and Leakage of Environmental Tobacco Smoke from a Model Smoking Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies on the removal of accumulated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the effectiveness of ETS leakage control were carried out in a model smoking room using carbon monoxide, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particulates, and ultrafine particles (UFP) as the ETS tracers. The study investigated the effectiveness of the designated smoking room, equipped with a displacement ventilation system under different

Man-Pun Wan; Chi-Li Wu; Tsz-Tung Chan; Christopher Y. H. Chao; Lam-Lung Yeung

2010-01-01

65

Tobacco use in shisha: studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waterpipe (also known as gouza, narghile, hubble-bubble, hookah or shisha, depending on the local tradition) has been used for smoking tobacco for centuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Formerly associated almost exclusively with older males, usually of lower socioeconomic level, waterpipe smoking is now spreading to other segments of society in the region, particularly young men and women, and

2006-01-01

66

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking

Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson; Elizabeth Procter-Gray; Audra L. Gollenberg; Michele B. Ryan; Lisa G. Barber

2008-01-01

67

Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke  

SciTech Connect

A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

1981-01-01

68

Texas state law authorizes higher health care premiums for people who use tobacco. The Texas Group Benefits Program (GBP) offers prescription drugs to help tobacco users quit using tobacco.  

E-print Network

tobacco. Electronic or e-cigarettes that do not contain tobacco and are designed expressly for smoking product? Cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or any other product that contains

Rock, Chris

69

Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study  

PubMed Central

Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmother’s pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) – odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.9) – and during the mother’ pregnancies – OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–3.3) – were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmother’s and mother’s pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

Ortega-García, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; López-Fernández, María T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaquín; López-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

2011-01-01

70

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

...TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40...rates under 26 U.S.C. 5701(f) and (g), respectively: Product Tax rate...the inclusion of cigarette papers or tubes in a package bearing a 'pipe...

2014-04-01

71

27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40...rates under 26 U.S.C. 5701(f) and (g), respectively: Product Tax rate...the inclusion of cigarette papers or tubes in a package bearing a 'pipe...

2013-04-01

72

Impact of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular risk and disease.  

PubMed

Despite declines in smoking prevalence in many Western countries, tobacco use continues to grow in global importance as a leading preventable cause of cardiovascular disease. Tobacco smoke is both prothrombotic and atherogenic, increasing the risks of acute myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, stroke, aortic aneurysm and peripheral vascular disease. Even very low doses of exposure increase the risk of acute myocardial infarction. However, smoking cessation and second-hand smoke avoidance swiftly reduce this risk. While promising new agents are emerging, proven cost-effective and safe cessation interventions already exist, such as brief physician advice, counseling and nicotine replacement therapy. These should be routinely offered, where available, to all smokers. This is especially important for those at risk of, or with established and even acute, cardiovascular disease. Clinicians must play a more active role than ever before in supporting complete cessation in patients who smoke and in advocating for stronger tobacco control measures. PMID:18570625

Bullen, Christopher

2008-07-01

73

Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking  

PubMed Central

The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

2008-01-01

74

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UCSan Diego will go completely smoke and tobacco-free on the main campus and other UCSan Diego property and facilities, whether owned or leased. Why? UC President Mark Yudof charged all UC campuses to go smoke and tobacco-free

Russell, Lynn

75

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effects on the Primary Lipids of Lung Surfactant  

E-print Network

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effects on the Primary Lipids of Lung Surfactant Frank Bringezu,, Kent. In Final Form: December 2, 2002 The effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on lung surfactant distribution of alveolar fluids. Introduction Tobacco smoke is typically divided into two classess mainstream

Zasadzinski, Joseph A.

76

Dopamine and Serotonin Transporter Availability During Acute Alcohol Withdrawal: Effects of Comorbid Tobacco Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is highly comorbid with heavy alcohol drinking, yet the interaction of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on brain catecholaminergic synaptic markers is unexplored. Here we evaluate the effects of alcohol drinking alone from comorbid alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) transporter availability. A total of 14 heavy alcohol drinking smokers (n=6) and nonsmokers

Kelly P Cosgrove; Erica Krantzler; Erin B Frohlich; Stephanie Stiklus; Brian Pittman; Gilles D Tamagnan; Ronald M Baldwin; Frederic Bois; John P Seibyl; John H Krystal; Stephanie S O'Malley; Julie K Staley

2009-01-01

77

Analysis of Markers of Exposure to Constituents of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 4000 chemical compounds, many of which are harmful to human health. These compounds belong to various chemical classes, including amides, imides, lactams, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, phenols, amines, hydrocarbons, ethers, and inorganic compounds. There are three types of tobacco smoke streams: the mainstream, the sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

Sylwia Narkowicz; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2012-01-01

78

Analysis and evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for chronic cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and active tobacco smoking has been shown to increase symptoms of bronchial asthma such as bronchoconstriction but effects on other respiratory symptoms remain poorly assessed. Current levels of exposure to tobacco smoke may also be responsible for the development of chronic cough in both children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of

Beatrix Groneberg-Kloft; Wojciech Feleszko; Quoc Thai Dinh; Anke van Mark; Elke Brinkmann; Dirk Pleimes; Axel Fischer

2007-01-01

79

An analysis of the role of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture consisting of more than 4500 chemicals, including several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). TSNA typically form in tobacco during the post-harvest period, with some fraction being transferred into mainstream smoke when a cigarette is burned during use. The most studied of the TSNA is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). NNK has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Studies examining the carcinogenicity of NNK frequently are conducted by injecting rodents with a single dose of 2.5 to 10 mumol of pure NNK; the amount of NNK contained in all of the mainstream smoke from about 3700 to 14,800 typical U.S. cigarettes. Extrapolated to a 70-kg smoker, the carcinogenic dose of pure NNK administered to rodents would be equivalent to the amount of NNK in all of the mainstream smoke of 22 to 87 million typical U.S. cigarettes. Furthermore, extrapolating results from rodent studies based on a single injection of pure NNK to establish a causative role for NNK in the carcinogenicity of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in humans is not consistent with basic pharmacological and toxicological principles. For example, such an approach fails to consider the effect of other smoke constituents upon the toxicity of NNK. In vitro studies demonstrate that nicotine, cotinine, and aqueous cigarette "tar" extract (ACTE) all inhibit the mutagenic activity of NNK. In vivo studies reveal that the formation of pulmonary DNA adducts in mice injected with NNK is inhibited by the administration of cotinine and mainstream cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke has been shown to modulate the metabolism of NNK, providing a mechanism for the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke constituents on NNK-induced tumorigenesis. NNK-related pulmonary DNA adducts have not been detected in rodents exposed to cigarette smoke, nor has the toxicity of tobacco smoke or tobacco smoke condensate containing marked reductions in TSNA concentrations been shown to be reduced in any biological assay. In summary, there is no experimental evidence to suggest that reduction of TSNA will reduce the mutagenic, cytotoxic, or carcinogenic potential of tobacco smoke. PMID:19330121

Brown, Buddy G; Borschke, August J; Doolittle, David J

2003-04-01

80

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the\\u000a commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public\\u000a transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main

Maria Cheraghi; Sundeep Salvi

2009-01-01

81

Tobacco smoking and oral clefts: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal smoking and non-syndromic orofacial clefts in infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy was carried out using data from 24 case-control and cohort studies. FINDINGS: Consistent, moderate and statistically significant associations were found between maternal smoking and cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (relative risk 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44) and between maternal smoking and cleft palate (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.35). There was evidence of a modest dose-response effect for cleft lip with or without cleft palate. CONCLUSION: The evidence of an association between maternal tobacco smoking and orofacial clefts is strong enough to justify its use in anti-smoking campaigns. PMID:15112010

Little, Julian; Cardy, Amanda; Munger, Ronald G.

2004-01-01

82

Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

2014-01-01

83

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Cigarette Smoking: A Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure and Subjective Effects  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing worldwide and is believed by many users to be less harmful and addictive than cigarette smoking. In fact, waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoke contain many of the same chemicals, and users are exposed to the dependence-producing drug nicotine as well as other smoke toxicants. The subjective effect profile of these 2 tobacco use methods has not been compared directly, though this information is relevant to understanding the risk of dependence development. Methods: Fifty-four participants who reported waterpipe and cigarette smoking completed 2, 45-min, counter-balanced sessions in which they completed a waterpipe use episode (mean smoking time = 43.3 min) or a cigarette (mean = 6.1 min). Outcome measures included plasma nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and subjective effects, including those relevant to predicting dependence potential. Results: Mean (±SEM) peak plasma nicotine concentration did not differ by session (waterpipe = 9.8 ± 1.0 ng/ml; cigarette = 9.4 ± 1.0 ng/ml). Mean peak COHb concentration differed significantly (waterpipe = 4.5% ± 0.3%; cigarette = 1.2% ± 0.1%). Subjective effect changes for waterpipe and cigarette were comparable in magnitude but often longer lived for waterpipe. Conclusions: Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe tobacco smoking was associated with similar peak nicotine exposure, 3.75-fold greater COHb, and 56-fold greater inhaled smoke volume. Waterpipe and cigarette influenced many of the same subjective effect measures. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents substantial risk of dependence, disease, and death, and they can be incorporated into prevention interventions that might help deter more adolescents and young adults from experimenting with an almost certainly lethal method of tobacco use. PMID:21127030

Cobb, Caroline O.; Shihadeh, Alan; Weaver, Michael F.

2011-01-01

84

Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle  

PubMed Central

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful. PMID:19440270

Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

2009-01-01

85

Attitudes of Cairo University medical students toward smoking: the need for tobacco control programs in medical education  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking rates are increasing in developing countries and so are tobacco-related chronic diseases. Reported figures from the WHO show rates of smoking in Egypt as high as 20% but limited information is available about smoking specifically among physicians and medical students. Materials and methods Final-year medical students of Cairo University were surveyed regarding their tobacco behavior and attitudes using a modified Global Health Professions Student Survey. We approached 220 students by randomly selecting clinical units into which they were assigned and requested completion of the survey. Results Ever users of some form of tobacco comprised 46.7% of students sampled, current users of cigarettes comprised 17.4%, and current users of water pipe ‘sheesha’ comprised 17.6%. The vast majority (87.7%) of students believed that smoking is a public health problem in Cairo and supported restriction of tobacco. Yet, only 58.5% stated that they were taught it is important for physicians to provide tobacco education materials to patients. Among ever users of cigarettes, 54.4% believed health professionals do not serve as health role models for patients, and only a small percentage of all students (34.2%) stated that they had received some form of training on smoking cessation in their medical curriculum to be able to instruct patients. Conclusion and recommendations A high rate of smoking was revealed among medical students in Cairo. Overall, approximately 23.4% of students were currently smoking cigarettes and/or sheesha, and 46.7% were ever users of some form of tobacco. A formal antitobacco program for medical students should be incorporated into their medical curriculum to change the attitudes of medical students and overcome the anticipated increase in chronic diseases in Egypt. PMID:22415329

Khan, Adeel A.M.; Dey, Subhojit; Taha, Alaa H.; Huq, Farhan S.; Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Omar, Omar S.; Soliman, Amr S.

2014-01-01

86

Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the mutagenicity of tobacco smoke condensate.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke aerosols with fewer mutagens in the particulate fraction may present reduced risk to the smoker. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the temperature at which tobacco is pyrolyzed or combusted can affect the mutagenicity of the particulate fraction of the smoke aerosol. Tobacco smoke aerosol was generated under precisely controlled temperature conditions from 250 to 550 degrees C by heating compressed tobacco tablets in air. The tobacco aerosols generated had a cigarette smoke-like appearance and aroma. The tobacco smoke aerosol was passed through a Cambridge filter pad to collect the particulate fraction, termed the smoke condensate. Although condensates of tobacco smoke and whole cigarette mainstream smoke share many of the same chemical components, there are physical and chemical differences between the two complex mixtures. The condensates from smoke aerosols prepared at different temperatures were assayed in the Ames Salmonella microsome test with metabolic activation by rat liver S9 using tester strains TA98 and TA100. Tobacco smoke condensates were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA98 when the tobacco smoke aerosol was generated at temperatures below 400 degrees C. Above 400 degrees C, condensates were mutagenic in strain TA98. Similarly, condensates prepared from tobacco smoke aerosols generated at temperatures below 475 degrees C were not detectably mutagenic in strain TA100. In contrast, tobacco tablets heated to temperatures of 475 degrees C or greater generated smoke aerosol that was detectably mutagenic as measured in TA100. Therefore, heating and pyrolyzing tobacco at temperatures below those found in tobacco burning cigarettes reduces the mutagenicity of the smoke condensate. Highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines derived from the pyrolysis of tobacco leaf protein may be important contributors to the high temperature production of tobacco smoke Ames Salmonella mutagens. The relevance of these findings regarding cancer risk in humans is difficult to assess because of the lack of a direct correlation between mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella test and carcinogenicity. PMID:11313117

White, J L; Conner, B T; Perfetti, T A; Bombick, B R; Avalos, J T; Fowler, K W; Smith, C J; Doolittle, D J

2001-05-01

87

Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the largest cancer killer in the world. This chapter discusses the role\\u000a of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of lung cancer. A general mechanistic framework is presented, in which cigarette\\u000a smoke carcinogens and their metabolically activated forms cause mutations in critical growth control genes, along with other\\u000a effects. Evidence and unresolved

Stephen S. Hecht

88

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand

J J Elliott Scott

2004-01-01

89

Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: An Emerging Health Crisis in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10–20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Conclusion Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread. PMID:20001185

Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas

2011-01-01

90

Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

2005-01-01

91

ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

92

Tobacco Smoke in the Home and Child Intelligence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to determine the effects of tobacco smoke in the home on children's cognitive development. The study focused on 280 children, representing equal numbers of boys and girls and of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics. When the participating children were 2 years old, their mothers were surveyed, interviewed, and tested to gather…

Johnson, Dale L.; And Others

93

US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

2012-01-01

94

A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

95

Correlates of smoking quit attempts: Florida Tobacco Callback Survey, 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The public health burden of tobacco-associated diseases in the USA remains high, in part because many people's attempts to quit are unsuccessful. This study examined factors associated with having lifetime or recent attempts to quit smoking among current smokers, based on a telephone survey of Florida adults. METHODS: Data from the 2007 telephone-based Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Evelyn P Davila; Wei Zhao; Margaret Byrne; Monica Webb; Yougie Huang; Kristopher Arheart; Noella Dietz; Alberto Caban-Martinez; Dorothy Parker; David J Lee

2009-01-01

96

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

2013-01-01

97

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Thailand ratified the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) on November 8, 2004. The WHO FCTC requires all parties to inform all persons of the health consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. Each party has agreed to develop, implement and evaluate effective tobacco control programs to measure progress in reaching the

Nithat Sirichotiratana; Chairat Techatraisakdi; Khalillur Rahman; Charles W Warren; Nathan R Jones; Samira Asma; Juliette Lee

2008-01-01

98

The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review  

PubMed Central

According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

2009-01-01

99

Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

2013-01-01

100

Assessment of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the tobacco and mainstream smoke of Bidi cigarettes.  

PubMed

Bidi cigarettes, or bidis, are a tobacco product that originated in India and have been gaining popularity in the USA during the past few years, particularly with adolescents. As with conventional cigarettes, tobacco and smoke from bidis contain chemical constituents including carcinogenic chemicals such as the tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). To help better assess the potential public health risk associated with bidi cigarettes, we developed modern high throughput methods to accurately quantify TSNA levels in tobacco and mainstream cigarette smoke particulate. We determined the TSNA levels in the tobacco filler and mainstream smoke from 14 bidi cigarette brands. In the bidi tobacco filler, the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) levels ranged from 0.09 to 0.85 microg/g, while N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) levels ranged from 0.15 to 1.44 microg/g. These amounts are comparable with those in typical American blended cigarettes. The levels of NNK in mainstream smoke from bidis ranged from 2.13 to 25.9 ng/cigarette, and NNN levels ranged from 8.56 to 62.3 ng/cigarette. The wide variation in the TSNA levels most probably reflects the hand-rolled nature of the bidi cigarettes, resulting in a product with less homogenous tobacco amount and a wider variation in overall cigarette construction quality. TSNA levels of bidis were comparable with those of conventional cigarettes, and bidis should not be considered a lower-risk alternative tobacco product. Our analytical findings concur with the previous biologic and biochemical evidence supporting epidemiologic studies linking bidi use with various cancers, especially oral cavity and lung cancers. PMID:14604898

Wu, Weijia; Song, Siqing; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

2004-02-01

101

Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. Design A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. Setting The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Participants One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Outcome measures Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Results Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13–25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56–70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Conclusions Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. PMID:24282242

Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

2013-01-01

102

The Fate of Maleic Hydrazide on Tobacco during Smoking  

PubMed Central

Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS) and sidestream smoke (SSS), butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH) spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process. PMID:23193377

Zhang, Hongfei; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Nan; Bian, Zhaoyang; Hu, Qingyuan

2012-01-01

103

Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fc?-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

2015-01-22

104

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free  

E-print Network

UC San Diego (Along with all the UCs) Goes Smoke and Tobacco-Free On September 1, 2013, UC San Diego will go completely smoke and tobacco-free on the main campus and other UC San Diego property and tobacco-free by January 2014 to save lives, improve the environment and contribute positively

Russell, Lynn

105

Smoke & Tobacco -Free Policy For Comment 4/22/13 to 7/1/13  

E-print Network

Smoke & Tobacco - Free Policy For Comment 4/22/13 to 7/1/13 Effective Date: September 1, 2013-free environment: that smoking, the use of smokeless tobacco products, and the use of unregulated nicotine products, whether owned or leased; and that the sale or advertising of tobacco products be prohibited in University

Russell, Lynn

106

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

, the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in both effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease and lung cancer. While' means any inhaling, exhaling, burning, or carrying any lighted cigar, cigarette, clove, bidis, kreteks

Bertini, Robert L.

107

WaterPipe Smoking Among North American Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this analysis were to identify the socio- demographic characteristics of water-pipe users in a North American context and to describe concurrent psychoactive substance use. METHODS: Data on sociodemographic characteristics, water-pipe smoking, and use of other psychoactive substances were collected in 2007 through mailed self-report questionnaires completed by 871 young adults, 18 to 24 years of age,

Erika Dugas; Michele Tremblay; Nancy C. P. Low; Daniel Cournoyer; Jennifer O'Loughlin

2010-01-01

108

Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences  

PubMed Central

Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

Chaouachi, Kamal

2009-01-01

109

Plant extract reduces tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoke is a major factor responsible for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although the best solution to reduce the incidence of these diseases is to quit smoking, there are still a large number of smokers. Thus, given the immunoregulatory properties of plant extracts, their capacity to reduce tobacco smoke harmful effects on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions was

Elyse Y. Bissonnette; Léa-Isabelle Proulx; Annie Spahr; Marie France Janelle; Stéphane Dupuis

2006-01-01

110

ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

111

From never to daily smoking in 30?months: the predictive value of tobacco and non-tobacco advertising exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the specificity of the association between tobacco advertising and youth smoking initiation. Design Longitudinal survey with a 30?month interval. Setting 21 public schools in three German states. Participants A total of 1320 sixth-to-eighth grade students who were never-smokers at baseline (age range at baseline, 10–15?years; mean, 12.3?years). Exposures Exposure to tobacco and non-tobacco advertisements was measured at baseline with images of six tobacco and eight non-tobacco advertisements; students indicated the number of times they had seen each ad and the sum score over all advertisements was used to represent inter-individual differences in the amount of advertising exposure. Primary and secondary outcome measures Established smoking, defined as smoked >100 cigarettes during the observational period, and daily smoking at follow-up. Secondary outcome measures were any smoking and smoking in the last 30?days. Results During the observation period, 5% of the never-smokers at baseline smoked more than 100 cigarettes and 4.4% were classified as daily smokers. After controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, school performance, television screen time, personality characteristics and smoking status of peers and parents, each additional 10 tobacco advertising contacts increased the adjusted relative risk for established smoking by 38% (95% CI 16% to 63%; p<0.001) and for daily smoking by 30% (95% CI 3% to 64%; p<0.05). No significant association was found for non-tobacco advertising contact. Conclusions The study confirms a content-specific association between tobacco advertising and smoking behaviour and underlines that tobacco advertising exposure is not simply a marker for adolescents who are generally more receptive or attentive towards marketing. PMID:23794549

Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2013-01-01

112

Real–Time Measurement of Outdoor Tobacco Smoke Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current lack of empirical data on outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) levels impedes OTS exposure and risk assessments. We sought to measure peak and time-averaged OTS concentrations in common outdoor settings near smokers and to explore the determinants of time-varying OTS levels, including the effects of source proximity and wind. Using five types of real-time airborne particle monitoring devices, we

Neil E. Klepeis; Wayne R. Ott; Paul Switzer; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Guangming Zeng; Amit Chakma; Beidou Xi; John Gillies; Hampden Kuhns; Johann Engelbrecht; Sebastian Uppapalli; Vicken Etyemezian; George Nikolich; Yinchang Feng; Yonghua Xue; Xiaohua Chen; Jianhui Wu; Tan Zhu; Zhipeng Bai; Shengtang Fu; Changju Gu; Richard Corsi; Matthew Walker; Howard Liljestrand; Heidi Hubbard; Dustin Poppendieck; Jawad Touma; Vlad Isakov; Alan Cimorelli; Roger Brode; Bret Anderson; John Offenberg; Michael Lewandowski; Edward Edney; Tadeusz Kleindienst; Mohammed Jaoui; Shin-An Chen; Jun-Nan Nian; Chien-Cheng Tsai; Hsisheng Teng; Birnur Buzcu-Guven; Steven Brown; Anna Frankel; Hilary Hafner; Paul Roberts; Elizabeth Vega; Hugo Ruiz; Gerardo Marti´nez-Villa; Gustavo Gonza´lez-A´; Elizabeth Reyes; Jose´ Garci´a

2007-01-01

113

For Final Review & Approval Policy Title: Smoke/Tobacco-Free Environment  

E-print Network

to cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookahs, electronic cigarettes, and all forms of smokeless tobacco. H. Tobacco of smokeless tobacco products, the use of unregulated nicotine products, and the use of e-cigarettes of smokeless tobacco products, e-cigarettes, and unregulated nicotine products are strictly prohibited

Mills, Allen P.

114

About Electronic Magnetometers and Tobacco Smoking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page, authored and curated by David P. Stern, provides a non-mathematical introduction to modern magnetometers that depend on the saturation of magnetic materials. Applications include the observation the very weak magnetic fields in space and a 1979 experiment on the effects of cigarette smoking and the damage caused by asbestos. This is part of the site "The Great Magnet, the Earth". Also available in Spanish, German and French.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

115

Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

2011-01-01

116

Outdoor tobacco smoke exposure at the perimeter of a tobacco-free university.  

PubMed

There are few studies measuring exposure to outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS). Tobacco users often gather at the boundaries of tobacco-free campuses, resulting in unintended consequences. The objective of this study was to measure exposure levels from OTS on sidewalks bordering a tobacco-free university campus. Data were collected while walking along a sidewalk adjacent to a medium traffic road between May and August 2011. Monitoring occurred during "background," "stop," and "walk-through" conditions at and near hot spot area to measure fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm; PM2.5) from OTS using a portable aerosol monitor The average PM2.5 levels during stop and walk-through conditions were significantly higher than during background conditions. PM2.5 peak occurrence rate and magnitude of peak concentration were significantly different depending on smoking occurrence. The peak occurrence rate during the stop condition was 10.4 times higher than during the background condition, and 3.1 times higher than during the walk-through condition. Average peak PM2.5 concentrations during the stop condition were 48.7% higher than during the background condition. In conclusion, individuals could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when stopping or even passing by smokers outdoors at the perimeter of tobacco-free campuses. The design and implementation of tobacco-free campus policies need to take into account the unintended consequences of OTS exposure at the boundaries. Implications: In this study, outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure was measured at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure could be determined by peak analysis. Peak occurrence rate and peak concentration for OTS exposure were identified by using peak analysis. People could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when standing or even passing by smokers at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure measurement in other outdoor locations with smokers is needed to support outdoor smoking regulation. PMID:25185388

Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Richardson, Patrick; Bratset, Hilarie; Teeters, Elizabeth; Record, Rachael; Riker, Carol; Hahn, Ellen J

2014-08-01

117

Environmental tobacco smoke and lung function in employees who never smoked: the Scottish MONICA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo investigate the relation between lung function in employees and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work and elsewhere.METHODSNever smokers in employment (301) were identified from the fourth Scottish MONICA survey. They completed a self administered health record, which included details of exposure to ETS, and attended a survey clinic for physical and lung function measurements, and for venepuncture

R Chen; H Tunstall-Pedoe; R Tavendale

2001-01-01

118

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

119

Levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream smoke from different tobacco varieties.  

PubMed

It has been estimated that one in every five cancer deaths worldwide are related to tobacco use. According to the IARC, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 8 tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as at least 45 other compounds or substances found in tobacco smoke, are potential human carcinogens. The levels of these carcinogens in contents of tobacco and smoke emissions vary between different tobacco products. We evaluated mainstream smoke emissions from cigarettes made with different types of tobacco to examine the relation between their deliveries of TSNAs and PAHs and any possible influence from tobacco nitrate content. To investigate the contribution of tobacco content to mainstream cigarette smoke deliveries without confounders such as filter design, filter ventilation, and paper porosity, we used custom-made, research-grade, unfiltered cigarettes that contained bright, burley, oriental, reconstituted, or mixtures of these tobaccos. Our findings confirm results from other researchers that tobacco type can influence the mainstream smoke delivery of nicotine, TSNAs, and PAHs. However, we found that the effect varies among individual compounds. In addition, we observed a statistically significant relationship between nitrate content and mainstream smoke 4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); nitrate level also influenced the mainstream smoke deliveries of the summed total of the 10 PAHs identified by IARC as potential human carcinogens. The influence of nitrate on mainstream smoke NNK and PAH levels were of different magnitude and direction. Our results tend to indicate an inverse relation exists between NNK and PAH deliveries when considering different tobacco blends. PMID:19064552

Ding, Yan S; Zhang, Liqin; Jain, Ram B; Jain, Ntasha; Wang, Richard Y; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

2008-12-01

120

WaterPipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact

Kashif Shafique; Saira Saeed Mirza; Muhammad Kashif Mughal; Zain Islam Arain; Naveed Ahmed Khan; Muhammad Farooq Tareen; Ishtiaque Ahmad

2012-01-01

121

Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (?.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

2013-01-01

122

Severe acne vulgaris and tobacco smoking in young men.  

