Sample records for pipe tobacco smoking

  1. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F.; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K.; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. Methods: A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Results: Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07–0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500–999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. <250 JD monthly, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.31–4.31). There were also significant associations between perception of harm and addictiveness and each outcome. Discussion: Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan. PMID:20418383

  2. Tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Wynder, E L; Hoffmann, D

    1976-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a causal relation between smoking of cigarettes and cancer of the lung in man. Women smokers, cigar, and pipe smokers also face an increased risk for lung cancer. Prospective and retrospective studies have found a correlation between smoking of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus and for cigarette smokers increased risks to develop cancer of the pancreas, kidney, and urinary bladder. Dose responses have been established between number of cigarettes smoked and cancer of the respiratory and upper digestive tract. Tobacco chewers face an increased risk for cancer of the mouth and esophagus. Tobacco smoke has induced tumors of the lung in the dogs and of the larynx of hamsters. The particulate matter of the smoke is carcinogenic to the skin of mice and rabbits, and the bronchi and connective tissue of rats. In tobacco smoke were identified tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens and organ specific carcinogens. Chewing tobacco is a tumor promoting agent and contains traces of tobacco specific and carcinogenic nitrosamines. Ten to 15 yr after giving up smoking the ex-smoker faces the same low risk to develop cancer of the upper digestive tract, the lung, the pancreas, and the urinary tract as the nonsmoker. It should be our goal, therefore, to prevent young people from starting the smoking habit and to convince the smoker to quit smoking. So far, we can report no success in terms of decreasing smoking habits among younger people. On the other hand, we can take satisfaction from the fact that antismoking propaganda has had an effect on college educated males, that among the population as a whole, there is a considerable number of exsmokers; that smoking cessation clinics do prove cost effective and if they were to become part of every health care center, they could help a large number of heavy smokers who cannot seem to stop smoking on their own. We can also report that there has been a significant reduction in the tar yield of American cigarettes, a reduction which we hope will continue; that the tumorigenic activity of tobacco as measured in animal studies, has decreased; and that as a consequence of the above, the risk of lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers among smokers of these cigarettes is lower than in years past. It is unlikely that man will ever be able to inhale smoke components as harmless as unpolluted air, but as long as we have a society which accepts this habit and as long as people find satisfaction in smoking, we must work towards the day when tobacco-related cancers and other diseases will be reduced to a minimum. With the world wide coperation of the scientific community, the Departments of Agriculture, and the tobacco industry, it is our hope that this goal will be achieved. PMID:982079

  3. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking initiation (adjusted odds ratios: 2.56; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47 and 3.73; 95% CI, 1.43-9.76, respectively), current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratios: 2.48; 95% CI, 1.01-6.06 and 6.19; 95% CI, 1.86-20.56, respectively), and higher intensity of cigarette smoking (adjusted proportional odds ratios: 2.55; 95% CI, 1.48-4.38 and 4.45; 95% CI, 1.75-11.27, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus independently predicted the onset of cigarette smoking and current cigarette smoking at follow-up. Comprehensive Food and Drug Administration regulation of these tobacco products may limit their appeal to youth and curb the onset of cigarette smoking. PMID:25485959

  4. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  5. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePLUS

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  6. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand. PMID:25677592

  7. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review Abstract This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  10. The Politics of the Pipe: Clay Pipes and Tobacco Consumption in Galway, Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Hartnett

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, clay pipes and the historical record are used to explore the illicit importation of tobacco in seventeenth-century Galway, Ireland. This is part of a wider tradition of the politics of smoking, including the proliferation of the clay pipe, the widespread smuggling of tobacco, and the overtly political nineteenth-century pipes that touted nationalist emblems. Here, the juxtaposition of

  11. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional definition of an “epidemic” has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a “global “epidemic””. This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Method: Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an “epidemic” and “prevalence” to the myth of “nicotine “addiction”” and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). Results: We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, “meta-analyses” and “systematic reviews”- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same “protocol”. We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. Conclusion: the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of being stifled. PMID:25861403

  12. Jamaican red clay tobacco pipes 

    E-print Network

    Heidtke, Kenan Paul

    1992-01-01

    -made earthenware tobacco pipes has only been undertaken in the last few years. These red clay pipes occur at several colonial sites in North America, the Caribbean, and South America. This thesis will be a detailed study of the red clay pipes found in Jamaica... used on the pipes, and to offer possible explanations for the markings and stylistic attributes of the pipes. Locally made earthenware pipes from other colonial sites in the New World will also be examined to identify possible parallels...

  13. [Carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Starek, Andrzej; Podolak, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies provide evidence of the dose-effect relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked and lung cancer risk, exposure to tar or tobacco smoke and skin cancers or squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea and lung. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile N-nitrosamines, and also tobacco specific N-nitrosamines are considered to be the major carcinogens in tobacco smoke. To exert carcinogenic effect these compounds require previous metabolic activation by biotransformation enzymes. Individual susceptibility to chemical carcinogens is genotype and phenotype dependent. Machine-measured yields of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo[a]pyrene and N-nitrosonornicotine in cigarette smoke are significantly lower than actual intake by smokers. The following features have significant influence on the tobacco smoke composition, cancer risk and other disease risks relative to cigarette smoking: tobacco type and its modifications and also nitrate content in tobacco. Tobacco additives, including ammonia releasing substances, do not contribute to cigarette smoke composition and its toxicity. Filters, paper porosity, cigarette length and circumference as well as the number of tobacco cuts per inch (whether it is coarse-cut or fine-cut tobacco) are of primary significance for the chemical composition of cigarette smoke and health risk. PMID:20361554

  14. [Tobacco smoking and drug interactions].

    PubMed

    Molden, Espen; Spigset, Olav

    2009-03-26

    Tobacco smoking increases the turnover of many drugs due to induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Smokers therefore require higher doses of agents such as clozapine, olanzapine and theophylline than non- smokers. Enzyme induction declines after smoking cessation and without concomitant dose reduction there is an increased risk of adverse effects. PMID:19337332

  15. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Godish

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of

  16. Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Shihadeh

    2003-01-01

    A first-generation smoking machine and protocol have been developed in order to study the mainstream smoke aerosol and elucidate thermal-fluid processes of the argileh water pipe. Results using a common mo'assel tobacco mixture show that, contrary to popular perceptions, the mainstream smoke contains significant amounts of nicotine, “tar” and heavy metals. With a standard smoking protocol of 100 puffs of

  17. Encyclopedia of Smoking and Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfelder, Arlene B.

    This encyclopedia presents an extensive listing of current and historical information relating to tobacco. It aims to provide accurate, current, and balanced information to people of all viewpoints and on both sides of the smoking debate. The A-to-Z format makes a vast amount of current information easily accessible. Over 600 entries are complied…

  18. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Godish, T.

    1989-08-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. 18 references.

  19. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of e...

  20. Neurobehavioral effects of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Benignus, V.A.

    1987-05-01

    In order to try to predict effects of environmental tobacco smoke, neurobehavioral effects of mainstream smoke were reviewed and, in conjunction with what is known about body uptake of components of environmental tobacco smoke, conjectures were made about the probable effect of environmental tobacco smoke. Effects of mainstream smoke differ in smokers and nonsmokers. Mainstream smoke has a beneficial effect on vigilance in habitual smokers. The effect in nonsmokers is less clear and may be disruptive. In both smokers and nonsmokers mainstream smoke produces increased tremor and reduced fine motor skills. The neurobehaviorally active substances in mainstream smoke appear to be nicotine and carbon monoxide. It appears that COHb is the more important consequence of environmental tobacco smoke for neurobehavioral effects, since nicotine levels in nonsmokers only reach a small fraction of those in smokers.

  1. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  2. Identification of Nicotine by Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Smoking Pipe Residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Rafferty

    2002-01-01

    Ethnographic sources show the spiritual importance of tobacco in Native American Societies. Archaeological evidence, such as Early Woodland Period smoking pipes, indicate that this spiritual function has been maintained for thousands of years. However, ethnobotanical research on the prehistory of tobacco smoking in Eastern North America has been hampered by a lack of direct evidence prior to the Middle Woodland

  3. Smoking, Tobacco & Health: A Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health Promotion and Education (CDC), Rockville, MD. Office on Smoking and Health.

    This document presents an update of a fact book first published by the Public Health Service in 1969. It deals with the medical, social, and economic aspects of cigarette smoking and identifies cigarette smoking as the chief preventable cause of death in the United States. The first section, Smoking, Tobacco & Health, examines trends in cigarette…

  4. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Background Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. While many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Methods Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14-91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOC. Conclusion Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Impact Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:24836469

  5. Cadmium in tobacco and its fate during smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Petering, H.G.; Menden, E.E.; Michael, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Using a smoking machine, reference cigarettes, a commercial brand of nonfilter 85-millimeter cigarettes, a medium-priced cigar, and a popular brand of pipe tobacco, both wet-ashing and dry-ashing procedures were carried out to determine the cadmium content to which smokers were being exposed. Cigarettes varied from 1.31 to 1.28 micrograms (microg) of cadmium per cigarette, which corresponded to 1.17 to 1.62 microg per gram (g) of cigarette. For cigar tobacco a total of 1.86 microg/g was found and in pipe tobacco the content was 0.93 microg/g. Only 6 to 7% of the cadmium in the smoked portion of the cigarette appeared in the tar, while the unsmoked butts were enriched with 10 to 27% of the cadmium of the smoked portions. The authors suggest that the remaining cadmium, 50 to 55%, is lost in the sidestream during smoking and between puffs. This indicated that not only is the one smoking at risk from cadmium exposure, but so are the others present in the vicinity.

  6. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila

    2011-02-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and continued use among their adolescent patients. PMID:21232693

  7. Whole tobacco smoke extracts to model tobacco dependence in animals.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Katharine A; Laugesen, Murray; Truman, Penelope

    2014-11-01

    Smoking tobacco is highly addictive and a leading preventable cause of death. The main addictive constituent is nicotine; consequently it has been administered to laboratory animals to model tobacco dependence. Despite extensive use, this model might not best reflect the powerful nature of tobacco dependence because nicotine is a weak reinforcer, the pharmacology of smoke is complex and non-pharmacological factors have a critical role. These limitations have led researchers to expose animals to smoke via the inhalative route, or to administer aqueous smoke extracts to produce more representative models. The aim was to review the findings from molecular/behavioural studies comparing the effects of nicotine to tobacco/smoke extracts to determine whether the extracts produce a distinct model. Indeed, nicotine and tobacco extracts yielded differential effects, supporting the initiative to use extracts as a complement to nicotine. Of the behavioural tests, intravenous self-administration experiments most clearly revealed behavioural differences between nicotine and extracts. Thus, future applications for use of this behavioural model were proposed that could offer new insights into tobacco dependence. PMID:25064817

  8. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... pneumonia Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention "Light" Tobacco = Heavy Health Risks Federal law restricts the ...

  9. Tobacco smoking, cancer and social class

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Stellmen; K. Resnicow

    Consumption of tobacco products, both by smoking and by other means, has long been causally connected with cancers of the lung, larynx, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, bladder, and many other sites. Tobacco is the main specific contributor to total mortality in many developed countries and has become a major contributor in the developing countries as well. In most industrialized countries,

  10. Household Smoking Restrictions and Adolescents' Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois Biener; Doris Cullen; Zhu Xiao Di; S. Katharine Hammond

    1997-01-01

    Background.Reducing adolescents' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an important public health goal. This paper identifies the linkage between young people's exposure at home and household smoking restrictions, and suggests the promotion of such restrictions as a strategy to reduce health risks.Methods.Data are from the 1993 Massachusetts Tobacco Survey, a telephone survey of 1,606 adolescents.Results.Seventy-eight percent of adolescents reported

  11. Cooking smoke and tobacco smoke as risk factors for stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vinod; Retherford, Robert D; Smith, Kirk R

    2005-12-01

    Smoke from biomass combustion produces some of the same pollutants found in tobacco smoke and ambient air, yet only one study to date has linked cooking with biomass fuels to increased risk of stillbirth. The mechanisms by which biomass smoke may cause stillbirth are through exposure to CO and particulates in biomass smoke. Using information on 19,189 ever-married women aged 40-49 included in India's 1998-99 National Family Health Survey, we examined the association between household use of biomass fuels (wood, dung, and crop residues), tobacco smoke (both active and passive), and risk of stillbirth. Data were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression after controlling for several potentially confounding factors. Results indicate that, with other factors controlled, women who cook with biomass fuels are significantly more likely to have experienced a stillbirth than those who cook with cleaner fuels (OR= 1.44; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.97). Women who cook with biofuels are twice as likely to have experienced two or more stillbirths as those who cook with cleaner fuels (RRR= 2.01; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.62). The adjusted effect of active tobacco smoking is also positive (OR = 1.23) but not statistically significant. No effect of passive smoking was found, nor was there evidence of any modifying effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16506434

  12. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:10224986

  13. [Polonium: the radioactive killer from tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Among all carcinogenic substances contained in tobacco smoke, Polonium 210 (Po-210), with a half-life of 138 days, is one of the most dangerous, by exerting a devastating, chronic, slow and progressive carcinogenesis activity. The main source of Po-210 in tobacco is represented by fertilizers (polyphosphates) containing radium-226 (Ra-222) which decades to plumb 210 (Pb-210). Through the thricomes Pb-210 is concentrated in the tobacco leaves, where it turns to Po-210, which at the cigarette combustion temperature (800-900 degrees C) reaches the gaseous state and it is absorbed by the micro particles released into tobacco smoke. Thus, smoke becomes radioactive in both its gaseous and corpuscular components and reaches the airways, where, particularly at the branches level and together with other substances, it exerts its carcinogenic activity, especially in those subjects with impaired respiratory mucosal clearance. The carcinogenic risk/one year lifetime of a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day is equivalent to that of undertaking 300 chest x-rays. It is calculated that Po-210 may be independently responsible of 4 lung cancers every 10,000 smokers. During cigarette's combustion, tobacco smoke is also released in the air, contributing to serious health risks for those exposed to passive smoke. PMID:19186689

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantine I Vardavas; Barbara Kondilis; Mark J Travers; Elisabeth Petsetaki; Yiannis Tountas; Anthony G Kafatos

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of

  15. Cardiovascular sequelae of tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Rempher, Kenneth J

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has been implicated in sudden cardiac death. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity, and smoking are the leading contributors to poor cardiovascular health. This article reviews the cardiovascular pathology inherent with smoking and provide insight to help develop an appropriate plan of care. PMID:16546004

  16. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life. PMID:25032741

  17. Respiratory Irritation from Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy J. Shephard

    1992-01-01

    Acute physiological and chronic pathological responses of the respiratory tract to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are reviewed briefly. This study excludes discussion of the possible risk of lung cancer and the known impact of carbon monoxide on the fetus and adult. In some environments, the dose of particulate matter and the concentrations of irritant vapors absorbed on the ETS particles

  18. Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shields, Peter G

    2002-10-01

    The only known way to reduce cancer risk in smokers is complete cessation, but many smokers are unable or unwilling to quit. Consequently, tobacco companies are now marketing products that purport to reduce carcinogen exposure, with the implication that such products provide a safer way to smoke. Moreover, researchers are exploring ways to reduce the amount of cigarette smoke carcinogens to which the smokers are exposed. Although these methods are, in theory beneficial, it is possible that the perceived availability of "safe" ways to smoke will cause some former smokers to resume smoking and some current smokers to delay quitting. Thus, the extent of exposure reduction and the impact on public health of these methods need to be considered carefully. However, risk reduction and its relation to exposure are not simple to estimate. The way people smoke and the way they respond to carcinogen exposure are both highly variable, as evidenced by the previous history of smokers who switched to light, or low-tar cigarettes. This can actually increase risk in some smokers. The evaluation of exposure reduction will therefore need to be multidisciplinary and include in vitro cell culture studies, animal studies, human clinical studies, and epidemiologic studies. Biomarkers will be critical for rapidly evaluating the effects of new strategies or products to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens. No single biomarker will likely satisfy our assessment needs, and so a panel of biomarkers should be used that includes biomarkers of exposure, biologically effective dose, and potential harm. In addition, usefulness of new products will need to be tested in people of different susceptibilities (i.e., who vary in behavior, sex, age, genetics, and prior tobacco use). Even if the new products are shown to be effective at reducing lung carcinogens, they should not be used alone but rather be incorporated into a comprehensive tobacco control program. PMID:12359853

  19. Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, and lead in smoke from tobacco products other than cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Guirguis, G; Kim, I S; Garbin, O; Fracchia, M; Flessel, C P; Kizer, K W; Book, S A; Warriner, T E

    1990-01-01

    Benzene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and lead in mainstream smoke from cigars, roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette and pipe tobaccos were sampled to evaluate their potential health significance. Results with reference cigarettes were consistent with published values, providing support for the methodology employed. The emissions of benzene and BaP, expressed as mass emitted per gram of tobacco consumed, were similar for all products evaluated; for benzene, the mean values for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos were 156 +/- 52, 68 +/- 11, and 242 +/- 126 micrograms/g, respectively. Mean values for BaP were 42 +/- 7 and 48 +/- 4 ng/g for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco, respectively. Lead values were below the limit of reliable quantitation in all cases. The mean benzene concentrations in a puff ranged from 1 to 2 x 10(5) micrograms/m3 for cigars, RYO cigarette and pipe tobaccos. For BaP, the puff concentration averaged about 60 micrograms/m3 for cigars and RYO cigarette tobacco. The results suggest that smoking cigars, pipes or RYO cigarettes leads to potential exposures which exceed the No Significant Risk levels of benzene and BaP set pursuant to California's Proposition 65. These tobacco products are now required to bear a health hazard warning when sold in California. We recommend that this be adopted as national policy. PMID:2327532

  20. Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Carstensen; G Pershagen; G Eklund

    1987-01-01

    In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations (p less than 0.001) between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer

  1. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This book evaluates methodologies in epidemiologic and related studies for obtaining measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The book is divided into three parts. The first part discusses physicochemical and toxicological studies of environmental tobacco smoke, including physicochemical nature of smoke and in vivo and in…

  2. Tobacco smoke iron: an initiator\\/promoter of multiple diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Weinberg

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco smoking enhances risk for a diversity of acute and chronic diseases. Iron is a constant prominent component of mainstream\\u000a tobacco smoke. The manifold toxic activities of inhaled iron could be responsible for a notable portion of the spectrum of\\u000a smoking-related diseases.

  3. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 10: Health

  4. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: TCRB: Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs Monograph 6: Community-Based

  5. Tobacco smoking history and presentation of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Schmidt; Eric J. Dierks; Louis Homer; Bryce Potter

    2004-01-01

    PurposeThe association between tobacco smoking and oral squamous cell carcinoma is well established. However, few studies have evaluated the smoking history based on a smoking versus never-smoking history or analyzed the relationship between smoking history and site and stage of presentation. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking versus never-smoking history and the stage and

  6. Effects of tobacco smoke exposure in childhood on atopic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Christina E; Gentile, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Although the smoking prevalence in the United States continues to decline since the Surgeon General's first report in 1964, certain vulnerable populations continue to be disproportionately affected by the adverse consequences of tobacco smoke exposure. Children are particularly vulnerable to exposure and are likely to suffer from both short- and long-term adverse consequences after early life tobacco smoke exposure. An overwhelming amount of evidence supports an association between asthma development and tobacco smoke exposure, and evidence is mounting that tobacco smoke exposure may also increase risk of IgE sensitization. This manuscript will review the effects of tobacco smoke exposure in childhood on the development of asthma and allergic sensitization, and will review practical strategies to assist motivated parents with smoking cessation. PMID:24057650

  7. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  8. Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Perkins; Michael Sayette; Cynthia Conklin; Anthony Caggiula

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine intake is a necessary but insufficient factor in maintaining tobacco smoking behavior, and nonpharmacological factors associated with smoking play a key role. Some of these factors may influence smoking behavior by eliciting placebo effects, or responses related specifically to the belief that one is consuming a drug. Greater knowledge of placebo effects of smoking would improve our understanding of

  9. Tobacco use and smoking policy perceptions onboard an aircraft carrier.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S L; Shappell, S A; Bohnker, B K; Fraser, J R

    1995-01-01

    Prior to implementing a shipwide no-smoking policy, the crew of U.S.S. Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) participated in a voluntary survey on tobacco-related matters. The survey queried participants on their tobacco-use history, subjective exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and attitudes related to smoking policy prior to the cessation of all smoking activities aboard ship. Of the 2,221 crewmembers who participated (74% response rate), 36% classified themselves as current cigarette smokers. Nonsmokers estimated their general exposure to ETS between "low" to "moderate." Of all participants, 57% were in favor of the current restricted smoking policy, including 18% of currently smoking personnel. Follow-up research is being conducted to assess the long-term impact of the no-smoking policy on changes in attitudes regarding policy, tobacco-use rates, and ETS exposure. PMID:7695554

  10. Minerals, Tobacco and Smoking-Related Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.

    2003-12-01

    As much as 8% (by dry weight) of commercial tobacco is mineral, and the view that minerals are inert, playing no more than a passive role in smoking-related disease, is challenged. An inventory of minerals in tobacco is presented and an interpretation of their sources given. Using elemental abundances the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to the commercial product is quantitatively modelled relative to average crustal abundances. A framework is presented for investigating the potential ways in which minerals with, or acquire, toxic properties behave in the smoking environment. In order to represent a potential hazard any mineral (or mineral reaction product) with suspected toxic properties must partition into smoke and be respirable. For inhalation a significant proportion of the particles must be smaller than 10 microns. Three categories of potential hazard are recognised: 1. Minerals with intrinsic toxic properties. Quartz can amount to 1% or more in some cigarettes and is defined as a human carcinogen by the IARC. It is not likely to represent a hazard as its grain size is probably too coarse to be respirable. However talc, also a Type 1 carcinogen when it is contaminated with asbestos, is a common constituent of cigarette paper and may be of respirable size. Some other minerals also fall into this category. 2. Minerals that generate toxic products on combustion. Examples are the biominerals calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite), which amount to about 5 wt% of popular UK brands. These minerals decompose at tobacco combustion temperatures yielding large quantities of carbon monoxide. A substantial fraction of the CO budget of UK cigarettes may derive from this source. 3. Minerals that acquire toxic properties on combustion. Little is known about free radical generation on mineral surfaces during tobacco combustion, but the devolatilisation of calcic phases (carbonates and oxalates) creates oxide particles with surfaces highly adsorbent to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Calcic mineral particles are two orders of magnitude more abundant in smokers' lungs compared with non-smoking controls in residents of Vancouver. Such particles may thus be potential agents for the delivery of PAH carcinogens, including benzo(a)pyrene, to the lungs. None of the potential hazards listed above has yet been properly evaluated.