PubMed

As the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne remains unclear, we examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and severe acne in a large cohort of young men. Trained nurses interviewed subjects upon discharge from compulsory military service, regarding family history, habits, and tobacco smoking habits. Data was correlated with severe acne status, as diagnosed and coded by board-certified dermatologists. In total, 27,083 male subjects participated in the study from 1983 to 2003, of which 237 (0.88%) had severe acne, 11,718 (43.27%) were active smokers, and 15,365 (56.73%) were nonsmokers at the time of interviews. Active smokers showed a significantly lower prevalence of severe acne (0.71%) than nonsmokers (1.01%) (P = 0.0078). An inverse dose-dependent relationship between severe acne prevalence and daily cigarette consumption became significant from 21 cigarettes a day (chi2 and trend test: P < 0.0001), odds ratio: 0.2 (95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The study did not aim to establish a temporal correlation, and passive smoking and acne treatments were not measured. Previous in vitro and clinical studies strongly support an association with nicotine. We suggest a trial with topical nicotine treatment for acne to further investigate this association. PMID:16645586

Klaz, Itay; Kochba, Ilan; Shohat, Tzipora; Zarka, Salman; Brenner, Sarah

2006-08-01

123

[Anti-smoking education for tobacco-free society].  

PubMed

The Science Council of Japan handed a proposal entitled "For the establishment of tobacco-free society" to the Japanese government in 2008, demanding stronger policy implementation. Among the 7 demands, top priority was placed on"education for improvement of knowledge on health risks of smoking". Ample scientific evidences have proven the health hazards that smoking causes directly and indirectly, which, however, are not well acknowledged among Japanese people, leaving Japan an underdeveloped country in terms of smoke-free society. More education is indispensable in schools and by mass media such as TV. The government must allocate more budgets for the education and advertisements, and, if unsuccessful, should request NHK, which collects mandatory TV reception fees akin to broadcast tax, to assume this task. PMID:23631248

Ohno, Ryuzo

2013-03-01

124

Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)], E-mail: ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Ryan, Michele B. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Lisa G. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)

2008-03-15

125

Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.  

PubMed

About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes. PMID:21910781

Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

2011-11-01

126

[Effect of tobacco smoking on glutathione concentration in the blood].  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to determine the influence of tobacco smoking and age on reduced glutathione concentration in the blood. The study was performed in the blood of 65 subjects. The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material was divided into groups of non-smokers and smokers. Malonylodialdehyde concentration in the plasma was measured by reaction with thiobarbituric acid. Concentration of cadmium was measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Reduced glutathione in the blood was measured using a previously developed method [11]. A significant increase of malonylodialdehyde concentration was observed in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Malonylodialdehyde level in the plasma of smokers <20 cigarettes per day did not differ with non-smokers. The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the whole blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day and it was about 4-fold higher compared to non-smoking people. Also smokers <20 cigarettes per day have higher cadmium concentration in the blood in comparison to non-smokers. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity on reduced glutathione concentration it was a statistically significant increase in the blood of smokers > or = 20 cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking person. Non-smoking and smokers <20 cigarettes per day had comparable levels of this antioxidant in the blood. A significant elevation in reduced glutathione concentration was observed in the blood of smokers < 30 years of age in comparison to nonsmoking persons < 30 and > 30 years of age. Our study confirmed that the reduced glutathione concentration in the body affects tobacco smoking and aging. PMID:23421037

Bizo?, Anna; Milnerowicz, Halina

2012-01-01

127

Nicotelline: A Proposed Biomarker and Environmental Tracer for Particulate Matter Derived from Tobacco Smoke  

PubMed Central

Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment, and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively non-volatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in urine of smokers, and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and non-smokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke. PMID:24125094

Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Benowitz, Neal L.

2013-01-01

128

Tobacco advertising and coverage of smoking and health in women's magazines.  

PubMed

This study examines the extent of tobacco advertising and the coverage of smoking and health in all Irish produced women's magazines for 1989-93. There were 805 pieces in 402 magazines of which 684 (85%) were tobacco advertisements, 48 (5.7%) were new briefs; 27 (3.4%) were advice columns; 16 (2%) were feature articles; 15 (1.9%) were health promotion advertisements dealing with smoking and pregnancy; 10 (1.2%) were letters and 5 (0.61%) were editorials. Topics covered by the 106 articles on smoking were: smoking cessation-43 (40.6%); general health issues 35 (33%); smoking in pregnancy-4 (3.8%) and passive smoking 17 (16%). Of the 106 articles, 4 were negative about measures to control smoking. Four cigarette brands accounted for 70% of the advertisements. No tobacco advertisement carried the warning that "Smoking when pregnant harms your baby" or "Smoking kills". The 385002 cm2 of space devoted to tobacco advertising and negative messages about the dangers of tobacco and health represents 1.95% of total magazine space and is 14.5 times greater than the 26575 cm2 of positive messages about the dangers of smoking. That these magazines advertise tobacco without adequately covering the harmful effects of tobacco would suggest a degree of hypocrisy in their stated concern for women's health and lends further strength to the principle of a total ban on all tobacco advertising. PMID:7960651

Howell, F

1994-01-01

129

Smoke free health care: an organisational change to increase effective intervention for tobacco.  

PubMed

In 1999, the NSW Health Smoke Free Workplace Policy directed that grounds of health sites would become smoke free, in addition to the existing policy requiring smoke-free buildings. This was one of the first attempts by any health service to exclude tobacco entirely from health sites. This task required the adoption of evidence-based management of tobacco dependence and changing the culture of smoking in the health service. There were many barriers to implementation. PMID:18507968

Kia, Annie M; van Beurden, Eric K; Dart, Gavin S; Barrack, Cecily M; Mitchell, Mark D

2008-01-01

130

Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundKnown most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this

Erin L. Sutfin; Thomas P. McCoy; Beth A. Reboussin; Kimberly G. Wagoner; John Spangler; Mark Wolfson

2011-01-01

131

UO SMOKE-AND TOBACCO-FREE CAMPUS GUIDE for SUPERVISORS Change is in the air. Effective September 1, 2012, the University of Oregon campus is smoke-  

E-print Network

UO SMOKE- AND TOBACCO-FREE CAMPUS GUIDE for SUPERVISORS Change is in the air. Effective September 1, 2012, the University of Oregon campus is smoke- and tobacco-free, a step that confirms the institution, staff and visitors. As supervisors, you play an important role in the success of a smoke- and tobacco

Oregon, University of

132

Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers  

PubMed Central

Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior. PMID:17365768

Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

2009-01-01

133

Methods in tobacco abuse: proteomic changes following second-hand smoke exposure.  

PubMed

Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of disease, disability, and death in the USA and leads to more than 400,000 preventable deaths per year. Nicotine is the major alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and many of the negative effects of smoking are attributed to nicotine. Nicotine is not only the addictive component of tobacco smoke, but also highly associated with carcinogenesis and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the administration of nicotine via subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps or by injection is an established method in preclinical studies for this area of research. Thus, preclinical research on the negative effects of tobacco smoke and tobacco addiction has focused primarily on the effects of nicotine. However, there are over 4,500 components found in tobacco smoke, many of which are highly toxic. Other components may also contribute to the addictive properties of tobacco smoke. Furthermore, the negative effects of tobacco smoke are not isolated to the smoker but can have negative effects to those exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) stream. SHS exposure is the third leading cause of preventable death. Approximately 38,000 deaths per year are attributed to SHS exposure in the USA. SHS exposure increases the risk of heart disease by approximately 30% and is associated with increased risk of stroke, cancer, type II diabetes, as well as pulmonary disease. Thus, methods of administering tobacco smoke in a controlled environment will further our understanding of tobacco addiction and the role tobacco smoke in other disease states. Moreover, combining smoke exposure with proteomics can lead to the discovery of biomarkers that can be potentially useful tools in screening, early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases caused by SHS. PMID:22231825

Guingab-Cagmat, Joy; Bauzo, Rayna M; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Wang, Kevin K; Gold, Mark S; Kobeissy, Firas H

2012-01-01

134

Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

2011-01-01

135

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation PMID:23331271

Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2012-01-01

136

Prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health in Russian children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Only few studies have assessed the relative impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on the child's later asthma or chronic respiratory symptoms and to our knowledge no studies have elaborated respiratory infections and allergies in this context. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke on respiratory health of Russian school

Jouni JK Jaakkola; Anna A Kosheleva; Boris A Katsnelson; Sergey V Kuzmin; Larissa I Privalova; John D Spengler

2006-01-01

137

Effects of Cooking Smoke and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Acute Respiratory Infections in Young Indian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Reliance on biomass for cooking and heating exposes many women and young children in developing countries to high levels of air pollution indoors. Environmental tobacco smoke also contributes to this indoor air pollution. This study estimates the effects of these sources of air pollution on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children below 36 months of age in India.Methods  The analysis is based

Vinod Mishra; Kirk R. Smith; Robert D. Retherford

2005-01-01

138

Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. Results There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. Conclusion These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended. PMID:25025379

Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

2014-01-01

139

Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

2013-10-01

140

Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed Central

The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

Hammond, S K

1999-01-01

141

A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

2014-04-01

142

Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

143

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates?  

Cancer.gov

Did California’s Comprehensive Tobacco Control Program increase smoking cessation rates ? Karen Messer, JP Pierce et al Tobacco Control 2007; 16:85-90; In the 1990’s CA was the only US state to spend $3.67 per person per year on Tobacco Control. The

144

The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. METHODS: A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. RESULTS: Some of the earliest surveys revealed

Derek R Smith; Peter A Leggat

2008-01-01

145

College Students' Perception of Philip Morris's Tobacco-Related Smoking Prevention and Tobacco-Unrelated Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of 2 Philip Morris corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs—a tobacco-related smoking prevention versus a tobacco-unrelated program—on college students' perceived CSR motive, attitudes toward Philip Morris, and behavioral intentions to support the company. Using 2 college student samples in the United States and South Korea, this study found that the tobacco-unrelated program and a positively perceived

Yeon Soo Kim; Youjin Choi

2012-01-01

146

Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.  

PubMed

Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 ?g/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 ?g/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 ?g/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 ?g/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. PMID:22361239

McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

2012-09-01

147

Association of tobacco smoke exposure and atopic sensitization  

PubMed Central

Background Forty million children are regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) each year, increasing their risk for premature death and middle ear and acute respiratory infections. Early life exposure to ETS also is clearly associated with wheezing. However, there is no clear understanding of the influence of ETS on the development of allergic sensitization. Objective To determine the association of combined exposure to ETS and indoor allergens on IgE sensitization to aeroallergens in children. Methods This case–control study enrolled 116 cases and 121 controls from low-income families from Kansas City, Missouri. The adjusted odds ratio was calculated using a logistic model to assess the association between ETS and allergic sensitization using dust allergen levels as a covariate. Results Thirty-six percent of atopic children and 39% of controls were exposed to ETS (P < .05). Unadjusted analyses showed no significant influence of ETS on IgE sensitization to indoor allergens. Logistic regression analyses also showed no significant influence of ETS on sensitization when adjusted for levels of allergens in the home dust and family history of allergic rhinitis. Conclusion These data suggest that ETS exposure was not associated with IgE sensitization to indoor allergens, even when home allergen levels were taken into consideration. Further understanding of how components of tobacco smoke influence the immune response is necessary to interpret the disparate findings across studies. PMID:24125146

Ciaccio, Christina E.; DiDonna, Anita C.; Kennedy, Kevin; Barnes, Charles S.; Portnoy, Jay M.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.

2013-01-01

148

The Effect of Tobacco Outlet Density and Proximity on Smoking Cessation  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco outlet density and residential proximity to tobacco outlets on continuous smoking abstinence 6 months after a quit attempt. Methods. We used continuation ratio logit models to examine the relationships of tobacco outlet density and tobacco outlet proximity with biochemically verified continuous abstinence across weeks 1, 2, 4, and 26 after quitting among 414 adult smokers from Houston, Texas (33% non-Latino White, 34% non-Latino Black, and 33% Latino). Analyses controlled for age, race/ethnicity, partner status, education, gender, employment status, prequit smoking rate, and the number of years smoked. Results. Residential proximity to tobacco outlets, but not tobacco outlet density, provided unique information in the prediction of long-term, continuous abstinence from smoking during a specific quit attempt. Participants residing less than 250 meters (P = .01) or less than 500 meters (P = .04) from the closest tobacco outlet were less likely to be abstinent than were those living 250 meters or farther or 500 meters or farther, respectively, from outlets. Conclusions. Because residential proximity to tobacco outlets influences smoking cessation, zoning restrictions to limit tobacco sales in residential areas may complement existing efforts to reduce tobacco use. PMID:21164089

Cromley, Ellen K.; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Dela Mater, Richard; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2011-01-01

149

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine in DNA from leukocytes of healthy adults: relationship with cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, alcohol and coffee consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) has been widely used as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in both animal and human studies. However, controversial data exist on the relationship between 8-OHdG formation and age, sex and tobacco smoking in humans, while few or no data are available on other exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption. We investigated the

Albert A van Zeeland; Anton J. L de Groot; Janet Hall; Francesco Donato

1999-01-01

150

Carcinogens in tobacco smoke: benzo[a]pyrene from Canadian cigarettes and cigarette tobacco.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in the smoke from 35 brands of Canadian cigarettes and 5 brands of Canadian tobaccos for roll-your-own cigarettes. For the cigarettes, mean values of BaP ranged from 3.36 ng to 28.39 ng per cigarette, roughly in proportion with declared tar values. The relationship between declared tar and yields of BaP, however, does not allow accurate prediction of one from the other. For the tobaccos, mean BaP values ranged from 22.92 ng to 26.27 ng (average, 24.7 ng) per cigarette. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to overall exposure. PMID:1609904

Kaiserman, M J; Rickert, W S

1992-01-01

151

Racial Differences in Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke among Children  

PubMed Central

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among U.S. children. Despite African-American children’s having a lower reported exposure to tobacco compared to whites, they suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related illnesses and have higher levels of serum cotinine than white children. The goal of this study was to test whether African-American children have higher levels of serum and hair cotinine, after accounting for ETS exposure and various housing characteristics. We investigated the level of cotinine in both hair and serum in a sample of 222 children with asthma. Using a previously validated survey for adult smokers, we assessed each child’s exposure to ETS. We collected detailed information on the primary residence, including home volume, ventilation, and overall home configuration. Despite a lower reported ETS exposure, African-American children had higher mean levels of serum cotinine (1.41 ng/mL vs. 0.97 ng/mL; p = 0.03) and hair cotinine (0.25 ng/mg vs. 0.07 ng/mg; p < 0.001) compared with white children. After adjusting for ETS exposure, housing size, and other demographic characteristics, serum and hair cotinine levels remained significantly higher in African-American children (? = 0.34, p = 0.03) than in white children (? = 1.06, p < 0.001). Housing volume was significantly associated with both serum and hair cotinine but did not fully explain the race difference. Our results demonstrate that, despite a lower reported exposure to ETS, African-American children with asthma had significantly higher levels of both serum and hair cotinine than did white children. Identifying causes and consequences of increased cotinine may help explain the striking differences in tobacco-related illnesses. PMID:15743729

Wilson, Stephen E.; Kahn, Robert S.; Khoury, Jane; Lanphear, Bruce P.

2005-01-01

152

Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin ? chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

2014-01-01

153

Viewing Tobacco Use in Movies Does It Shape Attitudes that Mediate Adolescent Smoking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Social cognitive theory posits that children develop intentions and positive expectations (utilities) about smoking prior to initiation. These attitudes and values result, in part, from observing others modeling the behavior. This study examines, for the first time, the association between viewing tobacco use in movies and attitudes toward smoking among children who have never smoked a cigarette. Design\\/ Setting:

James D. Sargent; Madeline A. Dalton; Michael L. Beach; Leila A. Mott; Jennifer J. Tickle; M. Bridget Ahrens; Todd F. Heatherton

154

“Accommodating” smoke?free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

2007-01-01

155

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.?DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.?OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.?RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).?CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco on-screen are significantly more likely to have an advanced smoking status and more favourable attitudes toward smoking than adolescents who choose non-smoking stars. This finding supports the proposition that the portrayal of tobacco use in contemporary motion pictures, particularly by stars who are admired by adolescents, contributes to adolescent smoking.???Keywords: adolescent smoking; movies; media influences PMID:11226355

Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

2001-01-01

156

Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?  

PubMed

India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

Jiloha, Ram C

2012-01-01

157

Associations between Race, Ethnicity, Religion, and Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking  

PubMed Central

We surveyed a random sample of 852 students at a large university in 2010–2011 to clarify associations between waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS), ethnicity, and religion. Current (30-day) WTS was reported by 116 students (14%), and 331 (39%) reported ever use. Middle Eastern ethnicity was associated with current WTS (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.06, 5.34) and ever WTS (OR=2.59, 95% CI=1.22, 5.47). South Asian ethnicity was associated with lower odds for ever WTS (OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.21, 0.86), but there was no significant association between South Asian ethnicity and current WTS. Being an Atheist and having lower religiosity were associated with both WTS outcomes. PMID:24564560

Primack, Brian A.; Mah, Jennifer; Shensa, Ariel; Rosen, Daniel; Yonas, Michael A.; Fine, Michael J.

2014-01-01

158

Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on peak flow variability  

PubMed Central

This study was undertaken to determine whether exposure to various indoor pollutants is associated with a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, a diagnosis of asthma, or more variable peak flow rates. Four hundred and twenty six children aged 8-11 years in four junior schools at three locations recorded respiratory symptoms and diagnosis of asthma using the ISAAC questionnaire. Daily peak flow measurements were taken during two six-week periods (winter and summer). Symptoms in children with and without asthma were not related to gas fires, cookers, smokers, or pets in the home. However, the variability of lung function, expressed as the coefficient of variation, in all children was increased with a household smoker. Environmental tobacco smoke increases airways variability in children with and without asthma. Its effects were not apparent from a questionnaire completed by parents, and the coefficient of variation of serially measured peak flows was a more sensitive indicator of lung function.?? PMID:10325706

Fielder, H.; Lyons, R; Heaven, M.; Morgan, H.; Govier, P.; Hooper, M.

1999-01-01

159

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Avoidance Among Pregnant African-American Nonsmokers  

PubMed Central

Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy contributes to adverse infant health outcomes. Limited previous research has focused on identifying correlates of ETS avoidance. This study sought to identify proximal and more distal correlates of ETS avoidance early in pregnancy among African-American women. Methods From a sample of low-income, black women (n=1044) recruited in six urban, prenatal care clinics (July 2001–October 2003), cotinine-confirmed nonsmokers with partners, household/family members, or friends who smoked (n=450) were identified and divided into two groups: any past-7-day ETS exposure and cotinine-confirmed ETS avoidance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ETS avoidance. Data were initially analyzed in 2004. Final models were reviewed and revised in 2007 and 2008. Results Twenty-seven percent of pregnant nonsmokers were confirmed as ETS avoiders. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of ETS avoidance were increased among women who reported household smoking bans (OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.83, 4.77; p<0.0001), that the father wanted the baby (OR=2.70; CI=1.26, 5.76; p=0.01), and that no/few family members/friends smoked (OR=3.15; 95% CI=1.58, 6.29; p<0.001). The odds were decreased among women who had a current partner (OR= 0.42; 95% CI=0.23, 0.76; p<0.01), reported any intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR= 0.43; 95% CI=0.19, 0.95; p<0.05), and reported little social support to prevent ETS exposure (OR= 0.50; 95% CI=0.30, 0.85; p=0.01). Parity, emotional coping strategies, substance use during pregnancy, partner/household member smoking status, and self-confidence in avoiding ETS were significant in bivariate, but not multivariate analyses. Conclusions Social contextual factors were the strongest determinants of ETS avoidance during pregnancy. Results highlight the importance of prenatal screening to identify pregnant nonsmokers at risk, encouraging household smoking bans, gaining support from significant others, and fully understanding the interpersonal context of a woman’s pregnancy before providing behavioral counseling and advice to prevent ETS exposure. PMID:19215848

Blake, Susan M.; Murray, Kennan D.; Nabil El-Khorazaty, M.; Gantz, Marie G.; Kiely, Michele; Best, Dana; Joseph, Jill G.; El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.

2009-01-01

160

Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.  

PubMed

Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale. PMID:23421019

Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2012-01-01

161

Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals. PMID:24672317

Ajab, Huma; Malik, Salman Akbar; Junaid, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Sadia; Abdullah, Mohd Azmuddin

2014-01-01

162

Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... cigarettes as 'regular' cigarettes." Smokeless Tobacco:"Chew"and Snuff Are Killers, Too What is Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless ... oral tobacco, spit or spitting tobacco, dip, chew, snuff, and snus. Most people chew or suck (dip) ...

163

Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach  

PubMed Central

There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

164

Projected effects of tobacco smoking on worldwide tuberculosis control: mathematical modelling analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Almost 20% of people smoke tobacco worldwide—a percentage projected to rise in many poor countries. Smoking has been linked to increased individual risk of tuberculosis infection and mortality, but it remains unclear how these risks affect population-wide tuberculosis rates. Design We constructed a state transition, compartmental, mathematical model of tuberculosis epidemics to estimate the impact of alternative future smoking trends on tuberculosis control. We projected tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality in each World Health Organization region from 2010 to 2050, and incorporated changing trends in smoking, case detection, treatment success, and HIV prevalence. Results The model predicted that smoking would produce an excess of 18 million tuberculosis cases (standard error 16-20) and 40 million deaths from tuberculosis (39-41) between 2010 and 2050, if smoking trends continued along current trajectories. The effect of smoking was anticipated to increase the number of tuberculosis cases by 7% (274 million v 256 million) and deaths by 66% (101 million v 61 million), compared with model predictions that did not account for smoking. Smoking was also expected to delay the millennium development goal target to reduce tuberculosis mortality by half from 1990 to 2015. The model estimated that aggressive tobacco control (achieving a 1% decrease in smoking prevalence per year down to eradication) would avert 27 million smoking attributable deaths from tuberculosis by 2050. However, if the prevalence of smoking increased to 50% of adults (as observed in countries with high tobacco use), the model estimated that 34 million additional deaths from tuberculosis would occur by 2050. Conclusions Tobacco smoking could substantially increase tuberculosis cases and deaths worldwide in coming years, undermining progress towards tuberculosis mortality targets. Aggressive tobacco control could avert millions of deaths from tuberculosis. PMID:21972295

2011-01-01

165

Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

166

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

167

Beliefs and Norms Associated with Smoking Tobacco Using a Waterpipe among College Students  

PubMed Central

This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe “will taste pleasant” and “will allow me to have a good time with my friends.” Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela

2012-01-01

168

Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.  

PubMed

This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

2012-05-01

169

Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.  

PubMed

Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3 %). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed. PMID:24797155

Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

2014-05-01

170

Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to ?0.01

Jibao Cai; Baizhan Liu; Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su

2002-01-01

171

Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM 10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM 10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM 2.5) and even smaller particles (PM 1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information on fine particles is needed. Aiming to evaluate the impact of tobacco smoke on public health, this work evaluates the influence of tobacco smoke on the characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 considering concentration and elemental composition. Samples were collected at sites influenced by tobacco smoke, as well as at reference sites, using low-volume samplers; the element analyses were performed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE); Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, I, Ba, La, Ce and Pb were quantified. At the sites influenced by tobacco smoke concentrations were 270-560% higher for PM 10 and 320-680% higher for PM 2.5 than at reference sites. Tobacco smoke increased the total concentrations of five carcinogenic elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb) 1100-2400% for PM 10 and 840-2200% for PM 2.5. The elements associated with tobacco smoke (S, K, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were predominantly present in the fine fraction; the elements mostly originating from building erosion (Mg, Al, Si and Ca) predominantly occurred in the coarse particles. The analysis of enrichment factors confirmed that tobacco smoking mainly influenced the composition of the fine fraction of particles; as these smaller particles have a strong influence on health, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

Slezakova, K.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

172

Beliefs about Tobacco Industry (mal)Practices and Youth Smoking Behaviour: Insight for Future Tobacco Control Campaigns (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To examine how student beliefs about tobacco industry behaviour and marketing practices were related to occasional and regular\\u000a smoking among 9th to 12th graders. These findings can provide insight for developing new tobacco industry denormalization\\u000a messages for youth smoking populations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional data were collected from 14,767 grade 9 to 12 students attending 22 secondary schools within one Public Health\\u000a Region

Scott T. Leatherdale; Robert Sparks; Victoria A. Kirsh

2006-01-01

173

Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.  

PubMed

Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups. PMID:24871250

Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskink?l?ç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Ta?t?, Enver; Er?ahin, Y?lmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

2014-05-30

174

Gender-Specific Effects of Prenatal and Adolescent Exposure to Tobacco Smoke on Auditory and Visual Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal exposure to active maternal tobacco smoking elevates risk of cognitive and auditory processing deficits, and of smoking in offspring. Recent preclinical work has demonstrated a sex-specific pattern of reduction in cortical cholinergic markers following prenatal, adolescent, or combined prenatal and adolescent exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke. Given the importance of cortical cholinergic neurotransmission to

Leslie K Jacobsen; Theodore A Slotkin; W Einar Mencl; Stephen J Frost; Kenneth R Pugh

2007-01-01

175

Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999

Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

176

QUESTIONNAIRE ASSESSMENT OF LIFETIME AND RECENT EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

EPA Science Inventory

In a sample of 140 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1966, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire response on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. hey also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports of environmental tobacco smo...

177

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the evidence on the effects of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and ill health in Sweden.Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden.Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner

J Foulds; L Ramstrom; M Burke; K Fagerstro?m

2003-01-01

178

Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.  

PubMed

This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities. PMID:21690316

Ribisl, Kurt M

2012-01-01

179

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute presents this 19th monograph in the Tobacco Control Monograph Series, The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Monograph 19 provides a critical, scientific review and synthesis of the current evidence regarding the power of the media, both to encourage and to discourage tobacco use. It is the most current and comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on media communication in tobacco promotion and tobacco control.

180

Brief Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire: An investigation into craving and heavy smoking in Saudi Arabian males  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Research in the United States has shown that craving tobacco is associated with smoking, yet no investigation has been done into the relationship between craving and the use of tobacco in Saudi Arabian smokers. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the craving of tobacco by Saudi males and its influence on daily smoking. Subjects were recruited under the auspices of the Tobacco Control Program in Jeddah City and Riyadh. Methods: The American English version of the tobacco craving questionnaire (TCQ-12) is a valid measure of four distinct aspects (factors) of tobacco craving. The TCQ-12 was translated into Arabic tobacco craving questionnaire (ATCQ-12) and administered to a sample of 322 male smokers. Predictive validity was determined by examining the relationship between the factors and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Results: In a general linear multivariate analysis of variance model, CPD increased significantly as either ATCQ-12 Factor 1 (emotionality) or Factor 3 (compulsiveness) increased. A significant Factor 1 by Factor 3 interaction indicated that Factor 1 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 3 was low. Factor 3 was a better predictor of heavy smoking, but only when Factor 1 was low. Conclusions: The ATCQ-12 is a rapid measure of craving and valid predictor of CPD and heavy smoking. Craving in anticipation of smoking as relief from a negative mood (emotionality) is an indicator of psychological withdrawal symptoms, while craving in anticipation of the inability to control tobacco use (compulsiveness) is an indicator of physical dependence.

Albrithen, Abdulaziz A.; Singleton, Edward G.