  11. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  12. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Children: Household and Community Determinants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmé R. Jordaan; Rodney I. Ehrlich; Paul Potter

    1999-01-01

    To determine the most important sources of environmental tobacco smoke exposure to young children, the authors studied the associations among urinary cotinine, reported household smoking habits, and socioeconomic variables in 575 schoolchildren aged 6–11 y. The school children were among a population of prodigious smokers in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty percent of the children were exposed to environmental tobacco

  13. Deposition of Tobacco Smoke Particles in a Low Ventilation Room

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mindi Xu; Matty Nematollahi; Richard G. Sextro; Ashok J. Gadgil; William W. Nazaroff

    1994-01-01

    Deposition on indoor surfaces is an important removal mechanism for tobacco smoke particles. We report measurements of deposition rates of environmental tobacco smoke particles in a room-size chamber. The deposition rates were determined from the changes in measured concentrations by correcting for the effects of coagulation and ventilation. The airflow turbulent intensity parameter was determined independently by measuring the air

  14. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  15. Adolescent Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Predicts Academic Achievement Test Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley N. Collins; E. Paul Wileyto; Michael F. G. Murphy; Marcus R. Munafò

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral prob- lems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken

  16. Tobacco

    Cancer.gov

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of cancer and of death from cancer. People who use tobacco products or who are regularly around environmental tobacco smoke (also called secondhand smoke) have an increased risk of cancer because tobacco products and secondhand smoke have many chemicals that damage DNA.

  17. Identification of bacterial and fungal components in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Lennart; Szponar, Bogumila; Ridha, Beston; Pehrson, Christina; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Sitkowska, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological composition of tobacco products was studied using culture and chemical analysis (of tobacco leaves) or chemical analysis only (tobacco and tobacco smoke). The chemical analyses utilized gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining 3-hydroxy fatty acids, muramic acid, and ergosterol as markers of respectively lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan, and fungal biomass. Mesophilic bacteria dominated in both fresh and cured tobacco leaves; a range of additional bacteria and fungi were also found albeit in minor amounts. The peptidoglycan and LPS concentrations were approximately the same in tobacco leaves as in cigarette tobacco. The concentrations of the measured microbial components were much lower in some cigarettes locally produced in China, Korea, and Vietnam than in cigarettes of international brands purchased in the same countries, and the concentrations in the smoke were in general agreement with the concentrations in cigarette tobacco. No differences in microbial load in tobacco of "light" and "full flavor" cigarettes were seen. Storing cigarettes at high humidity resulted in elevated levels of fungi in the cigarette tobacco leading to increased ergosterol concentrations in the smoke. The fact that tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol may help to explain the high prevalence of respiratory disorders among smokers and non-smokers exposed to second hand smoke since the same symptoms are also commonly associated with exposure to bioaerosols. PMID:18822161

  18. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

  19. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  20. Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Shopland, D R

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the relationship between tobacco use and early cancer mortality. It presents a retrospective examination of trends in smoking behavior and how these trends affected the national lung cancer mortality pattern during this century. Information on smoking prevalence is presented for black and white men and women for each 5-year birth cohort between 1885 and 1969. The author argues that the lung cancer mortality pattern observed in the United States since 1950 is entirely compatible with changes in smoking behavior among the various birth cohorts examined. The paper also reviews our current scientific knowledge about the etiological relationship between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer mortality, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. Data on other forms of tobacco use and cancer mortality risks are included as are data on environmental tobacco smoke exposures and nonsmokers' lung cancer risk. Data are presented to demonstrate that cigarette use alone will be responsible for nearly one-third of the U.S. cancer deaths expected in the United States in 1995, or 168,000 premature cancer deaths. Among males, 38% of all cancer deaths are cigarette related, while among women 23% of all cancer deaths are due to cigarettes. These totals, however, include neither the cancer deaths that could reasonably be attributed to pipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use among males nor the estimated 3000 to 6000 environmental tobacco smoke-related lung cancer deaths that occur annually in nonsmokers. It is concluded that tobacco use, particularly the practice of cigarette smoking, is the single greatest cause of excess cancer mortality in U.S. populations. PMID:8741773

  1. Differences Between Smoking and Nonsmoking College Students in Their Attitudes on Tobacco Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied whether smokers and nonsmokers hold systematically different attitudes on tobacco smoking. Smoking-related Likert type attitude items were selected for analysis from a longer questionnaire. Results indicated both smoking and nonsmoking college students expressed highly similar unfavorable attitudes toward smoking but nonsmokers expressed…

  2. Prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Tavananezhad, Nikta; Karkhaneh, Mahsa

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Introduction: Widespread tobacco use, along with its induced diseases and subsequent deaths, comprise one of the biggest threats to public health in the world. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking and their predictors among Iranian adolescents. Materials and methods: A total of 1524 adolescent students aged 14-18 years (764 boys and 760 girls) were randomly selected. The participants attended governmental, semi-governmental, and non-governmental schools in the city of Sanandaj, Iran in 2013. Data were collected using the "Sherer General Self-efficacy" and demographic questionnaire. Multivariate Logistic binary regresion analysis was conducted to determine the predictors. Results: The prevalence rates of cigarette and water pipe smoking were 9.5% and 10.4%, respectively. About 3.7% of the adolescents used both cigarette and water pipe and 16% used at least one of these. Compared with girls, prevalence of both cigarette (13.1% vs. 6.4%) and water pipe (13.7% vs. 7.1%) smoking was higher among the boys. Male sex, father's education of secondary school, and use of water pipe were identified as cigarette smoking risk factors, while technical and commercial educational fields and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Risk factors of the use of water pipe were currently working, higher age and cigarette smoking, father's education of high school, father's occupation of employee and mother's education of a diploma degree, while higher self-efficacy and attending non-governmental school were its protective factors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking in adolescents continues to rise. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further studies on effective factors on the onset and continuation of tobacco use. PMID:25470603

  3. Local Tobacco Policy and Tobacco Outlet Density: Associations With Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the associations between tobacco outlet density, local tobacco policy, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. Methods 1,491 youth (51.9% male, M age = 14.7 years, SD =1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Results Using multilevel regression analyses controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past-12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared to the moderate and high levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. PMID:22626479

  4. Mind your "smoking manners": the tobacco industry tactics to normalize smoking in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Armada, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry has adapted its promotional strategies as tobacco-control measures have increased. This paper describes the tobacco industry's strategies on smoking manners and illustrates how these interfere with tobacco-control policy in Japan where tobacco control remains weak. Information on the tobacco industry's promotional strategies in Japan was collected through direct observation, a review of tobacco industry documents and a literature review. The limitation of the study would be a lack of industry documents from Japan as we relied on a database of a U.S. institution to collect internal documents from the tobacco industry. Japan Tobacco began using the manners strategies in the early 1960s. Collaborating with wide range of actors -including local governments and companies- the tobacco industry has promoted smoking manners to wider audiences through its advertising and corporate social responsibility activities. The tobacco industry in Japan has taken advantage of the cultural value placed on manners in Japan to increase the social acceptability of smoking, eventually aiming to diminish public support for smoke-free policies that threatens the industry's business. A stronger enforcement of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is critical to counteracting such strategies. PMID:24598274

  5. Marijuana use and cessation of tobacco smoking in adults from a community sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel E. Ford; Hong Thi Vu; James C. Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco smokers are more likely to use marijuana than those who do not smoke tobacco. Little is known about how marijuana use affects the probability of tobacco smoking cessation. This analysis was based on 431 adults less than 45 years of age who reported recent tobacco smoking in the 1981 baseline interview in the household-based Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study

  6. The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking--the role of parents' long-term smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chastang, Jean-François; Mackinnon, Dorene; Galéra, Cédric; Fombonne, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Youths whose parents smoke tobacco may be at elevated risk of smoking themselves. However, the association between parental long-term smoking history and offspring regular tobacco use is not well known. Using data collected on 1121 youths (12-26 years) participating in the GAZEL Youth study, a French community-based cohort, we tested the association between parental long-term smoking trajectory and offspring regular smoking. Parental smoking trajectory over 11 years (1989-1999) was measured by yearly reports obtained from the parent. Statistical analyses controlled for youth's sex, age, alcohol use and disruptive behavioral problems, parent's sex, as well as family socioeconomic position. Overall, 27% of study youths smoked regularly. Compared to offspring of non-smokers, those of persistent smokers had twofold smoking rates (age and sex-adjusted OR: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.30-2.79, fully-adjusted OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.31-2.93). Additionally, persistent parental smoking predicted offspring heavy smoking and early smoking initiation. Overall, maternal smoking was more strongly associated with youths' regular smoking than paternal smoking (fully-adjusted ORs: 3.12, 95% 1.58-6.16 vs. 1.47, 95% 0.87-2.49). These results suggest that efforts to decrease the burden of tobacco smoking among youths may be more efficient if focused on families rather than on individuals. PMID:20004064

  7. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women with lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M de Andrade; J. O Ebbert; J. A Wampfler; D. L Miller; R. S Marks; G. A Croghan; A Jatoi; E. E Finke; T. A Sellers; P Yang

    2004-01-01

    Background: Investigations on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure that include source intensity, childhood exposure, and association with histologic subtypes among never smoking lung cancer cases are limited. We report the patterns of ETS exposure history in a clinical cohort of women with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Methods: From 1997 to 2001, 810 women with lung cancer were interviewed to obtain

  9. Skin and dermal appendages stem cells exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Kolanko, Emanuel; Czekaj, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to persist throughout human life possessing enormous capacity for proliferation and differentiation. These cells and their microenvironment are potential targets for environmental pollutions, for example tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of substances which can disturb stem cell homeostasis by evoking, in particular, oxidative stress and hypoxia. It causes also deep, irreversible changes in the affected tissues. It is strongly linked with carcinogenesis. Skin is one of the most exposed tissues to tobacco smoke. Self-renewal dermal tissues, such as epidermis and its appendages, are composed of various stem cell populations. The tissue of the skin that is richest in SC is the hair follicle. In wound healing are involved: epidermal KSC population and stem populations from hair follicle, such as CD34+ and Lrig6+ cells. Some skin cancers, i.e., squamous cell carcinoma, originate from skin stem cells and are considered to be most associated with long-term smoking. Dermal stem cells can be affected by tobacco smoke components in two ways: internal, where xenobiotics are delivered with blood stream, and external, where the tissues are directly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as to third-hand smoke. Assessment of the dose- and time-response of the skin and dermal appendages to tobacco smoke exposure can allow to estimate the adverse health effects risk. Usually, to assess tobacco smoke exposure time, hairs and toenails are used. This is because they have a unique ability to store xenobiotics for longer periods of time in respect to their temporal appearance in the blood. Current scientific and medical problem is searching for more adequate biomarkers for TS exposure assessment. The unresolved question is, if stem cells isolated from the skin and its appendages might be good biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure. We should take into consideration stem cell biology (proliferation vs. differentiation), expression of specific markers, half-live, regenerative potential, signs of malignant transformation etc. For practical purposes, human stem cell populations from the epidermis, hair follicles and nails, their microenvironment and mutual relations should be well recognized. These cells might be an interesting source of information on tobacco smoke exposure. PMID:24501812

  10. The growing epidemic of water pipe smoking: health effects and future needs.

    PubMed

    Bou Fakhreddine, Hisham M; Kanj, Amjad N; Kanj, Nadim A

    2014-09-01

    Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductive systems, including pregnancy outcomes. In addition, association between WPS and malignancies, such as lung, oral and nasopharyngeal cancer, has been suggested in different studies and systematic reviews. Despite its long standing history, WPS research still harbors a lot of deficiencies. The magnitude of toxicants and carcinogen exposures, effects on human health, as well as the addiction and dependence potentials associated with WPS need to be studied in well-designed prospective trials. Unfortunately, many of the tobacco control and clean indoor policies have exempted water pipes. World wide awareness among the public, smokers, and policymakers about the potential health effects of WPS is urgently required. Furthermore, stringent policies and laws that control and ban WPS in public places, similar to those applied on cigarettes smoking need to be implemented. PMID:25130679

  11. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  12. Sidestream tobacco smoke exposure acutely alters human nasal mucociliary clearance.

    PubMed Central

    Bascom, R; Kesavanathan, J; Fitzgerald, T K; Cheng, K H; Swift, D L

    1995-01-01

    Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) is a biomarker of nasal mucosal function. Tobacco smokers have been shown to have abnormal NMC, but the acute effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on nonsmokers is unknown. This study evaluated acute tobacco smoke-induced alterations in NMC in 12 healthy adults. Subjects were studied on 2 days, separated by at least 1 week. Subjects underwent a 60-min controlled exposure at rest to air or sidestream tobacco smoke (SS) (15 ppm CO) in a controlled environmental chamber. One hour after the exposure, 99mTc-sulfur colloid was aerosolized throughout the nasal passage and counts were measured with a scintillation detector. Six out of 12 subjects showed more rapid clearance after smoke exposure than after air exposure, and 3/12 had rapid clearance on both days. However, substantial decreases in clearance occurred in 3/12 subjects, all of whom had a history of ETS rhinitis. In two subjects, more than 90% of the tracer remained 1 hr after tracer administration (2 hr after smoke exposure). Understanding the basis for biologic variability in the acute effect of tobacco smoke on NMC may advance our understanding of pathogenesis of chronic effects of ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8605851

  13. Pollution patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhu, Lizhong

    2007-01-10

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco smoke of 12 commercial brand cigarettes were determined in a simulated chamber of 20.25 m3 in size. The total concentrations of 17 PAHs (summation operatorPAHs) in the chamber were 3500 and 1152 ng/m3 in vapor phase and particulate phase, respectively. In vapor phase, the yield of naphthalene (NA) appeared to be the most abundant (2462 ng/cig) followed by fluorene (FLUOR) and acenaphthylene (ACY), while the yield of benzo[ghi]perylene (BP) was the most abundant (259.7 ng/cig) in particulate phase followed by phenanthrene (PHEN) and FLUOR. The proportion of PAHs in particulate phase increased with increasing molecular weight. PAHs with two to six rings accounted for 40.2%, 35.3%, 11.7%, 7.6%, 5.2% of summation operatorPAHs, respectively. There was no obvious correlation between PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations in tobacco smoke and smoking tar contents, nicotine contents. With the source fingerprint of PAHs in tobacco smoke, NA could be regarded as the marker of tobacco smoke source because of its largest contribution to summation operatorPAHs (40.2%), followed by FLUOR (12.7%) and ACY (9.8%). Further study indicated that more than 80% of BaP in indoor air of resident homes in Hangzhou was from tobacco smoke. PMID:16839683

  14. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  15. The role of home smoking bans in limiting exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Á.; Nagymajtényi, L.; Rogers, T.; Easterling, D.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to assess how exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke occurs in Hungarian homes, particularly among non-smokers, and to examine the effectiveness of home smoking bans in eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke at home. In 2009, 2286 non-smokers and smokers aged 16–70 years, who were selected randomly from a nationally representative sample of 48 Hungarian settlements, completed paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaires addressing tobacco-related attitudes, opinions and behaviors. Chi-square tests, one-way analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of demographics, socio-economic characteristics and home smoking policies on the risk of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home. Significantly higher risk of exposure was found among younger, lower educated and poorer people and among those having no or partial home smoking restrictions. There was a significant interaction between education level and home smoking policies: the effect of a smoking ban on exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was stronger for the lower educated group than the higher educated group. The results suggest that Hungarians are making good progress in implementing home smoking bans, and that in the majority of population these bans are working. More can be done to promote the uptake of home smoking bans among poorer and less educated subpopulations. PMID:22653684

  16. Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina de Cássia Rondina; Ricardo Gorayeb; Clóvis Botelho

    2007-01-01

    This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relationship between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of

  17. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. Data Sources (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by ‘Google Alerts’ (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. Study Selection (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. Data Abstraction (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of “tobacco product” and/or “smoking”. Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. Data Synthesis (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. Conclusions A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. PMID:25550418

  18. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Boffetta, P; Buiatti, E; Saracci, R; Hirsch, A

    1997-08-01

    Although declining, gastric cancer (GC) is estimated to be second in frequency worldwide. Major causes appear to be environmental rather than genetic. A relationship has been suggested between tobacco smoking and GC. A number of epidemiological studies have been performed dealing with this question. All the cohort studies showed a significantly increased risk of GC of the order of 1.5-2.5 for cigarette smokers. Evidence from case-control studies is less consistent. We have carried out a meta-analysis on the 40 studies providing a quantitative estimate of the association between GC risk and tobacco smoking. Results suggest a risk of stomach cancer among smokers of the order of 1.5-1.6 as compared to non-smokers. The summary relative risk was higher in men (1.59) than in women (1.11). Several studies examined the dose-response relationship which existed in 4 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies. We estimated the number of GC cases attributable to tobacco smoking occurring worldwide: in total, over 80,000 cases of GC (11% of all estimated cases) may be attributed to tobacco smoking each year. This figure is larger than that estimated for other cancers for which association with tobacco smoking is clearly established, such as pancreatic and renal cancers. PMID:9259392

  19. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Alessandra S.; Pucci, Beatriz; Gudayol, Nicolly; Massa, Beatriz; Gameiro, Marcella; Lopes, Cristiane

    2013-01-01

    The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old) urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) (cotinine urine levels ? 5.0 ng/mL) and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean hearing loss in tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development. PMID:24284348

  20. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M Lynn; Yauk, Carole L

    2011-08-01

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker. PMID:21768363

  1. Modeling the Underlying Predicting Factors of Tobacco Smoking among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Allahverdipour, H; Bashirian, S; Jannati, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: With regard to the willing and starting tobacco smoking among young people in Iran. The aim of the study was to model the underlying factors in predicting the behavior of tobacco smoking among employed youth and students in Iran. Methods: In this analytical cross-sectional study, based on a random cluster sampling were recruited 850 high school students, employed and unemployed youth age ranged between 14 and 19 yr from Iran. The data of demographic and tobacco smoking related variables were acquired via a self-administered questionnaire. A series of univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed respectively for computing un-adjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios utilizing SPSS 17 software. Results: A number of 189 persons (25.6%) were smoker in the study and the mean smoking initiation age was 13.93 (SD= 2.21). In addition, smoker friend, peer persistence, leaving home, and smoking in one and six month ago were obtained as independent predictors of tobacco smoking. Conclusions: The education programs on resistance skills against the persistence of the peers, improvement in health programs by governmental interference and policy should be implemented. PMID:23113177

  2. Factors associated with adolescents' smoking experience and staying tobacco free

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It is not expected that those who did not smoke during their adolescent years will start to smoke later in life. This study was planned to learn the thoughts of Turkish adolescents about staying tobacco free. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in 2007 with 866 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years. On a self?administered questionnaire, non?smoker students answered both multiple choice and open?ended questions about why they would not smoke in the future. The Chi?square test and logistic regression analysis was used for statistical assessment. For the answers to the open?ended questions, thematic analysis was applied. Results The mean age of the participants was 12.84 ± 1.14 years. The incidence of a smoking experience at least once in the participant's lifetime was 12% and the rate of current smoking was 3.6%. The most listed reasons for staying tobacco free were health problems directly related to smoking (64%), such as ‘it can cause diseases’ or ‘it kills’, negative effects of smoking other than health (51%), such as ‘it smells bad’ or ‘it is toxic’, and some subjective judgements related only with their self perceptions, such as ‘I am happy and healthy’ or ‘it affects growth negatively’ (20%). The most well?known problem related to tobacco use was lung cancer and the least well?known problems were bladder cancer and chronic bronchitis. Most of the smoking students (68%) were not aware that second?hand smoking was harmful (p=0.003). There were significant correlations between smoking experience and male gender, having a smoker in the household and low educational level of the mother or the father (p=0.000, p=0.018, p=0.022, p=0.044 respectively). Conclusion We suggest that the beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about smoking should be given as much consideration as the negative effects of cigarettes in planning smoking free messages. PMID:22477936