2015-01-01

181

Urinary Tobacco Smoke Constituent Biomarkers for Assessing Risk of Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Tobacco constituent biomarkers are metabolites of specific compounds present in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Highly reliable analytical methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed for quantitation of these biomarkers in both urine and blood specimens. There is substantial inter-individual variation in smoking-related lung cancer risk that is determined in part by individual variability in the uptake and metabolism of tobacco smoke carcinogens. Thus, by incorporating these biomarkers in epidemiological studies we can potentially obtain a more valid and precise measure of in vivo carcinogen dose than by using self-reported smoking history, ultimately improving the estimation of smoking-related lung cancer risk. Indeed, we have demonstrated this by using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in urine samples collected from smokers many years prior to their development of cancer, versus those in their smoking counterparts without a cancer diagnosis. The following urinary metabolites were associated with lung cancer risk, independent of smoking intensity and duration: cotinine plus its glucuronide, a biomarker of nicotine uptake; 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); and r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results provide several possible new directions for using tobacco smoke constituent biomarkers in lung cancer prevention, including improved lung cancer risk assessment, intermediate outcome determination in prevention trials and regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24408916

Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M.; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S.

2014-01-01

182

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts¿ estimates  

E-print Network

the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n?=?14), Australasia (n?=?12) and North America (n ...

Pechey, Rachel; Spiegelhalter, David; Marteau, Theresa M

2013-01-09

183

Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

2012-01-01

184

Attenuation of tobacco smoke-induced lung inflammation by treatment with a soluble epoxide  

E-print Network

and progression of tobacco smoke-induced airway disease. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is involved. epoxyeicosatrienoic acids pulmonary antiinflammatory Cigarette smoking is associated with a number of pulmonary diseases including bronchitis, airway obstruction, and em- physema. Collectively these pulmonary maladies

Hammock, Bruce D.

185

Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this…

Adams, Monica L.; Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

2013-01-01

186

Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke on DNA and Chromosomal Complement in Human Lung Explants  

Microsoft Academic Search

HUMAN lung explants exposed to smoke from marijuana or from Kentucky Standard tobacco cigarettes have been reported to display abnormalities of cell morphology, mitosis, DNA synthesis and atypical proliferation1. We report here a study designed to test the effects of both types of smoke on the DNA and chromosomal complement.

C. Leuchtenberger; R. Leuchtenberger; U. Ritter; N. INUI

1973-01-01

187

Prevalence of and Associations with Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking among U.S. University Students  

PubMed Central

Background Although waterpipe tobacco smoking seems to be increasing on U.S. university campuses, these data have come from convenience samples. Purpose We aimed to determine the prevalence of and associations with waterpipe tobacco smoking among a random sample of students. Methods We surveyed a random sample of graduate and undergraduate students at a large, urban university. We used multivariate modeling to determine independent associations between belief-related predictors and waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Of the 647 respondents, waterpipe smoking was reported in 40.5%, over the past year in 30.6%, and over the past 30 days in 9.5%. Over half of the sample (52.1%) perceived that tobacco smoking from a waterpipe was less addictive than cigarette smoking. In fully adjusted multivariate models, 1-year waterpipe smoking was associated with low perceived harm (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.68, 3.83), low perceived addictiveness (OR=4.64, 95% CI=3.03, 7.10), perception of high social acceptability (OR=20.00, 95% CI=6.03, 66.30), and high perception of popularity (OR=4.72, 95% CI=2.85, 7.82). Conclusions In this sample, lifetime waterpipe use was as common as lifetime cigarette use. Perception of harm, perception of addictiveness, social acceptability, and popularity were all strongly related to waterpipe smoking. PMID:18719977

Primack, Brian A.; Sidani, Jaime; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Shadel, William G.; Donny, Eric C.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

188

Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to

Theodore A Slotkin

2004-01-01

189

Tobacco smoke induces persistent infection of Chlamydophila pneumoniae in HEp2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined tobacco smoke exposure and its effect on the life cycle of Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) in HEp-2, a human respiratory epithelial cell line. Using noncytotoxic concentrations of smoke medium, chlamydiae were grown in tissue culture and infectious particles were quantitated indirectly by immunocytometry of infected indicator cells. Chlamydial genome copy number was assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction,

Jean A. Wiedeman; Ravi Kaul; Luke S. Heuer; Nao N. Thao; Kent E. Pinkerton; Wanda M. Wenman

2004-01-01

190

Relationship between knowledge about the harms of smoking and smoking status in the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco China Survey  

PubMed Central

Background This analysis estimates the association between smoking-related knowledge and smoking behaviour in a Chinese context. To identify the specific knowledge most directly related to smoking status, we used a novel latent variable analysis approach to adjust for the high correlations between different measures of knowledge about tobacco smoking. Method Data are from the Global Adult Tobacco China Survey, a nationally representative sample of 13?354 household-dwelling individuals 15?years of age or older. Multinomial logistic regressions estimated the association between smoking status (ie, never smoked, current smoker or past smoker) and four smoking-related beliefs: whether or not smoking causes lung cancer, heart attack and stroke, and whether or not low-tar cigarettes are less harmful. A latent variable approach reassessed these associations while taking into account the general level of knowledge about smoking. Results After demographic variables and general knowledge about smoking had been controlled for, the belief that low-tar cigarettes are not less harmful was more prevalent in persons who had never smoked than in current smokers (OR=1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) in men and OR=2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.9) in women); this association was even stronger when past smokers and current smokers were compared (OR=2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.0) in men and OR=5.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 20.1) in women). Conclusions Compared with those who have never smoked and those who have ceased smoking, current smokers in China are more likely to believe that low-tar cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. PMID:23988861

Cheng, Hui G; McBride, Orla; Phillips, Michael R

2015-01-01

191

Sources, Sinks and Cycling of Acetyl Radicals in Tobacco Smoke: A Model for Biomass Burning Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke near the source of biomass burning contains high concentrations of reactive compounds, with NO and CH3CHO concentrations four to six orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient atmosphere. Tobacco smoke represents a special case of biomass burning that is quite reproducible in the lab and may elucidate early processes in smoke from other sources. The origins, identities, and reactions of radical species in tobacco smoke are not well understood, despite decades of study on the concentrations and toxicities of the relatively stable compounds in smoke. We propose that reactions of NO2 and aldehydes are a primary source for transient free radicals in tobacco smoke, which contrasts with the long-surmised mechanism of reaction between NO2 and dienes. The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, sinks and cycling of acetyl radical in tobacco smoke. Experimentally, the production of acetyl radical was demonstrated both in tobacco smoke and in a simplified mixture of air combined with NO and acetaldehyde, both of which are significant components of smoke. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The dynamic nature of radical cycling in smoke makes it impossible to define a fixed concentration of radical species; 2.15×e13-3.18×e14 molecules/cm3 of acetyl radicals were measured from different cigarette samples and smoking conditions. Matlab was employed to simulate reactions of NO, NO2, O2, and a simplified set of organic compounds known to be present in smoke, with a special emphasis on acetaldehyde and the acetyl radical. The NO2/acetaldehyde mechanism initiates a cascade of chain reactions, which accounts for the most prevalent known carbon-centered radicals found in tobacco smoke, and pathways for formation of OH and peroxyl species. Tobacco smoke provides a new perspective of radical generation in a relatively well-defined biomass burning process.

Hu, N.; Green, S. A.

2012-12-01

192

Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

2013-01-01

193

A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control. PMID:20390676

Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

2010-03-01

194

Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand, quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of solanesol was compromised--as it had been in the chamber experiments.

Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

2004-03-02

195

A descriptive study of smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine waterpipe smoking and beliefs about waterpipe smoking in a sample of college students from a public university in Virginia. Data Sources A web-based survey was sent to 1,000 undergraduate students recruiting them to participate in the study. Measures from the investigator-developed Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) Waterpipe Questionnaire were used to capture belief-based components of the TRA related to waterpipe use. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking. Conclusions Of the sample (n=223), 73% of males and 63% of females reporting ever smoking tobacco using a waterpipe and 23% of males and 7% of females reporting current waterpipe smoking. Of the sample 29% of males and 10% of females were current cigarette smokers and 25% of males and 13% of females were current marijuana users. Common beliefs associated with waterpipe smoking are also presented. Implications for Practice Nurse Practitioner’s working with college students need to be aware of the multiple forms of tobacco that students may engage in. They also should be aware of the common beliefs about waterpipe smoking. This information is useful when targeting and counseling patients about alternative tobacco products like waterpipe smoking. PMID:23279274

Noonan, Devon

2012-01-01

196

The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the smoking areas compared to the non-smoking areas of pubs that contained both smoking and non-smoking sections. Median concentrations of RSP and nicotine were reduced by 18% and 68%, respectively, in non-smoking areas. UVPM, FPM and SolPM median concentrations were reduced by 27%, 34% and 39%, demonstrating the increased tobacco-specificity of the particulate markers and the impact of non-smoking areas. Levels of particulate phase ETS markers were also found to be higher in the smoking sections of pubs that allowed smoking throughout compared to the smoking sections of pubs with other areas where smoking was prohibited. The presence of a non-smoking section has the effect of reducing concentrations even in the smoking areas. This may be caused by migration of smoke into the non-smoking section thereby diluting the smoking area or by smokers tending to avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

197

Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider  

PubMed Central

Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

2011-01-01

198

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in "smoke-free" bars. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.  

PubMed

National level smoke-free legislation is implemented to protect the public from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS). The first aim of this study was to investigate how successful the smoke-free hospitality industry legislation in Ireland (March 2004), France (January 2008), the Netherlands (July 2008), and Germany (between August 2007 and July 2008) was in reducing smoking in bars. The second aim was to assess individual smokers' predictors of smoking in bars post-ban. The third aim was to examine country differences in predictors and the fourth aim was to examine differences between educational levels (as an indicator of socioeconomic status). This study used nationally representative samples of 3147 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys who were surveyed pre- and post-ban. The results reveal that while the partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands and Germany was effective in reducing smoking in bars (from 88% to 34% and from 87% to 44%, respectively), the effectiveness was much lower than the comprehensive legislation in Ireland and France which almost completely eliminated smoking in bars (from 97% to 3% and from 84% to 3% respectively). Smokers who were more supportive of the ban, were more aware of the harm of SHS, and who had negative opinions of smoking were less likely to smoke in bars post-ban. Support for the ban was a stronger predictor in Germany. SHS harm awareness was a stronger predictor among less educated smokers in the Netherlands and Germany. The results indicate the need for strong comprehensive smoke-free legislation without exceptions. This should be accompanied by educational campaigns in which the public health rationale for the legislation is clearly explained. PMID:21497973

Nagelhout, Gera E; Mons, Ute; Allwright, Shane; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein; Willemsen, Marc C

2011-05-01

199

[Effects of tobacco smoke on fetus and children].  

PubMed

What is caused on fetus and children by parental smoking? Parental smoking, especially maternal smoking cause oral cleft which makes baby difficult to suck milk. It causes not only respiratory illness such as asthma bronchialis but also fire accident or burn by child abuse. These things decrease quality of life of children. Low birth weight caused by parental smoking is the major risk factor of lifestyle-related diseases, according to DOHaD hypothesis. Moreover, parental smoking drive children active smokers. If children start to smoke, they will get bad lifestyle led to metabolic syndrome. So it is important not to make children start the first smoking. PMID:23631234

Noda, Takashi

2013-03-01

200

The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I: Flavourings and additives.  

PubMed

The effects of 450 tobacco ingredients added to tobacco on the forty-four "Hoffmann analytes" in mainstream cigarette smoke have been determined. These analytes are believed by regulatory authorities in the USA and Canada to be relevant to smoking-related diseases. They are based on lists published by D. Hoffmann and co-workers of the American Health Foundation in New York. The ingredients comprised 431 flavours, 1 flavour/solvent, 1 solvent, 7 preservatives, 5 binders, 2 humectants, 2 process aids and 1 filler. The cigarettes containing mixtures of the ingredients were smoked using the standard ISO smoking machine conditions. The levels of the "Hoffmann analytes" in the smoke from the test cigarettes containing the ingredient mixture were compared to those from control cigarettes without the ingredients. In practice, flavouring ingredients are typically added to tobacco that also contains casing ingredients and reconstituted tobacco materials. In order to keep the tobacco mixtures as authentic as possible, three comparisons have been made in this study. These are: (a) control cigarette containing a typical US blended, cased tobacco incorporating reconstituted tobacco versus test cigarettes that had flavouring ingredients added to this tobacco; (b) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarettes with the tobacco cased and incorporating flavourings; (c) control cigarette containing tobacco only versus test cigarette incorporating additives made in an experimental sheet material. The significances of differences between the test and control cigarettes were determined using both the variability of the data on the specific occasion of the measurement, and also taking into account the long-term variability of the analytical measurements over the one-year period in which analyses were determined in the present study. This long-term variability was determined by measuring the levels of the 44 "Hoffmann analytes" in a reference cigarette on many occasions over the one-year period of this study. The ingredients were added to the experimental cigarettes at or above the maximum levels used commercially by British American Tobacco. The effect of the ingredient mixtures on total particulate matter and carbon monoxide levels in smoke was not significantly different to the control in most cases, and was never more than 10% with any ingredient mixture. It was found that, in most cases, the mixtures of flavouring ingredients (generally added in parts per million levels) had no statistically significant effect on the analyte smoke yields relative to the control cigarette. Occasionally with some of the mixtures, both increases and decreases were observed for some smoke analyte levels relative to the control cigarette. These differences were generally up to about 15% with the mixtures containing flavouring ingredients. The significance of many of the differences was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. For the test cigarettes with ingredient mixtures containing casing ingredients, there were again no significant changes in smoke analyte levels in most cases. Those changes that were observed are as follows. Decreases in smoke levels were observed with some ingredient mixtures for most of the tobacco specific nitrosamines (up to 24%), NO(x), most of the phenols (up to 34%), benzo[a]pyrene, and some of the aromatic amines and miscellaneous organic compounds on the "Hoffmann list". Increases were observed for some test cigarettes in smoke ammonia, HCN, formaldehyde and lead levels (up to 24%). The significance of the ammonia and lead increases was not present when the long-term variability of the analytical methodology was taken into account. The yields of some carbonyl compounds in smoke were increased in one comparison with an additives mixture containing cellulosic components; in particular, formaldehyde was increased by 68%. This was the largest single change seen in any smoke analyte level in this study. These carbonyls are

Baker, Richard R; Pereira da Silva, José R; Smith, Graham

2004-01-01

201

Identifying and quantifying secondhand smoke in multiunit homes with tobacco smoke odor complaints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate identification and quantification of the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) that drifts between multiunit homes (MUHs) is essential for assessing resident exposure and health risk. We collected 24 gaseous and particle measurements over 6-9 day monitoring periods in five nonsmoking MUHs with reported SHS intrusion problems. Nicotine tracer sampling showed evidence of SHS intrusion in all five homes during the monitoring period; logistic regression and chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis enabled identification and quantification of some of the precise periods of SHS entry. Logistic regression models identified SHS in eight periods when residents complained of SHS odor, and CMB provided estimates of SHS magnitude in six of these eight periods. Both approaches properly identified or apportioned all six cooking periods used as no-SHS controls. Finally, both approaches enabled identification and/or apportionment of suspected SHS in five additional periods when residents did not report smelling smoke. The time resolution of this methodology goes beyond sampling methods involving single tracers (such as nicotine), enabling the precise identification of the magnitude and duration of SHS intrusion, which is essential for accurate assessment of human exposure.

Dacunto, Philip J.; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E.; Repace, James L.; Ott, Wayne R.; Hildemann, Lynn M.

2013-06-01

202

Smoking and experiences with tobacco cessation among men who have sex with men: New Orleans, 2011.  

PubMed

Smoking continues to be a problem in the United States, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). The current study assesses the prevalence of current and lifetime smoking as well as cessation experiences in a sample of MSM. Two-thirds of the sample had ever smoked tobacco and 50 % of MSM were current smokers. Prevalence of current smoking in this sample was higher than comparative data obtained from HIV positive patients at a local clinical population. Smoking was found to be associated with HIV status, race, age, education, income and alcohol use. A high proportion of MSMs social networks were smokers especially among current smokers. Continued efforts targeting or linking MSM into tobacco cessation efforts are recommended. PMID:23949772

Robinson, William T; Brown, Meagan C; Moody-Thomas, Sarah

2014-04-01

203

Environmental Tobacco Smoke as Risk Factor in School Children in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is defined as a human cancerogen class A, due daily exposure is responsible for health hazards consider as almost equal as smoking of tobacco. Goal: Monitoring of exposure of school children to ETS as indicator of enforcement of ban of smoking in public places as tobacco control measure in the Federation of BiH. Methods: Analysis of surveys findings performed in the Federation of BiH in period 2008-2013, with particular focus on ETS exposure in school children. Results: A survey findings indicates decrease of exposure to ETS in school children ate home from 79.0% in 2008 to 62.1% in 2013, as well decrease of exposure to ETS in public places from 85.0% in 2008 to 59.8% in 2013. However, 65.8% of school children in the Federation of BiH are daily expose to ETS in school premises and only 54.6% of school children have been taught in school about health consequences of tobacco smoke. Over three quarter of school children or 80.1% are in favor of ban of smoking in public places. Conclusions: Exposure to ETS in school children considers as significant evidence for more efficient enforcement of tobacco control legislation in the Federation of BiH. PMID:25648163

Ramic-Catak, Aida; Maksumic-Dizdarevic, Adnana

2014-01-01

204

Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV.  

PubMed

We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14-25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans). Overall, 144 (38.7%) self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9%) of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1?mg/dL; P < 0.01) and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P = 0.03). There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent. PMID:25114801

Rubinstein, Mark L; Harris, D Robert; Rudy, Bret J; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Mulligan, Kathleen

2014-01-01

205

Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans). Overall, 144 (38.7%) self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9%) of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1?mg/dL; P < 0.01) and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P = 0.03). There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent. PMID:25114801

Rubinstein, Mark L.; Harris, D. Robert; Rudy, Bret J.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Mulligan, Kathleen

2014-01-01

206

An inter-machine comparison of tobacco smoke particle deposition in vitro from six independent smoke exposure systems.  

PubMed

There are several whole smoke exposure systems used to assess the biological and toxicological impact of tobacco smoke in vitro. One such system is the Vitrocell® VC 10 Smoking Robot and exposure module. Using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) installed into the module, we were able to assess tobacco smoke particle deposition in real-time. We compared regional deposition across the module positions and doses delivered by six VC 10s in four independent laboratories: two in the UK, one in Germany and one in China. Gauge R&r analysis was applied to the total data package from the six VC 10s. As a percentage of the total, reproducibility (between all six VC 10s) and repeatability (error within an individual VC 10) accounted for 0.3% and 7.4% respectively. Thus Gauge R&r was 7.7%, less than 10% overall and considered statistically fit for purpose. The dose-responses obtained from the six machines across the four different locations demonstrated excellent agreement. There were little to no positional differences across the module at all airflows as determined by ANOVA (except for one machine and at three airflows only). These results support the on-going characterisation of the VC 10 exposure system and suitability for tobacco smoke exposure in vitro. PMID:24997294

Adamson, J; Thorne, D; Errington, G; Fields, W; Li, X; Payne, R; Krebs, T; Dalrymple, A; Fowler, K; Dillon, D; Xie, F; Meredith, C

2014-10-01

207

A study on particles and some microbial markers in waterpipe tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Waterpipe smoking is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Research has shown that cigarette smoke, in addition to hundreds of carcinogenic and otherwise toxic compounds, may also contain compounds of microbiological origin. In the present study we analyzed waterpipe smoke for some microbial compounds. Both of the two markers studied, viz 3-hydroxy fatty acids of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol of fungal biomass, were found in waterpipe tobacco, in amounts similar as previously found in cigarette tobacco, and in smoke. Waterpipe mainstream smoke contained on average 1800 pmol LPS and 84.4 ng ergosterol produced per session. An average concentration of 2.8 pmol/m(3) of LPS was found in second hand smoke during a 1-2-h waterpipe smoking session while ergosterol was not detected; corresponding concentrations from smoking five cigarettes were 22.2 pmol/m(3) of LPS and 87.5 ng/m(3) of ergosterol. This is the first time that waterpipe smoking has been shown to create a bioaerosol. In the present study we also found that waterpipe smoking generated several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and high fraction of small (<200 nm) particles that may have adverse effects on human health upon inhalation. PMID:25181042

Markowicz, P; Löndahl, J; Wierzbicka, A; Suleiman, R; Shihadeh, A; Larsson, L

2014-11-15

208

Evaluation of In Vitro Assays For Assessing the Toxicity of Cigarette Smoke and Smokeless Tobacco  

PubMed Central

Introduction In vitro toxicology studies of tobacco and tobacco smoke have been used to understand why tobacco use causes cancer and to assess the toxicological impact of tobacco product design changes. The need for toxicology studies has been heightened given that the FDA’s newly granted authority over tobacco products requires mandating performance standards for tobacco products and evaluate manufacturers’ health claims. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate in vitro toxicology methods related to cancer for assessing tobacco products and to identify related research gaps. Methods PubMed database searches were used to identify tobacco-related in vitro toxicology studies published since 1980. Articles published prior to 1980 with high relevance also were identified. The data was compiled to examine: 1) goals of the study; 2) methods for collecting test substances; 3) experimental designs; 4) toxicological endpoints, and; 5) relevance to cancer risk. Results A variety of in vitro assays are available to assess tobacco and tobacco smoke that address different modes of action, mostly using non-human cell models. Smokeless tobacco products perform poorly in these assays. While reliable as a screening tool for qualitative assessments, the available in vitro assays have been poorly validated for quantitative comparisons of different products. Assay batteries have not been developed, although they exist for non-tobacco assessments. Extrapolating data from in vitro studies to human risks remains hypothetical. Conclusions In vitro toxicology methods are useful for screening toxicity, but better methods are needed for today’s context of regulation and evaluation of health claims. PMID:19959677

Wan, J.; Johnson, M.; Schilz, J.; Djordjevic, M.V.; Rice, J.R.; Shields, P.G.

2009-01-01

209

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and brain development: the case of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Environmental tobacco smoke, inhaled by active firsthand smokers and their entourage, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many children are passively exposed to secondhand smoke worldwide. Infants and young children account for the largest global disease burden associated with prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke, probably due to underdeveloped neurological, immune, and respiro-circulatory systems. There is an increasingly robust association between tobacco smoke exposure, before and after birth, and executive function problems in children, adding to current and future disease burden estimates in public health. This review summarizes research advancements which address the link between environmental tobacco smoke and the development of attention deficits and hyperactive behavior, both as symptoms and as part of a mental health disorder in childhood. The multiple effects of tobacco smoke inhalation are best understood in terms of disruptions in normative processes involving cellular communication, structural development, and epigenetic influences which have the potential to become intergenerational. It is concluded that public health efforts be directed toward increasing parental awareness and compliance with existing guidelines that recommend no safe level of exposure. PMID:23545330

Pagani, Linda S

2014-07-01

210

Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry  

PubMed Central

Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

Hirshbein, Laura

2012-01-01

211

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

212

Poly-Tobacco Use Among HIV-Positive Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation Efforts  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Poly-tobacco use is defined as cigarette and other tobacco consumption with either product used daily or nondaily. While concurrent use of different types of tobacco has been documented within the general population, less is known about poly-tobacco use among HIV-positive smokers and its impact on smoking cessation efforts. Objective: To characterize the profile of poly-tobacco users (PTU) in a sample of HIV-positive smokers participating in a cessation program. Methods: The study sample consisted of 474 HIV-positive smokers enrolled in a 2-group randomized controlled trial of cigarette smoking cessation comparing a cell phone–based intervention to usual care. Prevalence was determined, and risk factors for poly-tobacco use were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: In this cohort of HIV-positive cigarette smokers, 21.6% of participants were PTU, with cigars (73.4%) the most common tobacco product consumed. Among PTU, 73.5% used other form(s) of tobacco some days, and 26.5% use them every day. Perceived discrimination and unemployment were significantly associated with poly-tobacco use after adjusting for other demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Analysis showed that participants in the cell phone group (vs. usual care) were more likely to report 24-hr abstinence, both among monocigarette users (16.6% vs. 6.3%, p < .001) and PTU (18.5% vs. 0%, p < .001). Conclusion: Poly-tobacco use prevalence among adult HIV-positive smokers was considerably higher than in the general population. Special attention must be placed on concurrent use of cigarettes and cigars among HIV-positive smokers. Because PTU are a unique population less likely to succeed in brief smoking cessation interventions, effective cessation programs are needed. PMID:23907506

2013-01-01

213

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 Years With and Without Asthma in the United States, 1999?2010  

MedlinePLUS

... Briefs NCHS Data Brief Number 126, August 2013 Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children Aged 3?19 ... the percentage of children without asthma exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) decreased from 57.3% to ...

214

Quantitative effects of tobacco smoking exposure on the maternal-fetal circulation  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the existence of various published studies regarding the effects of tobacco smoking on pregnancy, and especially in regards to placental blood flow and vascular resistance, some points still require clarification. In addition, the amount of damage due to tobacco smoking exposure that occurs has not been quantified by objective means. In this study, we looked for a possible association between flow resistance indices of several arteries and the levels of urinary cotinine and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex) of both smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. We also looked for a relationship between those findings and fetal growth and birth weight. Methods In a prospective design, thirty pregnant smokers and thirty-four pregnant non-smokers were studied. The volunteers signed consent forms, completed a self-applied questionnaire and were subjected to Doppler velocimetry. Tobacco smoking exposure was quantified by subject provided information and confirmed by the measurement of urinary cotinine levels and by the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaled air (COex). The weight of newborns was evaluated immediately after birth. Results Comparing smoking to non-smoking pregnant women, a significant increase in the resistance index was observed in the uterine arteries (P = 0.001) and umbilical artery (P = 0.001), and a decrease in the middle cerebral artery (P = 0.450). These findings were associated with progressively higher concentrations of COex and urinary cotinine. A decrease in the birth weight was also detected (P < 0.001) in association with a progressive increase in the tobacco exposure of the pregnant woman. Conclusions In pregnant women who smoke, higher arterial resistance indices and lower birth weights were observed, and these findings were associated with increasing levels of tobacco smoking exposure. The values were significantly different when compared to those found in non-smoking pregnant women. This study contributes to the findings that smoking damage during pregnancy is dose-dependent, as demonstrated by the objective methods for measuring tobacco smoking exposure. PMID:21453488

2011-01-01

215

The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence and deaths caused by smoking in Arizona: results from the Arizona tobacco policy simulation model.  

PubMed

Arizona was one of the first few states to implement a comprehensive tobacco control program. The effect of that program is examined using a computer-simulation model (SimSmoke) developed for the purposes of evaluation, planning, and justifying policies. This approach assesses the impact to date of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and generates predictions about the effects of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and associated future premature mortality. SimSmoke estimates indicate that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in Arizona by about 20 percent over the period 1993-2002. A previous CDC study obtains similar effects, but does not net out the effects of individual policies. SimSmoke attributes much of the reduction, about 61 percent, to price increases and attributes 38 percent of the overall effect to media policies, leaving only a small percentage of the smoking reductions attributed to quitlines, youth access policies, and the weak clean air laws. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive strategies have significantly affected smoking rates in Arizona, which leads to large reductions in deaths attributable to smoking. It will be important to maintain these efforts over time to reduce or keep smoking prevalence down and to minimize smoking-attributable deaths. PMID:17149101

Levy, David T; Ross, Hana; Powell, Lisa; Bauer, Joseph E; Lee, Hye-ryeon

2007-01-01

216

Biological basis of tobacco addiction: Implications for smoking-cessation treatment  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use became common all over the world after discovery of Americas. Tobacco, a plant carries in its leaves an alkaloid called nicotine, which is responsible not only for several pathophysiological changes in the body but also develops tolerance to its own action with repeated use. Studies suggest that the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor that mediates nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure and mood modulation. Repeated exposure to nicotine develops neuroadaptation of the receptors, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms appear on stoppage of tobacco use, which are characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among others. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation should reduce withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects. PMID:21267362

Jiloha, R. C.