  3. Formation and general characteristics of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The primary source of environmental tobacco smoke is the the smoke released directly from the tips of cigarettes between puffs; the sidestream smoke. Sidestream smoke is formed under different conditions than is mainstream smoke. It is enriched in alkaline constituents, contains greater quantities of vapor phase water, exhibits a smaller particle size, and is less affected by smoking conditions and cigarette design. Upon dilution in ambient air, particle size decreases due to evaporation thus redistributing many constituents from the particle phase to the vapor phase. Commonly found concentrations of ETS particulates matter, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in indoor environments are 50-200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 2-20 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, and 2-6 ppM, respectively. Physical composition and chemical concentration vary both spatially and temporally as determined in large part by smoking severity and degree of ventilation. 22 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  5. Pregnancy, Maternal Tobacco Smoking, and Early Age Leukemia in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia remains unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (<2?year) leukemia (EAL). Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia – ALL, 59 AML and 423 controls), being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR) on the association between tobacco smoking (3?months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3?months after delivery) and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy). Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR?=?5.28 (95% CI 1.40–19.95) for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR?=?7.78 (95% CI 1.33–45.5). No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and EAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding. PMID:23162789

  6. Tobacco industry sociological programs to influence public beliefs about smoking

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton; Landman, Anne; Cortese, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    The multinational tobacco companies responded to arguments about the social costs of smoking and hazards of secondhand smoke by quietly implementing the Social Costs/Social Values project (1979–1989), which relied upon the knowledge and authoritative power of social scientists to construct an alternate cultural repertoire of smoking. Social scientists created and disseminated non-health based, pro-tobacco arguments without fully acknowledging their relationship with the industry. After the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that nicotine was addictive in 1988, the industry responded by forming “Associates for Research in the Science of Enjoyment” (c.1988–1999), whose members toured the world promoting the health benefits of the use of legal substances, including tobacco, for stress relief and relaxation, without acknowledging the industry’s role. In this paper we draw on previously secret tobacco industry documents, now available on the internet to show how both of these programs utilized academic sociologists, political scientists, anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers and economists, and allowed the industry to develop and widely disseminate friendly research through credible channels. Strategies included creating favorable surveys and opinions, infusing them into the lay press and media through press releases, articles and conferences, publishing, promoting and disseminating books, commissioning and placing favorable book reviews, providing media training for book authors and organizing media tours. These programs allowed the tobacco industry to affect public and academic discourse on the social acceptability of smoking. PMID:18164524

  7. Flavored Tobacco Use Among Canadian Students in Grades 9 Through 12: Prevalence and Patterns From the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rashid; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study examined patterns of use of flavored tobacco products in a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 after the implementation of a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. Methods Data from the 2010–2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students in grades 9 through 12 (n = 31,396), were used to examine tobacco product use. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in use of flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, pipes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, bidis, smokeless tobacco, water pipes, and blunt wraps) by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. Results Approximately 52% of young tobacco users used flavored products in the previous 30 days. Flavored tobacco use varied by product type and ranged from 32% of cigarette smokers reporting menthol smoking to 70% of smokeless tobacco users reporting using flavored product in the previous 30 days. The percentage of last-30-day users who used flavored tobacco was significantly higher in Quebec than in Ontario and significantly higher among youths who received weekly spending money than among those who received no money. Conclusion More than half of tobacco users in grades 9 through 12 in Canada use flavored tobacco, despite a national ban on certain flavored tobacco products. PMID:24945240

  8. Readiness for Smoke-free Policy and Overall Strength of Tobacco Control in Rural Tobacco-growing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; York, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Rural, tobacco-growing areas are disproportionately affected by tobacco use, secondhand smoke, and weak policies. The study determined whether overall strength of Resources, Capacity and Efforts in tobacco control predicts readiness for smoke-free policy in rural communities, controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. This was a correlational, cross-sectional analysis of data from key informants (n = 148) and elected officials (n = 83) from 30 rural counties who participated in telephone interviews examining smoke-free policy. Six dimensions of community readiness (knowledge, leadership, resources, community climate, existing smoke-free policies, and political climate) were identified and summed to assess overall readiness for smoke-free policy. General strength of overall Resources, Capacity and Efforts in tobacco control at the county level was measured. Readiness for smoke-free policy was lower in communities with higher smoking rates, higher tobacco production, and smaller population. Efforts related to general tobacco control (i.e., media advocacy, training and technical assistance) predicted readiness for local smoke-free policy development (standardized ?=.35, p=.05), controlling for county population size and pounds of tobacco produced. Given that small, rural tobacco-growing communities are least ready for smoke-free policy change, tailoring and testing culturally sensitive approaches that account for this tobacco-growing heritage are warranted. PMID:22773621

  9. [Compounds in tobacco smoke and pathogenesis of the diseases].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jiichiro

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,000 compounds including about 200 hazardous chemicals. These chemicals are distributed between the particulate and vapor phases of the smoke, and initiate and progress various human diseases. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons existing in tar can induce DNA damage by direct addiction and cause cancers in respiratory tract. Carbon monoxide must jam normal oxygen transport to tissue and enhance the severity of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress induced by hazardous compounds in smoke results in pulmonary disease. Nicotine promotes physical addiction to tobacco as well as causes pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases or cancers to smokers. We should investigate compounds in smoke from new type of cigarette and must educate citizens to avoid risky compounds to our health. PMID:23631224

  10. Fighting Tobacco Smoking - a Difficult but Not Impossible Battle

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Christopher Man-Kit; Leung, Alexander K. C.; Hon, Kam-Lun Ellis; Kong, Albert Yim-Fai

    2009-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco-related disease is the single largest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing around 5.4 million people a year – an average of one person every six seconds. The total number of death caused by tobacco consumption is higher than that of tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria combined. Unlike other communicable diseases, however, tobacco-related disease has a man-made consensus vector – the tobacco companies that play an active role to promote tobacco consumption, which directly heightens the disease morbidity. Any public health policy designed to curb smoking behavior has to prepare for opposite lobbying actions from tobacco companies that undermine the effects of the health measures. Another unique nature of the tobacco epidemic is that it can be cured, not by medicines or vaccines, but on the concerted actions of government and civil society. Many countries with a history of tobacco control measures indeed experienced a reduction of tobacco consumption. As most of these governments launched a range of measures simultaneously, it is hard to quantify the relative merits of different control strategies that contributed to the drop in the number of smokers. These packages of strategies can come in different forms but with some common features. Political actions with government support, funding, and protection are crucial. Without these, antismoking efforts in any part of the world are unlikely to be successful. PMID:19440270

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke in an unrestricted smoking workplace: area and personal exposure monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROGER A JENKINS; MICHAEL P MASKARINEC; RICHARD W COUNTS; JOHN E CATON; BRUCE TOMKINS; RALPH H ILGNER

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the extent of areal and day-to-day variability of stationary environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in a single large facility where smoking was both prevalent and unrestricted, and to determine the degree of daily variation in the personal exposure levels of ETS constituents in the same facility. The subject facility was a relatively

  12. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Methods Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10–14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels—having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Results In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). Conclusions The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint. PMID:18948391

  13. [Influence of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing asthma].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this general review is to investigate the influence of active and passive smoking on the development of asthma in children and adults. Passive smoking during and after pregnancy facilitates the onset of childhood asthma and wheezing. In particular, smoking during pregnancy is associated with the occurrence of wheezing prior to the age of 4 years. In contrast, the results of studies on the relationship between parental smoking in the post-natal period and the onset of asthma or wheezing are discordant. Exposure to passive smoking during childhood facilitates the occurrence of asthma in adulthood. In adults and adolescents, active smoking appears to be a factor favoring the development of asthma. On the other hand, non-smoking adult subjects without history of asthma exposed to passive smoking have a risk of asthma. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which tobacco smoke is the cause of asthma are still poorly known. Smoking cessation is an essential component in the management of asthmatic subjects who smoke, facilitating the control of the disease. PMID:25765119

  14. Tobacco Smoke Carcinogens and Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen S. Hecht

    \\u000a Cigarette smoking is the major cause of lung cancer, the largest cancer killer in the world. This chapter discusses the role\\u000a of cigarette smoke carcinogens as causes of lung cancer. A general mechanistic framework is presented, in which cigarette\\u000a smoke carcinogens and their metabolically activated forms cause mutations in critical growth control genes, along with other\\u000a effects. Evidence and unresolved

  15. Prospective study of effect of switching from cigarettes to pipes or cigars on mortality from three smoking related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N. J.; Watt, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which cigarette smokers who switch to cigars or pipes alter their risk of dying of three-smoking related diseases-lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and chronic obstructive lung disease. DESIGN: A prospective study of 21520 men aged 35-64 years when recruited in 1975-82 with detailed history of smoking and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Notification of deaths (to 1993) classified by cause. RESULTS: Pipe and cigar smokers who had switched from cigarettes over 20 years before entry to the study smoked less tobacco than cigarette smokers (8.1 g/day v 20 g/day), but they had the same consumption as pipe and cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (8.1 g) and had higher carboxyhaemoglobin saturations (1.2% v 1.0%, P < 0.001), indicating that they inhaled tobacco smoke to a greater extent. They had a 51% higher risk of dying of the three smoking related diseases than pipe or cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes (relative risk 1.51; 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.38), a 68% higher risk than lifelong non-smokers (1.68; 1.16 to 2.45), a 57% higher risk than former cigarette smokers who gave up smoking over 20 years before entry (1.57; 1.04 to 2.38), and a 46% lower risk than continuing cigarette smokers (0.54; 0.38 to 0.77). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smokers who have difficulty in giving up smoking altogether are better off changing to cigars or pipes than continuing to smoke cigarettes. Much of the effect is due to the reduction in the quantity of tobacco smoked, and some is due to inhaling less. Men who switch do not, however, achieve the lower risk of pipe and cigar smokers who have never smoked cigarettes. All pipe and cigar smokers have a greater risk of lung cancer than lifelong non-smokers or former smokers. PMID:9224127

  16. Allergic Sensitization, Rhinitis and Tobacco Smoke Exposure in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shargorodsky, Josef; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Galán, Iñaki; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lin, Sandra Y.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco exposure has been linked with sinonasal pathology and may be associated with allergic sensitization. This study evaluates the association between exposure to active smoking or secondhand smoke (SHS) and the prevalence of rhinitis and allergic sensitization in the US adult population. Methods Cross-sectional study in 4,339 adults aged 20–85 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2006. Never smoking was defined as reported lifetime smoking less than 100 cigarettes and serum cotinine levels <10ng/ml, while active smoking was defined as self-reported smoking or serum cotinine concentrations > 10 ng/mL. Self-reported rhinitis was based on symptoms during the past 12 months, and allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to any of the 19 specific IgE antigens tested. Results Almost half of the population (43%) had detectable levels of IgE specific to at least one inhaled allergen and 32% reported a history of rhinitis. After multivariate adjustment, there was a statistically significant association between the highest serum cotinine tertile and rhinitis in active smokers (OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.00–2.00). The association between active smoking and rhinitis was stronger in individuals without allergic sensitization (OR 2.47; 95%CI 1.44–4.23). There was a statistically significant association between increasing cotinine tertiles and decreased odds of inhaled allergen sensitization (p-trend <.01). Conclusion Tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms, but not with allergic sensitization. The results indicate that the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and sinonasal pathology in adults may be independent of allergic sensitization. PMID:26172447

  17. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: An Emerging Health Crisis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline; Ward, Kenneth D.; Maziak, Wasim; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and potential health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods A literature review was performed to compile information relating to waterpipe tobacco smoking. Results Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in prevalence worldwide; in the United States, 10–20% of some young adult populations are current waterpipe users. Depending on the toxicant measured, a single waterpipe session produces the equivalent of at least 1 and as many as 50 cigarettes. Misconceptions about waterpipe smoke content may lead users to underestimate health risks. Conclusion Inclusion of waterpipe tobacco smoking in tobacco control activities may help reduce its spread. PMID:20001185

  18. Control of tobacco smoke and odors using discharge plasma reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuhiro Kinoshita; Yuichi Fujiyama; Hyun-Ha Kim; Shinji Katsura; Akira Mizuno

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of indoor environment relating to the Sick-Building Syndrome has been attracting a great deal of attention recently. Tobacco smoke components are representative of a wide range of pollutants found in indoor air. There is a strong needs of keeping indoor air clean, so an experimental study on the removal of indoor air pollutants has been carried out using three

  19. A GENOTOXIC ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE USING BACTERIAL BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, the National Research Council in the U.S.A. stated that labOratory studies of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) should be important in identifying ETS carcinogens and their concentrations in typical daily environments, and in understanding horn these compounds contribut...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    NCEA is often called upon to share its expertise on Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). In 1992, EPA/NCEA completed its risk assessment on the respiratory health effects of ETS exposure, which concluded that ETS causes lung cancer in nonsmokers and has serious respiratory effects...

  1. Reproducibility of Reported In utero Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In studies of the fetal origins of disease and life course epidemiology, measures of fetal exposure may be based on information reported by the adults who were exposed in utero. In particular, the full spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking is now an area of active investigation, and the ability to report such exposure reproducibly is of interest. We evaluated the reproducibility of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, reported by the adult daughter during consecutive pregnancies. METHODS This study was based on 11,257 women who enrolled for more than one pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants completed a questionnaire around 17 weeks of gestation, which asked about their in utero exposure to tobacco smoke. Kappa statistics were calculated. Determinants of agreement were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS Weighted Kappa for in utero exposure for the first and second reports was 0.80. Determinants of agreement were higher education (better) and longer time between reports (worse). CONCLUSIONS Information on in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking provided by adult women was highly reproducible in this population. PMID:21130369

  2. Smoking Behavior and Smoking History of Tobacco Chippers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saul Shiffman; Jean A. Paty; Jon D. Kassel; Maryann Gnys; Monica Zettler-Segal

    1994-01-01

    Nicotine produces dependence in almost all cigarette smokers. Sixty-five chippers (anomalous smokers who smoke regularly but at very low levels, 1–5 cigarettes per day) were compared with 72 matched regular smokers (20–40 cigarettes per day). Despite having smoked an average of 46,000 cigarettes in 19 years of smoking, chippers demonstrated little sign of nicotine dependence. They reported frequent casual abstinence

  3. Tobacco Smoke Strengthens 'Superbug,' Lab Research Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... note that the results of animal and laboratory experiments don't necessarily hold in humans. MRSA infection is caused by a drug-resistant ... exposed to cigarette smoke were better at invading human cells grown in the ... mouse experiments, the smoke-subjected MRSA survived better and caused ...

  4. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  5. Characteristics of tobacco-smoking problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Marc N; Steinberg, Marvin A; McLaughlin, Susan D; Wu, Ran; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; George, Tony P; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the smoking behaviors of problem gamblers. A high proportion of problem gamblers calling a gambling helpline reported daily tobacco smoking (43.1%). Problem gamblers reporting daily tobacco smoking more frequently acknowledged depression and suicidality secondary to gambling, gambling-related arrests, alcohol and drug use problems, mental health treatment, and problems with casino slot machine gambling. The findings substantiate the relationship in problem gamblers between tobacco smoking and psychiatric symptomatology, particularly other substance use problems. The high proportion of callers reporting daily tobacco smoking highlights the need for enhanced smoking cessation efforts in problem gamblers. PMID:15764425

  6. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps<0.01 and >1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fc?-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (ps<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that systemically altered immune response and oxidative stress can be tobacco-responsive mechanisms for the related diseases. Based on consistent results in blood and buccal cells, expression of the ACTG1 can be a tobacco smoking-responsive biomarker. PMID:25447457

  7. A Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Mortality in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Segers, Stephanie; Argos, Maria; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Hasan, Rabiul; Sarwar, Golam; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on smoking-related mortality in low-income countries, where both chronic disease burden and prevalence of smoking are increasing. Methods Using data on 20, 033 individuals in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, we prospectively evaluated the association between tobacco smoking and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality during ?7.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for deaths from all-cause, cancer, CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and stroke, in relation to status, duration, and intensity of cigarette/bidi and hookah smoking. Results Among men, cigarette/bidi smoking was positively associated with all-cause (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 1.86) and cancer mortality (HR 2.91, 1.24 6.80), and there was a dose-response relationship between increasing intensity of cigarette/bidi consumption and increasing mortality. An elevated risk of death from ischemic heart disease (HR 1.87, 1.08 3.24) was associated with current cigarette/bidi smoking. Among women, the corresponding HRs were 1.65 (95% CI 1.16 2.36) for all-cause mortality and 2.69 (95% CI 1.20 6.01) for ischemic heart disease mortality. Similar associations were observed for hookah smoking. There was a trend towards reduced risk for the mortality outcomes with older age at onset of cigarette/bidi smoking and increasing years since quitting cigarette/bibi smoking among men. We estimated that cigarette/bidi smoking accounted for about 25.0% of deaths in men and 7.6% in women. Conclusions Tobacco smoking was responsible for substantial proportion of premature deaths in the Bangladeshi population, especially among men. Stringent measures of tobacco control and cessation are needed to reduce tobacco-related deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:23505526

  8. Maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and pregnancy outcome among couples undergoing assisted reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Meeker; S. A. Missmer; D. W. Cramer; R. Hauser

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke is preventable, yet common. This study assessed relationships between maternal exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We measured cotinine (a biomarker of tobacco smoke) in urine from 921 women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) between 1994 and 1998. We also collected information on self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke at home

  9. Factors associated with adolescents' smoking experience and staying tobacco free.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ci?dem Apayd?n; Unalan, Pemra C

    2010-09-01

    Introduction It is not expected that those who did not smoke during their adolescent years will start to smoke later in life. This study was planned to learn the thoughts of Turkish adolescents about staying tobacco free.Methods A descriptive study was conducted in 2007 with 866 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years. On a self-administered questionnaire, non-smoker students answered both multiple choice and open-ended questions about why they would not smoke in the future. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was used for statistical assessment. For the answers to the open-ended questions, thematic analysis was applied.Results The mean age of the participants was 12.84 ± 1.14 years. The incidence of a smoking experience at least once in the participant's lifetime was 12% and the rate of current smoking was 3.6%. The most listed reasons for staying tobacco free were health problems directly related to smoking (64%), such as 'it can cause diseases' or 'it kills', negative effects of smoking other than health (51%), such as 'it smells bad' or 'it is toxic', and some subjective judgements related only with their self perceptions, such as 'I am happy and healthy' or 'it affects growth negatively' (20%).The most well-known problem related to tobacco use was lung cancer and the least well-known problems were bladder cancer and chronic bronchitis. Most of the smoking students (68%) were not aware that second-hand smoking was harmful (p=0.003). There were significant correlations between smoking experience and male gender, having a smoker in the household and low educational level of the mother or the father (p=0.000, p=0.018, p=0.022, p=0.044 respectively).Conclusion We suggest that the beliefs and perceptions of adolescents about smoking should be given as much consideration as the negative effects of cigarettes in planning smoking free messages. PMID:22477936

  10. Chemistry of tobacco and tobacco smoke in chutta--a homemade cigar: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Malik, S K; Behera, D

    1985-11-01

    Detailed chemical analysis of chuttas (a home made cigar) was carried out. Chutta smoke revealed a high content of nicotine and total particulate matter (TPM) as compared to the cigarette and Bidi (local hand rolled cigar). Chutta tobacco is rich in alkaloid content including nitrogen and the total carbohydrate content is low. PMID:4077312

  11. [Socioeconomic costs due to tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, S R; Søgaard, J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of the study was to calculate costs attributable to smoking from both a societal and a public finance perspective. The Cost-of-Illness analysis was based on incidence data from 1995 and 1996, estimated with the attributable fraction, based on English and Danish RR-estimates respectively. The indirect costs are calculated with both the friction and the human capital method. In 1995, smoking attributable costs in Denmark amounted to 4100 million DKK with the friction method and based on Danish RR-estimates, including 3600 million in direct costs and 500 million in indirect costs. A public cash flow analysis showed a net revenue of about 3900 to 5600 million DKK. Compared with previous results for Denmark (1983), the annual costs to society increased by about 118%. It is suggested that similar Cost-of-Illness analyses are carried out at regular intervals to monitor the economic consequences of smoking in society. PMID:10895600

  12. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  13. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  14. Tobacco smoking in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brott, K

    1981-12-01

    The consumption of cigarettes in Papua New Guinea appears to have increased tenfold over the past twenty years, largely as a result of massive advertising campaigns. It is recommended that legislation be introduced to enforce restrictions on the levels of tar and nicotine in cigarettes sold here, and to make it compulsory to print health warnings on cigarette packets. It is also recommended that the advertising of tobacco products be restricted or banned. PMID:6951348

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke, woodstove heating and risk of asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

    2007-11-01

    The effect of common indoor combustion heating sources on childhood asthma is not well described. The objective was to determine if the use of woodstoves in the home or other factors such as environmental tobacco smoke exposure were associated with the frequency of asthma-related symptoms among children in a rural community. Having a person in the household who smoked was associated with a more than doubling in risk for wheezing and other asthma-related symptoms. The use of woodstoves or other types of heating in the homes of children was not associated with reported wheezing during the winter. PMID:17994403

  16. Children’s health benefits of reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure: evidence from parents who smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. Agee; Thomas D. Crocker

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 1991 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey to estimate propositions derived from a model\\u000a of intrahousehold allocation, wherein parents engage in a consumption activity (smoking) that produces own utility, while\\u000a generating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that harms their children’s health. We find a statistically significant negative\\u000a association between sample mothers‘ assessed health of their

  17. ESTIMATING THE DIRECT MEDICAL COSTS OF THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE ON CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of the health effects of active tobacco smoking has a well developed history. Yet, the effects of passive smoking (or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) have been systematically studied only relatively recently. Therefore, ancillary studies that build from the hea...

  18. Tobacco Smoke, Indoor Air Pollution and Tuberculosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-Ho Lin; Majid Ezzati; Megan Murray

    2007-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking, passive smoking, and indoor air pollution from biomass fuels have been implicated as risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) infection, disease, and death. Tobacco smoking and indoor air pollution are persistent or growing exposures in regions where TB poses a major health risk. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between these exposures

  19. Suspended particulate matter in dwellings - the impact of tobacco smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Revsbech, P.; Korsgaard, J.; Lundqvist, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The indoor concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was measured in 44 retrofitted and tight dwellings, which had electric cooking and were central heated and where the basic ventilation rate in median amounted 0.23 air changes per hour as measured with a tracer dilution method. The indoor concentration of SPM was in medium 230 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ with a strong correlation to the tobacco consumption (r/sub s/ = 0.716), but with no correlation to the frequency of airing or the basic ventilation rate. Tobacco smoking seems to be the main indoor source of SPM in contemporary dwellings. The importance of these findings is underlined by epidemiologic studies on passive smoking and health. Air quality standards for the ambient air are based on certain risk groups such as infants, children, persons with chronic obstructive lung disorders, and indoor air standards should be based on the same concepts of health protection.

  20. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  1. Tobacco smoking among Portuguese high-school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Azevedo; A. P. Machado; H. Barros

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioural patterns, and determinants of smoking among a large sample of high-school students from Porto, the second largest city in Portugal. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and personal history of tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and illicit drug use was obtained from 2974 students, aged 12-19 years (48.7% female, 51.3% male), using an

  2. Pollution patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Lu; Lizhong Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tobacco smoke of 12 commercial brand cigarettes were determined in a simulated chamber of 20.25m3 in size. The total concentrations of 17 PAHs (?PAHs) in the chamber were 3500 and 1152ng\\/m3 in vapor phase and particulate phase, respectively. In vapor phase, the yield of naphthalene (NA) appeared to be the most abundant (2462ng\\/cig)

  3. Outdoor tobacco smoke exposure at the perimeter of a tobacco-free university.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Richardson, Patrick; Bratset, Hilarie; Teeters, Elizabeth; Record, Rachael; Riker, Carol; Hahn, Ellen J

    2014-08-01

    There are few studies measuring exposure to outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS). Tobacco users often gather at the boundaries of tobacco-free campuses, resulting in unintended consequences. The objective of this study was to measure exposure levels from OTS on sidewalks bordering a tobacco-free university campus. Data were collected while walking along a sidewalk adjacent to a medium traffic road between May and August 2011. Monitoring occurred during "background," "stop," and "walk-through" conditions at and near hot spot area to measure fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm; PM2.5) from OTS using a portable aerosol monitor The average PM2.5 levels during stop and walk-through conditions were significantly higher than during background conditions. PM2.5 peak occurrence rate and magnitude of peak concentration were significantly different depending on smoking occurrence. The peak occurrence rate during the stop condition was 10.4 times higher than during the background condition, and 3.1 times higher than during the walk-through condition. Average peak PM2.5 concentrations during the stop condition were 48.7% higher than during the background condition. In conclusion, individuals could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when stopping or even passing by smokers outdoors at the perimeter of tobacco-free campuses. The design and implementation of tobacco-free campus policies need to take into account the unintended consequences of OTS exposure at the boundaries. Implications: In this study, outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure was measured at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure could be determined by peak analysis. Peak occurrence rate and peak concentration for OTS exposure were identified by using peak analysis. People could be exposed to high levels of PM2.5 when standing or even passing by smokers at the perimeter of tobacco-free campus. OTS exposure measurement in other outdoor locations with smokers is needed to support outdoor smoking regulation. PMID:25185388

  4. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke and periodontal disease in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, S J; Agústsdóttir, H; Slade, G D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a leading risk factor for periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated the relation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontal disease in the United States. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). The outcome was periodontal disease, defined as 1 or more periodontal sites with attachment loss of 3 mm or greater and a pocket depth of 4 mm or greater at the same site. Exposure to ETS at home and work was self-reported. The study analyzed 6611 persons 18 years and older who had never smoked cigarettes or used other forms of tobacco. RESULTS: Exposure to ETS at home only, work only, and both was reported by 18.0%, 10.7%, and 3.8% of the study population, respectively. The adjusted odds of having periodontal disease were 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.1, 2.2) times greater for persons exposed to ETS than for persons not exposed. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons in the United States who had never used tobacco, those exposed to ETS were more likely to have periodontal disease than were those not exposed to ETS. PMID:11211634

  6. The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset in Vietnam: duration analyses of retrospective data.

    PubMed

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known, and even just delaying smoking onset conveys benefits. Tobacco control policies are of critical importance to low-income countries with high smoking rates such as Vietnam where smoking prevalence is greater than 55 % in young men between the ages of 25 and 45. Using a survey of teens and young adults, I conducted duration analyses to explore the impact of tobacco price on smoking onset. The results suggest that tobacco prices in Vietnam have a statistically significant and fairly substantial effect on the onset of smoking. Increases in average tobacco prices, measured by an index of tobacco prices and by the prices of two popular brands, are found to delay smoking onset. Of particular interest is the finding that Vietnamese youth are more sensitive to changes in prices of a popular international brand that has had favourable tax treatment since the late 1990s. PMID:23471691

  7. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (?.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  8. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths

    PubMed Central

    Near, Aimee M.; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. Methods: The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Results: Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Conclusion: Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. PMID:24287030

  9. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25962373

  10. Tobacco smoking in China: prevalence, disease burden, challenges and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ou, Jia-Xian; Bai, Chun-Xue

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the world's tobacco is produced and consumed in China. Despite existing tobacco control policies and activities, the prevalence of smoking in China remains high with 350 million smokers and 740 million passive smokers. Furthermore, smoking rates in the young population and in females are increasing. The number of deaths attributed to tobacco use has reached 1.2 million per year, whereas the death toll is expected to rise to 2 million annually by 2025. Sociocultural factors favouring smoking initiation, lack of awareness among the public about the hazards of smoking, weak support from the government and strong resistance from the tobacco industry are major reasons for the lack of effectiveness of current tobacco control measures. Effective intervention efforts are urgently required. Commitments from the government are crucial in tobacco control. Firm action should be taken on tobacco control issues at multiple levels including a reduction in tobacco supply, increased tobacco taxation, increased education, tobacco advertising limitations, decreased second-hand smoke exposure and smoking cessation support. The health-care community should also play a leading role in anti-tobacco campaigns and take a more active role in smoking cessation programmes. PMID:21910781

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)], E-mail: ebertone@schoolph.umass.edu; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Ryan, Michele B. [Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Barber, Lisa G. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels.

  12. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    PubMed

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures. PMID:24200284

  13. Smoking Behaviors and Attitudes During Adolescence Prospectively Predict Support for Tobacco Control Policies in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Methods: Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Results: Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies. PMID:22193576

  14. Fiscal and Policy Implications of Selling Pipe Tobacco for Roll-Your-Own Cigarettes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Daniel S.; Tynan, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Federal excise tax was increased for tobacco products on April 1, 2009. While excise tax rates prior to the increase were the same for roll-your-own (RYO) and pipe tobacco, the tax on pipe tobacco was $21.95 per pound less than the tax on RYO tobacco after the increase. Subsequently, tobacco manufacturers began labeling loose tobacco as pipe tobacco and marketing these products to RYO consumers at a lower price. Retailers refer to these products as “dual purpose" or “dual use" pipe tobacco. Methods Data on tobacco tax collections comes from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. Joinpoint software was used to identify changes in sales trends. Estimates were generated for the amount of pipe tobacco sold for RYO use and for Federal and state tax revenue lost through August 2011. Results Approximately 45 million pounds of pipe tobacco has been sold for RYO use from April 2009 to August 2011, lowering state and Federal revenue by over $1.3 billion. Conclusions Marketing pipe tobacco as “dual purpose" and selling it for RYO use provides an opportunity to avoid paying higher cigarette prices. This blunts the public health impact excise tax increases would otherwise have on reducing tobacco use through higher prices. Selling pipe tobacco for RYO use decreases state and Federal revenue and also avoids regulations on flavored tobacco, banned descriptors, prohibitions on shipping, and reporting requirements. PMID:22567159

  15. Health outcomes associated with long-term regular cannabis and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Sally E; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Swift, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not cannabis (tobacco-only group, n=80), or used neither substance (control group, n=123). Participants completed a survey addressing substance use, diagnosed medical conditions, health concerns relating to smoking cannabis/tobacco, and general health (measured using the Physical Health Questionnaire and the Short Form 36). Several significant differences were found among the four groups. With regard to diagnosed medical conditions, the three smoking groups reported significantly higher rates of emphysema than did the control group (ps<.001). However, all members of the cannabis-only group diagnosed with emphysema were former regular tobacco smokers. Total general health scores, general health subscales, and items addressing smoking-related health concerns also revealed several significant group differences, and these tended to show worse outcomes for the two tobacco smoking groups. Findings suggest that using tobacco on its own and mixing it with cannabis may lead to worse physical health outcomes than using cannabis alone. PMID:23501136

  16. Effects of 24 Hours of Tobacco Withdrawal and Subsequent Tobacco Smoking Among Low and High Sensation Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Zimmerman, Eli; Robbins, Glenn; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that high sensation seekers are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, initiate smoking at an earlier age, and smoke greater amounts of cigarettes. This study examined the influence of sensation-seeking status on tobacco smoking following deprivation in regular tobacco users. Methods: Twenty healthy tobacco-smoking volunteers with low or high impulsive sensation-seeking subscale scores completed 2 consecutive test days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Each week, a range of self-report, performance, and cardiovascular assessments were completed during ad libitum smoking on Day 1 and before and after the paced smoking of a tobacco cigarette containing 0.05, 0.6, or 0.9 mg of nicotine following 24 hr of tobacco deprivation on Day 2. In addition, self-administration behavior was analyzed during a 2-hr free access period after the initial tobacco administration. Results: In high sensation seekers, tobacco smoking independent of nicotine yield ameliorated deprivation effects, whereas amelioration of deprivation effects was dependent on nicotine yield among low sensation seekers. However, this effect was limited to a small subset of measures. Subsequent cigarette self-administration increased in a nicotine-dependent manner for high sensation seekers only. Conclusions: Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers were more sensitive to the withdrawal relieving effects of nonnicotine components of smoking following 24 hr of deprivation on selective measures and more sensitive to nicotine yield during subsequent tobacco self-administration. These results are consistent with studies suggesting that factors driving tobacco dependence may vary as a function of sensation-seeking status. PMID:21690318

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Willemsen; C. A. Gorts; P. van Soelen; R. E. Jonkers; S. R. Hilberink

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A random sample of 540 treatment staff, 306 attendants\\/nurses, and 93 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self reported ETS exposure, current smoking policy, compliance

  18. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Practices Among Middle-Aged and Older Women in Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Lee Smith; Brian Colwell; SangNam Ahn; Marcia G. Ory

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were

  19. Methods in tobacco abuse: proteomic changes following second-hand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Guingab-Cagmat, Joy; Bauzo, Rayna M; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Wang, Kevin K; Gold, Mark S; Kobeissy, Firas H

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of disease, disability, and death in the USA and leads to more than 400,000 preventable deaths per year. Nicotine is the major alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and many of the negative effects of smoking are attributed to nicotine. Nicotine is not only the addictive component of tobacco smoke, but also highly associated with carcinogenesis and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the administration of nicotine via subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps or by injection is an established method in preclinical studies for this area of research. Thus, preclinical research on the negative effects of tobacco smoke and tobacco addiction has focused primarily on the effects of nicotine. However, there are over 4,500 components found in tobacco smoke, many of which are highly toxic. Other components may also contribute to the addictive properties of tobacco smoke. Furthermore, the negative effects of tobacco smoke are not isolated to the smoker but can have negative effects to those exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) stream. SHS exposure is the third leading cause of preventable death. Approximately 38,000 deaths per year are attributed to SHS exposure in the USA. SHS exposure increases the risk of heart disease by approximately 30% and is associated with increased risk of stroke, cancer, type II diabetes, as well as pulmonary disease. Thus, methods of administering tobacco smoke in a controlled environment will further our understanding of tobacco addiction and the role tobacco smoke in other disease states. Moreover, combining smoke exposure with proteomics can lead to the discovery of biomarkers that can be potentially useful tools in screening, early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases caused by SHS. PMID:22231825

  20. The Predictive Utility of Attitudes toward Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Cook, Robert L.; Nuzzo, Erin; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine associations between positive and negative attitudes and hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) outcomes among college students. Methods Among a random sample of University of Florida students (N=852), multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent associations between positive and negative attitudes toward HTS. Results Positive attitudes were associated with adjusted odds of 4.32 (95% CI=3.20, 5.82) for current HTS, while negative attitudes were associated with lower adjusted odds for current smoking HTS (AOR=0.64, 95% CI=0.53, 0.76). Positive attitudes were also associated with adjusted odds of 9.31 (95% CI=6.77, 12.80) for intention for future hookah use. Conclusion Positive attitudes toward HTS were more strongly associated with HTS outcomes compared to negative attitudes. It may be particularly valuable for future research and interventions to focus on decreasing positive attitudes towards HTS. PMID:23985224

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of cancer in adults.

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Hirsch, A

    1993-01-01

    The apparent effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on cancer risk has become an important social and political issue. The risk of cancer in non-smokers is often the main reason for prohibiting or restricting smoking in public places. A number of epidemiological studies have shown an association between ETS exposure and lung cancer. However, the strength of this association has still to be estimated. Only a few studies have reported on ETS and cancer from sites other than the lung in adults. No definite conclusions can be drawn at present from a critical review of the epidemiological evidence, but the suggestion of an association is present for sinonasal cancer, while bladder cancer does not seem to be associated to ETS exposure. Positive studies are available for cancers from other sites, including the breast, the uterine cervix and the brain, but these are difficult to interpret. PMID:8280502

  2. Selenium in mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes containing fly ash-grown tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Gutenmann, W.H.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities of selenium, tar and nicotine present in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke of machine-smoked cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were prepared from tobacco purposely cultured on fly ash-amended soil so as to increase its selenium concentration. Selenium concentration was found to be the same in the gaseous phase of both MS and SS smoke, but its concentration was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the particulate matter of the MS smoke. Tar was higher in MS smoke and nicotine in SS smoke. Factors affecting selenium concentrations in tobacco and its possible environmental significance are discussed.

  3. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies. PMID:23912156

  4. Tobacco marketing and adolescent smoking: more support for a causal inference.

    PubMed Central

    Biener, L; Siegel, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This prospective study examined the effect of tobacco marketing on progression to established smoking. METHODS: Massachusetts adolescents (n = 529) who at baseline had smoked no more than 1 cigarette were reinterviewed by telephone in 1997. Analyses examined the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing at baseline on progression to established smoking, controlling for significant covariates. RESULTS: Adolescents who, at baseline, owned a tobacco promotional item and named a brand whose advertisements attracted their attention were more than twice as likely to become established smokers (odds ratio = 2.70) than adolescents who did neither. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in tobacco marketing often precedes, and is likely to facilitate, progression to established smoking. Hence, restrictions on tobacco marketing and promotion could reduce addiction to tobacco. PMID:10705860

  5. Exposure of U.S. workers to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S K

    1999-01-01

    The concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to which workers are exposed have been measured, using nicotine or other tracers, in diverse workplaces. Policies restricting workplace smoking to a few designated areas have been shown to reduce concentrations of ETS, although the effectiveness of such policies varies among work sites. Policies that ban smoking in the workplace are the most effective and generally lower all nicotine concentrations to less than 1 microg/m3; by contrast, mean concentrations measured in workplaces that allow smoking generally range from 2 to 6 microg/m3 in offices, from 3 to 8 microg/m3 in restaurants, and from 1 to 6 microg/m3 in the workplaces of blue-collar workers. Mean nicotine concentrations from 1 to 3 microg/m3 have been measured in the homes of smokers. Furthermore, workplace concentrations are highly variable, and some concentrations are more than 10 times higher than the average home levels, which have been established to cause lung cancer, heart disease, and other adverse health effects. For the approximately 30% of workers exposed to ETS in the workplace but not in the home, workplace exposure is the principal source of ETS. Among those with home exposures, exposures at work may exceed those resulting from home. We conclude that a significant number of U.S. workers are exposed to hazardous levels of ETS. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:10350518

  6. Research Opportunities Related to Establishing Standards for Tobacco Products Under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Discussion: Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. Conclusions: The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed. PMID:21324834

  7. Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing C Chan; Scott T Leatherdale

    2011-01-01

    Background  Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to\\u000a prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's\\u000a susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking\\u000a among never smokers.

  8. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Secondhand smoke (SHS), also known as environmental tobacco smoke, is a mixture of the sidestream smoke released by a smoldering cigarette, pipe, or cigar, and the mainstream smoke exhaled by a smoker. Like mainstream smoke, SHS is a complex mixture containing thousands of chemicals, including formaldehyde, cyanide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, and nicotine. More than 250 of the chemicals in tobacco smoke are known to be harmful, and at least 69 are known to cause cancer.

  9. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease–causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease–causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:24133855

  10. Identification of nuclear phosphoproteins as novel tobacco markers in mouse lung tissue following short-term exposure to tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Ogino, Kiyoshi; Mikami, Sayaka; Kudoh, Shinji; Koizumi, Daikai; Kudoh, Noritaka; Nakamura, Fumiko; Misumi, Masahiro; Shimomura, Tadasuke; Hasegawa, Koki; Usui, Fumihiko; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ito, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the progression of these diseases remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify signaling pathways activated by tobacco-smoke exposure, by analyzing nuclear phosphoprotein expression using phosphoproteomic analysis of lung tissue from mice exposed to tobacco smoke. Sixteen mice were exposed to tobacco smoke for 1 or 7 days, and the expression of phosphorylated peptides was analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 253 phosphoproteins were identified, including FACT complex subunit SPT16 in the 1-day exposure group, keratin type 1 cytoskeletal 18 (K18), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, in the 7-day exposure group, and peroxiredoxin-1 (OSF3) and spectrin ? chain brain 1 (SPTBN1), in both groups. Semi-quantitative analysis of the identified phosphoproteins revealed that 33 proteins were significantly differentially expressed between the control and exposed groups. The identified phosphoproteins were classified according to their biological functions. We found that the identified proteins were related to inflammation, regeneration, repair, proliferation, differentiation, morphogenesis, and response to stress and nicotine. In conclusion, we identified proteins, including OSF3 and SPTBN1, as candidate tobacco smoke-exposure markers; our results provide insights into the mechanisms of tobacco smoke-induced diseases. PMID:25349779

  11. Disease burdens from environmental tobacco smoke in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we estimated the disease burdens attributable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in Korean adults in 2010 and analyzed the trend of that from 2005 to 2010. We obtained information on the study population from the 2010 Cause of Death Statistic and estimated the ETS-attributable fraction using data from the Korean Community Health Survey and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The numbers of ETS-attributable deaths in female and male non-smokers were estimated to be 4.1 and 69.6?% of the numbers of deaths attributable to current smoke, respectively. The deaths attributable to ETS were larger in female than in male non-smokers (710 vs. 420). The ETS-attributable deaths increased slightly in 2005-2008 but decreased in 2009-2010. The number of potential years of life lost from ETS was 9077.24?years in 2010. If there were no exposure to ETS in adult non-smokers, we would expect to see 1130 fewer deaths (9.9?% of the deaths from current smoke). The results suggest that ETS poses considerable disease burdens for non-smokers, especially women, in Korea. PMID:25155457

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke particles in multizone indoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. L.; Nazaroff, W. W.