2010-01-01

217

Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample (N = 4100) of intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. The data were collected using a pretested modified version of the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Results: A total of 3923 students from 72 intermediate and secondary schools for males and females in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ever having smoked prevalence was 17.3%, and the current smoking prevalence was 10.7%. The most important independent predictors of smoking were academic performance (odds ratio [OR]: 5.32), having friends who used khat (OR: 3.23), and having friends who used tobacco (OR: 2.88). Conclusions: Understanding the factors and predictors associated with tobacco use are crucial to identifying high-risk groups to design tobacco prevention and control programs. For the first time, a strong and statistically significant association was identified between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region. Because the use of khat is increasingly spreading outside of its traditional areas to Europe and America, this finding may have an important impact on tobacco control efforts internationally. PMID:24159909

Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

2013-01-01

218

Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts. Method: Published reviews and the current literature were searched for relevant articles. Results: The most consistently elevated biomarker in people exposed to SHS was 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), urinary metabolites of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The tobacco specificity of this biomarker as well as its clear relation to an established lung carcinogen are particularly appropriate for its application in studies of SHS exposure. Conclusion: The results of the available carcinogen derived biomarker studies provide biochemical data which support the conclusion, based on epidemiologic investigations, that SHS causes lung cancer in non-smokers. PMID:14985617

Hecht, S

2004-01-01

219

Chronic inhalation of carbon monoxide: Effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a dangerous poison in high concentrations, but the long-term effects of low doses of CO, as in the gaseous component of tobacco smoke, are not well known. The aims of our study were to evaluate the long-term effects of inhaled CO on the respiratory and cardiovascular system at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking and its effect

Sveinung Sørhaug; Sigurd Steinshamn; Odd G. Nilsen; Helge L. Waldum

2006-01-01

220

Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

2013-01-01

221

Policy #3220 Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes and Vaporizers 1  

E-print Network

Policy #3220 ­ Policy on the Use of Tobacco and Smoking-Related Products and Electronic Cigarettes-RELATED PRODUCTS AND ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES AND VAPORIZERS Responsible Oversight Executive: Vice President's restrictions on the use of tobacco and smoking-related products and electronic cigarettes and vaporizers. B

222

Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

2005-01-01

223

NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats  

SciTech Connect

Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.

Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States); Pinkerton, Kent E. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616 (United States)], E-mail: kepinkerton@ucdavis.edu

2008-07-15

224

Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

2009-01-01

225

“Quitting Smoking Will Benefit Your Health”: The Evolution of Clinician Messaging to Encourage Tobacco Cessation  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Illnesses that are caused by smoking remain as the world's leading cause of preventable death. Smoking and tobacco use make up approximately 30% of all cancer deaths and nearly 90% of lung cancer deaths. Thus, improving smoking cessation interventions is crucial to reduce tobacco use and assist in minimizing the burden of cancer and other diseases in the United States (US). This review focuses on the existing research on framed messages to promote smoking cessation. Consistent with the tenets of Prospect Theory and recent meta-analysis, gain-framed messages emphasizing the benefits of quitting appear to be preferable when working with adult patients who smoke tobacco products. The evidence also suggests that moderators of treatment should guide framed statements made to patients. Meta-analyses have provided consistent moderators of treatment such as need for cognition, but future studies should further define the specific framed interventions that would be most helpful for sub-groups of smokers. In conclusion, instead of using loss-framed statements like “Smoking will harm your health by causing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke,” as a general rule, physicians should use gain-framed statements like “Quitting smoking will benefit your health by preventing problems like lung and other cancers, heart disease, and stroke.” PMID:24436474

Toll, Benjamin A.; Rojewski, Alana M.; Duncan, Lindsay; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Boyer, Julie L.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Salovey, Peter; Herbst, Roy S.

2013-01-01

226

Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers  

PubMed Central

Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes. PMID:21914836

Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

227

Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.DESIGN AND SETTING632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10–19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent

Jennifer J Tickle; James D Sargent; Madeline A Dalton; Michael L Beach; Todd F Heatherton

2001-01-01

228

Effects of Marijuana and Tobacco Smoke on Human Lung Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MOUSE lung explants exposed to smoke from cigarettes to which marijuana was added have been reported to display more cellular abnormalities than those exposed to smoke from cigarettes without marijuana1. We report here a study designed to test the effects of smoke from cigarettes made of marijuana only on human lung explants, and to compare these effects with those obtained

Cecile Leuchtenberger; Rudolf Leuchtenberger; Andrée Schneider

1973-01-01

229

Comparative cytotoxicity studies of smoke condensates from different types of cigarettes and tobaccos.  

PubMed

The neutral red assay, a rapid and accurate method for estimating the cytotoxicity of chemicals, has been used to assess the cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), a complex chemical mixture containing over 3000 identified compounds. The first objective was to optimize the neutral red assay for evaluation of CSCs. This study also assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of smoke condensates from three reference cigarettes which differ in 'tar' content; cigarettes of different tobacco type composition; an ultra-low tar cigarette (R1); and an RJR test cigarette which heats but does not burn tobacco. Finally, this study investigated the cytotoxicity of a specific CSC component, nicotine, and its metabolite, cotinine. Exposure times of 24 hours or longer using CHO cells provided optimal conditions for evaluation of CSC cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of CSCs from reference cigarettes was similar. CSC from cigarettes comprised of flue-cured tobacco exhibited greater cytotoxicity than CSC from cigarettes comprised of burley tobacco. CSC from the R1 cigarette exhibited similar cytotoxicity compared with 1R4F CSC. The CSC from a cigarette that heated but did not burn tobacco (RJR test cigarette) demonstrated no cytotoxicity in CHO cells. Finally, nicotine and cotinine were not cytotoxic to CHO cells. The neutral red assay has been proved useful for quantifying differences in cytotoxicity of smoke condensates from cigarettes which vary in 'tar' yield and for assessing specific smoke constituents. PMID:20654406

Bombick, D W; Putnam, K; Doolittle, D J

1998-06-01

230

Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions  

PubMed Central

Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter?writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

2006-01-01

231

Tobacco Dependence: Insights from Investigations of Self-Reported Smoking Motives.  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assesses 13 theoretically-derived dimensions of smoking motivation. These 13 subscales were intended to index comprehensively the severity of tobacco dependence and provide insight into the disorder. Recent studies indicate that four subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance) represent the core features of tobacco dependence and have been dubbed the Primary Dependence Motives (PDM). The remaining nine subscales, the Secondary Dependence Motives (SDM), may be clinically relevant but index less essential features of dependence. PMID:21552361

Piasecki, Thomas M; Piper, Megan E; Baker, Timothy B

2010-12-14

232

Tobacco Dependence: Insights from Investigations of Self-Reported Smoking Motives  

PubMed Central

The Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assesses 13 theoretically-derived dimensions of smoking motivation. These 13 subscales were intended to index comprehensively the severity of tobacco dependence and provide insight into the disorder. Recent studies indicate that four subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance) represent the core features of tobacco dependence and have been dubbed the Primary Dependence Motives (PDM). The remaining nine subscales, the Secondary Dependence Motives (SDM), may be clinically relevant but index less essential features of dependence. PMID:21552361

Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Baker, Timothy B.

2010-01-01

233

[Interferences smoking-tobacco industry: a "political reality"].  

PubMed

Tobacco use is a real and hard to beat pandemia, caused mainly by well organized, very persistent and extremly aggressive efforts of the tobacco industry. There is nothing to much for industry, and the ones that stand and fight against this pandemia must be very aware of the unethical and unfair methods used by the enemy. PMID:23424952

Mih?l?an, Florin

2012-01-01

234

Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC) policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012) and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment. PMID:22719777

Wilson, Lisa M.; Avila Tang, Erika; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Odelola, Olaide A.; Elf, Jessica L.; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Bass, Eric B.; Little, Emily A.; Haberl, Elisabeth B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

2012-01-01

235

Tobacco smoking effect on HIV-1 pathogenesis: role of cytochrome P450 isozymes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among the HIV-1-infected population. In addition to diminished immune response, smoking has been shown to increase HIV-1 replication and decrease response to antiretroviral therapy, perhaps through drug–drug interaction. However, the mechanism by which tobacco/nicotine increases HIV-1 replication and mediates drug–drug interaction is poorly understood. Areas covered In this review, the authors discuss the effects of smoking on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Since they propose a role for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, the authors briefly converse the role of CYP enzymes in tobacco-mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Finally, the authors focus on the role of CYP enzymes, especially CYP2A6, in tobacco/nicotine metabolism and oxidative stress in HIV-1 model systems monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, astrocytes and neurons, which may be responsible for HIV-1 pathogenesis. Expert opinion Recent findings suggest that CYP-mediated oxidative stress is a novel pathway that may be involved in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis, including HIV-1 replication and drug–drug interaction. Thus, CYP and CYP-associated oxidative stress pathways may be potential targets to develop novel pharmaceuticals for HIV-1-infected smokers. Since HIV-1/TB co-infections are common, future study involving interactions between antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs that involve CYP pathways would also help treat HIV-1/TB co-infected smokers effectively. PMID:23822755

Ande, Anusha; McArthur, Carole; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Santosh

2014-01-01

236

Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.  

PubMed

Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking. PMID:25453062

Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

2014-12-16

237

Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or related concepts. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested data abstraction form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We also determined the percentage of observational studies assessing the health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking and the percentage of studies of prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking that have used validated survey instruments. Results We identified a total of five survey instruments. One instrument was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and waterpipe use among pregnant women and was shown to have internal consistency and content validity. Three instruments were designed to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption, two of which were reported to have face validity. The fifth instrument was designed to measure waterpipe dependence and was rigorously developed and validated. One of the studies of prevalence and none of the studies of health effects of waterpipe smoking used validated instruments. Conclusions A number of instruments for measuring the use of and dependence on waterpipe smoking exist. Future research should study content validity and cross cultural adaptation of these instruments. PMID:20626899

2010-01-01

238

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.?DATA SOURCES—Medline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated were categorised using a typology with seven categories (school based, community interventions, mass media/public education, advertising restrictions, youth access restrictions, tobacco excise taxes, and direct restrictions on smoking). Novel and largely untested interventions were described using nine categories.?CONCLUSIONS—Youth smoking prevention and control efforts have had mixed results. However, this review suggests a number of prevention strategies that are promising, especially if conducted in a coordinated way to take advantage of potential synergies across interventions. Several types of strategies warrant additional attention and evaluation, including aggressive media campaigns, teen smoking cessation programmes, social environment changes, community interventions, and increasing cigarette prices. A significant proportion of the resources obtained from the recent settlement between 46 US states and the tobacco industry should be devoted to expanding, improving and evaluating "youth centred" tobacco prevention and control activities.???Keywords: youth smoking prevention; teen cessation programmes; community interventions; policy PMID:10691758

Lantz, P.; Jacobson, P.; Warner, K.; Wasserman, J.; Pollack, H.; Berson, J.; Ahlstrom, A.

2000-01-01

239

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Malignant Lymphoma in Pet Cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feline malignant lymphoma occurs commonly in domestic cats and may serve as a model for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Several studies have suggested that smoking may increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To evaluate whether exposure to household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may increase the risk of feline malignant lymphoma, the authors conducted a case-control study of this relation in

Elizabeth R. Bertone; Laura A. Snyder; Antony S. Moore

240

Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

2009-01-01

241

Benefits of quitting tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

... smoke; Cigarette smoking - quitting; Tobacco cessation; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - quitting; Why you should quit smoking ... P, Hecht S, Gray N, Gupta P, Straif K. Smokeless tobacco and cancer. Lancet Oncol . 2008;9:667-675. ...

242

Risks of tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Risks of tobacco ... are called "tar.") HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR SMOKELESS TOBACCO There are many more reasons to quit using ...

243

Reductions in the tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) content of tobaccos taken from commercial Canadian cigarettes and corresponding reductions in TSNA deliveries in mainstream smoke from such cigarettes.  

PubMed

Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are suspected to cause smoking-related neoplastic diseases. The change from direct-fired to indirect-fired barns (aka kilns) for curing bright (aka Virginia, flue-cured) tobaccos was made to reduce the TSNA concentrations. The effectiveness of such processes in reducing the deliveries of TSNAs to the users of the products should be monitored. However, it is difficult to assess the effects of this reduction on the TSNA levels in mainstream smoke when cigarette blends contain burley tobaccos and other blend components that can increase smoke TSNA concentrations. Canadian cigarettes made prior to and in the few years just after the conversion to indirect-fired curing should not be subject to such interferences. Thus, the TSNA content of tobaccos and mainstream smoke from six brands of Canadian cigarettes produced in 2003, 2004, and 2005 were determined. Reductions in NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone], the most important TSNA in flue-cured tobaccos, levels in the tobacco blends ranged from 60% to 85%. The corresponding reductions in mainstream smoke TSNA levels ranged from 59% to 72% (ISO smoking conditions) and 58-76% (Health Canada Intensive smoking conditions). These results show that other factors (microorganisms, nitrite levels) may be negating the TSNA reductions achieved by indirect-fired curing. PMID:18508168

Rickert, W S; Joza, P J; Sharifi, M; Wu, J; Lauterbach, J H

2008-08-01

244

Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples.  

PubMed

Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed--one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18. Daily waterpipe use was reported by 19%, weekly use by 41%, and monthly use by 29%. Waterpipe use was more common during the weekend (75%) than during weekdays (43%). Forty-four percent reported spending >or=60 min smoking tobacco during a waterpipe session. The majority of waterpipe users owned a waterpipe (57%) and purchased it on the Internet (71%). Many waterpipe users smoked the sweetened and flavored tobacco (i.e., maassel), and fruit flavors were the most popular (54%). Past month use of cigarettes, tobacco products other than cigarettes or waterpipe, and alcohol was 54%, 33%, and 80% respectively, and 36% reported past-month marijuana use. Most waterpipe users were confident about their ability to quit (96%), but only a minority (32%) intended to quit. Most waterpipe users believed waterpipe tobacco smoking was less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. These results are from small convenience samples; more detailed study of a larger group of randomly sampled U.S. waterpipe tobacco smokers will be valuable in understanding this behavior and developing effective strategies to prevent it. PMID:18236304

Smith-Simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas

2008-02-01

245

Tobacco Smoking Leads to Extensive Genome-Wide Changes in DNA Methylation  

PubMed Central

Environmental factors such as tobacco smoking may have long-lasting effects on DNA methylation patterns, which might lead to changes in gene expression and in a broader context to the development or progression of various diseases. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAs) comparing current, former and never smokers from 1793 participants of the population-based KORA F4 panel, with replication in 479 participants from the KORA F3 panel, carried out by the 450K BeadChip with genomic DNA obtained from whole blood. We observed wide-spread differences in the degree of site-specific methylation (with p-values ranging from 9.31E-08 to 2.54E-182) as a function of tobacco smoking in each of the 22 autosomes, with the percent of variance explained by smoking ranging from 1.31 to 41.02. Depending on cessation time and pack-years, methylation levels in former smokers were found to be close to the ones seen in never smokers. In addition, methylation-specific protein binding patterns were observed for cg05575921 within AHRR, which had the highest level of detectable changes in DNA methylation associated with tobacco smoking (–24.40% methylation; p?=?2.54E-182), suggesting a regulatory role for gene expression. The results of our study confirm the broad effect of tobacco smoking on the human organism, but also show that quitting tobacco smoking presumably allows regaining the DNA methylation state of never smokers. PMID:23691101

Zeilinger, Sonja; Kühnel, Brigitte; Klopp, Norman; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Kleinschmidt, Anja; Gieger, Christian; Weidinger, Stephan; Lattka, Eva; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin

2013-01-01

246

Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smoking is a central factor in many pathological conditions. Its role in neoplasm, lung and cardiovascular diseases has been well established for years.However it is less acknowledged the cigarette smoking affects both the innate and adoptive immune arms. Cigarette smoke was shown to augment the production of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 GM-CSF and to decrease

Yoav Arnson; Yehuda Shoenfeld; Howard Amital

2010-01-01

247

Detection of nicotine as an indicator of tobacco smoke by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.

Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

2015-01-01

248

Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania: Results from the 2005 Global Youth Tobacco Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The majority of people who suffer morbidity due to smoking may have initiated smoking during adolescent period. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors for cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Lithuania. FINDINGS: Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 were used to conduct this study. Data were analyzed using SUDAAN

Bradley Jamison; Adamson S Muula; Seter Siziya; Sara Graham; Emmanuel Rudatsikira

2010-01-01

249

Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

1999-01-01

250

The Philippines Is Marlboro Country for Youth Smoking: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine cigarette brand preference trends and differences in Marlboro smokers in smoking-related attitudes and behaviors from smokers of other brands. This study analyzed data from 25,027 adolescents represented in the 2000, 2003, and 2007 Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Surveys. Results indicated that from 2000…

Page, Randy M.; West, Joshua H.

2012-01-01

251

Exposure of nonsmoking women to environmental tobacco smoke: a 10-country collaborative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interpretation and interpretability of epidemiologic studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) depend largely on the validity of self-reported exposure. To investigate to what extent questionnaires can indicate exposure levels to ETS, an international study was conducted in 13 centers located in 10 countries, and 1,369 nonsmoking women were interviewed. The present paper describes the results of the analysis of

Elio Riboli; Susan Preston-Martin; Rodolfo Saracci; Nancy J. Haley; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Heiko Becher; J. David Burch; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham; Yu-Tang Gao; Surinder K. Jindal; Linda C. Koo; Loïc Marchand; Nereo Segnan; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Giorgio Stanta; Anna H. Wu-Williams; Witold Zatonski

1990-01-01

252

Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.DATA SOURCESMedline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.DATA SYNTHESISInterventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated

Paula M Lantz; Peter D Jacobson; Kenneth E Warner; Jeffrey Wasserman; Harold A Pollack; Julie Berson; Alexis Ahlstrom

2000-01-01

253

Up in Smoke: Tobacco Use, Expenditure on Food, and Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of expenditure on smoking products in low-income households on child nutrition, as mediated via reduced food expenditure. On the basis of data from a large household survey in rural Indonesia, the study finds that low-income households containing at least one smoker tend to divert a significant amount of scarce income to tobacco products and that

Steven Block; Patrick Webb

2009-01-01

254

Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

255

Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

2007-01-01

256

MICROENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO CALIFORNIANS POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)  

EPA Science Inventory

Using the 1987-88 California Activity Pattern (CAP) Survey, this report examines various microenvironmental aspects of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that were not explored in earlier reports. hese topics include: (1) predictors of those individuals with t...

257

In Utero Tobacco Smoke Exposure Alters Pulmonary Responses of Newborn Rats to Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal tobacco smoke (TS) exposure has been implicated in various adverse health outcomes in the offspring, including poor development of lung and immune system, which in turn can alter the response of neonates to environmental challenges. This study was performed to determine whether in utero exposure to TS influences the pulmonary response of newborn rat pups to ozone (O3). Timed

Sung Gu Han; Vanitha Bhoopalan; Tolulola Akinbiyi; C. Gary Gairola; Deepak K. Bhalla

2011-01-01

258

Adaptation of an amphibian mucociliary clearance model to evaluate early effects of tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

RATIONALE: Inhaled side-stream tobacco smoke brings in all of its harmful components impairing mechanisms that protect the airways and lungs. Chronic respiratory health consequences are a complex multi-step silent process. By the time clinical manifestations require medical attention, several structural and functional changes have already occurred. The respiratory system has to undergo an iterative process of injury, healing and remodeling

J Gustavo Zayas; Darryl W O'Brien; Shusheng Tai; Jie Ding; Leonard Lim; Malcolm King

2004-01-01

259

Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

2009-01-01

260

Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100?000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100?000 v 128.9/100?000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer mortality (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.90). Conclusions Smoking contributes to substantial mortality in prison, and prison tobacco control policies are associated with reduced mortality. These findings suggest that smoking bans have health benefits for people in prison, despite the limits they impose on individual autonomy and the risks of relapse after release. PMID:25097186

Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

2014-01-01

261

Tobacco Tax Equity Act (S 194; 113th Congress)  

Cancer.gov

The bill would establish that the tax rate on all products that have been determined to be a tobacco product by the Food and Drug Administration through its authorities under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, shall be the same per unit level as cigarettes. Under current law, small cigars and Roll Your Own (RYO) tobacco products are taxed at the same level as cigarettes, while cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco are taxed at a dramatically lower rate.

262

Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban  

PubMed Central

This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children’s exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki. PMID:20812125

BURTON, DEE; GRAHAM, JOHN W.; JOHNSON, C. ANDERSON; UUTELA, ANTTI; VARTIAINEN, ERKKI; PALMER, RAYMOND F.

2010-01-01

263

Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Method: Narrative review of published papers and other data sources (for example, conference abstracts and internet based information) on snus use, use of other tobacco products, and changes in health status in Sweden. Results: Snus is manufactured and stored in a manner that causes it to deliver lower concentrations of some harmful chemicals than other tobacco products, although it can deliver high doses of nicotine. It is dependence forming, but does not appear to cause cancer or respiratory diseases. It may cause a slight increase in cardiovascular risks and is likely to be harmful to the unborn fetus, although these risks are lower than those caused by smoking. There has been a larger drop in male daily smoking (from 40% in 1976 to 15% in 2002) than female daily smoking (34% in 1976 to 20% in 2002) in Sweden, with a substantial proportion (around 30%) of male ex-smokers using snus when quitting smoking. Over the same time period, rates of lung cancer and myocardial infarction have dropped significantly faster among Swedish men than women and remain at low levels as compared with other developed countries with a long history of tobacco use. Conclusions: Snus availability in Sweden appears to have contributed to the unusually low rates of smoking among Swedish men by helping them transfer to a notably less harmful form of nicotine dependence. PMID:14660766

Foulds, J; Ramstrom, L; Burke, M; Fagerstrom, K

2003-01-01

264

Sequential discriminant classification of environments with different levels of exposure to tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

The use of biomarkers permits the detection of smoking having taken place in an environment. However, no single biomarker is able to differentiate clearly between different types of environments. Multivariate classification models have helped us to differentiate between outdoors, non-smoking indoors, well ventilated smoking indoors, and smoking environments without good air exchange. We found that the variables that enabled us to classify environments most accurately were indoor temperature, 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethyltoluene. A successful prediction rate of 86.5% was obtained by applying both direct fitting and cross validation discriminant (leave-one-out) analyses. Our results show that although a good air exchange ratio decreases the levels of volatile organic compounds in indoor air due to tobacco smoke, significant contamination still remains. PMID:24908649

Besalú, Emili; Castellanos, Mar; Sanchez, Juan M

2014-08-15

265

Predictors of hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity in vocational school students  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoking, hazardous drinking and physical inactivity during adolescence are risk factors that are associated with poorer health in adulthood. The identification of subgroups of young people with a high prevalence of one or more of these risk factors allows an optimised allocation of preventive measures. This study aimed at investigating hazardous drinking, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity as well as their associations and demographic predictors in vocational school students. Methods Out of 57 contacted vocational schools in Switzerland, a total of 24 schools participated in a survey assessing gender, age, immigrant background, educational attainment and vocational field as well as the above mentioned health risk factors. Out of the 2659 students present in 177 included vocational school classes, 2647 (99.5%) completed the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the demographic predictors of each health risk factor and a multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate predictors of different risk factor combinations. Results Of the surveyed students, 79.4% showed at least one risk factor, 43.6% showed two or more and 9.6% showed all three health risk factors. Hazardous drinking was more prevalent in male, physical inactivity was more prevalent in female vocational school students. The proportion of students with low physical activity and tobacco smoking increased with increasing age. While the combination of hazardous drinking and tobacco smoking was higher in males, the other risk factor combinations were observed particularly among females. Conclusions Multiple risk factors were ascertained in a significant proportion of vocational school students. Specifically, tobacco smoking and hazardous drinking were coexistent. The study underlines the need for preventive measures in specific subpopulations of adolescents and young adults with lower educational level. PMID:23672294

2013-01-01

266

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system.

Scott, J Elliott

2004-01-01

267

The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system. PMID:19570267

Scott, J Elliott

2004-01-01

268

The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of compounds including nicotine. Many constituents have known toxicity to the brain, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. Nicotine, on the other hand, by virtue of its short-term actions on the cholinergic system, has positive effects on certain cognitive domains including working memory and executive function and may be, under certain conditions, neuroprotective. In this paper, we review recent literature, laboratory and epidemiologic, that describes the components of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke, including heavy metals and their toxicity, the effect of medicinal nicotine on the brain, and studies of the relationship between smoking and (1) preclinical brain changes including silent brain infarcts; white matter hyperintensities, and atrophy; (2) single measures of cognition; (3) cognitive decline over repeated measures; and (4) dementia. In most studies, exposure to smoke is associated with increased risk for negative preclinical and cognitive outcomes in younger people as well as in older adults. Potential mechanisms for smoke's harmful effects include oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerotic processes. Recent evidence implicates medicinal nicotine as potentially harmful to both neurodevelopment in children and to catalyzing processes underlying neuropathology in Alzheimer's Disease. The reviewed evidence suggests caution with the use of medicinal nicotine in pregnant mothers and older adults at risk for certain neurological disease. Directions for future research in this area include the assessment of comorbidities (alcohol consumption, depression) that could confound the association between smoking and neurocognitive outcomes, the use of more specific measures of smoking behavior and cognition, the use of biomarkers to index exposure to smoke, and the assessment of cognition-related genotypes to better understand the role of interactions between smoking/nicotine and variation in genotype in determining susceptibility to the neurotoxic effects of smoking and the putative beneficial effects of medicinal nicotine. PMID:17690985

Swan, Gary E; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N

2007-09-01

269

Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status  

PubMed Central

Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

2012-01-01

270

Relations of Alcohol Consumption With Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence  

PubMed Central

Objective Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations between pretreatment alcohol consumption patterns (non/infrequent drinker, moderate drinker, binge drinker) and smoking cessation milestones and tobacco dependence. Method Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Alcohol consumption pattern was determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Tobacco dependence was assessed with the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Results Alcohol consumption pattern was significantly associated with initial cessation and lapse, and these findings remained after controlling for the effects of treatment, race, gender, and cigarettes per day. Relative to moderate drinkers, both non/infrequent drinkers and binge drinkers were less likely to achieve initial cessation (p < .05), and binge drinkers were more likely to lapse (p < .01). When drinking categories were compared on tobacco dependence indices, results showed that relative to moderate drinkers, non/infrequent drinkers scored higher on several WISDM Primary Dependence Motives subscales (Tolerance, Loss of Control, and Automaticity) and binge drinkers scored higher on WISDM Secondary Dependence Motives subscales (Cue Exposure and Social–Environmental Goads). Conclusions Non/infrequent drinkers’ smoking cessation difficulties may be particularly related to core features of tobacco dependence, whereas binge drinkers’ difficulties may be related to environmental and social influences. PMID:22963593

Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

2013-01-01

271

The “We Card” Program: Tobacco Industry “Youth Smoking Prevention” as Industry Self-Preservation  

PubMed Central

The “We Card” program is the most ubiquitous tobacco industry “youth smoking prevention” program in the United States, and its retailer materials have been copied in other countries. The program's effectiveness has been questioned, but no previous studies have examined its development, goals, and uses from the tobacco industry's perspective. On the basis of our analysis of tobacco industry documents released under the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, we concluded that the We Card program was undertaken for 2 primary purposes: to improve the tobacco industry's image and to reduce regulation and the enforcement of existing laws. Policymakers should be cautious about accepting industry self-regulation at face value, both because it redounds to the industry's benefit and because it is ineffective. PMID:20466965

Malone, Ruth E.