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major source of human exposure to airborne particles. To better understand the factors that affect exposure, and to investigate the potential effectiveness of technical control measures, a series of experiments was conducted in a two-room test facility. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and airflow rates were measured during and after combustion of a cigarette. Experiments were varied to obtain information about the effects on exposure of smoker segregation, ventilation modification, and air filtration. The experimental data were used to test the performance of an analytical model of the two-zone environment and a numerical multizone aerosol dynamics model. A respiratory tract particle deposition model was also applied to the results to estimate the mass of ETS particles that would be deposited in the lungs of a nonsmoker exposed in either the smoking or nonsmoking room. Comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions showed good agreement. For time-averaged particle mass concentration, the average bias between model and experiments was less than 10%. The average absolute error was typically 35%, probably because of variability in particle emission rates from cigarettes. For the conditions tested, the use of a portable air filtration unit yielded 65-90% reductions in predicted lung deposition relative to the baseline scenario. The use of exhaust ventilation in the smoking room reduced predicted lung deposition in the nonsmoking room by more than 80%, as did segregating the smoker from nonsmokers with a closed door.

  13. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  14. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    PubMed

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  15. “Accommodating” smoke?free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to “accommodate” smokers as an alternative to smoke?free polices developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid?1990s in Latin America. Methods Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT “social reports”, news reports and tobacco control legislation. Results Since the mid?1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke?free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Conclusions Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke?free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second?hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments. PMID:17897975

  16. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures. PMID:22668450

  17. Genetic basis of tobacco smoking: strong association of a specific major histocompatibility complex haplotype on chromosome 6 with smoking behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Fust; Gudmundur J. Arason; Judith Kramer; Csaba Szalai; Yan Yang; Erwin K. Chung; Bi Zhou; Carol A. Blanchong; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Sigurdur Bodvarsson; Zoltan Prohaszka; Istvan Karadi; Agnes Vatay; Margit Kovacs; L aszloRomics; Gudmundur Thorgeirsson; C. Yung Yu

    2004-01-01

    The genetic basis for addiction to tobacco smoking—particularly that of the perception of olfactory stimuli that may be important in reinforcing smoking addiction—is largely unknown. A cluster of genes for olfactory receptors is in close proximity to the MHC region on chromosome 6. Polymorphisms of MHC class III genes (RCCX modules, TNFA promoter polymorphisms) were determined in 101 healthy subjects

  18. Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mecredy, Graham C.; Diemert, Lori M.; Callaghan, Russell C.; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Results: Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14–0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43–1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04–1.34). Interpretation: Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level. PMID:23460630

  19. Denicotinized Versus Average Nicotine Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Differentially Releases Striatal Dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wendy; Evans, Catherine; Guthrie, Sally; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nicotine has long been recognized as a necessary but insufficient component of tobacco cigarettes to maintain a psychophysiological need to smoke. This study examined venous plasma concentrations effects of nicotine in cigarette smoking after overnight abstinence to release striatal dopamine (DA). Methods: Twenty-two male smokers smoked either denicotinized (denic) or average nicotine (nic) cigarettes under single blind conditions. Each was given [11C]raclopride and scanned in a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. Results: Smoking either denic or nic cigarettes released striatal DA. Denic cigarette smoking released DA primarily in the right striatum, whereas nic cigarette smoking released DA in both striata, but especially in the left. Increases in venous plasma nicotine concentrations correlated positively with increased DA release in the left caudate nucleus. Smoking denic cigarettes reduced craving as much as smoking nic cigarettes. Craving reduction after nic tobacco smoking correlated with increases in plasma nicotine. Conclusions: Nonnicotine factors in tobacco smoking produce important right brain effects. Nicotine is a pharmacological factor during tobacco smoking that releases bilateral striatal DA, but more in the left brain. PMID:22491891

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke, indoor allergens, and childhood asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, D R

    2000-01-01

    Both environmental tobacco smoke and indoor allergens can exacerbate already established childhood albeit primarily through quite disparate mechanisms. In infancy and childhood, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is associated with measures of decreased flow in the airways, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and increased respiratory infections, but the relationship between ETS and allergy is poorly understood. Indoor allergens from dust mite, cockroach, and cat can be associated with asthma exacerbation in children sensitized to the specific allergens. The precise role of either ETS or indoor allergens in the development of asthma is less well understood. The strong and consistent association between ETS and asthma development in young children may relate to both prenatal and postnatal influences on airway caliber or bronchial responsiveness. Dust mite allergen levels predict asthma in children sensitized to dust mite. The tendency to develop specific IgE antibodies to allergens (sensitization) is associated with and may be preceded by the development of a T-helper (Th)2 profile of cytokine release. The importance of either ETS or indoor allergens in the differentiation of T cells into a Th2-type profile of cytokine release or in the localization of immediate-type allergic responses to the lung is unknown. This article evaluates the strength of the evidence that ETS or indoor allergens influence asthma exacerbation and asthma development in children. We also selectively review data for the effectiveness of allergen reduction in reducing asthma symptoms and present a potential research agenda regarding these two broad areas of environmental exposure and their relationship to childhood asthma. PMID:10931782

  1. A surveillance summary of smoking and review of tobacco control in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The burden of smoking-related diseases in Jordan is increasingly evident. During 2006, chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for more than 50% of all deaths in Jordan. With this evidence in hand, we highlight the prevalence of smoking in Jordan among youth and adults and briefly review legislation that governs tobacco control in Jordan. The prevalence of smoking in Jordan remains unacceptably high with smoking and use of tobacco prevalences ranging from 15% to 30% among students aged 13-15 years and a current smoking prevalence near 50% among men. Opportunities exist to further reduce smoking among both youth and adults; however, combating tobacco use in Jordan will require partnerships and long-term commitments between both private and public institutions as well as within local communities. PMID:19951428

  2. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  3. Seeing, wanting, owning: the relationship between receptivity to tobacco marketing and smoking susceptibility in young people

    PubMed Central

    Feighery, E.; Borzekowski, D.; Schooler, C.; Flora, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the effect of the tobacco industry's marketing practices on adolescents by examining the relationship between their receptivity to these practices and their susceptibility to start smoking.?DESIGN—Paper-and-pencil surveys measuring association with other smokers, exposure to tobacco industry marketing strategies, experience with smoking, and resolve not to smoke in the future.?SETTING—25 randomly selected classrooms in five middle schools in San Jose, California.?SUBJECTS—571 seventh graders with an average age of 13 years and 8 months; 57% were female. Forty-five per cent of the students were Asian, 38% were Hispanic, 12% were white, and 5% were black.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Exposure to social influences, receptivity to marketing strategies, susceptibility to start smoking.?RESULTS—About 70% of the participants indicated at least moderate receptivity to tobacco marketing materials. Children who are more receptive are also more susceptible to start smoking. In addition to demographics and social influences, receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility.?CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco companies conduct marketing campaigns that effectively capture teenage attention and stimulate desire for their promotional items. These marketing strategies may function to move young teenagers from non-smoking status toward regular use of tobacco. Our results demonstrate that there is a clear association between tobacco marketing practices and youngsters' susceptibility to smoke. The findings, along with other research, provide compelling support for regulating the manner in which tobacco products are marketed, to protect young people from the tobacco industry's strategies to reach them.???Keywords: adolescents; advertising; smoking initiation PMID:9789929

  4. US Adult Attitudes and Practices Regarding Smoking Restrictions and Child Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Changes in the Social Climate From 2000 -2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. McMillen; Jonathan P. Winickoff; Jonathan D. Klein; Michael Weitzman

    2010-01-01

    Objective. A substantial proportion of homes and automobiles serve as settings for environ- mental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and many public settings that children frequent are still not smoke-free. Tobacco control efforts are attempting to increase smok- ing bans. The objective of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smokers and non- smokers regarding smoking bans

  5. Smoking water-pipe, chewing nass, and prevalence of heart disease – A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Golestan Cohort Study, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Poustchi, Hossein; Kamangar, Farin; Golozar, Asieh; Etemadi, Arash; Khademi, Hooman; Freedman, Neal D.; Merat, Shahin; Garg, Vaani; Fuster, Valentin; Wakefield, Jon; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Malekzadeh, Reza; Boffetta, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Water-pipe and smokeless tobacco use have been associated with several adverse health outcomes. However, little information is available on the association between water-pipe use and heart disease (HD). Therefore, we investigated the association of smoking water-pipe and chewing nass (a mixture of tobacco, lime, and ash) with prevalent HD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Baseline data (collected in 2004–2008) from a prospective population-based study in Golestan Province, Iran. Participants 50,045 residents of Golestan (40–75 years old; 42.4% male). Main outcome measures ORs and 95% CIs from multivariate logistic regression models for the association of water-pipe and nass use with HD prevalence. Results A total of 3051 (6.1%) participants reported a history of HD, and 525 (1.1%) and 3726 (7.5%) reported ever water-pipe or nass use, respectively. Heavy water-pipe smoking was significantly associated with HD prevalence (highest level of cumulative use versus never use, OR= 3.75; 95% CI 1.52 – 9.22; P for trend= 0.04). This association persisted when using different cutoff points, when restricting HD to those taking nitrate compound medications, and among never cigarette smokers. There was no significant association between nass use and HD prevalence (highest category of use versus never use, OR= 0.91; 95% CI 0.69 – 1.20). Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between HD and heavy water-pipe smoking. Although the existing evidence suggesting similar biological consequences of water-pipe and cigarette smoking make this association plausible, results of our study were based on a modest number of water-pipe users and need to be replicated in further studies. PMID:23257174

  6. Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce N Leistikow; Zubair Kabir; Gregory N Connolly; Luke Clancy; Hillel R Alpert

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples). However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load)\\/non-lung cancer mortality

  7. Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

  8. [Effect of tobacco smoking on amylase activity in patients with pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Sliwi?ska, Mariola; Jab?onowska, Monika; Milnerowicz, Stanis?aw

    2004-01-01

    The pancreas is one of the first organs pathologically affected by the tobacco smoking. However, the mechanism of development of these changes is not eventually recognised. It has been demonstrated that nicotine influences exogenous function of pancreas. The aim of this study is to prove the influence of tobacco smoking on amylase activity in serum and urine of smoking and non-smoking patients with diagnosed acute (AP), chronic (CP) and chronic exaggerated pancreatitis (CEP). Serum and urine has been collected from 57 patients with AP, CP and CEP. The activity of enzyme has been determined using the colorimetric method with ethylidene-G7-PNP (4,6-ethylidene-p-nitrophenyl-alpha,D-malthoheptozyde). The nicotine metabolites has been assayed with the immunoenzymatic method (ELISA) using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against cotinine. The highest amylase activity in serum and urine has been observed in smoking patients with CEP. Much higher differences in amylase activity has been estimated in urine of patients with CP and AP (CP: in non-smoking patients more than three times lower activity than in smoking patients; AP: in non-smoking patients more than two times lower activity than in smoking patients). It has been revealed that the differences in amylase activity in both serum and urine in smoking patients in comparison with non-smoking patients with pancreatitis may prove a significant influence of tobacco smoking on exocrine function of pancreas. PMID:15794254

  9. Modeling Geographic and Demographic Variability in Residential Concentrations of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Using National Data Sets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in ...

  10. Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

  11. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11–15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be emphasized in programs aimed at preventing onset, and both exposures should be emphasized in programs aimed at experimental smokers. PMID:19413793

  12. Exposure to pro-tobacco messages and smoking status among Mexican origin youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Carey, Felicia R; Spitz, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Though several studies have found a positive relationship between exposure to tobacco advertising and/or promotional marketing and smoking status among youth, few have examined these relationships specifically for youth of Mexican origin. The current analysis examines the relationship between perceived exposure to pro-tobacco messages and progression through the smoking continuum from trying to repeated use in a cohort of Mexican origin youth ages 14 to 19. Methods Data were collected via personal in-home interviews at two time points – in 2008-09 and 2010-11 (N=942). Smoking status, exposure to pro-tobacco messages from five major media sources, demographic variables and established risk factors for adolescent smoking were measured at both waves. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square tests, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression. Results Adolescent perception of the number of pro-tobacco messages seen in 2008-09 was unrelated to smoking less than one cigarette assessed in 2010-11. However, having seen a higher number of pro-tobacco messages was significantly associated with being more likely to have smoked more than one cigarette (OR=1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42) controlling for demographic factors and known psychosocial risk factors of smoking behavior. Conclusion Results suggest that the more pro-tobacco messages Mexican origin youth are able to recall, the further their progression through the smoking trajectory a year later. These youth are clearly susceptible to pro-tobacco messaging, and our results underscore the need to restrict all forms of messaging that promote tobacco use. PMID:23584711

  13. Pulmonary Prostacyclin Synthase Overexpression Chemoprevents Tobacco Smoke Lung Carcinogenesis in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Keith; York E. Miller; Tyler M. Hudish; Carlos E. Girod; Sylk Sotto-Santiago; Wilbur A. Franklin; Raphael A. Nemenoff; Thomas H. March; S. Patrick Nana-Sinkam; Mark W. Geraci

    2004-01-01

    Increased pulmonary production of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) by lung-specific overexpression of prostacyclin synthase decreases lung tu- mor incidence and multiplicity in chemically induced murine lung cancer models. We hypothesized that pulmonary prostacyclin synthase overex- pression would prevent lung carcinogenesis in tobacco-smoke exposed mice. Murine exposure to tobacco smoke is an established model of inducing pulmonary adenocarcinomas and allows for the

  14. Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on cough in children with a history of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chen; D. C. Rennie; L. A. Lockinger; J. A. Dosman

    1998-01-01

    Effect of environmental tobacco smoke on cough in children with a history of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy. Y. Chen, D.C. Rennie, L.A. Lockinger, J.A. Dosman. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1998. ABSTRACT: We examined the possible impact of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy (T\\/ A) on the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and respiratory outcomes. This study was conducted in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, in

  15. Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages. PMID:22471778

  16. Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

    2015-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3 %). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed. PMID:24797155

  17. Misclassification of smoking status among women in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Riboli, E; Haley, N J; Trédaniel, J; Saracci, R; Preston-Martin, S; Trichopoulos, D

    1995-02-01

    In studies of the health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), misclassification of active smokers has the potential to bias the estimates of disease risk. Biochemical validation of exposure to ETS can provide objective evidence of current smoking status in epidemiological studies. Intrinsic to this effort is the establishment of appropriate cut-off points for the measurements of tobacco biomarkers. Within a collaborative study on ETS co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, questionnaire data and urine samples were collected from 1,369 women at 13 centres in 10 countries. Forty seven of these women had urine cotinine levels above 50 ng.mg-1 creatinine, a level used to discriminate smokers from nonsmokers in previous studies. The distributions of the subjects across cotinine values and self-reported exposure to ETS was consistent with the association, at one extreme, of moderate cotinine levels (50-150 ng.mg-1) with very high exposure to ETS, and, at the other extreme, of very high cotinine levels indicating actual use of nicotine-containing products in women with low ETS exposure. Using the cut-off point of 150 ng.mg-1, only 1.5% of the alleged nonsmokers were reclassified as current light smokers. Potential bias due to smoker misclassification is very unlikely to be responsible for the increased health risks observed in epidemiological studies on ETS. PMID:7758565

  18. Who's smoking now? The epidemiology of tobacco use in the United States and abroad.

    PubMed

    Kumra, V; Markoff, B A

    2000-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have linked tobacco use with a wide variety of diseases. Strong government-supported anti-smoking campaigns have decreased the prevalence of smoking in many developed countries, including the United States. However, it remains a major public health pariah. In developing countries, such as China, cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco use continue to increase. If unchecked this will eventually lead to 10 million deaths per year worldwide. Even in the United States, the prevalence of smoking is rising in crucial population groups such as adolescents. Recent advances have made physicians more able to help patients quit smoking, but organized campaigns must be further strengthened to prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially in the young. PMID:10763086

  19. Tobacco smoke as inducer for gas phase-controlled transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, Wilfried; Spielmann, Manuela; Daoud El-Baba, Marie; Keller, Bettina; Aubel, Dominique; Fussenegger, Martin

    2005-06-30

    Capitalizing on components evolved to metabolize ethanol in Aspergillus nidulans, we previously designed the first molecular gas-gene expression interface using gaseous acetaldehyde as the major inducer. This fungus-derived acetaldehyde-inducible gene regulation (AIR) system operated perfectly and enabled precise and reversible transgene expression dosing in a variety of mammalian cells. We now validate the use of mainstream cigarette smoke typically containing acetaldehyde at regulation-effective nontoxic concentrations as a noninvasive modality to adjust transgene transcription in mammalian cells and mice. Indeed, tobacco smoke-induced expression fine-tuning of AIR-driven transgenes was successful in mammalian cells. Even mice implanted with cells transgenic for AIR-controlled SEAP (human secreted alkaline phosphatase) production showed serum SEAP levels correlating with inhaled tobacco smoke doses. Tobacco smoke-controlled gene expression may foster clinical opportunities as well as advances in understanding smoke-related pathologies. PMID:15841470

  20. Cigarette smoke composition. Part 2. Method for determining major components in smoke of cigarettes that heat instead of burn tobacco.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Milhous, L A; Hicks, R D; Giles, J A

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for determining major constituents in the smoke of a cigarette that heats, but does not burn, tobacco. Dual, simultaneous separations are performed in a single gas chromatographic oven to determine water, glycerol, nicotine, and propylene glycol in a rapid and cost-effective manner. A materials balance of new cigarette smoke total particulate matter was attempted from both Cambridge filter and electrostatic precipitation smoke collection data. Serious deficiencies were found when Cambridge filter smoke collection was applied for this purpose. Electrostatic precipitation smoke collection eliminated these problems. The data obtained by electrostatic precipitation smoke collection indicate that water, glycerol, nicotine, and propylene glycol make up about 94% of new cigarette smoke total particulate matter. PMID:2211484

  1. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  2. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  3. Urinary tobacco smoke-constituent biomarkers for assessing risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-01-15

    Tobacco-constituent biomarkers are metabolites of specific compounds present in tobacco or tobacco smoke. Highly reliable analytic methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed for quantitation of these biomarkers in both urine and blood specimens. There is substantial interindividual variation in smoking-related lung cancer risk that is determined in part by individual variability in the uptake and metabolism of tobacco smoke carcinogens. Thus, by incorporating these biomarkers in epidemiologic studies, we can potentially obtain a more valid and precise measure of in vivo carcinogen dose than by using self-reported smoking history, ultimately improving the estimation of smoking-related lung cancer risk. Indeed, we have demonstrated this by using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in urine samples collected from smokers many years before their development of cancer versus those in their smoking counterparts without a cancer diagnosis. The following urinary metabolites were associated with lung cancer risk, independent of smoking intensity and duration: cotinine plus its glucuronide, a biomarker of nicotine uptake; 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK); and r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These results provide several possible new directions for using tobacco smoke-constituent biomarkers in lung cancer prevention, including improved lung cancer risk assessment, intermediate outcome determination in prevention trials, and regulation of tobacco products. PMID:24408916

  4. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  5. Association between environmental tobacco smoke and depression among Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lee, Joo Young; Lee, Ju-Mi; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and depression among Korean women. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, we examined 731 men and 1249 women (aged 39–85?years) for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)-Kangwha. Among 1208 never-smoking women, we excluded two women taking antidepressants and five women who did not complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on 1201 women. ETS exposure was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire, and was classified into three groups: no exposure, occasional exposure and regular exposure. Depression was assessed using the BDI score, which ranged from 0 to 63, and the presence of depression was defined as a BDI score ?10. Results Women exposed to ETS were more likely to have depression than those without ETS exposure (p=0.019). When BDI was analysed as a continuous variable, women exposed to ETS had significantly higher BDI scores after full adjustment (overall exposure: ?=1.36, p=0.013; occasional exposure: ?=1.15, p=0.063; regular exposure: ?=1.90, p=0.039). ETS exposure was significantly associated with depression in a dose–response manner even after adjusting for age, body mass index, menopause, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and prevalent chronic diseases. The adjusted OR for depression (95% CI) was 1.72 (1.25 to 2.37) for overall ETS exposure, 1.56 (1.09 to 2.24) for occasional exposure and 2.19 (1.30 to 3.69) for regular exposure, when compared to no exposure. Conclusions Exposure to ETS was associated with depression among middle aged and elderly Korean women. PMID:26100025

  6. Parental Smoking in the Vicinity of Children and Tobacco Control Policies in the European Region

    PubMed Central

    Kovess, Viviane; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Boyd, Anders; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro; Eke, Ceyda; Golitz, Dietmar; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Susser, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Objective To ascertain patterns of parental smoking in the vicinity of children in Eastern and Western Europe and their relation to Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores. Methods Data on parental smoking patterns were obtained from the School Child Mental Health Europe (SCMHE), a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 5141 school children aged 6 to 11 years and their parents in six countries: Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey ranked by TCS into three level categories toward tobacco control policies. Results A slightly higher proportion of Eastern compared to Western European mothers (42.4 vs. 35.1%) were currently smoking in but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for maternal age and maternal educational attainment. About a fifth (19.3%) and a tenth (10.0%) of Eastern and Western European mothers, respectively, smoked in the vicinity of their children, and the difference was significant even after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.001). Parents with the highest educational attainment were significantly less likely to smoke in the vicinity of their children than those with the lowest attainment. After control of these covariates lax tobacco control policies, compared to intermediate policies, were associated with a 50% increase in the likelihood of maternal smoking in the vicinity of children adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?1.52 and 1.64. Among fathers, however, the relationship with paternal smoking and TCS seems more complex since strict policy increases the risk as well AOR?=?1,40. Only one country, however belongs to the strict group. Significance Tobacco control policies seem to have influenced maternal smoking behaviors overall to a limited degree and smoking in the vicinity of children to a much greater degree. Children living in European countries with lax tobacco control policies are more likely to be exposed to second hand smoking from maternal and paternal smoking. PMID:23437236

  7. Public Health Under Attack: The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the tobacco industry’s response to the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Tobacco industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco/Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and industry Web sites were analyzed. LexisNexis and the Library of Congress’s Thomas Web site were searched for legislative history. We found that the tobacco industry considered ASSIST a major threat because of its emphasis on policy and creation of local tobacco control infrastructures. The industry mobilized resources for a well-coordinated attack on ASSIST. Although industry executives were sometimes frustrated in their efforts, they ultimately had a chilling effect on ASSIST. This evidence suggest that tobacco control advocates should expect a vigorous response from the tobacco industry to policy advocacy efforts, particularly at the local level. PMID:14759933

  8. Differential effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke condensate on human annulus fibrosus cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nam; Wang, Dong; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Witt, William; Ngo, Kevin; Coelho, Paulo; Bedison, Ronald; Byer, Barbara; Studer, Rebecca; Lee, Joon; Di, Y Peter; Kang, James

    2011-10-01

    Tobacco smoking increases the risk of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and back pain, but the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of smoking are largely unknown. Current hypotheses predict that smoking contributes to IDD indirectly through nicotine-mediated vasoconstriction which limits the exchange of nutrients between the discs and their surroundings. We alternatively hypothesize that direct contact of disc cells, that is, cells in the outermost annulus and those present along fissures in degenerating discs, with the vascular system containing soluble tobacco smoking constituents could perturb normal metabolic activities resulting in IDD. In this study, we tested our hypothesis by comparing the effects of direct exposure of human disc cells to tobacco smoke condensate and nicotine on cell viability and metabolic activity. We showed that smoke condensate, which contains all of the water-soluble compounds inhaled by smokers, exerts greater detrimental effects on human disc cell viability and metabolism than nicotine. Smoke condensate greatly induced an inflammatory response and gene expression of metalloproteinases while reduced active matrix synthesis and expression of matrix structural genes. Therefore, we have demonstrated that disc cell exposure to the constituents of tobacco smoke has negative consequences which have the potential to alter disc matrix homeostasis. PMID:21448984

  9. Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Child Development: A Case-control Study on Hong Kong Chinese Toddlers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ML TANG

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during prenatal and early childhood period and developmental delay among Hong Kong Chinese toddlers. Methods: A case-control study was carried out on 392 children with newly diagnosed developmental delay and 393 controls with normal development. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect household smoking history. The main outcome measures

  10. Relationship between knowledge about the harms of smoking and smoking status in the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G; McBride, Orla; Phillips, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Background This analysis estimates the association between smoking-related knowledge and smoking behaviour in a Chinese context. To identify the specific knowledge most directly related to smoking status, we used a novel latent variable analysis approach to adjust for the high correlations between different measures of knowledge about tobacco smoking. Method Data are from the Global Adult Tobacco China Survey, a nationally representative sample of 13?354 household-dwelling individuals 15?years of age or older. Multinomial logistic regressions estimated the association between smoking status (ie, never smoked, current smoker or past smoker) and four smoking-related beliefs: whether or not smoking causes lung cancer, heart attack and stroke, and whether or not low-tar cigarettes are less harmful. A latent variable approach reassessed these associations while taking into account the general level of knowledge about smoking. Results After demographic variables and general knowledge about smoking had been controlled for, the belief that low-tar cigarettes are not less harmful was more prevalent in persons who had never smoked than in current smokers (OR=1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) in men and OR=2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.9) in women); this association was even stronger when past smokers and current smokers were compared (OR=2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.0) in men and OR=5.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 20.1) in women). Conclusions Compared with those who have never smoked and those who have ceased smoking, current smokers in China are more likely to believe that low-tar cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. PMID:23988861

  11. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  12. A content analysis of smoking fetish videos on YouTube: regulatory implications for tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongseok; Paek, Hye-Jin; Lynn, Jordan

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and R movie ratings. We discuss a potential impact of the prosmoking image on youth according to social cognitive theory, and implications for tobacco control. PMID:20390676

  13. Daily Tobacco Smoking in Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers: Clinical Correlates and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco smoking and pathological gambling (PG) frequently co-occur. Little is known, however, about the clinical correlates and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers with and without daily tobacco smoking. Methods Among a sample of 465 consecutive treatment-seeking subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with daily tobacco smoking were compared to those without daily tobacco smoking on measures of gambling symptom severity (South Oaks Gambling Screen [SOGS] and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling [PG-YBOCS]), types of gambling, social and legal problems, and co-occurring disorders. Results Two hundred and nine (44.9%) of the 465 subjects with PG reported current daily tobacco smoking. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking as compared to those without had higher SOGS scores, had more severe PG-YBOCS behavior scores, endorsed more DSM-IV PG criteria, lost more money gambling, and were more likely to engage in non-strategic gambling, and were less likely to have a co-occurring mood disorder. Gamblers with daily tobacco smoking and a current substance use disorder reported a greater percentage of income lost to gambling during the past year. Conclusions Daily tobacco smoking in PG is common and associated with multiple important clinical features including more severe gambling and financial problems. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers with daily tobacco smoking might need unique or enhanced treatment strategies. PMID:19690628

  14. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    PubMed

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales promotion and the smoking habits of adolescents. In Norway, no such studies have been carried out. If we examine the changes in the use of tobacco over time, the data available do not lend support to the conclusions drawn by the tobacco industry spokesmen. In Norway the prevalence of daily smokers was higher in 1975, when the ban on tobacco advertising came into force than either before or after. The strongest decrease in the prevalence of daily smokers took place during the first five-year period after the ban was introduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8266025

  15. The Influence of Parity and Smoking in the Social Environment on Tobacco Consumption among Daily Smoking Women in Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luise L. Mueller; Christian Munk; Birthe L. Thomsen; Kirsten Frederiksen; Susanne K. Kjaer

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper isto determine factors associated with higher tobacco consumption in a large cohort of daily smoking Danish women 27–39 years of age with a main focus on the smoking habits of people in the women’s social environment and parity. A cohort of 12,023 Danish women was examined in a cross-sectional study design with a mailed questionnaire.

  16. Plutonium-239, /sup 240/Pu and /sup 210/Po contents of tobacco and cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H.; Jaakkola, T.

    1985-08-01

    The /sup 239/Pu and /sup 240/Pu found in the environment has mainly been produced by atmospheric nuclear tests. The accumulation of fallout Pu in man from inhalation and ingestion and its distribution in the body has previously been studied. Information about the accumulation is needed because of the expanding production of this highly radiotoxic substance. In the present work the Pu content of tobacco and cigarette smoke was determined to evaluate the contribution of smoking to total Pu intake by man. For comparison the /sup 210/Po content of tobacco and smoke were analyzed. The release of /sup 210/Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been widely studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smokers.

  17. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice. PMID:24463700

  18. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  19. Pyrolysis and combustion of tobacco in a cigarette smoking simulator under air and nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christian; Streibel, Thorsten; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin G; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    A coupling between a cigarette smoking simulator and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer was constructed to allow investigation of tobacco smoke formation under simulated burning conditions. The cigarette smoking simulator is designed to burn a sample in close approximation to the conditions experienced by a lit cigarette. The apparatus also permits conditions outside those of normal cigarette burning to be investigated for mechanistic understanding purposes. It allows control of parameters such as smouldering and puff temperatures, as well as combustion rate and puffing volume. In this study, the system enabled examination of the effects of "smoking" a cigarette under a nitrogen atmosphere. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with a soft ionisation technique is expedient to analyse complex mixtures such as tobacco smoke with a high time resolution. The objective of the study was to separate pyrolysis from combustion processes to reveal the formation mechanism of several selected toxicants. A purposely designed adapter, with no measurable dead volume or memory effects, enables the analysis of pyrolysis and combustion gases from tobacco and tobacco products (e.g. 3R4F reference cigarette) with minimum aging. The combined system demonstrates clear distinctions between smoke composition found under air and nitrogen smoking atmospheres based on the corresponding mass spectra and visualisations using principal component analysis. PMID:22392377

  20. Maternal tobacco smoke exposure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, C; Emerson, R K; O'Riordan, M A; Roitman, E; Shackleton, C

    1997-01-01

    We propose that in utero exposure to tobacco smoke products places a newborn at risk for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). To test this hypothesis, infants with PPHN were identified. Healthy newborns of similar ethnicity were identified as a comparison group. Cord blood cotinine concentrations and maternal questionnaires were obtained. The number of women exposed to tobacco smoke in each group ascertained by questionnaire was borderline significantly different (38.7% vs. 20.5%; p = 0.080). However, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine in their cord blood (64.5% vs. 28.2%; p = 0.002), and the median cotinine concentrations were significantly higher (5.2 ng/ml vs. 2 ng/ml; p = 0.051) than the comparison infants. Among infants delivered to nonsmoking women, more PPHN infants had detectable cotinine (50% vs. 19%; p = 0.015), and the cotinine concentrations were higher (3.5 ng/ml vs. 1.65 ng/ml; p = 0.022) than the comparison group. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for PPHN. Therefore, we recommend that pregnant women cease smoking and avoid environmental tobacco smoke. Key words. cotinine, newborns, passive, persistent pulmonary hypertension, smoking, tobacco smoke pollution. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9105795

  1. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-01-01

    Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

  2. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider.

    PubMed

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-01-01

    PRIMARY CARE PROVIDERS SHOULD BE AWARE OF TWO NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN NICOTINE ADDICTION AND SMOKING CESSATION: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as "thirdhand smoke". The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

  3. Waterpipe smoking: analysis of the aroma profile of flavored waterpipe tobaccos.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Jens; Luch, Andreas; Schulz, Thomas G

    2013-10-15

    In the last years the habit of smoking waterpipes has spread worldwide, especially among young people and emerged as global health issue. Although research is now under way for no less than 40 years in the field of waterpipe smoking, in comparison to cigarette smoking there is still insufficient knowledge on the real composition and the toxicity of the smoke inhaled and the resulting levels of exposure against particular hazardous ingredients. In most cases for waterpipe smoking a highly flavored tobacco called "moassel" is used. However, the number, quantity and toxicity of the added flavorings are widely unknown. In this study the static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) was used to identify 79 volatile flavor compounds present in waterpipe tobacco. Among these eleven compounds were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that waterpipe tobacco contains high amounts of the fragrance benzyl alcohol as well as considerable levels of limonene, linalool and eugenol, all of which are known as being allergenic in human skin. The proposed SHS-GC-MS method has been validated and found to be accurate, simple and characterized by low limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.016 to 4.3 µg/g tobacco for benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, respectively. The identification and characterization of waterpipe tobacco ingredients indeed reveals crucial for the assessment of potential health risks that may be posed by these additives in smokers. PMID:24054646

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in China: The International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dongfeng; Wu, Xigui; Reynolds, Kristi; Duan, Xiufang; Xin, Xue; Reynolds, Robert F.; Whelton, Paul K.; He, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of cigarette smoking and the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) in the general population in China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 15540 Chinese adults aged 35–74 years in 2000–2001. Information on cigarette smoking was obtained by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Results. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was much higher among men (60.2%) than among women (6.9%). Among nonsmokers, 12.1% of men and 51.3% of women reported exposure to ETS at home, and 26.7% of men and 26.2% of women reported exposure to ETS in their workplaces. On the basis of our findings, 147358000 Chinese men and 15895000 Chinese women aged 35–74 years were current cigarette smokers, 8658000 men and 108402000 women were exposed to ETS at home, and 19072000 men and 55372000 women were exposed to ETS in their workplaces. Conclusions. The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the Chinese population indicates an urgent need for smoking prevention and cessation efforts. PMID:15514239

  5. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:23768812

  6. Carcinogen: DNA adducts in tobacco smoke-associated cancer of the upper respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, K; Banaszewski, J; Ja?oszy?ski, P; Pabiszczak, M; Szyfter, W; Szmeja, Z

    1999-01-01

    Mortality connected with tobacco smoke-associated laryngeal cancer in Poland markedly exceeds the relevant epidemiological data from other European countries. The main groups of genotoxic agents considered as potential carcinogens present in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, N-nitrosoamines and reactive oxygen species. Aromatic DNA adducts, N7-alkylated guanosines and oxidative DNA damage derived from tobacco smoke exposure were detected in laryngeal and oral (tumour and non-tumour) biopsies, and white blood cells of cancer subjects. Further, DNA lesions were analysed to estimate the significance of such confounders as intensity of smoking, subject's sex, age, topography of larynx, cancer staging and genetic factor. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was found to be the main determinant of an individual's DNA adduct level. The occurrence of DNA lesions was established as a reliable marker of former exposure to tobacco smoke genotoxicants. On the other hand, a comparison of DNA lesion levels in various regions of larynx indicates limited usefulness of DNA adduct analysis as an estimate of cancer risk. For a better risk estimation one has to take into account DNA lesions in proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes and the efficacy of DNA repair. Altogether, DNA adducts formation and removal has to be considered as a single stage in the multistep carcinogenesis. PMID:10547029

  7. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizations supported genetics and psychosomatic research to try to disprove findings that smoking causes lung cancer. Tobacco industry research leaders engaged with investigators because of shared priorities and interests in the brain effects of nicotine. By the 1980s, collaborative funding programs and individual company research and development teams engaged in intramural and extramural basic science studies on the neuropharmacology of nicotine. When mental health researchers outside the industry became interested in the issue of the mentally ill and smoking in the mid-1990s, they increasingly explained it in terms of a disease of nicotine addiction. Both the idea that smoking/nicotine does something positive for the mentally ill and the conclusion that it is the result of nicotine dependence have the potential to support corporate agendas (tobacco or pharmaceutical). PMID:21596723

  8. The Tobacco Industry’s Role in the 16 Cities Study of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: Do the Data Support the Stated Conclusions?

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Richard L.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2006-01-01

    Background Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. Objectives Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency and court records, and to evaluate the validity of the study’s conclusions. Results The tobacco industry’s purpose in conducting the 16 Cities Study was to develop data showing that workplace SHS exposures were negligible, using these data to stop smoking restrictions by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The extensive involvement of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the tobacco industry’s Center for Indoor Air Research in controlling the study was not fully disclosed. The study’s definition of “smoking workplace” included workplaces where smoking was restricted to designated areas or where no smoking was observed. This definition substantially reduced the study’s reported average SHS concentrations in “smoking workplaces” because SHS levels in unrestricted smoking workplaces are much greater than in workplaces with designated smoking areas or where no smoking occurred. Stratifying the data by home smoking status and comparing exposures by workplace smoking status, however, indicates that smoke-free workplaces would halve the total SHS exposure of those living with smokers and virtually eliminate SHS exposure for most others. Conclusions Data in the 16 Cities Study reveal that smoke-free workplaces would dramatically reduce total SHS exposure, providing significant worker and public health benefits. PMID:17185281

  9. Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R.; Mullins, R.; Trotter, L.; White, V.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the extent to which smokers and non-smokers in Victoria, Australia attempt to keep their homes smoke free and to determine whether the proportion of people attempting to do so has changed over time.?METHODS—Face to face surveys conducted in Victoria each year from 1989 to 1997.?PARTICIPANTS—Approximately 2500 randomly selected adults each year.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Proportion of respondents who discourage their visitors from smoking; proportion of smokers who always smoke outside their own homes; behaviour of smokers when they are around children. Changes in each of these measures over time.?RESULTS—Reports of visitors being discouraged from smoking rose from 27% in 1989 to 53% in 1997. Smokers who reported always smoking outside the home rose from 20% in 1995 to 28% in 1997. Not smoking in the presence of children rose from 14% in 1989 to 33% in 1996. Indoor restrictions on smoking were associated with the presence of children in the household and even more strongly with the presence of non-smoking adults. People who worked in places where smoking was totally banned were more likely to ask their visitors not to smoke than those who worked where smoking was allowed.?CONCLUSIONS—The results indicate a strong move towards homes and towards protecting children from smoke. Efforts to support and facilitate this social change should be further encouraged.???Keywords: children; environmental tobacco smoke; home PMID:10599570

  10. Carcinogen derived biomarkers: applications in studies of human exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on carcinogen derived biomarkers of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). These biomarkers are specifically related to known carcinogens in tobacco smoke and include urinary metabolites, DNA adducts, and blood protein adducts. Method: Published reviews and the current literature were searched for relevant articles. Results: The most consistently elevated biomarker in people exposed to SHS was 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), urinary metabolites of the tobacco specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). The tobacco specificity of this biomarker as well as its clear relation to an established lung carcinogen are particularly appropriate for its application in studies of SHS exposure. Conclusion: The results of the available carcinogen derived biomarker studies provide biochemical data which support the conclusion, based on epidemiologic investigations, that SHS causes lung cancer in non-smokers. PMID:14985617

  11. mimicking, and non-smoking \\/ smokefree material were documented. Scenes with only tobacco paraphernalia, smoke or verbal references were not included in the results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Wilson

    Results summary: During the 84 hours, there were 125 tobacco-related events recorded (1.5\\/hour). Of these events, 24% (30) were clearly anti- smoking, ie, smokefree signs, smoking quit material, and an advertisement for the smokefree fashion awards. In the 96 scenes where tobacco products were shown, only one could be described as definitely anti-smoking. All the programmes or advertisements that included

  12. Multiwavelength absorbance of filter deposits for determination of environmental tobacco smoke and black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, Phil A.; Rodes, Charles E.; Ensor, David S.

    A multiwavelength optical absorption technique has been developed for Teflon filters used for personal exposure sampling with sufficient sensitivity to allow apportionments of environmental tobacco smoke and soot (black) carbon to be made. Measurements on blank filters show that the filter material itself contributes relatively little to the total absorbance and filters from the same lot have similar characteristics; this makes retrospective analysis of filters quite feasible. Using an integrating sphere radiometer and multiple wavelengths to provide specificity, the determination of tobacco smoke and carbon with reasonable accuracy is possible on filters not characterized before exposure. This technique provides a low cost, non-destructive exposure assessment alternative to both standard thermo-gravimetric elemental carbon evaluations on quartz filters and cotinine analyses from urine or saliva samples. The method allows the same sample filter to be used for assessment of mass, carbon, and tobacco smoke without affecting the deposit.