2010-01-01

272

The potential effects of tobacco control in China: projections from the China SimSmoke simulation model  

PubMed Central

Objective To use a computer simulation model to project the potential impact in China of tobacco control measures on smoking, as recommended by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), being fully implemented. Design Modelling study. Setting China. Population Males and females aged 15-74 years. Intervention Incremental impact of more complete implementation of WHO FCTC policies simulated using SimSmoke, a Markov computer simulation model of tobacco smoking prevalence, smoking attributable deaths, and the impact of tobacco control policies. Data on China’s adult population, current and former smoking prevalence, initiation and cessation rates, and past policy levels were entered into SimSmoke in order to predict past smoking rates and to project future status quo rates. The model was validated by comparing predicted smoking prevalence with smoking prevalence measured in tobacco surveys from 1996-2010. Main outcome measures Projected future smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths from 2013-50. Results Status quo tobacco policy simulations projected a decline in smoking prevalence from 51.3% in 2015 to 46.5% by 2050 in males and from 2.1% to 1.3% in females. Of the individual FCTC recommended tobacco control policies, increasing the tobacco excise tax to 75% of the retail price was projected to be the most effective, incrementally reducing current smoking compared with the status quo by 12.9% by 2050. Complete and simultaneous implementation of all FCTC policies was projected to incrementally reduce smoking by about 40% relative to the 2050 status quo levels and to prevent approximately 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths and 154 million life years lost by 2050. Conclusions Complete implementation of WHO FCTC recommended policies would prevent more than 12.8 million smoking attributable deaths in China by 2050. Implementation of FCTC policies would alleviate a substantial portion of the tobacco related health burden that threatens to slow China’s extraordinary gains in life expectancy and prosperity. PMID:24550245

2014-01-01

273

Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking  

PubMed Central

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation) and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 ?Sv/y (average 79.7 ?Sv/y), while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 ?Sv/y (average 67.1 ?Sv/y) and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 ?Sv/y (average 104.7 ?Sv/y), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 ?Sv/y (average 251.5 ?Sv/y). The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y). PMID:19440399

Papastefanou, Constantin

2009-01-01

274

Rural-Urban Differences in the Social Climate Surrounding Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Report From the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Objective: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. Design: Data were…

McMillen, Robert; Breen, Julie; Cosby, Arthur G.

2004-01-01

275

Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.?DATA SOURCES—Literature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California, Massachusetts, Arizona, Oregon, and Florida.?STUDY SELECTION—All studies, reports, and commentaries that provided information on aspects of programme implementation and evaluation.?DATA SYNTHESIS—Statewide comprehensive programmes show high levels of advertising recall and generally positive improvement in smoking related beliefs and attitudes among teenagers. More fully funded programmes lead to increased mass media campaign advertising and community initiatives; a greater capacity to implement school based smoking prevention programmes; and an increase in the passage of local ordinances that create smoke free indoor environments and reduce cigarette sales to youth. The combination of programme activity and increased tobacco tax reduce cigarette consumption more than expected as a result of price increases alone, and these effects seem to apply to adolescents as well as adults. Programmes are associated with a decline in adult smoking prevalence, with these effects observed to date in California, Massachusetts, and Oregon. Arizona and Florida have yet to examine change in adult prevalence associated with programme exposure. California and Massachusetts have demonstrated relative beneficial effects in teenage smoking prevalence, and Florida has reported promising indications of reduced prevalence. Arizona has yet to report follow up data, and Oregon has found no change in teenage smoking, but has only two years of follow up available. One of the most critical factors in programme success is the extent of programme funding, and consequent level of programme implementation, and the degree to which this is undermined by the tobacco industry and other competitors for funding.?CONCLUSIONS—Despite the different strengths and combinations of programme messages and strategies used in these comprehensive programmes, there is evidence that they lead to change in factors that influence teenage smoking, and to reductions in teenage smoking.???Keywords: comprehensive tobacco control programmes; teenage smoking PMID:10841854

Wakefield, M.; Chaloupka, F.

2000-01-01

276

Did youth smoking behaviors change before and after the shutdown of Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: No previous studies document the effects of both comprehensive tobacco control and its defunding on youth smoking. This study tests the effect of the youth-focused Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative (MYTPI) and its shutdown on youth smoking and determines whether these effects differed by age. Methods: The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort is a population-based, observational study designed to evaluate the MYTPI. The sample included cohorts of youth aged 12–16 years at baseline in Minnesota (N?=?3,636) and a comparison group in six other Midwestern states (n?=?605). Biannual surveys assessed youth smoking from October 2000, 5 months after the MYTPI launch, through October 2005, 2 years postshutdown. Adjusted piecewise linear trajectories predicted smoking stage (measured on a 1–6 continuum) comparing Minnesota with a comparison group during the MYTPI (Slope 1) and postshutdown (Slope 2) for each baseline age cohort. Analysis then compared baseline age cohorts with each other by centering their intercepts on age 16. Results: Neither slope of smoking stage differed between Minnesota and comparison groups, showing no period effects for the MYTPI or shutdown. However, younger cohorts, with early teen experience of MYTPI, smoked less than older cohorts by the same age. Mean smoking stage at age 16 differed by almost a half stage from the youngest (2.04) to the oldest (2.46) age cohort. Discussion: The study offers no evidence of period effects for the MYTPI or its shutdown. Design limitations, national or continued post-MYTPI statewide tobacco control efforts, or program flaws could explain the findings. PMID:19633274

Forster, Jean L.; Erickson, Darin J.

2009-01-01

277

Tobacco Free Ohio State Policy 7.20  

E-print Network

, bidis, kreteks), electronic cigarettes, cigars and cigarillos, hookah smoked products, pipes and oral as all tobacco-derived or containing products, including and not limited to, cigarettes (e.g., clove

Howat, Ian M.

278

Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.  

PubMed

Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

2014-07-01

279

Neoliberal and public health effects of failing to adopt OSHA's national secondhand tobacco smoke rule.  

PubMed

From the early 1980s to the present, neoliberal doctrine has called for government policies of privatization, funding cutbacks, and deregulation of public health and other domestic social programs in the belief that the market rather than the public sector can best organize and distribute crucial societal services. Proponents of a neoliberal and deregulatory mixed approach of command and control and self-regulation argue this approach provides the most adequate means to conduct regulation in the legalistic and adversarial U.S. regulatory process. In April 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued a proposed rule to eliminate tobacco smoking in most workplace rooms, arguing secondhand tobacco smoke annually killed up to 13,700 nonsmokers. The tobacco industry purposely delayed public hearing procedures (later halted altogether by Congress and the president) primarily to advance unhindered private property rights and profits rather than submitting to a public command-and-control regulatory framework to reduce deaths due to secondhand tobacco smoke. PMID:16524168

Givel, Michael

2006-01-01

280

Doses and lung burdens of environmental tobacco smoke constituents in nonsmoking workplaces.  

PubMed

This paper models nicotine dose and ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) alveolar lung burden resulting from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for nonsmokers in workplaces where smoking was reported not to occur. Data were obtained from personal monitoring of ETS in 16 U.S. cities [Jenkins R.A., Guerin M.R., Palausky A., Counts R.W., Bayne C.K., and Dindal A.B. Determination of human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): a study conducted in 16 U.S. cities. Draft final report by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for Center for Indoor Air Research, Linthicum, MD, 1996a; Jenkins R.A., Palausky A., Counts R.W., Bayne C.K., Dindal A.B., and Guerin M.R. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in sixteen cities in the United States as determined by personal breathing zone air sampling. J. Expos. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 1996b: 6(4): 473-502.]. This is a continuation of earlier analyses focusing on nonsmokers in smoking workplaces (SWs) [LaKind J.S., Graves C.G., Ginevan M.E., Jenkins R.A., Naiman D.Q., and Tardiff R.G. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and the impact of away - from - work exposure. Risk Anal. 1999a: 19(3): 349-358; LaKind J.S., Jenkins R.A., Naiman D.Q., Ginevan M.E., Graves C.G., and Tardiff R.G. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure. Risk Anal. 1999b: 19 (3): 359-373; LaKind J.S., Ginevan M.E., Naiman D.Q., James A.C., Jenkins R.A., Dourson M.L., Felter S.P., Graves C.G., and Tardiff R.G. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke. RiskAnal. 1999c: 19 (3): 375-390.]. Even though study participants characterized their workplaces as nonsmoking, some individuals reported observing cigarettes in the workplace. Individuals observing six or more cigarettes were excluded from the analysis on the grounds that they were in defacto SWs. Exposure to ETS was lower in nonsmoking than SWs, but even with this exclusion, exposure was not zero. Distributions were selected for each model input, and at least 2000 iterations of the model were made for each dose or lung burden characterization (e.g., for females, for males). In these nonsmoking workplaces (NSWs), neither nicotine nor UVPM concentrations were lognormally distributed. Hence, observed concentrations were used directly via bootstrap sampling (nicotine) or a constant number of times (UVPM) as input to the models. As in SWs, individuals from smoking homes (SHs) experienced greater exposure in NSWs to both nicotine and UVPM than did individuals from nonsmoking homes (NSH; P<0.001 ). The distributions of modeled nicotine dose and UVPM lung burden were highly skewed, with most individuals receiving relatively low exposure to ETS in the workplace. Comparing doses from NSWs modeled here to doses from SWs modeled previously, less difference between smoking and NSWs was apparent in UVPM levels than in nicotine levels. For average exposure, UVPM alveolar lung burdens were approximately 10-fold higher in smoking than NSWs, while average nicotine doses were 20-25 times higher in smoking than NSWs. These findings are in the range observed by other investigators and are partly explained by very low denominators in the ratios (i.e., very low levels experienced in NSWs). For upper bound exposure, the nonsmoking-to-smoking ratios remained about the same for UVPM. For nicotine, the upper bound ratios remained the same for people from NSHs but were halved for people from SHs. PMID:10981730

Gevecker Graves, C; Ginevan, M E; Jenkins, R A; Tardiff, R G

2000-01-01

281

Tobacco Smoking Affects Bacterial Acquisition and Colonization in Oral Biofilms?  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that smoking affects the composition of the disease-associated subgingival biofilm, yet little is known about its effects during the formation of this biofilm. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the contributions of smoking to the composition and proinflammatory characteristics of the biofilm during de novo plaque formation. Marginal and subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 15 current smokers and from 15 individuals who had never smoked (nonsmokers) following 1, 2, 4, and 7 days of undisturbed plaque formation. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used for bacterial identification, and multiplex bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, relatively unstable initial colonization of both marginal and subgingival biofilms, with lower niche saturation than that seen in nonsmokers. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Cardiobacterium, Synergistes, and Selenomonas, as well as respiratory pathogens belonging to the genera Haemophilus and Pseudomonas, colonized the early biofilms of smokers and continued to persist over the observation period, suggesting that smoking favors early acquisition and colonization of pathogens in oral biofilms. Smokers also demonstrated an early proinflammatory response to this colonization, which persisted over 7 days. Further, a positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and commensal bacteria was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Taken together, the data suggest that smoking influences both the composition of the nascent biofilm and the host response to this colonization. PMID:21859855

Kumar, Purnima S.; Matthews, Chad R.; Joshi, Vinayak; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

2011-01-01

282

Tobacco smoking affects bacterial acquisition and colonization in oral biofilms.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that smoking affects the composition of the disease-associated subgingival biofilm, yet little is known about its effects during the formation of this biofilm. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the contributions of smoking to the composition and proinflammatory characteristics of the biofilm during de novo plaque formation. Marginal and subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 15 current smokers and from 15 individuals who had never smoked (nonsmokers) following 1, 2, 4, and 7 days of undisturbed plaque formation. 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used for bacterial identification, and multiplex bead-based flow cytometry was used to quantify the levels of 27 immune mediators. Smokers demonstrated a highly diverse, relatively unstable initial colonization of both marginal and subgingival biofilms, with lower niche saturation than that seen in nonsmokers. Periodontal pathogens belonging to the genera Fusobacterium, Cardiobacterium, Synergistes, and Selenomonas, as well as respiratory pathogens belonging to the genera Haemophilus and Pseudomonas, colonized the early biofilms of smokers and continued to persist over the observation period, suggesting that smoking favors early acquisition and colonization of pathogens in oral biofilms. Smokers also demonstrated an early proinflammatory response to this colonization, which persisted over 7 days. Further, a positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and commensal bacteria was observed in smokers but not in nonsmokers. Taken together, the data suggest that smoking influences both the composition of the nascent biofilm and the host response to this colonization. PMID:21859855

Kumar, Purnima S; Matthews, Chad R; Joshi, Vinayak; de Jager, Marko; Aspiras, Marcelo

2011-11-01

283

The associations of adolescent cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, environmental tobacco smoke, and ionizing radiation with subsequent breast cancer risk (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Studies of breast cancer among survivors of the World War II atomic bomb blasts over Japan suggest that the adolescent breast may be particularly sensitive to carcinogenic insult. To further explore that possibility we examined the relationships of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and medical treatment with ionizing radiation during adolescence with subsequent breast cancer

Pamela M. Marcus; Beth Newman; Robert C. Millikan; Patricia G. Moorman; Donna Day Baird; Bahjat Qaqish

2000-01-01

284

A Multilevel Analysis Examining the Association between School-Based Smoking Policies, Prevention Programs and Youth Smoking Behavior: Evaluating a Provincial Tobacco Control Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined how smoking policies and programs are associated with smoking behavior among Grade 10 students (n = 4709) between 1999 and 2001. Data from the Tobacco Module from the School Health Action Planning and Evaluation System were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. We identified that (i) attending a school with…

Murnaghan, D. A.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Sihvonen, M.; Kekki, P.

2008-01-01

285

*For more information on the effects of smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, use of smokeless tobacco and unregulated nicotine products on people and the environment, see Appendix.  

E-print Network

has determined that cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of illness and premature death are also at increased risk of illness. Moreover, cigarette litter is harmful to our environment, and the environment: A. Smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco or unregulated nicotine products (such as electronic

Bigelow, Stephen

286

Application of ion chromatography for the determination of inorganic ions, especially thiocyanates in human saliva samples as biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental tobacco smoke is a major factor influencing the indoor air quality. Various toxic compounds emitted during tobacco smoking into the environment have a significant influence on the chemical composition of human biological fluids. The thiocyanate concentration in saliva is a biochemical measure, frequently used as an objective indicator of tobacco consumption. The goal of this study was to find

Ilona Demkowska; ?aneta Polkowska; Jacek Namie?nik

2008-01-01

287

Measurements and modeling of environmental tobacco smoke leakagefrom a simulated smoking room  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect ofvarious design and operating parameters on smoking room performance.Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room witha smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made ofair flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, twogas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakageflows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance andnon-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakagemechanism are presented. The results indicate that the first priority foran effective smoking room is to depressurize it with respect to adjoiningnon-smoking areas. Another important ETS leakage mechanism is the pumpingaction of the smoking room door. Substituting a sliding door for astandard swing-type door reduced this source of ETS leakagesignificantly. Measured results correlated well with model predictions(R2 = 0.82-0.99).

Wagner, J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.A.; Fisk,W.J.; Alevantis, L.E.; Waldman, J.M.

2002-03-01

288

Influence of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms on genotoxic effects induced by tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke has long been investigated and tobacco smoke is considered to be one of the principal human carcinogens. Although its role in DNA-damage induction and cancer development has been documented, the mechanisms by which this happens are not well understood. Many chemical constituents of tobacco smoke are enzymatically metabolized by phase-I and phase-II enzymes, but modifications in coding and regulating sequences of these genes could influence their ability to detoxify these compounds. In this work, we studied several enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, viz. the glutathione S-transferases (GST) M1, T1, P1 and A1, with respect to their influence on the genotoxic effects induced by cigarette smoking. We assessed the genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke on peripheral blood lymphocytes of 72 healthy caucasians by use of the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and the micronucleus (MN) test. Genotypes of GST M1, T1, P1 and A1 were determined by means of the polymerase chain reaction and methods based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We found that smoke and gender are the two variables that most influence the DNA damage. In particular, we observed that female smokers seem to be more sensitive than male smokers, having a significantly higher frequency of CAs. Moreover, a significant increase in frequency of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells (BNMN) was found in smokers, but not in non-smokers. This increase seems to be influenced not only by age and gender, but also by genetic constitution. Subjects carrying GSTM1-null genotype seemed to have an higher susceptibility to DNA damage induced by tobacco smoke than GSTM1-positive ones. When considering a combination of GST genotypes, we found a lower BNMN frequency in subjects with GSTP1 variant allele plus GSTM1-positive genotypes, while the most damaged cells are found in subjects bearing GSTM1-null plus GSTP1-wild type. Our results suggest that investigation of the association between several gene polymorphisms and important endpoints of DNA damage could contribute to better understanding the role of gene-gene interaction. PMID:17644396

Palma, Selena; Cornetta, Tommaso; Padua, Luca; Cozzi, Renata; Appolloni, Massimo; Ievoli, Elena; Testa, Antonella

2007-09-01

289

Tobacco Smoking as an Index of Military Personnel Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies indicate that smokers attrite from military service at significantly higher rates than nonsmokers. The purpose of the current effort is twofold: (a) to examine the implications of treating smoking status as a third military accession quality indicator along with educational credential and mental ability, and (b) to explore preservice psychosocial and health differences between smokers and nonsmokers in

Gerald E. Larson; Stephanie Booth-Kewley; Margaret A. K. Ryan

2007-01-01

290

Cessation of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the reversal of head and neck cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background Quitting tobacco or alcohol use has been reported to reduce the head and neck cancer risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear how many years must pass following cessation of these habits before the risk is reduced, and whether the risk ultimately declines to the level of never smokers or never drinkers. Methods We pooled individual-level data from case–control studies in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Data were available from 13 studies on drinking cessation (9167 cases and 12 593 controls), and from 17 studies on smoking cessation (12 040 cases and 16 884 controls). We estimated the effect of quitting smoking and drinking on the risk of head and neck cancer and its subsites, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models. Results Quitting tobacco smoking for 1–4 years resulted in a head and neck cancer risk reduction [OR 0.70, confidence interval (CI) 0.61–0.81 compared with current smoking], with the risk reduction due to smoking cessation after ?20 years (OR 0.23, CI 0.18–0.31), reaching the level of never smokers. For alcohol use, a beneficial effect on the risk of head and neck cancer was only observed after ?20 years of quitting (OR 0.60, CI 0.40–0.89 compared with current drinking), reaching the level of never drinkers. Conclusions Our results support that cessation of tobacco smoking and cessation of alcohol drinking protect against the development of head and neck cancer. PMID:19805488

Marron, Manuela; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zaridze, David; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Schwartz, Stephen M; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Cadoni, Gabriella; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Boccia, Stefania; Benhamou, Simone; Ferro, Gilles; Berthiller, Julien; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Hashibe, Mia

2010-01-01

291

Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.  

PubMed

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes. PMID:20587395

Ljaljevi?, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijevi?, Snezana; Andjeli?, Jasmina

2010-06-01

292

Correlates of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Thailand: findings from the Thai global youth tobacco survey 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many studies examining the social correlates of tobacco use among adolescents fail to recognise theories of health behaviour and health promotion in their analysis. Using the Socio-Ecologiocal Model (SEM) we assessed the demographic and social factors associated with current cigarette smoking among adolescents in Thailand. METHOD: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey

Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson S Muula; Seter Siziya; Ronald H Mataya

2008-01-01

293

Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco

Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

2012-01-01

294

"Asia is now the priority target for the world anti-tobacco movement": attempts by the tobacco industry to undermine the Asian anti-smoking movement  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To identify and examine the strategies utilised by multinational tobacco companies to undermine and discredit key anti-tobacco activists and organisations in the Asian region. Method: A series of case studies drawing upon material gathered through systematic reviews of internal tobacco industry documents. Date sources: Tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The industry sought to identify, monitor, and isolate key individuals and organisations. The way industry went about fulfilling this mandate in the Asian region is discussed. Industry targetted individuals and agencies along with the region's primary anti-smoking coalition. Conclusions: Attack by multinational tobacco companies is a virtual quid pro quo for any individual or agency seriously challenging industry practices and policies. Understanding their tactics allows anticipatory strategies to be developed to minimise the effectiveness of these attacks. PMID:15564217

Knight, J; Chapman, S

2004-01-01

295

Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and cigarette access behaviors among underage smoking students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current tobacco access restrictions are ineffective because youth can find noncompliant retailers or social sources from\\u000a which to get cigarettes.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine characteristics related to the cigarettes access behaviors of underage smoking youth.Methods: Data were collected from 20,297 students (Grades 9–12) attending 29 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada in 2001. Multilevel\\u000a logistic regression

Scott T. Leatherdale; Jocelyn M. Strath

2007-01-01

296

Evaluation of nicotine, cotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, and expired carbon monoxide as biochemical tobacco smoke uptake parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a cross-sectional study on 236 individuals in Japan (174 males, 62 females; 149 smokers, 87 non-smokers) plasma nicotine (pnic), cotinine (pcot) and thiocyanate (pSCN), urinary creatinine ratios of nicotine (unic), cotinine (ucot) and thiocyanate (uSCN) as well as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and expired carbon monoxide (COex) were determined. All tobacco smoke uptake parameters (TSUP) were significantly elevated in smokers as

Hideo Muranakalt; Eigo Higashi; Shunro Itani; Yoshiharu Shimizu

1988-01-01

297

Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM2.5) and even smaller particles (PM1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information

K. Slezakova; M. C. Pereira; M. C. Alvim-Ferraz

2009-01-01

298

Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of ever-smoking and second-hand smoking in 1989 among Korean adults, respectively, and the relative risks were estimated from the meta-analysis of studies performed in the Korean population for ever-smoking and in the Asian population for passive smoking. National cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and national cancer mortality data from Statistics Korea for the year 2009 were used to estimate the cancer cases and deaths attributable to tobacco smoking. Results Tobacco smoking was responsible for 20,239 (20.9%) cancer incident cases and 14,377 (32.9%) cancer deaths among adult men and 1,930 (2.1%) cancer incident cases and 1,351 (5.2%) cancer deaths among adult women in 2009 in Korea. In men, 71% of lung cancer deaths, 55%–72% of upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx) cancer deaths, 23% of liver, 32% of stomach, 27% of pancreas, 7% of kidney and 45% of bladder cancer deaths were attributable to tobacco smoking. In women the proportion of ever-smoking-attributable lung cancer was 8.1%, while that attributable to second-hand smoking among non-smoking women was 20.5%. Conclusions Approximately one in three cancer deaths would be potentially preventable through appropriate control of tobacco smoking in Korean men at the population level and individual level. For Korean women, more lung cancer cases and deaths were attributable to second-hand than ever-smoking. Effective control programs against tobacco smoking should be further developed and implemented in Korea to reduce the smoking-related cancer burden. PMID:24902960

2014-01-01

299

Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.  

PubMed

Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

2014-04-01

300

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2014-01-01

301

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2012-01-01

302

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2011-01-01

303

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2010-01-01

304

7 CFR 29.6044 - Tobacco products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6044 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff, which is subject to Internal Revenue...

2013-01-01

305

Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling Among Patients at Adult Health Centers.  

PubMed

Objectives. We determined cigarette smoking prevalence, desire to quit, and tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of patients at health centers. Methods. Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3949 adult patients at health centers and 27?731 US adults. Results. Thirty-one percent of health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of US adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% desired to quit and 68% received tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher adjusted odds of wanting to quit if they had indications of severe mental illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.19, 8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (AOR?=?0.43; 95% CI?=?0.22, 0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had 2 or more chronic conditions (AOR?=?2.05; 95% CI?=?1.11, 3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (AOR?=?0.57; 95% CI?=?0.34, 0.96). Conclusions. Cigarette smoking prevalence is substantially higher among patients at health centers than US adults in general. However, most smokers at health centers desire to quit. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable group. PMID:24625147

Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Fiore, Michael C; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

2015-01-01

306

The Brazil SimSmoke Policy Simulation Model: The Effect of Strong Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Prevalence and Smoking-Attributable Deaths in a Middle Income Nation  

PubMed Central

Background Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. Methods and Findings The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%–66%) relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000–715,000) deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million–10.3 million) deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%–54%), and 1.3 million (0.9 million–2.0 million) out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. Conclusions Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce smoking and save many additional lives. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23139643

Levy, David; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Szklo, Andre

2012-01-01

307

Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have suggested poorer health in the homosexual and bisexual groups compared to heterosexuals. Tobacco smoking, which is a health-related behavior associated with psychosocial stress, may be one explanation behind such health differences. Social capital, i.e. the generalized trust in other people and social participation/social networks which decreases the costs of social interaction, has been suggested to affect health through psychosocial pathways and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account and analyzing the attenuation of the logit after the introduction of social participation, trust and their combination in the models. Methods In 2008 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in southern Sweden with a postal questionnaire with 28,198 participants aged 18–80 (55% participation rate). This study was restricted to 24,348 participants without internally missing values on all included variables. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco smoking were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 11.9% of the men and 14.8% of the women were daily tobacco smokers. Higher and almost unaltered odds ratios of daily smoking compared to heterosexuals were observed for bisexual men and women, and for homosexual men throughout the analyses. The odds ratios of daily smoking among homosexual women were not significant. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels among both men and women, with a corresponding 54% attenuation of the logit in the “other” group among men and 31.5% among women after the inclusion of social participation and trust. In addition, only the “other” sexual orientation group had higher odds ratios of low participation than heterosexuals. Conclusions Bisexual men and women and homosexual men, but not homosexual women, are daily smokers to a higher extent than heterosexuals. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels after adjustments for covariates including trust and social participation. PMID:24903892

2014-01-01

308

Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling among Adult Health Center Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Federally supported health centers provide primary care services for over 20 million medically underserved patients across the U.S. Health centers are well-positioned to identify patients who smoke and ensure receipt of needed cessation counseling or treatment. Purpose Determine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, desire to quit, and receipt of tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of adult health center patients; identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these measures. Methods Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3,949 adult health center patients and 27,731 U.S. adults. Results Findings showed that 31% of adult health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of U.S. adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% reported a desire to quit and 68% reported receiving tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher odds of wanting to quit if they showed signs of severe mental illness (OR=3.26, 95% CI: 1.19–8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.22–0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had two or more chronic conditions (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.11–3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (OR=0.57-0.34-0.96). Conclusions The prevalence of cigarette smoking is substantially higher among health center patients than the U.S. in general. However, most smokers seen in health centers desire to quit smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable segment of the population. PMID:24625147

Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Fiore, Michael C.; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

2014-01-01

309

[Prevalence of tobacco smoking university students and health locus of control].  