  13. Biological basis of tobacco addiction: Implications for smoking-cessation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco use became common all over the world after discovery of Americas. Tobacco, a plant carries in its leaves an alkaloid called nicotine, which is responsible not only for several pathophysiological changes in the body but also develops tolerance to its own action with repeated use. Studies suggest that the alpha-4 beta-2 nicotine acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor that mediates nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure and mood modulation. Repeated exposure to nicotine develops neuroadaptation of the receptors, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. Withdrawal symptoms appear on stoppage of tobacco use, which are characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among others. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning. Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation should reduce withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects. PMID:21267362

  14. DNA adducts in human tissues: biomarkers of exposure to carcinogens in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, D H

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco smoking causes millions of cancer deaths annually. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of chemicals including many known animal carcinogens. Because many carcinogens from DNA adducts in target animal or human tissues, the detection of the formation of adducts using such methods as postlabeling, immunoassay, fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry is a means of monitoring human exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Smokers are at increased risk of cancer in many organs, and studies have revealed either specific adducts related to smoking or increased levels of adducts in the lung, bronchus, larynx, bladder, cervix, and oral mucosa of smokers. In a limited number of studies, the adducts and the carcinogens responsible for them have been identified. Some studies have demonstrated higher levels of adducts in the white blood cells of smokers, while other studies indicate other sources of genotoxic agents, including diet, can contribute to the DNA damage observed in these cells. PMID:8781363

  15. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Afanador, Laura del Pilar Cadena; Radi, Daniel Sebastián Salazar; Pinto, Luis Enrique Vásquez; Pinzón, Cristian Eduardo Pérez; Carreño, Manuel Felipe Castro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable mortality. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in high schools ranges from 23.5% to 41%, respectively. In Colombia, these figures are similar and students entering the University are exposed to initiate smoking. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants associated with the initiation of tobacco smoking among university students. Methods: A case–control paired by sex and age study design was used. The study population was the students of a private university of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The final sample consisted of 167 cases and 314 controls randomly select undergraduate university students. Data analysis was performed using a Logistic regression model adjusted by gender and age; using the initiation of tobacco smoking as the dependent variable, and as independent variables relationship with parents, history of parental smoking, university social environment, being away from hometown, steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smokes, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and Francis Score. Results: The social environment (odds ratio [OR]: 32.70, 7.40-144.55), being away from hometown (OR: 3.06, 1.55-6.07), history of steady girlfriend/boyfriend who smoke (OR: 2.87, 1.43-5.76), a bad relationship with the father (OR: 8.01, 2.01-31.83), history of tobacco consumption of the mother (OR: 2.66, 1.37-5.17) and alcohol consumption (OR: 4.79, 1.91-12.00) appeared as determinants of initiation of tobacco smoking. As protector factors we found media advertisement (OR: 0.19, 0.05-0.71), light physical activity 2-3 times a week (OR: 0.33, 0.12-0.88), and a high result in Francis score (OR: 0.95, 0.919-0.99). Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco. PMID:25317292

  16. Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

  17. Predictors of Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use in College Students: A Preliminary Study Using Web-Based Survey Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cohen, Lee M.; Bacchi, Donna; West, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use are associated with numerous health hazards and economic costs, and rates of tobacco use have recently increased among young adults. In this study, the authors compared predictors of smoking and SLT use among college students (N = 21,410) from 13 Texas universities using a Web-based survey. Results…

  18. Promoting Tobacco Cessation and Smoke-Free Workplaces Through Community Outreach Partnerships in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Toro, Elba C.; Fernández, Maria E.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Calo, William A.; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Mejía, Luz M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Wetter, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Puerto Rico (PR) has a lower smoking prevalence than the United States (14.8% vs. 21.2%, respectively); nevertheless, the five leading causes of death are associated with smoking. There is a need to implement evidence-based tobacco control strategies in PR. Objectives The Outreach Pilot Program (OPP) was designed to engage communities, health professionals, and researchers in a network to advance health promotion activities and research to increase the use of the PR Quitline (PRQ) among smokers and promoting policies in support of smoke-free workplaces. Methods Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, the OPP mobilized a network of community and academic partners to implement smoking cessation activities including referrals to the PRQ, adoption of evidence-based smoking cessation programs, and promotion of smoke-free legislation. Results Eighty organizations participated in the OPP. Collaborators implemented activities that supported the promotion of the PRQ and smoke-free workplaces policy and sponsored yearly trainings, including tobacco control conferences. From 2005 to 2008, physician referrals to the PRQ increased from 2.6% to 7.2%. The number of annual smokers receiving cessation services through the PRQ also increased from 703 to 1,086. The OPP shepherded a rigorous smoke-free law through participation in the development, promotion, and implementation of the smoke-free workplaces legislation as well as the creation of the PR Tobacco Control Strategic Plan, launched in 2006. Conclusions This project demonstrates the feasibility of developing a successful and sustainable community-based outreach program model that enlists the participation of academic researchers, community organizations, and health care providers as partners to promote tobacco control. PMID:25152097

  19. A Randomized, Controlled Community-Wide Intervention to Reduce Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use in low- to middle-income countries is a major public health concern for both smokers and those exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Egypt has made important strides in controlling tobacco use, but smoking and ETS remain highly prevalent. This randomized intervention sought to improve the target population’s knowledge regarding the hazards of smoking and ETS and to change attitudes and smoking behaviors within the community and the household. Methods: In this 2005–2006 study in Egypt’s Qalyubia governorate, trained professionals visited schools, households, mosques, and health care centers in rural villages randomly selected for the intervention to discuss the adverse effects of smoking and ETS exposure and ways to reduce one’s ETS exposure. Data collected in interviewer-facilitated surveys before and after the intervention period were analyzed in pairwise comparisons with data from control villages to assess the effectiveness of the intervention in achieving its aims. Results: The intervention group showed a greater increase in understanding the dangers associated with smoking cigarettes and waterpipes and became more proactive in limiting ETS exposure by asking smokers to stop, avoiding areas with ETS, and enacting smoking bans in the home. However, the intervention had little to no impact on the number of smokers and the amount of tobacco smoked. Conclusions: Results are consistent with previous studies showing that changing smokers’ behavior can be difficult, but community-wide efforts to reduce ETS exposure through smoking bans, education, and empowering people to ask smokers to stop are effective. The method can be generalized to other settings. PMID:23328881

  20. Exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for tobacco use in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Mina; Magnusson, Cecilia; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Svensson, Anna C; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-06-15

    Nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy can cross the placental barrier, possibly resulting in fetal brain sensitization, as indicated by studies in which prenatal exposure to maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of tobacco use among adolescent offspring. We investigated whether this association persists beyond adolescence by studying cigarette smoking and the use of snus (Swedish oral moist snuff) among 983 young adults from a prospective cohort study conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2010. Self-reported questionnaire data were linked with data from national population-based registers from 1983 onward. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was consistently associated with snus use in offspring (e.g., for lifetime daily snus use, adjusted odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 3.16; for use of >3 cans of snus per week vs. less, odds ratio = 3.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.57, 10.15). No association was apparent with offspring's smoking, age at onset of tobacco use, or changes in use between 2006 and 2010. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is associated with regular and heavy nicotine intake from smokeless tobacco rather than from smoking. This should be further explored in epidemiologic studies that simultaneously address the roles of genetics and social environments. PMID:24761008

  1. Staff representations and tobacco-related practices in a psychiatric hospital with an indoor smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Ineke; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Bruegger, Aurélia; Croquette, Patrice; Khan, Aqal Nawaz

    2014-04-01

    The present study describes representations about smoking and practices related to patient smoking among staff of a large public psychiatric hospital. A survey was performed using a specially designed questionnaire. The return rate was 72.4% (n = 155). A large proportion of staff recognized the importance of both smoking status and mental health for patient's well-being (46.9%), and believed that smoking cessation was possible for psychiatric patients (58.6%). However, the role of the psychiatric hospital was perceived as providing information (85.3%) and helping to diminish cigarette consumption (51%), rather than proposing smoking cessation (29.5%). Staff daily practice included reminding patients of smoking restrictions (43.9%), managing cigarettes (46.5%), and nicotine replacement therapy (24.3%). A principal component analysis of tobacco-related practices revealed two main factors (59.8% of variance): basic hospital actions (factor 1) and more specialized interventions (factor 2), which were significantly associated with higher worries about personally developing smoke-related illnesses (Spearman r = 0.38, P < 0.0001). Compared with non-smokers, smokers reported higher perceived vulnerability to develop an illness due to tobacco and a higher level of worry about this. The discussion highlights the need to redefine roles and expectancies of mental health staff, and improve training and collaboration with experts, in order to improve efficiency concerning tobacco issues. PMID:23773346

  2. Smoke-free Coalition Cohesiveness in Rural Tobacco-growing Communities

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Karen M.; Begley, Kathy; Riker, Carol; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Anderson, Debra; Adkins, Sarah; Record, Rachael; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting tobacco control policies in rural tobacco-growing communities presents unique challenges. The purpose of this study was to assess smoke-free coalition cohesiveness in rural communities and identify coalition members’ perceived barriers or divisive issues that impede the development of smoke-free policies. A secondary aim was to evaluate differences in coalition cohesiveness between advocates in communities receiving stage-based, tailored policy advocacy assistance vs. those without assistance. Tobacco control advocates from 40 rural Kentucky communities were interviewed by telephone during the final wave of a 5-year longitudinal study of community readiness for smoke-free policy. On average, five health advocates per county participated in the 45-minute interview. Participants rated coalition cohesiveness as not at all cohesive, somewhat cohesive, or very cohesive, and answered one open-ended question about potentially divisive issues within their coalitions. The mean age of the 186 participants was 48.1 years (SD=13.3). The sample was predominantly female (83.6%) and Caucasian (99.5%). Divisive concerns ranged from rights issues, member characteristics, type of law, and whether or not to allow certain exemptions. Three of the divisive concerns were significantly associated with their rankings of coalition cohesiveness: raising tobacco in the community, the belief that smoke-free would adversely affect the economy, and government control. Educating coalition members on the economics of smoke-free laws and the actual economic impact on tobacco-growing may promote smoke-free coalition cohesiveness. More resources are needed to support policy advocacy in rural tobacco-growing communities as well as efforts to reduce the divisive concerns reported in this study. PMID:24338076

  3. Tobacco interests or the public interest: 20 years of industry strategies to undermine airline smoking restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Lopipero, Peggy Ann; Bero, Lisa A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To understand the evolution of 20 years of tobacco industry strategies to undermine federal restrictions of smoking on aircraft in the United States. Design We searched and analysed internal tobacco industry records, public documents, and other related research. Results The industry viewed these restrictions as a serious threat to the social acceptability of smoking. Its initial efforts included covert letter?writing campaigns and lobbying of the airline industry, but with the emergence of proposals to ban smoking, the tobacco companies engaged in ever increasing efforts to forestall further restrictions. Tactics to dominate the public record became especially rigorous. The industry launched an aggressive public relations campaign that began with the promotion of industry sponsored petition drives and public opinion surveys. Results from polling research that produced findings contrary to the industry's position were suppressed. In order to demonstrate smoker outrage against a ban, later efforts included the sponsorship of smokers' rights and other front groups. Congressional allies and industry consultants sought to discredit the science underlying proposals to ban smoking and individual tobacco companies conducted their own cabin air quality research. Faced with the potential of a ban on all domestic flights, the industry sought to intimidate an air carrier and a prominent policymaker. Despite the intensification of tactics over time, including mobilisation of an army of lobbyists and Congressional allies, the tobacco industry was ultimately defeated. Conclusions Our longitudinal analysis provides insights into how and when the industry changed its plans and provides public health advocates with potential counterstrategies. PMID:16885582

  4. Science, Politics, and Ideology in the Campaign Against Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-01-01

    The issue of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the harms it causes to nonsmoking bystanders has occupied a central place in the rhetoric and strategy of antismoking forces in the United States over the past 3 decades. Beginning in the 1970s, anti-tobacco activists drew on suggestive and incomplete evidence to push for far-reaching prohibitions on smoking in a variety of public settings. Public health professionals and other antismoking activists, although concerned about the potential illness and death that ETS might cause in nonsmokers, also used restrictions on public smoking as a way to erode the social acceptability of cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This strategy was necessitated by the context of American political culture, especially the hostility toward public health interventions that are overtly paternalistic. PMID:12036788

  5. Smoke knows no boundaries: legal strategies for environmental tobacco smoke incursions into the home within multi-unit residential dwellings

    PubMed Central

    Kline, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe legal theories that non-smoking residents of multiple occupancy buildings may employ when affected by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from neighbouring units.?DESIGN—Legal research was conducted in several US states. Research was performed among statutes and regulations. State health regulations were examined as well as common law claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.?RESULTS—Through the use of state regulations, such as a sanitary code, several states provide general language for protecting the health of residents in multi-unit buildings. State law also supports more traditional claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.?CONCLUSIONS—The use of state regulations has the potential to provide an effective, existing vehicle for resolution of ETS incursion problems. The general health protection language of the regulations, in conjunction with the latest evidence of the harmful effects of ETS, gives state agencies authority to regulate environmental tobacco smoke incursions among apartments in multi-unit dwellings. Where state regulations are not available, other common law legal remedies may be available.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; legal strategies; multiple occupancy dwellings PMID:10841857

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Not On Tobacco Program for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geri Dino; Kimberly Horn; Abdullahi Abdulkadri; Iftekhar Kalsekar; Steven Branstetter

    2008-01-01

    Public health researchers and practitioners emphasize the need for effective, adoptable, and available youth smoking cessation\\u000a interventions. Scarce resources demand that such interventions also be cost effective. This study describes a cost-effectiveness\\u000a analysis (CEA) of the American Lung Association’s Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) national and international teen smoking cessation\\u000a program. N-O-T has been rigorously evaluated as an effective and adoptable

  7. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  8. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities

    PubMed Central

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC. PMID:19091045

  9. Association of smoking or tobacco use with ear diseases among men: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health related behaviour specially smoking and tobacco in any form are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Tobacco leads to various health problems including ear, nose and throat diseases. Objective To determine the influence of smoking or tobacco use on ear diseases we performed a retrospective study among men. Method Of 11454 subjects of different age-groups there were 4143 men aged 20-60 years who were evaluated for demographic variables, smoking/tobacco use and middle and internal ear diseases. Descriptive statistics and age adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Among the 4143 men, 1739 (42.0%) were smokers or used tobacco. In smokers/tobacco users compared to non-users the age adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for chronic suppurative otitis media were 1.13 (CI 0.96-1.34), acute otitis media 1.16 (CI 0.82-1.64), suppurative otitis media 1.21 (CI 0.79-1.84), otosclerosis 0.97 (CI 0.52-1.33) (p > 0.05) and for overall middle ear diseases was 1.15 (CI 0.99-1.33, p = 0.05). For internal ear diseases the age adjusted odds ratios were for sensorineural hearing loss 1.12 (CI 0.92-1.58), 0.12 (CI 0.42-0.93) for vertigo and tinnitus and overall internal ear diseases were 0.97 (CI 0.77-1.22, p = 0.81). Among men 40-60 years there was a significantly greater risk for both middle ear (OR 1.73, CI 1.29-2.30) and internal ear diseases (OR 1.94, CI 1.24-3.04) (p < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking/tobacco use is significantly associated with greater prevalence of middle and internal ear diseases among middle-aged men in India. PMID:22471960

  10. Pulmonary Function Abnormalities in Never Smoking Flight Attendants Exposed to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in the Aircraft Cabin

    PubMed Central

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Haight, Thaddeus; Redberg, Rita; Gold, Warren M

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the flight attendants who were exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the aircraft cabin have abnormal pulmonary function. Methods We administered questionnaires and performed pulmonary function testing in 61 never-smoking female flight attendants who worked in active air crews before the smoking ban on commercial aircraft (pre-ban). Results While the pre-ban flight attendants had normal FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio, they had significantly decreased flow at mid- and low-lung volumes, curvilinear flow-volume curves, and evidence of air trapping. Furthermore, the flight attendants had significantly decreased diffusing capacity (77.5±11.2 %predicted normal) with 51% having a diffusing capacity below their 95% normal prediction limit. Conclusions This cohort of healthy never-smoking flight attendants who were exposed to SHS in the aircraft cabin showed pulmonary function abnormalities suggestive of airway obstruction and impaired diffusion. PMID:19448573

  11. Health care use by frequent marijuana smokers who do not smoke tobacco.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Sidney, S; Tekawa, I S; Sadler, M; Friedman, G D

    1993-06-01

    Even though marijuana smoke contains carcinogens and more tar than tobacco smoke and marijuana intoxication has been implicated as a risk factor for injuries, relatively little epidemiologic evidence has identified marijuana use as a risk factor for ill health. This study is the first to examine the health effects of smoking marijuana by comparing the medical experience of "daily" marijuana smokers who never smoked tobacco (n = 452) with a demographically similar group of nonsmokers of either substance (n = 450). Marijuana smoking status was determined during multiphasic health checkups at Kaiser Permanente medical centers between July 1979 and December 1985. Medical records were reviewed for as long as 2 years after the checkups. Frequent marijuana smokers had small increased risks of outpatient visits for respiratory illnesses (relative risk [RR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.41), injuries (RR = 1.32; CI = 1.10, 1.57), and other types of illnesses (RR = 1.09; CI = 1.02, 1.16) compared with nonsmokers; their risk of being admitted to a hospital was elevated but not statistically significant (RR = 1.51; CI = 0.93, 2.46). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, race, education, marital status, and alcohol consumption. Daily marijuana smoking, even in the absence of tobacco, appeared to be associated with an elevated risk of health care use for various health problems. PMID:8337854

  12. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Open and Semi-Open Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sureda, Xisca; López, María J.; Nebot, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to review research on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. Data sources: We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. Study selection: Our search terms included combinations of “secondhand smoke,” “environmental tobacco smoke,” “passive smoking” OR “tobacco smoke pollution” AND “outdoors” AND “PM” (particulate matter), “PM2.5” (PM with diameter ? 2.5 µm), “respirable suspended particles,” “particulate matter,” “nicotine,” “CO” (carbon monoxide), “cotinine,” “marker,” “biomarker” OR “airborne marker.” In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. Results: Almost all studies used PM2.5 concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM2.5 concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 to 124 µg/m3 at hospitality venues, and 4.60 to 17.80 µg/m3 at other locations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 to 120.51 µg/m3. SHS levels increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. Conclusions: The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings. PMID:23651671

  13. BLUNTED VAGAL REACTIVITY PREDICTS STRESS-PRECIPITATED TOBACCO SMOKING

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Sinha, Rajita; Lampert, Rachel; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Anderson, George M.; Lavery, Meaghan E.; Yanagisawa, Katherine; McKee, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Long-term smoking can lead to changes in autonomic function, including decreased vagal tone and altered stress responses. One index of the inability to adapt to stress may be blunted vagal reactivity. Stress is a primary mechanism involved in relapse to smoking, but mechanisms leading to stress-precipitated relapse are not well understood. Objectives Using an experimental paradigm of stress-precipitated smoking behavior, we examined whether autonomic reactivity mediates the relationship between stress and smoking. High-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), a putative measure of vagal tone and the ratio of low-to-high frequency HRV (LF/HF), a measure of sympathovagal balance were assessed. Methods Using a within-subjects design, 32 nicotine dependent 15-hour abstinent smokers (a subgroup from McKee et al. (2011)) were exposed to individualized script-driven imagery of stressful and relaxing scenarios and assessed on the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-lib smoking. HRV was monitored throughout each laboratory session (maximum 60 min following imagery). Results As expected, stress and ad-lib smoking additively decreased HF-HRV and increased LF/HF. Blunted stress-induced HF-HRV responses reflecting decreased vagal reactivity were associated with less time to initiate smoking and increased craving relief and reinforcement from smoking. These relationships were specific to HF-HRV following stress as neither baseline HF-HRV, HF-HRV following relaxing imagery, or LF/HF predicted smoking behavior. Conclusions The current findings are the first to experimentally demonstrate that stress-precipitated decreased vagal reactivity predicts the ability to resist smoking. Findings suggest that strategies that normalize vagal reactivity in early abstinent smokers may lead to improved smoking cessation outcomes. PMID:21938416

  14. Minority women and tobacco: Implications for smoking cessation interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa K. King; Belinda Borrelli; Carolyn Black; Bernardine M. Pinto; Bess H. Marcus

    1997-01-01

    Quitting smoking is the single most important preventive health behavior a woman can perform to significantly reduce her chances\\u000a of morbidity and premature mortality. Minority women are an extremely important population to target for smoking cessation\\u000a intervention. Rates and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and cancer are markedly higher among women of certain minority\\u000a groups. In addition, smoking prevalence rates

  15. Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking issues in developing countries are usually taught non-systematically as and when the topic arose. The World Health Organisation and Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) have suggested introducing a separate integrated tobacco module into medical school curricula. Our aim was to assess medical students' tobacco smoking habits, their practices towards patients' smoking habits and attitude towards teaching about smoking in medical schools. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module. Majority of the students indicated that topics about health effects, nicotine addiction and its treatment, counselling, prevention of relapse were important or very important in training about tobacco smoking. Conclusion Medical educators should consider revising medical curricula to improve training about tobacco smoking cessation in medical schools. Our results should be supported by surveys from other medical schools in developing countries of Asia. PMID:21080923

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the Not On Tobacco program for adolescent smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Dino, Geri; Horn, Kimberly; Abdulkadri, Abdullahi; Kalsekar, Iftekhar; Branstetter, Steven

    2008-03-01

    Public health researchers and practitioners emphasize the need for effective, adoptable, and available youth smoking cessation interventions. Scarce resources demand that such interventions also be cost effective. This study describes a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of the American Lung Association's Not On Tobacco (N-O-T) national and international teen smoking cessation program. N-O-T has been rigorously evaluated as an effective and adoptable program, and was recently found to be the most frequently-used teen smoking cessation program in the nation. N-O-T studies show intent-to-treat quit rates between 15% and 19%, among the highest reported in the literature. The current CEA resulted from a 2-year state-wide demonstration study in Florida, comparing the effectiveness of N-O-T with a 20-min brief intervention (BI). The CEA utilized a Markov transition model of decision analysis to explain stage progression of smoking cessation among participants from the age of 17 to 25 years. The Markov simulation predicted that out of a cohort of 100 N-O-T students, 10 will quit smoking and remain smoke-free at the age of 25 years and 14 will reduce smoking, resulting in 102.22 life years saved and a total of 20.11 years discounted life years (DLY) saved. Among BI youth, six will quit smoking and nine will reduce, indicating 64.31 life years saved and a total 12.65 DLY saved. The incremental DLY saved is 7.46 years. Results indicate that N-O-T is a very cost-effective option school-based smoking cessation, as cost effective as school-based primary tobacco prevention, and potentially more cost effective than adult tobacco use cessation. PMID:18286372

  17. Tobacco use during pregnancy and preeclampsia risk: effects of cigarette smoking and snuff.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Anna-Karin; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Both Swedish snuff and cigarette smoke include nicotine, but combustion products accompany only smoking. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of Swedish snuff and cigarette smoking on preeclampsia risk and to estimate whether changes in tobacco habits during pregnancy affect the risk of developing term preeclampsia. We used information from the Swedish Birth Register on all singleton births in Sweden during the years 1999-2006 (n=612 712). Compared with nontobacco users, women who used snuff in early pregnancy had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for preeclampsia of 1.11 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.28). The corresponding ORs for light and heavy smokers were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.61 to 0.71) and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.58), respectively, with ORs lower for term than preterm preeclampsia. Compared with nontobacco users, women who smoked in early pregnancy but had quit smoking before late pregnancy (weeks 30 to 32) had an adjusted OR for term preeclampsia of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.83 to 1.08). The corresponding OR for women who did not use tobacco in early pregnancy but had started to smoke before late pregnancy was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.85). We conclude that tobacco combustion products rather than nicotine are the probable protective ingredients against preeclampsia in cigarette smoke. Because change of smoking habits during pregnancy influence risk, we further conclude that it is the smoking habits in the middle or late rather than in the beginning of pregnancy that seem to affect the risk of preeclampsia. PMID:20231527

  18. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking in medical students before and after a tobacco seminar.