PubMed

Global spread of diseases of civilization, such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, cancers, caused, that individual or group healthy behaviours, have become, for practitioners and researches, a basic area of interest. Healthy behaviours are the effect of shaped attitude against health, and particular against a sense of responsibility for owns health and co-responsibility for others health. Health Locus of Control theory indicates, that there exist relations between owns health locus of control and providing pro-health activities, for example reduce tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was the assessment of relation between prevalence of tobacco smoking among university students and health locus of control. The study was carried out among 457 university students from Podkarpackie Region- University of Rzeszow PWSZ Krosno and PWSZ Sanok. The survey was conducted by means of diagnostic survey with the use of questionnaire and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale Form B- MHCL-B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and chi-square test were used in statistic analyzes. The study proved that the majority of students has never smoked and does not smoke. Place of residence turned out to be a differentiation factor of tobacco smoking, and there were more smokers among students living in cities. There were observed no characteristic differences in the group of smokers and non-smokers and health locus of control. Internal control, in the opinion of studied group, was recognized to be the most important factor, more less role was attributed to the impact of others and a chance. Faculty of study turned out to different the assessment of importance of internal control and a chance for health state. Internal control was the least emphasized by nursing students, and a chance by obstetrics students. PMID:20301916

Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Zadarko, Emilian; Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Januszewicz, Pawe?

2009-01-01

310

Acute exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induces changes in the oxidative and inflammatory markers in mouse lung  

PubMed Central

Context Tobacco smoking represents a global public health threat, claiming approximately 5 million lives a year. Waterpipe tobacco use has become popular particularly among youth in the past decade, buttressed by the perception that the waterpipe “filters” the smoke, rendering it less harmful than cigarette smoke. Objective In this study, we examined the acute exposure of waterpipe smoking on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice, and compared that to cigarette smoking. Materials and methods Mice were divided into three groups; fresh air control, cigarette and waterpipe. Animals were exposed to fresh air, cigarette, or waterpipe smoke using whole body exposure system one hour daily for 7 days. Results Both cigarette and waterpipe smoke exposure resulted in elevation of total white blood cell count, as well as absolute count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes (P < 0.01). Both exposures also elevated proinflammatory markers such as TNF-? and IL-6 in BALF (P < 0.05), and oxidative stress markers including GPx activity in lungs (P < 0.05). Moreover, waterpipe smoke increased catalase activity in the lung (P < 0.05). However, none of the treatments altered IL-10 levels. Discussion and conclusion Results of cigarette smoking confirmed previous finding. Waterpipe results indicate that, similar to cigarettes, exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke is harmful to the lungs. PMID:22906173

Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammed; Dodin, Arwa; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

2013-01-01

311

Tobacco Smoking among Incarcerated Individuals: A Review of the Nature of the Problem and What Is Being Done in Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smoking is a major health problem, however the issue is even more pronounced among those incarcerated in prisons, where smoking rates are often three times that of the general population. While effective treatments have been demonstrated in the tobacco literature, research examining treatment within prisons is limited in scope. This article…

Donahue, John J.

2009-01-01

312

Pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory outcomes during the first year.  

PubMed

The different role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke in respiratory outcomes in infants has not yet been clearly established. Our objective is to assess the effects of these exposures on the risk of respiratory outcomes during the first year of life of infants from a Spanish multicenter cohort study. A total of 2506 women were monitored until delivery. About 2039 infants made up the final population. The outcomes were caused by the occurrence of the following: otitis, cough persisting for more than 3 weeks, lower respiratory tract symptoms (wheezing or chestiness), and lower respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia). The relationship between prenatal and postnatal exposure and health outcomes was explored using logistic regression analysis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increased the odds for wheezing (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.99-2.01) and chestiness (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01). Postnatal exposure from fathers was associated with otitis (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54). Passive exposure at work of non-smoking mothers during pregnancy was related to cough (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.05-2.51). Exposure to tobacco smoke was related to a higher risk of experiencing respiratory outcomes in young infants. Prenatal exposure was that most clearly associated with the respiratory outcomes analyzed. PMID:24810295

Fuentes-Leonarte, V; Estarlich, M; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Esplugues, A; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Fernández-Somoano, A; Morales, E; Gascón, M; Tardón, A; Rebagliato, M

2015-02-01

313

Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States  

SciTech Connect

A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

1995-12-31

314

Smoking Stinks!  

MedlinePLUS

... cigarettes and tobacco. Continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) is a plant ... or cigars. It's the same plant that's in smokeless tobacco, known as dip, chew, snuff, spit, or chewing ...

315

[Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].  

PubMed

Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health. PMID:11942144

Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

2002-01-01

316

Histological differentiation of oral squamous cell cancer in relation to tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the potential effect of tobacco and alcohol consumption on the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinomas in 161 consecutive patients. The patients were included in a prospective study to secure valid data on tobacco and alcohol consumption. The histopathological grading system included eight morphological qualities describing both the tumour cell population and the interaction between tumour and host. A mean histological score was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the scored individual morphological parameters. Tobacco consumption, as opposed to alcohol consumption, was shown to be significantly correlated with the mean histological score (P = 0.0009), and with the four morphological qualities describing the tumour cell population: pattern (P = 0.0044), cytoplasmic differentiation (P = 0.0008), nuclear differentiation (P = 0.0054) and mitosis (P = 0.0001). Thus, tobacco consumption seems to cause the tumour cells of oral squamous cell carcinomas to undergo a more pronounced dedifferentiation which makes them more aggressive. This effect is enhanced with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:7633284

Bundgaard, T; Bentzen, S M; Søgaard, H

1995-03-01

317

Tobacco Control and the Reduction in Smoking-related Premature Deaths in the United States, 1964–2012  

PubMed Central

Importance The 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking and health is celebrated in 2014. This seminal document inspired efforts by government s, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce the toll of cigarette smoking through reduced initiation and increased cessation. Objective To quantify reductions in smoking -related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Design, Setting and Participants Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking -related mortality from 1964–2012 was compared to estimated mortality under no tobacco control that included a likely scenario (primary counterfactual) and upper and lower bounds that would capture plausible alternatives. Exposure National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the US adult population from 1964–2012. Main Outcomes and Measures Number of premature deaths avoided and years of life saved were primary outcomes. Change in life expectancy at age 40 associated with change in cigarette smoking exposure constituted another measure of overall health outcomes. Results From 1964–2012, an estimated 17.6 million deaths were related to smoking, an estimated 8.0 (7.4–8.3, for the lower and upper tobacco control counterfactuals, respectively) million fewer premature smoking-induced deaths than what would have occurred under the alternatives and thus associated with tobacco control (5.3 (4.8–5.5) million males and 2.7 (2.5–2.7) million females). This resulted in an estimated 157 (139–165) million years of life saved, a mean of 19.6 years for each beneficiary, (111 (97–117) million for males, 46 (42–48) million for females). During this time, estimated life expectancy at age 40 increased 7.8 years for males and 5.4 years for females, of which tobacco control is associated with2.3 (1.8–2.5) years [30% (23–32%)] of the increase for males and 1.6 (1.4–1.7) years [29% (25–32%)] for females. Conclusions and Relevance Tobacco control is associated with avoidance of millions of premature deaths, and an estimated extended mean lifespan of 19–20 years. While tobacco control represents an important public health achievement, smoking continues to be the leading contributor to the nation’s death toll. PMID:24399555

Holford, Theodore R.; Meza, Rafael; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meernik, Clare; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Levy, David T.

2014-01-01

318

Tobacco exposure and susceptibility to tuberculosis: Is there a smoking gun?  

PubMed

In many regions of the world, there is a great overlap between the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure and tuberculosis. Despite the large body of epidemiologic evidence that tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased tuberculosis infection, active disease, severity of disease, and mortality from tuberculosis, these studies cannot distinguish whether the mechanism is principally through direct impairment of anti-tuberculosis immunity by cigarette smoke or due to potential confounders that increase risk for tuberculosis and are commonly associated with smoking - such as poverty, malnutrition, and crowded living conditions. While there are several in vivo murine and in vitro macrophage studies showing cigarette smoke impairs control of tuberculous infection, little is known of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which this impairment occurs. Herein, we highlight the key findings of these studies. Additionally, we review key immune cells that play critical roles in host-defense or pathogenesis of tuberculosis and generate a hypothesis-driven discussion of the possible mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs or enhances their functions, respectively, ultimately resulting in compromised immunity against tuberculosis. PMID:25305002

Chan, Edward D; Kinney, William H; Honda, Jennifer R; Bishwakarma, Raju; Gangavelli, Avani; Mya, Jenny; Bai, Xiyuan; Ordway, Diane J

2014-12-01

319

Comparison of gas-phase free-radical populations in tobacco smoke and model systems by HPLC.  

PubMed Central

We used an improved method for trapping carbon-centered radicals (.R) from the gas-phase to compare radical suites trapped from various tobacco smoke and model smoke systems. Using a nitroxide trap, 3-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (3AP), on solid support, we trapped radicals directly from the gas phase, washed them off the support, and analyzed them with HPLC. Separation of the trapped radicals showed that each tobacco type produced a unique radical suite of 4-10 distinct peaks. Gas mixtures used to model tobacco smoke consisted of nitric oxide, air, isoprene, and methanol. The model systems produced radical suites of four major and several minor peaks, two of which matched peaks in tobacco smoke chromatograms. Quantities of radicals trapped from tobacco smoke were: 54 +/- 2 nmol .R per Marlboro cigarette, 66 +/- 9 nmol .R per Djarum clove cigarette, and 185 +/- 9 nmol .R per Swisher Sweet cigar. In these experiments oxygen competes with the nitroxide trap for gas-phase radicals. A kinetic analysis of the O2 competition shows that actual radical concentrations in the smoke were approximately 100-fold higher than measured. PMID:11564610

Flicker, T M; Green, S A

2001-01-01

320

Tobacco smoking and risk of endometriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Since conflicting results have been published on the role of tobacco smoking on the risk of endometriosis, we provide an up-to-date summary quantification of this potential association. Design We performed a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the relevant publications up to September 2014, considering studies on humans published in English. We searched the reference list of the identified papers to find other relevant publications. Case–control as well as cohort studies have been included reporting risk estimates on the association between tobacco smoking and endometriosis. 38 of the 1758 screened papers met the inclusion criteria. The selected studies included a total of 13?129 women diagnosed with endometriosis. Setting Academic hospitals. Main outcome measure Risk of endometriosis in tobacco smokers. Results We obtained the summary estimates of the relative risk (RR) using the random effect model, and assessed the heterogeneity among studies using the ?2 test and quantified it using the I2 statistic. As compared to never-smokers, the summary RR were 0.96 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.08) for ever smokers, 0.95 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.11) for former smokers, 0.92 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.04) for current smokers, 0.87 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.07) for moderate smokers and 0.93 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.26) for heavy smokers. Conclusions The present meta-analysis provided no evidence for an association between tobacco smoking and the risk of endometriosis. The results were consistent considering ever, former, current, moderate and heavy smokers, and across type of endometriosis and study design. PMID:25534211

Bravi, Francesca; Parazzini, Fabio; Cipriani, Sonia; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Chiantera, Vito; Viganò, Paola; La Vecchia, Carlo

2014-01-01

321

Tobacco Addiction  

MedlinePLUS

... Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series Tobacco Addiction Home / Educators / NIDA Teaching Guides / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Tobacco Addiction Print When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is absorbed ...

322

“Stay away from them until you're old enough to make a decision”: tobacco company testimony about youth smoking initiation  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine common themes used by US tobacco industry witnesses pertaining to youth smoking initiation during litigation in the United States. Methods Qualitative thematic analysis of transcripts from 29 tobacco litigation cases dating from 1992 to 2002. Results Youth smoking is portrayed by the tobacco industry as a source of great concern to them. Youth smoking prevention programmes developed by US tobacco companies are supposedly intended to delay decision?making about smoking until age 18, when individuals are then seen to be of an age where they are able to “choose to smoke”. Tobacco industry media campaigns, youth access, community and school?based programmes are predicated on peer influence, parental factors, and commercial access being the primary influences on youth smoking uptake, rather than tobacco marketing, inaccurate risk appraisal, price and other factors known to influence youth smoking. Despite substantial financial investment in tobacco industry programmes, their witnesses were able to describe only weak evaluation methods, being preoccupied with measures of message comprehension, programme reach and uptake, and the associated costs of their efforts, rather than any evaluation designed to assess effects on youth smoking behaviour. Conclusion Stated concerns about youth smoking and youth smoking prevention programmes are put forward in litigation as evidence that the tobacco industry is “serious” about tackling youth smoking, and serve as a primary strategy to improve the tobacco industry's public image. The tobacco industry's evaluation of the effectiveness of their youth smoking prevention programmes is demonstrably insufficient under current public health evaluation standards. Public health and welfare agencies should avoid engagement with tobacco industry?sponsored programmes. PMID:17130624

Wakefield, Melanie; McLeod, Kim; Perry, Cheryl L

2006-01-01

323

[Nicotine in the hair as a biomarker of tobacco smoke by pregnant women--preliminary study].  

PubMed

Determination of xenobiotics in hair has become common in evaluation of exposure to drugs. It can be used to assess the drug intake among adults and exposure to these substances in prenatal period. The aim of this study was the nicotine determination in hair of newborns' whose mothers were smoking during pregnancy. Also the relationship between concentration of cotinine--the main metabolite of nicotine in the urine of mothers and nicotine concentration in their infants' hair has been evaluated. The group of 15 women who had been smoking during pregnancy and 10 non-smoking and not exposed to ETS women and their newborns were the subject of the study. The cotinine levels in maternal urine samples was measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a spectrometric detection, with the use of norephedryne as an internal standard, after a prior extraction with the use of liquid-liquid technique. Nicotine assess in infants' hair was carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, with the use of ketamine as an interior standard, after the prior extraction with the use of liquid-liquid technique. The mean cotinine concentration in the group of smoking women amounted to 1132.5+/-1236.3 ng/mg creatinine and the level of nicotine in hair of children amounted to 1.9+/-3.2 ng/mg of hair. In the group of non-smoking women the urine cotinine test showed that two patients were exposed to the tobacco smoke. Nicotine in their children's hair was below the detection limit. The demonstrated correlation between the nicotine concentration in infants' hair and the cotinine levels in mothers' urine shows that the source of fetal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents is smoking during pregnancy. The applied gas chromatography method/mass spectrometry method allows to evaluate the level of nicotine in hair of the newborns, whose mothers were smoking during pregnancy, however it seems that in the case of exposure to ETS a more sensitive method, such as gas or liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has to be applied. PMID:18409297

Se?czuk, Monika; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Stanaszek, Roman; Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Anholcer, Andrzej; Kulza, Maksymilian; Kornacka, Maria K

2007-01-01

324

Pre- and postnatal exposure of children to tobacco smoke during the first four years of life - observations of the authors.  

PubMed

Introduction. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is a significant threat for human health, where the higher is its degree, the more immature the human organism is. Therefore, the exposure to Tobacco smoke in foetal life exerts unfavourable effects on developing foetus and may cause early and distant results in children. Material and methods. The study comprised 318 children in their first four years of life, treated for various medical conditions. The examined children were divided into two groups, Group 1 - children exposed to Tobacco smoke - and Group 2 - a control group with children from non-smoking families. History data were obtained on the basis of a specially designed questionnaire, used by the doctor in an individual conversation with parent. In each third child from the group 1 cotinine concentration in urine was assayed by the method of high performance liquid chromatography-UV-VIS and the cotinine/creatinine ratio was calculated. Results of study. Results demonstrated environmental exposure to tobacco smoke in 173 children (Group 1). Out of them 31.2% were the children whose mothers had smoked also during pregnancy (Subgroup A). The other 119 children from Group 1 were accounted to Subgroup B, i.e., children, where other household members had been smoking cigarettes. A comparative group comprised 143 children from non-smoking families. The results demonstrated then that 17% of all the examined children were those, exposed to tobacco smoke effects already in their foetal life, predisposing them to prematurity and low birth weight. Moreover, it was observed that the young age and lower education level of their parents, together with worse housing conditions, may suggest a predisposing character and role of the mentioned factors. PMID:25528915

Kamer, Barbara; Pasowska, Renata; Grys, Wioletta; Socha-Banasiak, Anna; Kamer-Bartosi?ska, Anna; Matczak-Rynkowska, Anna; Ka?u?na-Czapli?ska, Joanna; Rynkowski, Jacek

2014-11-26

325

Tobacco industry efforts to present ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free environments in North America  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry developed a network of consultants to promote ventilation as a "solution" to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the USA. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: As with its other strategies to undermine the passage of clean indoor legislation and regulations, the tobacco industry used consultants who represented themselves as independent but who were promoting the industry's ventilation "solution" strategies under close, but generally undisclosed, industry supervision. The nature of the industry's use of ventilation consultants evolved over time. In the 1980s, the industry used them in an effort to steer the concerns about indoor air quality away from secondhand smoke, saying SHS was an insignificant component of a much larger problem of indoor air quality and inadequate ventilation. By the 1990s, the industry and its consultants were maintaining that adequate ventilation could easily accommodate "moderate smoking". The consultants carried the ventilation message to businesses, particularly the hospitality business, and to local and national and international regulatory and legislative bodies. Conclusion: While the tobacco industry and its consultants have gone to considerable lengths to promote the tobacco industry's ventilation "solution", this strategy has had limited success in the USA, probably because, in the end, it is simpler, cheaper, and healthier to end smoking. Tobacco control advocates need to continue to educate policymakers about this fact, particularly in regions where this strategy has been more effective. PMID:14985616

Drope, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

2004-01-01

326

Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study  

PubMed Central

Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

2014-01-01

327

Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01

328

GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function  

PubMed Central

Background Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega genes have been associated with the level of lung function. This study aimed to assess if GSTO SNPs interact with ETS exposure in utero and during adulthood on the level of lung function during adulthood. Methods We used cross-sectional data of 8,128 genotyped participants from the LifeLines cohort study. Linear regression models (adjusted for age, sex, height, weight, current smoking, ex-smoking and packyears smoked) were used to analyze the associations between in utero, daily and workplace ETS exposure, GSTO SNPs, the interaction between ETS and GSTOs, and level of lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC). Since the interactions between ETS and GSTOs may be modified by active tobacco smoking we additionally assessed associations in never and ever smokers separately. A second sample of 5,308 genotyped LifeLines participants was used to verify our initial findings. Results Daily and workplace ETS exposure was associated with significantly lower FEV1 levels. GSTO SNPs (recessive model) interacted with in utero ETS and were associated with higher levels of FEV1, whereas the interactions with daily and workplace ETS exposure were associated with lower levels of FEV1, effects being more pronounced in never smokers. The interaction of GSTO2 SNP rs156697 with in utero ETS associated with a higher level of FEV1 was significantly replicated in the second sample. Overall, the directions of the interactions of in utero and workplace ETS exposure with the SNPs found in the second (verification) sample were in line with the first sample. Conclusions GSTO genotypes interact with in utero and adulthood ETS exposure on adult lung function level, but in opposite directions. PMID:23937118

2013-01-01

329

Tobacco smoke: A critical etiological factor for vascular impairment at the blood–brain barrier  

PubMed Central

Active and passive tobacco smoke are associated with the dysfunction of endothelial physiology and vascular impairment. Studies correlating the effects of smoking and the brain microvasculature at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) level have been largely limited to few selective compounds that are present in the tobacco smoke (TS) yet the pathophysiology of smoking has not been unveiled. For this purpose, we characterized the physiological response of isolated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and monocytes to the exposure of whole soluble TS extract. With the use of a well established humanized flow-based in vitro blood–brain barrier model (DIV-BBB) we have also investigated the BBB physiological response to TS under both normal and impaired hemodynamic conditions simulating ischemia. Our results showed that TS selectively decreased endothelial viability only at very high concentrations while not significantly affecting that of astrocytes and monocytes. At lower concentrations, despite the absence of cytotoxicity, TS induced a strong vascular pro-inflammatory response. This included the upregulation of endothelial pro-inflammatory genes, a significant increase of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activated matrix metalloproteinase, and the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. When flow-cessation/reperfusion was paired with TS exposure, the inflammatory response and the loss of BBB viability were significantly increased in comparison to sham-smoke condition. In conclusion, TS is a strong vascular inflammatory primer that can facilitate the loss of BBB function and viability in pathological settings involving a local transient loss of cerebral blood flow such as during ischemic insults. PMID:19539613

Hossain, M.; Sathe, T.; Fazio, V.; Mazzone, P.; Weksler, Babette; Janigro, D.; Rapp, E.; Cucullo, L.

2010-01-01

330

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

2011-09-01

331

Toxicological Effects of the Different Substances in Tobacco Smoke on Human Embryonic Development by a Systems Chemo-Biology Approach  

PubMed Central

The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development. PMID:23637898

Feltes, Bruno César; Poloni, Joice de Faria; Notari, Daniel Luis; Bonatto, Diego

2013-01-01

332

Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

2010-01-01

333

Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women.  

PubMed

To estimate the independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, we analyzed data from a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas in South America. A total of 830 case subjects and 1779 control subjects were included in the pooled analysis. All exposure characteristics of amount, duration, cessation and type of alcohol and tobacco consumed were strongly related to esophageal-cancer risk in both sexes. Women had the same exposure profile as men, but the magnitudes of the associations were lower than were those among men. Black-tobacco smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk as compared with the smoking of blond or mixed tobacco. Quitting either of the 2 habits significantly reduced esophageal-cancer risk. Alcohol and tobacco alone were strongly related to the risk of esophageal cancer, even in the absence of the other exposure. A history of simultaneous exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a strong multiplicative effect on risk. Concomitant exposure to heavy alcohol drinking and black-tobacco smoking identified the group with the highest risk for developing esophageal cancer (odds ratio = 107). A synergistic interaction was found between the 2 habits, particularly in women and in moderately exposed men. Moderate cigarette smoking without drinking and moderate alcohol drinking without smoking had a negligible effect on esophageal-cancer risk. However, simultaneous exposure to the same moderate amounts increased the risk 12- to 19-fold in men and in women respectively. The overall public-health implications of these findings are obvious for a tumor that depends on preventive strategies for its control. PMID:10417762

Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A; Quintana, M J

1999-08-27

334

Ceremonial Tobacco Use in the Andes: Implications for Smoking Prevention among Indigenous Youth  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to identify Andean youth’s beliefs regarding ceremonial tobacco use and to discuss potential applications of findings in tobacco control interventions. The study was conducted in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina among 202 boys and girls, 10 to 20 years of age, living in rural and urban areas. The world of beliefs and meanings became accessible by asking youth to focus on tangible experiences regarding the Pachamama ceremony, a ritual honoring Mother Earth. Concepts like reciprocity, the unity of material and spiritual realms, and the complementary nature of opposite forces were linked to beliefs about ceremonial tobacco use. Three domains for understanding smoking behavior beliefs and norms were identified including mechanisms of production, conceptual tenants and behavioral expressions. These findings suggest that tobacco control interventions based on solidarity, reciprocity, and non-rational ways of learning are more culturally appropriate for native populations in the Andes than the current individual behavior change models and have the potential application with other indigenous populations. The research methods also have the potential for generalized application in cross-cultural studies of health behaviors in understudied populations in middle and low-income countries. PMID:20419515

Alderete, Ethel; Erickson, Pamela I.; Kaplan, Celia P.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

2010-01-01

335

The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15%) the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%), Estonia (21%), and Lebanon (25%). Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%), the United Kingdom (8%), the United States (10%), Syria (15%), Lebanon (28%), and Pakistan (33%). The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%), Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%), Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults), Syria (9%-12%), and Lebanon (15%). Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%), and Egypt (11%-15%). In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of Middle Eastern descent in Western countries. PMID:21504559

2011-01-01

336

Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, prospective data for most European countries are lacking, and epidemiologic studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in relation to pancreatic cancer risk are scarce. We examined the association of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This analysis was based on 465,910 participants, including 524 first incident pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for weight, height, and history of diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for current cigarette smokers compared with never smokers (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.36-2.15), and risk increased with greater intensity and pack-years. Former cigarette smokers who quit for less than 5 years were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.23-2.56), but risk was comparable to never smokers after quitting for 5 years or more. Pancreatic cancer risk was increased among never smokers daily exposed to ETS (for many hours) during childhood (HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 0.96-7.10) and exposed to ETS at home and/or work (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.00-2.39). These results suggest that both active cigarette smoking, as well as exposure to ETS, is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that risk is reduced to levels of never smokers within 5 years of quitting. PMID:19790196

Vrieling, Alina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Michaud, Dominique S; Severinsen, Marianne T; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöthlings, Ute; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Moutsiou, Eftihia; Dilis, Vardis; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Rodríguez, Laudina; Agudo, Antonio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Manjer, Jonas; Lindkvist, Björn; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Roddam, Andrew; Key, Tim; Boffetta, Paolo; Duell, Eric J; Jenab, Mazda; Gallo, Valentina; Riboli, Elio

2010-05-15

337

Exposure to carbon monoxide from second-hand tobacco smoke in Polish pubs.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the more toxic agents present in the gas phase of second-hand tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence suggesting that passive smokers are involuntarily poisoned by low CO concentrations. At lower doses, CO affects the central nervous system leading to deterioration in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. The effects of chronic inhalation of CO at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular system are not well investigated but might involve myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias. In people with pre-existing disease, CO pollution alone may result in increased morbidity and mortality. In the study CO levels were monitored in 22 Polish pubs. The temporary CO concentration varied in examined pubs from 0 to 33.11 ppm. The average 8-hours CO concentration varied from 0.21 to 10.20 ppm. Nine percent of pubs exceeded the WHO or EU limit value at some point during the monitoring process. The average weekly CO concentration in all examined microenvironments varied from 0 to 4.80 ppm. The most important factor influencing CO concentration was air-exchange through open doors and windows. In pubs where doors and windows were closed, the following statistical important factors influencing CO concentration were found: 1. the number of smokers present in the pub, 2. the pub's capaciousness, and 3. and the pub's location. The results of the study show that second-hand tobacco smoke is a significant source of CO in Polish pubs. Passive smokers in Polish pubs might be exposed to very high CO concentration exceeding EU reference value. PMID:20377053

Goniewicz, Maciej ?ukasz; Czoga?a, Jan; Ko?mider, Leon; Koszowski, Bartosz; Zieli?ska-Danch, Wioleta; Sobczak, Andrzej

2009-12-01

338

Children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: using diverse exposure metrics to document ethnic/racial differences.  

PubMed

Four metrics were used to assess exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for a probability sample (n = 152) of elementary school-age children in two economically disadvantaged neighborhoods: a) caregiver responses to a baseline questionnaire (BQ) about smoking status and behavior; b) 48-hr time-activity (T-A) data on location and time spent by children in the presence of tobacco smoke; c) total urinary cotinine as a marker for nicotine uptake; and d) urinary NNAL [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol] + NNAL-Gluc [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1- (3-pyridyl)-1-(O-beta-D-glucopyranuronosyl)butane] as a marker for uptake of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Consistent differences in ETS exposure by ethnicity and race were observed. Although data were insufficient to determine differences for NNAL + NNAL-Gluc, BQ responses, T-A data, and cotinine levels all indicated that average ETS exposure was highest for African-American children, moderately high for those designated "other" (white, Southeast Asian, Native American), moderately low for Hispanic children, and lowest for Somali immigrant children. For example, in February 2000, mean cotinine levels were 14.1 ng/mL for African Americans, 12.2 ng/mL for other, 4.8 ng/mL for Hispanics, and 4.4 ng/mL for Somalis. The BQ and T-A data together were reasonably good predictors of total cotinine levels (adjusted r2 = 0.69), and based on limited data, measured total cotinine values were a relatively good predictor of NNAL + NNAL-Gluc (adjusted r2 = 0.73). The results suggest that when children are exposed to ETS primarily in their homes, questionnaires and T-A logs might be effective screening tools for identifying those likely to experience higher uptake of nicotine. PMID:14998759

Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L; Church, Timothy R; Hecht, Stephen S; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Greaves, Ian A; Fredrickson, Ann L; Ryan, Andrew D; Carmella, Steven G; Geisser, Mindy S

2004-03-01

339

Estrogen metabolism within the lung and its modulation by tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

Although estrogen and the enzymes responsible for its metabolism have been detected within the lung, the ability of this tissue to metabolize estrogen has not been demonstrated previously. The goal of this study was to characterize the profile of estrogen metabolites within the murine lung and to determine the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on metabolite levels. Use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry led to the detection of three estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) and five estrogen metabolites (2-OHE1, 4-OHE1, 4-OHE2, 2-OMeE1 and 2-OMeE2) within the perfused lung, with 4-OHE1 being the most abundant species. Levels of 4-OHEs, carcinogenic derivatives produced primarily by cytochrome P450 1B1 (Cyp1b1), were 2-fold higher in females than males. Deletion of Cyp1b1 in females led to a dramatic reduction (21-fold) in 4-OHEs, whereas levels of 2-OHE1 and the putative protective estrogen metabolite 2-OMeE2 were increased (2.4- and 5.0-fold, respectively) (P = 0.01). Similar quantitative differences in estrogen metabolite levels were observed between Cyp1b1 null and wild-type males. Exposure of female mice to tobacco smoke for 8 weeks (2h per day, 5 days per week) increased the levels of 4-OHE1 (4-fold) and 2-OHE2 (2-fold) within the lung while reducing the total concentration of 2-OMeEs to 70% of those of unexposed controls. These data suggest that tobacco smoke accelerates the production of 4-OHEs within the lung; carcinogenic metabolites that could potentially contribute to lung tumor development. Thus, inhibition of CYP1B1 may represent a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23276798

Clapper, Margie L.

2013-01-01

340

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect

We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

1989-06-01

341

Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Methods Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Results Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR?=?1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR?=?1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR?=?2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR?=?0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR?=?0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Conclusion Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking. PMID:24555481

2014-01-01

342

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a global public health problem. Ghana currently has no legislation to prevent smoking in public places. To provide data on SHS levels in hospitality venues in Ghana the authors measured (1) airborne particulate matter <2.5??m (PM2.5) and nicotine concentrations and (2) hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees. Quantifying SHS exposure will provide evidence needed to develop tobacco control legislation. Method PM2.5 was measured for 30?min in 75 smoking and 13 non-smoking venues. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7?days in 8 smoking and 2 non-smoking venues. Additionally, 63 non-smoking employees provided hair samples for nicotine analysis. Result Compared to non-smoking venues, smoking venues had markedly elevated PM2.5 (median 553 [IQR 259–1038] vs 16.0 [14.0–17.0]??g/m3) and air nicotine (1.83 [0.91–4.25] vs 0.03 [0.02–0.04]??g/m3) concentrations. Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46–6.84]?ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08–0.79]?ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), indoor air PM2.5 concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63). Conclusion SHS levels were unacceptably high in public places in Ghana where smoking is allowed, despite a relatively low-smoking prevalence in the country. This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa. Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans. Implementing a comprehensive smoke-free legislation that protects workers and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke is urgently needed in Ghana. PMID:20930057

Agbenyikey, Wilfred; Wellington, Edith; Gyapong, John; Travers, Mark J; Breysse, Patrick N; McCarty, Kathleen M

2010-01-01

343

Prevalence, frequency, and initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among first-year female college students: A one-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among college students, but little is known about frequency of use or patterns of use over time, including during the transition to college. The goals of this longitudinal cohort study were to assess the: (a) lifetime prevalence, (b) current prevalence, (c) frequency of use, and (d) pattern of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking

Robyn L. Fielder; Kate B. Carey; Michael P. Carey

344

Pathways of Change Explaining the Effect of Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands. An Application of the International Tobacco Control Conceptual Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study aims to test the pathways of change from individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation, as hypothesized in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Conceptual Model. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Dutch smokers aged 15 years and older was surveyed during 4 consecutive annual surveys. Of the 1,820 baseline smokers, 1,012 participated in the fourth survey. Structural Equation Modeling was employed to test a model of the effects of individual exposure to smoke-free legislation through policy-specific variables (support for smoke-free legislation and awareness of the harm of [secondhand] smoking) and psychosocial mediators (attitudes, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention to quit) on quit attempts and quit success. Results: The effect of individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation was mediated by 1 pathway via support for smoke-free legislation, attitudes about quitting, and intention to quit smoking. Exposure to smoke-free legislation also influenced awareness of the harm of (secondhand) smoking, which in turn influenced the subjective norm about quitting. However, only attitudes about quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit smoking, whereas subjective norm and self-efficacy for quitting were not. Intention to quit predicted quit attempts and quit success, and self-efficacy for quitting predicted quit success. Conclusions: Our findings support the ITC Conceptual Model, which hypothesized that policies influence smoking cessation through policy-specific variables and psychosocial mediators. Smoke-free legislation may increase smoking cessation, provided that it succeeds in influencing support for the legislation. PMID:22491892

de Vries, Hein; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; Thrasher, James F.; van den Putte, Bas; Thompson, Mary E.; Cummings, K. Michael; Willemsen, Marc C.

2012-01-01

345

Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve: results from the Youth Smoking Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of smoking among Aboriginal youth, there is a paucity of research related to tobacco use and other risk behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve in Canada. We used data from the national Youth Smoking Survey to characterize non-traditional tobacco use, exposure to second-hand smoke, and alcohol and drug use among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. We examined whether these youth were at increased health risk compared with non-Aboriginal youth. Methods We examined cigarette smoking behaviour, use of other tobacco products, use of alcohol and other drugs, and exposure to second-hand smoke among 2620 Aboriginal youth living off-reserve and 26 223 non-Aboriginal youth in grades 9 to 12 who participated in the 2008/09 Youth Smoking Survey. Results The prevalence of current smoking among the Aboriginal youth was more than double that among non-Aboriginal youth (24.9% v. 10.4%). Aboriginal youth also had a higher prevalence of regular exposure to second-hand smoke at home (37.3% v. 19.7%) and in cars (51.0% v. 30.3%). Aboriginal youth were more likely than non-Aboriginal youth to be current smokers, to be regularly exposed to second-hand smoke, to have tried marijuana and other illicit drugs, and to engage in binge drinking. They were less likely than non-Aboriginal youth to have tried to quit smoking. Interpretation Current national estimates of smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use among youth underestimate the prevalence of these behaviours among Aboriginal youth living off-reserve. Our findings highlight the need for culturally appropriate prevention and cessation policies and programs for this at-risk population. PMID:21555383

Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Burkhalter, Robin

2011-01-01

346

Protecting the World From Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go From Here?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates all signatory countries to “protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places.” Even though there has been great progress in the implementation of Article 8, still most of the world population remains exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). In this article, we sought to summarize the research that supports Article 8, where do we stand, and current research gaps and future directions. Discussion: Secondhand smoke is an established cause of heart disease and several types of cancer. Additional research is needed to reach final conclusions for diseases where evidence is only suggestive of causality. The only solution to SHS exposure in public places is banning smoking indoors. Research on the gaming industry and nightclubs, particularly in developing countries, needs to be disseminated to support their inclusion in smoke-free laws. Aside from indoor bans, additional research is needed for outdoor and multiunit housing bans and in support of measures that protect children and other vulnerable populations. The impact of smoke-free laws on other health outcomes, besides heart disease and respiratory outcomes, is another area where further research is needed. Thirdhand smoke assessment and health effects are also likely to be a topic of further research. As new tobacco products emerge, evaluating SHS exposure and effects will be vital. Conclusions: Furthering research in support of Article 8 can contribute to reach the final goal of protecting everyone from SHS exposure. PMID:23072872

Barnoya, Joaquin

2013-01-01

347

The Effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on Smoking Prevalence, Cigarette Consumption, and Healthcare Costs: 1989–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has shown that tobacco control funding in California has reduced per capita cigarette consumption and per capita healthcare expenditures. This paper refines our earlier model by estimating the effect of California tobacco control funding on current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker and the effect of prevalence and consumption on per capita healthcare expenditures. The results are used to calculate new estimates of the effect of the California Tobacco Program. Methodology/Principal Findings Using state-specific aggregate data, current smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption per smoker are modeled as functions of cumulative California and control states' per capita tobacco control funding, cigarette price, and per capita income. Per capita healthcare expenditures are modeled as a function of prevalence of current smoking, cigarette consumption per smoker, and per capita income. One additional dollar of cumulative per capita tobacco control funding is associated with reduction in current smoking prevalence of 0.0497 (SE.00347) percentage points and current smoker cigarette consumption of 1.39 (SE.132) packs per smoker per year. Reductions of one percentage point in current smoking prevalence and one pack smoked per smoker are associated with $35.4 (SE $9.85) and $3.14 (SE.786) reductions in per capita healthcare expenditure, respectively (2010 dollars), using the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) measure of healthcare spending. Conclusions/Significance Between FY 1989 and 2008 the California Tobacco Program cost $2.4 billion and led to cumulative NIPA healthcare expenditure savings of $134 (SE $30.5) billion. PMID:23418411

Lightwood, James; Glantz, Stanton A.

2013-01-01

348

Trends in prevalence of current smoking, Massachusetts and states without tobacco control programmes, 1990 to 1999  

PubMed Central

Design: Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the years 1990 to 1999 were used to examine changes and trends in prevalence of smoking using multivariate logistic regression models. Main outcome measures: Trend in prevalence of current smoking for the years 1990 to 1999. Results: In 1990, the prevalence of current smoking in Massachusetts was 23.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.0% to 26.1%), and 24.2% in the rest of the USA (95% CI 23.7% to 24.7%). By 1999, the prevalence had declined in Massachusetts to 19.4%, and to 23.3% in 41 other US states. Controlling for sex, age, race, and education, there was a greater decline in current smoking between 1990 and 1999 among Massachusetts men than among Massachusetts women, and the decline was greater in Massachusetts than in the rest of the USA for men and for both sexes combined. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program is having a beneficial impact, but suggest a need for additional targeted efforts to achieve similar declines among Massachusetts women. PMID:12034974

Weintraub, J; Hamilton, W

2002-01-01

349

Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer--in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking and the development of bladder cancer. The study population consisted of 429,906 persons participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 633 of whom developed bladder cancer during the follow-up period. An increased risk of bladder cancer was found for both current- (incidence rate ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval: 3.07-5.09) and ex- (2.25, 1.74-2.91) smokers, compared to never-smokers. A positive association with intensity (per 5 cigarettes) was found among current-smokers (1.18, 1.09-1.28). Associations (per 5 years) were observed for duration (1.14, 1.08-1.21), later age at start (0.75, 0.66-0.85) and longer time since quitting (0.92, 0.86-0.98). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood increased the risk of bladder cancer (1.38, 1.00-1.90), whereas for ETS exposure as adult no effect was detected. The present study confirms the strong association between smoking and bladder cancer. The indication of a higher risk of bladder cancer for those who start smoking at a young age and for those exposed to ETS during childhood adds to the body of evidence suggesting that children are more sensitive to carcinogens than adults. PMID:16894557

Bjerregaard, Bine Kjøller; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Chapelon, Francoise Clavel; Nagel, Gabriele; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra Hm; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Gram, Inger Torhild; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Berglund, Göran; Allen, Naomi; Roddam, Andrew; Bingham, Sheila; Riboli, Elio

2006-11-15

350

Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke  

PubMed Central

We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared to chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Delfino, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

351

Routine screening of hospital patients for secondhand tobacco smoke exposure: A feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Objective Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes over 40,000 deaths per year, but healthcare systems rarely address this risk factor. In September 2012, Massachusetts General Hospital initiated routine inpatient screening for SHS exposure by adding a question to the nurses' computerized admission assessment form (“Is smoking allowed in your home or car?”). We measured the implementation of this screening question over 1 year. Methods Multivariable analysis of hospital records of adult and pediatric admissions (N = 35,701) from September 1, 2012 to August 31, 2013, to assess screening question completion and identify characteristics of nonsmokers who may be exposed to SHS. Results Nurses entered “Yes” or “No” to the screening question for 91% of 34,295 adult admissions and 86% of 1406 pediatric admissions. Among nonsmokers, smoking in the home or car was allowed for 3% of adult admissions and 4% of pediatric admissions. Adults admitted for psychiatric diagnoses, children admitted for asthma, and patients with Medicaid insurance had higher odds of exposure to SHS in their home or car. Conclusion Routine screening of SHS among hospitalized patients by nurses is feasible. Doing so offers hospitals an opportunity to intervene and to promote smoke-free policies in patients' homes and cars. PMID:25284258

Kruse, Gina Rae; Rigotti, Nancy A.

2015-01-01

352

Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review  

SciTech Connect

Chronic exposures to heavy metals via tobacco smoking and professional exposure may increase the risk of head and neck cancer, although the epidemiologic evidence is limited by problems of low study power and inadequate adjustment for tobacco and professional exposure use. Numerous scientific reviews have examined the association of various heavy metals exposure with respiratory cancer as well as other cancer types, but few have been published on head and neck cancer. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the head and neck tract cancer-related data on exposure to heavy metals via smoking and working exposure and to study the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metals carcinogenesis.

Khlifi, Rim, E-mail: rimkhlifi@yahoo.fr; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2010-10-15

353

Water-Pipe Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Water-pipe (WP) smoking has significantly increased in the last decade worldwide. Compelling evidence suggests that the toxicants in WP smoke are similar to that of cigarette smoke. The WP smoking in a single session could have acute harmful health effects even worse than cigarette smoking. However, there is no evidence as such on long term WP smoking and its impact on chronic health conditions particularly cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate the relationship between WP smoking and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Punjab province of Pakistan using the baseline data of a population-based study – Urban Rural Chronic Diseases Study (URCDS). Information was collected by trained nurses regarding the socio-demographic profile, lifestyle factors including WP smoking, current and past illnesses. A blood sample was obtained for measurement of complete blood count, lipid profile and fasting glucose level. MetS was ascertained by using the International Diabetic Federation’s criteria. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between WP smoking and MetS. Final sample included 2,032 individuals – of those 325 (16.0%) were current WP smokers. Age adjusted-prevalence of MetS was significantly higher among current WP smokers (33.1%) compared with non-smokers (14.8%). Water-pipe smokers were three times more likely to have MetS (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.38–4.33) compared with non-smokers after adjustment for age, sex and social class. WP smokers were significantly more likely to have hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.25–2.10), hyperglycaemia (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.37–2.41), Hypertension (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.51–2.51) and abdominal obesity (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52–2.45). However, there were no significant differences in HDL level between WP smokers and non-smokers. This study suggests that WP smoking has a significant positive (harmful) relationship with MetS and its components. PMID:22848361

Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Arain, Zain Islam; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Ahmad, Ishtiaque

2012-01-01

354

[Tobacco smoking and self-assessment of health status among students from High School of Country Economy in Kutno--preliminary study].  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking is still actual and common problem, which affects both students' high schools and their professors. In this study results are presented among students from one private schools in Poland, when students are educated in the following directions: geodesy, Europe science, pedagogy, computer science and nursing. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence of tobacco smoking among students and the awareness of health consequences. It is also decided to check which variables determinate self-assessment of health status of students and what motives of tobacco smoking are. Tobacco smoking was declared by 39% of students, 81.9% of them smoked regular and 18.1% - occasional. The biggest group of tobacco smoking students was noticed in geodesy - 35.4% students and nursing - 29%. Nearly 44% had opinion that tobacco smoking become addicted (22.9% students from nursing, 31.4% from geodesy, 8.6% from Europe science and 143% from pedagogy). Almost 36% students, in their opinion, become addicted to nicotine, over 32% students smoked because of relaxing effects of smoking, 129% smoked for company, The biggest group of surveyed group assess their health status as a good (56.3%) and very good (42%), one person as a very bad - 125%. There are statistical significant dependence between health status and gender, age, study, year of study and place of residence. PMID:19189549

Adamek, Renata; Kurzepa-Hasan, Edyta; Pietrzak, Anna; Zysnarska, Monika; Jagielska, Joanna

2008-01-01

355

Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Background In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Methods Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response “yes” to one or more of three questions, such as “Do you currently smoke cigarettes?” Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by ‘svy’ command. Results Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Conclusion Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts. PMID:25183954

2014-01-01

356

Smoking cessation medications  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

357

Determination of tobacco specific hemoglobin adducts in smoking mothers and new born babies by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Biological markers for assessment of exposure to a variety of environmental carcinogens has been widely applied in both basic as well as clinical research. Exposure to tobacco smoke presents an ideal environment with which to develop, characterize, and refine biological markers, especially of those carcinogens found in tobacco. In the present study, a sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed to measure nitrosamine- hemoglobin adducts (HPB-Hb (4-Hydroxy-3-pyridinyl-1-butanone) at trace levels in red blood cells of both African-American and Caucasian smoking and nonsmoking mothers and their infants. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods with chemical ionization (CI) of methane reagent gas in both positive and negative ion mode as well as electron ionization (EI) were studied to determine differences in sensitivity of detection among the various ionization methods. Detection limits using both positive and negative chemical ionization modes were found to be 30 femtomoles of HPB, whereas detection using electron impact modes yielded a detection limit of 80 femtomoles of HBP. Comparative derivatization of HPB was performed using O-bis(Trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-Pentafluorobenzoylchloride (PFBC). Both Negative CI and Positive CI modes of analysis were compared to the more widely accepted EI modes of mass spectrometric analysis. PMID:19662210

Myers, Steven R; Ali, Md Yeakub

2007-01-01

358

The elimination half-life of urinary cotinine in children of tobacco-smoking mothers.  

PubMed

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is strongly associated with childhood morbidity. Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, is a useful marker of tobacco smoke exposure. Cotinine levels in infants are higher than in older children or adults exposed to the same reported quantity of ETS. One hypothesis to explain this difference is that the urinary elimination half-life of cotinine is different between infants and older children. Urine was collected at admission, 12, 24 and 48 h, cotinine levels were subsequently measured and then standardized by correcting for creatinine excretion. Urinary elimination half-life of cotinine was calculated in 31 infants and 23 older children. The median half-life was 28.3 h (range 6.3-258.5 h) in infants, and 27.14 h (range 9.7-99.42 h) in older children. A Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the median half-life of cotinine between the two age groups (P = 0.18). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated no significant relationship between half-life of cotinine and corrected cotinine level (P = 0.24). Our results support the hypothesis that higher cotinine levels in infants is due to greater exposure, rather than slower metabolism of cotinine. PMID:10101746

Leong, J W; Dore, N D; Shelley, K; Holt, E J; Laing, I A; Palmer, L J; LeSouef, P N

1998-01-01

359

TACE/ADAM-17 Phosphorylation by PKC-Epsilon Mediates Premalignant Changes in Tobacco Smoke-Exposed Lung Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco smoke predisposes humans and animals to develop lung tumors, but the molecular events responsible for this are poorly understood. We recently showed that signaling mechanisms triggered by smoke in lung cells could lead to the activation of a growth factor signaling pathway, thereby promoting hyperproliferation of lung epithelial cells. Hyperproliferation is considered a premalignant change in the lung, in that increased rates of DNA synthesis are associated with an increased number of DNA copying errors, events that are exacerbated in the presence of tobacco smoke carcinogens. Despite the existence of DNA repair mechanisms, a small percentage of these errors go unrepaired and can lead to tumorigenic mutations. The results of our previous study showed that an early event following smoke exposure was the generation of oxygen radicals through the activation of NADPH oxidase. Although it was clear that these radicals transduced signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and that this was mediated by TACE-dependent cleavage of amphiregulin, it remained uncertain how oxygen radicals were able to activate TACE. Principal Findings In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that phosphorylation of TACE at serine/threonine residues by tobacco smoke induces amphiregulin release and EGFR activation. TACE phosphorylation is triggered in smoke-exposed lung cells by the ROS-induced activation of PKC through the action of SRC kinase. Furthermore, we identified PKC? as the PKC isoform involved in smoke-induced TACE activation and hyperproliferation of lung cells. Conclusions Our data elucidate new signaling paradigms by which tobacco smoke promotes TACE activation and hyperproliferation of lung cells. PMID:21423656

Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Sidhu, Sukhvinder S.; Mengistab, Aklilu; Gallup, Marianne

2011-01-01

360

Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy in Two African Countries: Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo  

PubMed Central

Objective To study pregnant women’s knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and exposure to advertising for and against tobacco products in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Design Prospective cross-sectional survey between November 2004 and September 2005. Setting Antenatal care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia and Kinshasa, DRC. Population Pregnant women in Zambia (909) and the DRC (847). Methods Research staff administered a structured questionnaire to pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Main Outcome Measures Pregnant women’s use of tobacco, exposure to SHS, knowledge of the harms of tobacco, and exposure to advertising for and against tobacco products. Results Only about 10% of pregnant women reported having ever tried cigarettes (6.6% Zambia; 14.1% DRC). However, in the DRC, 41.8% of pregnant women had ever tried other forms of tobacco, primarily snuff. About 10% of pregnant women and young children were frequently or always exposed to SHS. Pregnant women’s knowledge of the hazards of smoking and SHS exposure was extremely limited. About 13% of pregnant women had seen or heard advertising for tobacco products in the last 30 days. Conclusions Tobacco use and SHS exposure pose serious threats to the health of women, infants, and children. In many African countries, maternal and infant health outcomes are often poor and will likely worsen if maternal tobacco use increases. Our findings suggest that a “window of opportunity” exists to prevent increased tobacco use and SHS exposure of pregnant women in Zambia and the DRC. PMID:20230310

Chomba, Elwyn; Tshefu, Antoinette; Onyamboko, Marie; Kaseba - Sata, Christine; Moore, Janet; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moss, Nancy; Goco, Norman; Bloch, Michele; Goldenberg, Robert L

2013-01-01

361

Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. Conclusion High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed. PMID:24112218

2013-01-01

362

Predictors of Initiation of Hookah Tobacco Smoking: A One-Year Prospective Study of First-Year College Women  

PubMed Central

Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among American college students over the past decade. Hookah smoking is associated with poor health outcomes and exposes users to high levels of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Research on the correlates of hookah use has begun to emerge, but all studies thus far have been cross-sectional. Little is known about hookah use during the transition to college, psychosocial factors related to hookah smoking, or prospective predictors of hookah initiation and frequency of use. This longitudinal cohort study examined risk and protective factors predicting initiation of hookah tobacco smoking during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N = 483; 64% White) provided data on demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables and pre-college hookah use at baseline; they then completed 12 monthly online surveys about their hookah use from September 2009 to August 2010. Among the 343 participants who did not report pre-college use, 79 (23%) initiated hookah tobacco smoking during the year after college entry. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression showed that alcohol use predicted the likelihood of initiating hookah use; impulsivity, social comparison orientation, and marijuana use predicted the frequency of hookah use. These findings suggest that hookah prevention and intervention efforts may need to address other forms of substance use as well as hookah use. PMID:22564201

Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

2012-01-01

363

Predictors of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking: a one-year prospective study of first-year college women.  

PubMed

Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among American college students over the past decade. Hookah smoking is associated with poor health outcomes and exposes users to high levels of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and smoke. Research on the correlates of hookah use has begun to emerge, but all studies thus far have been cross-sectional. Little is known about hookah use during the transition to college, psychosocial factors related to hookah smoking, or prospective predictors of hookah initiation and frequency of use. This longitudinal cohort study examined risk and protective factors predicting initiation of hookah tobacco smoking during the first year of college. First-year female college students (n = 483; 64% White) provided data on demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial variables and precollege hookah use at baseline; they then completed 12 monthly online surveys about their hookah use from September 2009 to August, 2010. Among the 343 participants who did not report precollege use, 79 (23%) initiated hookah tobacco smoking during the year after college entry. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression showed that alcohol use predicted the likelihood of initiating hookah use; impulsivity, social comparison orientation, and marijuana use predicted the frequency of hookah use. These findings suggest that hookah prevention and intervention efforts may need to address other forms of substance use as well as hookah use. PMID:22564201

Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

2012-12-01

364

Exposure to nitrosamines in thirdhand tobacco smoke increases cancer risk in non-smokers.  

PubMed

In addition to passive inhalation, non-smokers, and especially children, are exposed to residual tobacco smoke gases and particles that are deposited to surfaces and dust, known as thirdhand smoke (THS). However, until now the potential cancer risks of this pathway of exposure have been highly uncertain and not considered in public health policy. In this study, we estimate for the first time the potential cancer risk by age group through non-dietary ingestion and dermal exposure to carcinogen N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) measured in house dust samples. Using a highly sensitive and selective analytical approach we have determined the presence of nicotine, eight N-nitrosamines and five tobacco-specific nitrosamines in forty-six settled dust samples from homes occupied by both smokers and non-smokers. Using observations of house dust composition, we have estimated the cancer risk by applying the most recent official toxicological information. Calculated cancer risks through exposure to the observed levels of TSNAs at an early life stage (1 to 6years old) exceeded the upper-bound risk recommended by the USEPA in 77% of smokers' and 64% of non-smokers' homes. The maximum risk from exposure to all nitrosamines measured in a smoker occupied home was one excess cancer case per one thousand population exposed. The results presented here highlight the potentially severe long-term consequences of THS exposure, particularly to children, and give strong evidence of its potential health risk and, therefore, they should be considered when developing future environmental and health policies. PMID:25036615

Ramírez, Noelia; Özel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

2014-10-01

365

Risk of Childhood Overweight after Exposure to Tobacco Smoking in Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n?=?25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n?=?3,343); exposure only postnatally (n?=?140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n?=?4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. Results Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15–1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58–1.97, respectively). Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram) revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09–1.50) compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. Conclusions Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants. PMID:25310824

Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Dalgård, Christine; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

2014-01-01

366

Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments.  

PubMed

The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2 ?g/m(3) , higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 ?g/m(3) ) compared with summer (8.0 ?g/m(3) ). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m(3) (mean 311 ng/m(3) ). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared with summer (620 vs. 85 ng/m(3) ; 95% CI: 72-998). Smoking-related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities that may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure and protect non-smokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

Arku, R E; Adamkiewicz, G; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D; Levy, D E

2015-02-01

367

An intervention to address secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among nonsmokers hospitalized with coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure increases nonsmokers' risk of coronary heart disease and worsens outcomes after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, but it is rarely addressed in inpatient cardiac care. We developed and assessed a hospital-based intervention to increase nonsmokers' awareness of SHS as a cardiovascular risk factor. Nonsmokers admitted to 2 cardiac units of a large Boston, Massachusetts, hospital were surveyed before (May 2010 to January 2011) and after (November 2011 to March 2012) a system-level nurse-delivered intervention was implemented in October 2011. It consisted of a revised admission form that prompted nurses to document SHS exposure at admission, provide a pamphlet about SHS risks, and advise nonsmokers to make their home and car smoke free. The primary outcome was patients' short-term recall of advice to keep their home and car smoke free. The secondary outcome was patients' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. We enrolled 190 nonsmokers before and 142 nonsmokers after implementation. Adjusting for group differences, patients admitted after the system change were more likely to recall being asked if a household member smokes (24% vs 10%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8 to 7.1, p=0.0002) and being advised to keep their home and car smoke free (28% vs 2%, AOR 27.3, 95% CI 7.8 to 95.7, p<0.0001). After the intervention, more patients believed that SHS exposure increased cardiovascular risk for nonsmokers (42% vs 21%, AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.4) and for themselves (39% vs 22%, AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). In conclusion, a system-level intervention in cardiac units successfully increased hospitalized nonsmokers' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. PMID:25124185

Rigotti, Nancy A; Park, Elyse R; Streck, Joanna; Chang, Yuchiao; Reyen, Michele; McKool, Kathleen; Winickoff, Jonathan P

2014-10-01

368

Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess prevalence of, and factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence in HIV patients. Design A one-day cross-sectional national survey. Methods 727 consecutive outpatients from a representative sample of 82 French units specialized in HIV-infected patient care were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, assessing smoking habits, dependence, cessation motivation, other substance abuse, socio-cultural characteristics, life with HIV and its treatment. Smoking prevalence and dependence were assessed and compared with a representative sample of the general French population; associated factors were determined. Results 593 (82%) patients completed the questionnaire, 12% were active or ex-intravenous drug users, 37% were homosexual men; 43% were active smokers (31% in the French population). Fifty-six percent of smokers were classified as moderately or highly dependent, 14% of smokers were highly motivated and free of other substance abuse and of depressive symptoms. Smoking was independently associated with male sex (OR=2.38; 95% CI: 0.99–1.11), BMI (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.14-1.03), smoking environment (OR=4.75; 95% CI: 3.02–7.49), excessive alcohol consumption (OR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.20–5.23), illicit drug use (OR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.41–4.19), HIV status disclosure to family (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.16–2.85) and experience of rejection due to disclosure (OR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.14–3.17). Disclosure and drug substitutes’ usage were associated with high tobacco dependence. Conclusions Tobacco smoking is frequent and associated with other substance use and HIV disclosure. The rate of smokers who would be good candidates for a standard tobacco cessation program appears very low. Tobacco reduction or cessation strategies should be adapted to this population. PMID:18572752

Duval, Xavier; Baron, Gabriel; Garelik, Daniel; Villes, Virginie; Dupré, Thierry; Leport, Catherine; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Ravaud, Philippe; Spire, Bruno

2008-01-01

369

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

370

MODELING OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO IN-VEHICLE PM2.5 FROM ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE  

PubMed Central

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to be a significant contributor to in-vehicle human exposure to fine particulate matter of 2.5 µm or smaller (PM2.5). A critical assessment was conducted of a mass balance model for estimating PM2.5 concentration with smoking in a motor vehicle. Recommendations for the range of inputs to the mass-balance model are given based on literature review. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for data collection. Air exchange rate (ACH) and the deposition rate have wider relative ranges of variation than other inputs, representing inter-individual variability in operations, and inter-vehicle variability in performance, respectively. Cigarette smoking and emission rates, and vehicle interior volume, are also key inputs. The in-vehicle ETS mass balance model was incorporated into the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model to quantify the potential magnitude and variability of in-vehicle exposures to ETS. The in-vehicle exposure also takes into account near-road incremental PM2.5 concentration from on-road emissions. Results of probabilistic study indicate that ETS is a key contributor to the in-vehicle average and high-end exposure. Factors that mitigate in-vehicle ambient PM2.5 exposure lead to higher in-vehicle ETS exposure, and vice versa. PMID:23060732

Cao, Ye; Frey, H. Christopher

2012-01-01

371

A Multilevel-Based Study of School Policy for Tobacco Control in Relation to Cigarette Smoking among Children in Elementary Schools: Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim was to comprehensively examine school-based tobacco policy status, implementation and students' perceived smoking at school in regard to gender-specific differences in smoking behavior. We conducted a multilevel-based study to assess two-level effects for smoking among 2350 grades three to six students in 26 randomly selected elementary…

Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Fu-Li; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Shi, Hon-Yi; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lee, Chien-Hung

2010-01-01

372

Effects of smoking marijuana, tobacco or cocaine alone or in combination on dna damage in human alveolar macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of marijuana smoking in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer by measuring DNA damage in alveolar macrophages (AM). The alkaline unwinding method was used to determine DNA single-strand breaks in AM lavaged from non-smokers [NS] and smokers of marijuana [MS], tobacco [TS] or cocaine [CS], either alone or in combination. DNA damage was related to

Michael P. Sherman; Ernesto E. Aeberhard; Vivian Z. Wong; Michael S. Simmons; Michael D. Roth; Donald P. Tashkin

1995-01-01

373

Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

2009-01-01

374

ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE IN CHILDREN: AN APPLICATION TO CONTINUOUS LUNG FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this study is to estimate an unbiased exposure effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on children's continuous lung function. A majority of the evidence from health studies suggests that ETS exposure in early life contributes significantly to childhood ...

375

Tobacco Use, Secondhand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy, May Threaten Health of Women and Children in Developing Nations  

Cancer.gov

Findings from a National Institutes of Health (NIH) study indicate that rates of tobacco use during pregnancy, as well as exposure of pregnant women and their young children to secondhand smoke, are significant threats to health in several low and middle-income countries.

376

A Comprehensive Mixture of Tobacco Smoke Components Retards Orthodontic Tooth Movement via the Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs) attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC) inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days. TSC administration effectively retarded tooth movement since day 4. Histological evaluation disclosed that tooth movement induced bone resorption at two sites: in the bone marrow and the peripheral bone near the root. TSC administration significantly reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells in the bone marrow cavity of the PC-treated dentition. An in vitro study indicated that the inhibitory effects of TSCs on osteoclastogenesis seemed directed more toward preosteoclasts than osteoblasts. These results indicate that the comprehensive mixture of TSCs might be a useful tool for detailed verification of the adverse effects of tobacco smoke, possibly contributing to the development of reliable treatments in various fields associated with bone resorption. PMID:25322153

Nagaie, Maya; Nishiura, Aki; Honda, Yoshitomo; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

2014-01-01

377

Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008  

PubMed Central

The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

Jarosz, Miros?aw; Seku?a, W?odzimierz

2013-01-01

378

[The awareness of carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke--a questionnaire survey of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University].  

PubMed

Smoking is currently the most significant risk factor for health according to WHO statements. It has been proven that smoking is the cause of many diseases, for example cardiovascular and respiratory tract diseases as well as impaired fertility and decreased immunity. The adverse effects of cigarette smoking on pregnancy and health of children were also proved. However, special attention is laid on impact of smoking on the development of cancer. In tobacco smoke there are over 4,000 different chemical substances and compounds, of which more than 50 are carcinogens. The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (CM UMK), first on number and types of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke and secondly on types of diseases caused by smoking. There were 480 responders included to the study(253 women and 227 men). Among them there were 416 students of CM UMK, 59 students of biomedical engineering at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz and 5 employees of CM UMK. Among the respondents there was considerable ignorance about the number of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke with over 50% of them indicating the incorrect answer. Among the carcinogens there were mentioned mostly tar and nicotine, and among the diseases caused by tobacco smoke most often pointed response there were lung and larynx cancer and heart and blood vessels diseases and to reduce the weight of newborns. In summary, we can conclude that the awareness of students and employees of CM UMK about the carcinogenic properties of tobacco smoke was not sufficient. Respondents were aware of the dangers of smoking, they knew the basic carcinogenic substances and pointed a few diseases caused by smoking cigarettes. Unfortunately their knowledge does not refer to a number of diseases which in common believe are not connected to cigarette smoking, but in fact tobacco smoke is very important for their development. PMID:23421057

Seget, Monika; Karolczak, Dominika; Wilk, Magdalena; B?aszczyk, Agata; Szylberg, ?ukasz; Florek, Ewa; Marsza?ek, Andrzej

2012-01-01

379

Smokeless Tobacco  

MedlinePLUS

Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

380

Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking comorbidity: nAChR agonists in the treatment of schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Very high rates of tobacco smoking are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Importantly, smokers with schizophrenia generally have higher nicotine dependence scores, experience more severe withdrawal symptoms upon smoking cessation, have lower cessation rates than healthy individuals, and suffer from significant smoking-related morbidity and premature mortality compared with the general population. Interestingly, significant disturbances in cholinergic function are reported in schizophrenia patients. The high smoking-schizophrenia comorbidity observed in schizophrenia patients may be an attempt to compensate for this cholinergic dysfunction. Cholinergic neurotransmission plays an important role in cognition and is hypothesized to play an important role in schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits. In this review, preclinical evidence highlighting the beneficial effects of nicotine and subtype-selective nicotinic receptor agonists in schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits, such as working memory and attention, is discussed. Furthermore, some of the challenges involved in the development of procognitive medications, particularly subtype-selective nicotinic receptor agonists, are also discussed. Amelioration of schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits may help in the treatment of schizophrenia-smoking comorbidity by promoting smoking cessation and thus help in the better management of schizophrenia patients. PMID:21288470

D’Souza, Manoranjan S.; Markou, Athina

2011-01-01

381

Battling Tobacco Use at Home: An Analysis of Smoke-Free Home Rules Among US Veterans From 2001 to 2011  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined national trends in smoke-free home rules among US veterans and nonveterans. Methods. We used data from the 2001–2002 and 2010–2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey to estimate and compare the existence of smoke-free home rules among veterans and nonveterans for each survey period. Results. The prevalence of a complete smoke-free home rule among veterans increased from 64.0% to 79.7% between 2001 and 2011 (P?smoke-free home rules, veterans lag behind the rest of the US population. Interventions promoting the adoption of complete smoke-free home rules are necessary to protect veterans and their families and to reduce disparities. PMID:25100423

Zhang, Xiao; Cook, Jessica; Piper, Megan E.; Berg, Kristin; Jones, Nathan R.

2014-01-01

382

Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction  

PubMed Central

1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

2013-01-01

383

Impact of plain packaging of tobacco products on smoking in adults and children: an elicitation of international experts’ estimates  

PubMed Central

Background Governments sometimes face important decisions in the absence of direct evidence. In these cases, expert elicitation methods can be used to quantify uncertainty. We report the results of an expert elicitation study regarding the likely impact on smoking rates in adults and children of plain packaging of tobacco products. Methods Thirty-three tobacco control experts were recruited from the UK (n?=?14), Australasia (n?=?12) and North America (n?=?7). Experts’ estimates were individually elicited via telephone interviews, and then linearly pooled. Elicited estimates consisted of (1) the most likely, (2) the highest possible, and (3) the lowest possible value for the percentage of (a) adult smokers and (b) children trying smoking, two years after the introduction of plain packaging (all other things being constant) in a target country in the expert’s region of residence. Results The median estimate for the impact on adult smoking prevalence was a 1 percentage point decline (99% range 2.25 to 0), and for the percentage of children trying smoking was a 3 percentage point decline (99% range 6.1 to 0), the latter estimated impact being larger than the former (P?smoking rates in adults and children, this study shows that tobacco control experts felt the most likely outcomes would be a reduction in smoking prevalence in adults, and a greater reduction in the numbers of children trying smoking, although there was substantial variability in the estimated size of these impacts. No experts judged an increase in smoking as a likely outcome. PMID:23302325

2013-01-01

384

Impact of Reduced Tobacco Smoking on Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States During 1975–2000  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable effort has been expended on tobacco control strategies in the United States since the mid-1950s. However, we have little quantitative information on how changes in smoking behaviors have impacted lung cancer mortality. We quantified the cumulative impact of changes in smoking behaviors that started in the mid-1950s on lung cancer mortality in the United States over the period 1975–2000. Methods A consortium of six groups of investigators used common inputs consisting of simulated cohort-wise smoking histories for the birth cohorts of 1890 through 1970 and independent models to estimate the number of US lung cancer deaths averted during 1975–2000 as a result of changes in smoking behavior that began in the mid-1950s. We also estimated the number of deaths that could have been averted had tobacco control been completely effective in eliminating smoking after the Surgeon General’s first report on Smoking and Health in 1964. Results Approximately 795?851 US lung cancer deaths were averted during the period 1975–2000: 552?574 among men and 243 277 among women. In the year 2000 alone, approximately 70?218 lung cancer deaths were averted: 44?135 among men and 26?083 among women. However, these numbers are estimated to represent approximately 32% of lung cancer deaths that could have potentially been averted during the period 1975–2000, 38% of the lung cancer deaths that could have been averted in 1991–2000, and 44% of lung cancer deaths that could have been averted in 2000. Conclusions Our results reflect the cumulative impact of changes in smoking behavior since the 1950s. Despite a large impact of changing smoking behaviors on lung cancer deaths, lung cancer remains a major public health problem. Continued efforts at tobacco control are critical to further reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:22423009

Holford, Theodore R.; Levy, David T.; Kong, Chung Yin; Foy, Millenia; Clarke, Lauren; Jeon, Jihyoun; Hazelton, William D.; Meza, Rafael; Schultz, Frank; McCarthy, William; Boer, Robert; Gorlova, Olga; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kimmel, Marek; McMahon, Pamela M.; de Koning, Harry J.; Feuer, Eric J.

2012-01-01

385

[Oral hygiene habits among tobacco-smoking and non-smoking students of the Medical University of Lublin--chosen aspects].  

PubMed

Among several etiologic factors for dental caries and periodontal diseases we can find dental plaque that forms on the teeth surfaces and prosthetic appliances. Elimination of dental plaque by proper oral hygiene procedures is crucial in caries and periodontal disease prevention. The aim of the study was evaluation of tobacco smoking prevalence among dental students of the Medical University of Lublin and the comparative analysis of oral hygiene habits among smoking and nonsmoking students. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 112 students of the Medical University of Lublin during the second, third, fourth and fifth year of their studies. The students were 20-28 years of age. The questions concerned cigarettes smoking habit and the ways of maintaining oral hygiene. Respondents were divided into smoking and non-smoking group. Statistical analysis was carried out. Obtained results were sent to statistical analysis. Cigarette smoking was reported by 16.67% of surveyed students. No significant differences between smoking and non-smoking students were stated in frequency of brushing, changing the toothbrush, density of toothbrush filaments, using manual and power toothbrush, using whitening toothpastes and frequency of using dental floss and toothpicks. Statistically significant difference was noted in gum chewing habit--smoking students chewed the gum more frequently (83.33%) than non-smoking students (40%). Significant differences occurred also in frequency of professional removal of dental deposits. Calculus removal performed twice a year was reported by 50% of smoking students, comparing with 17.8% of nonsmoking students. 37.78% of nonsmoking students declared professional teeth cleaning performed more often than twice a year comparing with 11.11% of respondents from the smokers group (p < 0.05). PMID:21365798

Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Strycharz-Dudziak, Ma?gorzata; Koby?ecka, Elzbieta

2010-01-01

386

In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex factors that shape tobacco control practices in the mental health field and reinforces the need to see practice change as a matter that extends beyond the individual. The study findings highlight discourses structured by power and powerlessness in environments in which health care providers are both imposing and resisting the smoke free policy. PMID:20667105

2010-01-01

387

An Exploration of Ethnic, Immigration and Acculturation Differences on Tobacco Smoking Among Public High School Girls in Hawai‘i  

PubMed Central

This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai‘i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai‘i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai‘i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai‘i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai‘i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese. PMID:24470981

St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila

2014-01-01

388

An exploration of ethnic, immigration and acculturation differences on tobacco smoking among public high school girls in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study explores the differences in ethnicity, sex, immigration (place of birth of student and parents), and acculturation (based on language spoken at home) on current cigarette smoking among public high school students in Hawai'i, and especially examine if this affected smoking among girls. Previous behavior risk surveys of youth in Hawai'i showed higher smoking rates among girls, although these were not found to be statistically significant differences. Multiple years of data were compiled from the Hawai'i Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) for years 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011, for a total sample size of N=5,527. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of current cigarette smoking (in the past 30 days) in relation to a variety of factors. The analysis revealed that Hawai'i-specific ethnicity, grade, and sex were all significant predictors of smoking. Girls whose mothers were born in Hawai'i or in another United States state were more likely to smoke than those whose mothers were born in a foreign country. The model showed girls were more likely to smoke than boys. Eleventh and twelfth graders were more likely to smoke than ninth graders. Whites, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Other ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than those who identified themselves as Japanese. PMID:24470981

Pobutsky, Ann; St John, Tonya Lowery; Urabe, Chelsi N; Li, Fenfang; Johnson, Lila

2014-01-01

389

Pro-inflammatory effects of metals in persons and animals exposed to tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Metals present in tobacco smoke have the ability to cause a pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance through the direct generation of free radicals in accordance with the Fenton or Haber-Weiss reaction and redox properties. Metals can also interact with antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and small molecular antioxidants (glutathione) through binding to SH groups or by replacement of metals ions in the catalytic center of enzymes. Excessive free radicals production can induce an inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to review the information on the induction of inflammation by metals present in tobacco smoke such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni) and mercury (Hg). In cellular immune response, it was demonstrated that radicals induced by metals can disrupt the transcription signaling pathway mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (induced by Pb), NLRP3-ASC-caspase 1 (induced by Ni), tyrosine kinase Src (induced by As) and the nuclear factor ?B (induced by Pb, Ni, Hg). The result of this is a gene transcription for early inflammatory cytokines, such as Interleukine 1?, Interleukine 6, and Tumor necrosis factor ?). These cytokines can cause leukocytes recruitment and secretions of other pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which intensifies the inflammatory response. Some metals, such as cadmium (Cd), can activate an inflammatory response through tissue damage induction mediated by free radicals, which also results in leukocytes recruitment and cytokines secretions. Inflammation generated by metals can be reduced by metallothionein, which has the ability to scavenge free radicals and bind toxic metals through the release of Zn and oxidation of SH groups. PMID:24916792

Milnerowicz, Halina; Sciskalska, Milena; Dul, Magdalena

2015-01-01

390

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

2014-01-01

391

"Anti-smoking data are exaggerated" versus "the data are clear and indisputable": examining letters to the editor about tobacco.  

PubMed

Media advocacy plays a unique role in tobacco control policy development. Letters to the editor in particular are an interesting form of media advocacy because they reflect community sentiment regarding the policy agenda and provide insight into the public debate. The authors used ethnographic context analysis to examine the techniques used by writers of 262 tobacco-related letters to the editor published in 61 newspapers across Missouri over a 2-year period when tobacco tax and smoke-free indoor air initiatives were occurring across the state. The authors found that pro-tobacco control letter writers often used didactic strategies, citing numbers and reports, to convey information and presented their training or experience as a health professional (e.g., M.D., Ph.D.) to add legitimacy to their arguments. Anti-tobacco control letter writers, in contrast, used narrative strategies to support their stance, claimed authority as a smoker or small business owner to legitimize their claims by relating to the audience, and used collectivity to capture the attention of policymakers. These results present the importance of strategic media advocacy in tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates should increase their use of narrative strategies and collectivity in order to better connect with the public and policymakers. PMID:22376195

Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine K; Israel, Kendre; Schell, Sarah; Mohr, Anneke

2012-01-01

392

Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren.  

PubMed Central

Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers' smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers' (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers' smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers' smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health. PMID:3929967

Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

1985-01-01

393

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Infertility and early pregnancy loss are prevalent as is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (STS). Previous research has suggested a relationship between STS exposure and early pregnancy loss, but studies have been limited by small study sizes and/or imprecise methods for exposure estimation. IVF allows for the collection of follicular fluid (FF), the fluid surrounding the pre-ovulatory oocyte, which may be a more biologically relevant sample media than urine or serum in studies of early reproduction. METHODS In a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we measured cotinine in FF collected during 3270 IVF treatment cycles from 1909 non-smoking women between 1994 and 2003 to examine the relationship between STS exposure and implantation failure. RESULTS In adjusted models, we found a significant increase in the risk of implantation failure among women exposed to STS compared with those unexposed [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–1.92; risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.10–1.25]. We also found a significant decrease in the odds for a live birth among STS-exposed women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.99; RR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Female STS exposure, estimated through the measurement of cotinine in FF, is associated with an increased risk of implantation failure and reduced odds of a live birth. PMID:21771769

Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vahratian, Anjel; Berry, Katharine F.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

2011-01-01

394

Tracers for assessing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: what are they tracing?  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of various tracers for measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a complex chemical mixture is based on the physicochemical properties of four major organic components and their dynamic behavior in indoor environments. For the particulate matter (PM) component and the very volatile organic compounds, emission and ventilation rates are generally the most important processes controlling indoor concentrations and exposures of nonsmokers. For the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), sorption on and desorption from indoor surfaces are additional processes that influence exposures. Laboratory and modeling studies of the dynamic behavior of nicotine, an SVOC, and PM indicate that nicotine can be used to estimate PM exposures from ETS in indoor environments when certain criteria are met: (italic>a(/italic>) smoking occurs regularly in the environment, (italic>b(/italic>) the system is near quasi-steady state, and (italic>c(/italic>) sampling time is longer than the characteristic times for removal processes. Measurements in residential and workplace buildings also support the use of nicotine as a tracer for PM in ETS. Recent laboratory and field data indicate that the VOCs from ETS can be traced using compounds with similar physicochemical properties, such as 3-ethenylpyridine, pyrrole, or pyridine. The effectiveness of nicotine for estimating exposures to the VOCs and SVOCs has not been determined, although these constitute major mass fractions of ETS. PMID:10350517

Daisey, J M

1999-01-01

395

Trends in Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Blood Lead Levels Among Youths and Adults in the United States: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2008  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tobacco smoke is a source of exposure to thousands of toxic chemicals including lead, a chemical of longstanding public health concern. We assessed trends in blood lead levels in youths and adults with cotinine-verified tobacco smoke exposure by using 10 years of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Geometric mean levels of blood lead are presented for increasing levels of tobacco smoke exposure. Regression models for lead included age, race/ethnicity, poverty, survey year, sex, age of home, birth country, and, for adults, alcohol consumption. Lead levels were evaluated for smokers and nonsmokers on the basis of age of residence and occupation. Results Positive trend tests indicate that a linear relationship exists between smoke exposure and blood lead levels in youths and adults and that secondhand smoke exposure contributes to blood lead levels above the level caused by smoking. Conclusion Youths with secondhand smoke exposure had blood lead levels suggestive of the potential for adverse cognitive outcomes. Despite remediation efforts in housing and the environment and declining smoking rates and secondhand smoke exposure in the United States, tobacco smoke continues to be a substantial source of exposure to lead in vulnerable populations and the population in general. PMID:24355106

Bishop, Ellen E.; Wang, Jiantong; Kaufmann, Rachel

2013-01-01

396

Cardiac and pulmonary anaphylaxis in guinea pigs and rabbits induced by glycoprotein isolated from tobacco leaves and cigarette smoke condensate  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for heart attack. The pathologic mechanisms responsible for this association are obscure. It has been reported that approximately one-third of human volunteers, smokers and nonsmokers, exhibit immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity to a glycoprotein antigen (TGP) purified from cured tobacco leaves and present in cigarette smoke. It is also known that the heart is a primary target organ for anaphylactic reaction in many animals, including primates. In experiments described herein anaphylaxis was induced in the isolated hearts and lungs of rabbits and guinea pigs previously sensitized by immunization with TGP and challenged with TGP isolated from either tobacco leaf or cigarette smoke condensate. Cardiac anaphylaxis was characterized by sinus tachycardia, decreased contractility, decreased coronary perfusion accompanied by hypoxic electrocardiographic changes, and a variety of rhythm disturbances, including idioventricular tachyarrhythmias. These observations suggest that allergic reactions to tobacco constituents may initiate cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death in some smokers and may, in part, underly the association between cigarette smoking and heart attack.

Levi, R.; Zavecz, J.H.; Burke, J.A.; Becker, C.G.

1982-03-01

397

Making it harder to smoke and easier to quit: the effect of 10 years of tobacco control in New York City.  

PubMed

In 2002, New York City implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan that discouraged smoking through excise taxes and smoke-free air laws and facilitated quitting through population-wide cessation services and hard-hitting media campaigns. Following the implementation of these activities through a well-funded and politically supported program, the adult smoking rate declined by 28% from 2002 to 2012, and the youth smoking rate declined by 52% from 2001 to 2011. These improvements indicate that local jurisdictions can have a significant positive effect on tobacco control. PMID:24825232

Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Johns, Michael; Coady, Micaela H; Perl, Sarah B; Goodman, Andrew; Kansagra, Susan M

2014-06-01

398

Air pollution, fetal and infant tobacco smoke exposure, and wheezing in preschool children: a population-based prospective birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Air pollution is associated with asthma exacerbations. We examined the associations of exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the risk of wheezing in preschool children, and assessed whether these associations were modified by tobacco smoke exposure. Methods This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study among 4,634 children. PM10 and NO2 levels were estimated for the home addresses using dispersion modeling. Annual parental reports of wheezing until the age of 3 years and fetal and infant tobacco smoke exposure was obtained by questionnaires. Results Average annual PM10 or NO2 exposure levels per year were not associated with wheezing in the same year. Longitudinal analyses revealed non-significant tendencies towards positive associations of PM10 or NO2 exposure levels with wheezing during the first 3 years of life (overall odds ratios (95% confidence interval): 1.21 (0.79, 1.87) and 1.06 (0.92, 1.22)) per 10 ?g/m3 increase PM10 and NO2, respectively). Stratified analyses showed that the associations were stronger and only significant among children who were exposed to both fetal and infant tobacco smoke (overall odds ratios 4.54 (1.17, 17.65) and 1.85 (1.15, 2.96)) per 10 ?g/m3 increase PM10 and NO2, respectively (p-value for interactions <0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that long term exposure to traffic-related air pollutants is associated with increased risks of wheezing in children exposed to tobacco smoke in fetal life and infancy. Smoke exposure in early life might lead to increased vulnerability of the lungs to air pollution. PMID:23231783

2012-01-01