    PubMed

    Chung, T W; Lam, T H; Cheng, Y H

    1996-07-01

    A 3-hour seminar on tobacco was introduced to second year (pre-clinical) medical students in Hong Kong in 1994. The differences in knowledge and attitudes were measured by a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire with 14 items before the seminar (n = 145), and again 2 weeks after the seminar (n = 151). The students also completed an evaluation form at the end of the seminar. Before the seminar, the students were most deficient in their knowledge on the exact magnitude of the risks from smoking and on the risks from smoking relative to the risks from air pollution and asbestos. After the seminar, their knowledge increased significantly (P < 0.005). As for attitudes, in the pre-test 35% strongly agreed that tobacco advertising should be completely banned, and 50% did so in the post-test (P = 0.02). The corresponding figures for banning of all forms of tobacco promotion were 26% and 43% (P < 0.005). In the pre-test, one in four students strongly disagreed that doctor's advice to their patients to stop smoking is totally ineffective, with this proportion increasing to 70% in the post-test (P < 0.005). The majority of the students stated that the seminar was useful. The preclinical medical curriculum should, at the very least, include a tobacco seminar. Our survey shows that it is effective in improving students' knowledge and attitudes on tobacco control. PMID:8949541

  19. Tobacco expenditure, smoking-induced deprivation, and financial stress: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) four country survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims While higher tobacco prices lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence, there is a concern that paying more for cigarettes can lead to excess financial burden. Our primary aim was to examine the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking induced deprivation (SID) and financial stress (FS). Design and Methods We used data from wave 7 (2008–2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey which is a survey of smokers in Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia (n=5887). Logistic regressions were used to assess the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation and financial stress. Results In multivariate analyses, a one standard deviation increase in daily cigarette expenditure was associated with an increase of 24% (p = 0.004) in the probability of experiencing SID. While we found no association between daily cigarette expenditure and FS, we found that SID is a strong predictor of FS (OR: 6.25; P < 0.001). This suggests that cigarette expenditure indirectly affects FS through SID. Results showed no evidence of an interaction between cigarette expenditure and income or education in their effect on SID or FS. Conclusions Our results imply that spending more on tobacco may result in SID but surprisingly has no direct effect on FS. While most smokers may be adjusting their incomes and consumption to minimize FS, some fail to do so occasionally as indexed by the SID measure. Future studies need to prospectively examine the effect of increased tobacco expenditure on financial burden of smokers. PMID:22404640

  20. Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Altered Nasal Responses to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence links tobacco smoke and increased risk for influenza in humans, but the specific host defense pathways involved are unclear. Objective. Develop a model to examine influenza-induced innate immune responses in humans and test the hypothesis that ...

  1. Retail Tobacco Outlet Density and Youth Cigarette Smoking: A Propensity-Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P.; Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether retail tobacco outlet density was related to youth cigarette smoking after control for a diverse range of neighborhood characteristics. Methods. Data were gathered from 2116 respondents (aged 11 to 23 years) residing in 178 census tracts in Chicago, Ill. Propensity score stratification methods for continuous exposures were used to adjust for potentially confounding neighborhood characteristics, thus strengthening causal inferences. Results. Retail tobacco outlets were disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by social and economic disadvantage. In a model that excluded neighborhood confounders, a marginally significant effect was found. Youths in areas at the highest 75th percentile in retail tobacco outlet density were 13% more likely (odds ratio [OR]=1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.99, 1.28) to have smoked in the past month compared with those living at the lowest 25th percentile. However, the relation became stronger and significant (OR=0.21; 95% CI=1.04, 1.41) after introduction of tract-level confounders and was statistically significant in the propensity score–adjusted model (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.001, 1.44). Results did not differ significantly between minors and those legally permitted to smoke. Conclusions. Reductions in retail tobacco outlet density may reduce rates of youth smoking. PMID:16507726

  2. Validation of a Five-Question Survey to Assess a Child's Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A Seifert; Colleen A Ross; Jill M Norris

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the potentially adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in young children, a short five-question survey was developed to identify routine exposure to ETS in a large epidemiological study.METHODS: The survey is administered to parents of a healthy cohort of children starting at age 3 months. To validate the survey, urinary cotinine levels were measured

  3. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  4. Prevalence and Patterns of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposures Among California Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Peggy; Goldberg, Debbie E.; Hurley, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and patterns of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in a large, well-defined cohort of professional, female school employees in California. Design. This is a cross-sectional study based on survey responses from members of the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort. Subjects. The analyses focused on…

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke effects on cysteinyl leukotrienes in respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Salt; K. S. Kott; J. N. Sakimura; S. Jhawar; R. J. McDonald; L. J. Gershwin; V. L. Mitchell; J. P. Joad

    2004-01-01

    RationaleInfants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have more severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. RSV bronchiolitis is associated with elevated cysteinyl leukotrienes and ETS exposure is associated with a Th2 phenotype, which may ultimately result in a greater production of cysteinyl leukotrienes. Cysteinyl leukotrienes can produce bronchoconstriction, edema, and mucus secretion, hallmarks of bronchiolitis. We hypothesized that infants hospitalized

  6. Effectiveness of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in reducing teenage smoking in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Wakefield; Frank Chaloupka

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo describe the extent to which comprehensive statewide tobacco control programmes in the USA have made progress toward reducing teenage smoking.DATA SOURCESLiterature search of Medline for reviews of effectiveness of programme and policy elements, plus journal articles and personal request for copies of publicly released reports and working papers from evaluation staff in each of the state programmes of California,

  7. MICROENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO CALIFORNIANS POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the 1987-88 California Activity Pattern (CAP) Survey, this report examines various microenvironmental aspects of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) that were not explored in earlier reports. hese topics include: (1) predictors of those individuals with t...

  8. p53 Expression and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. SNYDER; E. R. B ERTONE; R. M. J AKOWSKI; J. J ENNINGS-RITCHIE

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of p53 overexpression in feline oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and to determine, if any, the association between p53 overexpression and lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, including exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Ques- tionnaires concerning exposure to ETS and other environmental factors were sent to owners of cats presenting

  9. NonSmoker Lung Cancer Deaths Attributable to Exposure to Spouse's Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN TREDANIEL; PAOLO BOFFETTA; RODOLFO SARACCI; ALBERT HIRSCH

    Background . The causal relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and lung cancer is established ; however, the magnitude of the dsk is not known . Therefore, it is conceivable that ETS is responsible for a number of lung cancer deaths because of the large number of smokers and the widespread presence of ETS . We estimated the number of

  10. Significant reduction of carcinogenic compounds in tobacco smoke by the use of zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M Meier; K Siegmann

    1999-01-01

    Zeolites play an increasingly important role in toxicology and the life sciences. A new example is the removal of significant amounts of carcinogenic compounds from cigarette smoke. These compounds, particularly nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatics (PAHs), are well known to constitute a serious health risk. Most effective in reducing toxic compounds are zeolite catalysts placed directly on the tobacco. The zeolite

  11. Effectiveness of Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs in Reducing Teenage Smoking: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on the extent to which comprehensive, statewide, tobacco control programs in the United States have induced change in teenage smoking or made progress towards this goal and under what circumstances such programs are likely to be most effective. The sources for this review include published journal articles, reports and documents, rather than any primary data analysis. We

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure, respiratory and cardiovascular health in restaurant and bar workers in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tonatiuh Barrientos Gutierrez

    2009-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a well established health hazard, being causally associated to lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. ETS regulations have been developed worldwide to reduce or eliminate exposure in most public places. Restaurants and bars constitute an exception. Restaurants and bar workers experience the highest ETS exposure levels across several occupations, with correspondingly increased health risks. In Mexico,

  13. Measuring environmental emissions from tobacco combustion: Sidestream cigarette smoke literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, M. R.; Higgins, C. E.; Jenkins, R. A.

    The tobacco-derived environmental emission of most common concern is the smoke issuing from cigarettes between puffs. A literature review of smoke formation mechanisms, sampling methods and selected emission factors suggests that sidestream deliveries are actually much less variable than is commonly thought. Examples of devices used to generate and collect sidestream smoke for analysis are described and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Emissions computed as is common practice from sidestream/mainstream ratios are compared to those determined directly. The ratio method can yield misleading results because of the sensitivity of mainstream deliveries to cigarette and burn characteristics.

  14. Adolescent gender differences in the determinants of tobacco smoking: a cross sectional survey among high school students in São Paulo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zila M Sanchez; Emerita S Opaleye; Silvia S Martins; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Ana R Noto

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse psychosocial factors have been associated with the use of cigarettes by adolescents. We investigated gender differences in tobacco smoking, and factors correlated with smoking among boys and girls. METHODS: Data was collected on recent cigarette smoking (CS) and related factors, with a focus on religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure, relationships and parental monitoring from 2,691 private school-attending

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT: SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Cigarette smoking is unrivaled among developmental toxicants in terms of total adverse impact on the human population. According to the American Lung Association, smoking during pregnancy is estimated to account for 20 to 30 percent of low-weight babies, up to 14 per...

  17. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. Results The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100?000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100?000 v 128.9/100?000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer mortality (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.90). Conclusions Smoking contributes to substantial mortality in prison, and prison tobacco control policies are associated with reduced mortality. These findings suggest that smoking bans have health benefits for people in prison, despite the limits they impose on individual autonomy and the risks of relapse after release. PMID:25097186

  18. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thirdhand smoke or residual tobacco smoke . Tobacco smoke residue is still being studied. Particles that settle out ... yet unknown, the cancer-causing effects of smoke residue would likely be small compared with direct exposure ...

  19. The behavioral ecology of secondhand smoke exposure: A pathway to complete tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Suzanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This article outlines a theoretical framework for research concerning secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevention as a means to curtail the tobacco industry. Methods: The Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM) assumes interlocking social contingencies of reinforcement (i.e., rewards or punishments) from the highest level of society (e.g., taxing cigarette sales) to physiological reactions to nicotine that influence smoking and SHSe. We review selected research concerning both policy and clinical efforts to restrict smoking and/or SHSe. Results: Research to date has focused on smoking cessation with modest to weak effects. The BEM and empirical evidence suggest that cultural contingencies of reinforcement should be emphasized to protect people from SHSe, especially vulnerable children, pregnant women, the ill, the elderly, and low-income adults who have not “elected” to smoke. Doing so will protect vulnerable populations from industry-produced SHSe and may yield more and longer-lasting cessation. Conclusions: Interventions that reduce SHSe may serve as a Trojan horse to counter the tobacco industry. Future studies should: (a) guide policies to restrict SHSe; (b) develop powerful community and clinical interventions to reduce SHSe; (c) test the degree to which policies and other contexts enhance the effects of clinical interventions (e.g., media programs disclosing the disingenuous marketing by the industry); and (d) investigate the effects of all health care providers’ ability to reduce SHSe and generate an antitobacco culture, by advising all clients to avoid starting to smoke, to protect their children from SHSe, and to quit smoking. PMID:19776346

  20. Perceptions of smoking prevalence by youth in countries with and without a tobacco advertising ban.

    PubMed

    Burton, Dee; Graham, John W; Johnson, C Anderson; Uutela, Antti; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F

    2010-09-01

    This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children's exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki. PMID:20812125

  1. Serum cotinine as a measure of tobacco smoke exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Pattishall, E.N.; Strope, G.L.; Etzel, R.A.; Helms, R.W.; Haley, N.J.; Denny, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    To document passive smoke exposure, the authors measured concentrations of serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in 38 young children and compared the results with the smoking histories of home residents. Cotinine was detected in 26 children (68%), of which ten had no household exposure according to a questionnaire. The serum cotinine concentration was significantly elevated in blacks compared with whites after controlling for the number of smokers in the home. After stratifying by race, there was a significant direct correlation between the serum cotinine concentration and the number of smokers in the home, the amount smoked by the mother, and the amount smoked by others in the home. We conclude that the serum cotinine concentration is a useful indicator of the actual exposure of young children to tobacco smoke and that unexplained racial differences in cotinine levels exist.

  2. Sequential discriminant classification of environments with different levels of exposure to tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Besalú, Emili; Castellanos, Mar; Sanchez, Juan M

    2014-08-15

    The use of biomarkers permits the detection of smoking having taken place in an environment. However, no single biomarker is able to differentiate clearly between different types of environments. Multivariate classification models have helped us to differentiate between outdoors, non-smoking indoors, well ventilated smoking indoors, and smoking environments without good air exchange. We found that the variables that enabled us to classify environments most accurately were indoor temperature, 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethyltoluene. A successful prediction rate of 86.5% was obtained by applying both direct fitting and cross validation discriminant (leave-one-out) analyses. Our results show that although a good air exchange ratio decreases the levels of volatile organic compounds in indoor air due to tobacco smoke, significant contamination still remains. PMID:24908649

  3. Lessons learned from the tobacco industry's efforts to prevent the passage of a workplace smoking regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Mangurian, C V; Bero, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the implementation of tobacco industry strategies to prevent a workplace smoking regulation. METHODS: Tobacco industry internal documents were identified; hearing transcripts for the affiliations, arguments, and positions regarding the regulation of testifiers were coded; and media coverage was analyzed. RESULTS: Tobacco industry strategies sought to increase business participation and economic discussions at public hearings and to promote unfavorable media coverage of the regulation. The percentage of business representatives opposing the regulation grew from 18% (5 to 28) to 57% (13 of 23) between the hearings. Economic arguments opposing the regulation rose from 25% (7 of 28) to 70% (16 of 23). Press coverage was neutral and did not increase during the period of the regulatory hearings. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco industry was successful in implementing 2 of its 3 strategies but was not able to prevent passage of the comprehensive workplace regulation. PMID:11111269

  4. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system. PMID:19570267

  5. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic receptors and surfactant-specific protein in alveolar cells is suggestive of a role in surfactant metabolism. Further research is needed to determine the mechanistic effects of smoke and its components on surfactant function and, importantly, the effects of smoke components on the developing pulmonary system.

  6. Rural-Urban Differences in the Social Climate Surrounding Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Report From the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Robert; Breen, Julie; Cosby, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Objective: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. Design: Data were…

  7. Occupational gradients in smoking behavior and exposure to workplace environmental tobacco smoke: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Stukovsky, Karen D Hinckley; Roux, Ana Diez; Landsbergis, Paul; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations of occupation with smoking status, amount smoked among current- and former-smokers (number of cigarettes/day and lifetime cigarette consumption (pack-years)), and workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) independent from income and education. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from a community sample (n=6355, age range: 45–84) using logistic and multinomial regression. All analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for socio-demographic variables. Results Male blue-collar and sales/office workers had higher odds of having consumed >20 pack-years of cigarettes than managers/professionals. For both male and female current- or former-smokers, exposure to workplace ETS was consistently and strongly associated with heavy smoking and greater pack-years. Conclusions Blue-collar workplaces are associated with intense smoking and ETS exposure. Smoking must be addressed at both the individual- and workplace-levels especially in blue-collar workplaces. PMID:22261926

  8. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p < 0.001); 43.2% in auxiliaries, 26.1% in nurses, 18.9% among physicians, and 34.7% among other non-health professionals (p = 0.024). The findings showed a very high level of agreement with smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change. PMID:21943400

  9. Tobacco smoking status and perception of health among a sample of Jordanian students.

    PubMed

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Weglicki, Linda S; Ward, Kenneth D; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11-18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

  10. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    PubMed Central

    Alzyoud, Sukaina; Kheirallah, Khalid A.; Weglicki, Linda S.; Ward, Kenneth D.; Al-Khawaldeh, Abdallah; Shotar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%). Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings. PMID:25019264

  11. Smoking patterns in Great Britain: the rise of cheap cigarette brands and roll your own (RYO) tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B.; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Hiscock, Rosemary; Taylor, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Background In Britain, the tobacco industry segments cigarettes into four price categories—premium, mid-price, economy and ultra-low-price (ULP). Our previous work shows that tobacco companies have kept ULP prices stable in real terms. Roll your own (RYO) tobacco remains cheaper still. Methods Analysis of 2001–08 General Household Survey data to examine trends in use of these cheap products and, using logistic regression, the profile of users of these products. Results Among smokers, the proportion using cheap products (economy, ULP and RYO combined) increased significantly in almost all age groups and geographic areas. Increases were most marked in under 24 year olds, 76% of whom smoked cheap cigarettes by 2008. All cheap products were more commonly used in lower socio-economic groups. Men and younger smokers were more likely to smoke RYO while women smoked economy brands. Smokers outside London and the South East of England were more likely to smoke some form of cheap tobacco even once socio-economic differences were accounted for. Conclusions This paper demonstrates that cheap tobacco use is increasing among young and disadvantaged smokers compromising declines in population smoking prevalence. Thus, tobacco industry pricing appears to play a key role in explaining smoking patterns and inequalities in smoking. PMID:25118219

  12. Influence of tobacco smoke on indoor PM 10 particulate matter characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, L.; De Berardis, B.; Arrizza, L.; Granato, V.

    In this study we evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke on the physico-chemical characteristics of PM 10 in different environments: outdoors, a smoking room, the same room after a 7-day absence of smokers and in a smoke-free office. The latter office was close to the smoking room, separated by a corridor. The coarse (PM 10-2.1) and fine (PM 2.1) fractions of PM 10 collected in the monitored areas were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the elemental composition of the particulate and to identify the chemical state of atomic species detected. Four clusters of particles for both "fine" and "coarse" fractions were identified: carbonaceous particles, soil erosion particles, Ca-sulphates and metal compound particles. EDX spectra showed that a percentage of carbonaceous particles carried S, Si and metal traces. High-resolution XPS spectra of the C1s region showed a significant greater occurrence of the C-O/C-N functional group in the particulate fine fraction collected in the smoking room compared to that collected outdoors. The carbonaceous component of coarse fraction collected in the smoking room appeared dissimilar from the same component detected in the other areas. After the 7-day absence of smokers this component of the PM 10-2.1 fraction was similar to the corresponding coarse fraction collected at the outdoor location. The carbonaceous component of fine fraction collected in the smoking room, containing tobacco smoke products, such as organic carbon and nicotine, was traceable in the neighbouring areas, even several days after suspension of smoking activity.

  13. U.S. Hookah Tobacco Smoking Establishments Advertised on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Rice, Kristen R.; Shensa, Ariel S.; Carroll, Mary V.; DePenna, Erica J.; Nakkash, Rima; Barnett, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishments dedicated to hookah tobacco smoking have recently proliferated and helped introduce hookah use to U.S. communities. Purpose To conduct a comprehensive, qualitative assessment of websites promoting these establishments. Methods In June 2009, a systematic search process was initiated to access the universe of websites representing major hookah tobacco smoking establishments. In 2009–2010, codebook development followed an iterative paradigm involving three researchers and resulted in a final codebook consisting of 36 codes within eight categories. After two independent coders had nearly perfect agreement (Cohen’s ?=0.93) on double-coding the data in the first 20% of sites, the coders divided the remaining sites and coded them independently. A thematic approach to the synthesis of findings and selection of exemplary quotations was used. Results The search yielded a sample of 144 websites originating from states in all U.S. regions. Among the hookah establishments promoted on the websites, 79% served food and 41% served alcohol. Of the websites, none required age verification, <1% included a tobacco-related warning on the first page, and 4% included a warning on any page. Although mention of the word tobacco was relatively uncommon (appearing on the first page of only 26% sites and on any page of 58% of sites), the promotion of flavorings, pleasure, relaxation, product quality, and cultural and social aspects of hookah smoking was common. Conclusions Websites may play a role in enhancing or propagating misinformation related to hookah tobacco smoking. Health education and policy measures may be valuable in countering this misinformation. PMID:22261211

  14. Passive monitoring method for 3-ethenylpyridine: a marker for environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Vainiotalo, S; Vaaranrinta, R; Tornaeus, J; Aremo, N; Hase, T; Peltonen, K

    2001-05-01

    A new method was developed to assess environmental tobacco smoke in air. The method is based on passive sampling and subsequent measurement of the concentration of 3-ethenylpyridine, a vapor-phase compound specific to tobacco smoke. Air samples were collected using a 3M organic vapor monitor. Tests were carried out in a dynamic chamber to determine the sampling rate (25.7 cm3/min). 3-Ethenylpyridine was desorbed from the sampler with 1 mL of pyridine/toluene mixture. 3-Ethenylpyridine was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.01 microgram/sample, corresponding to a concentration of 0.27 microgram/m3 air calculated for a sampling period of 24 h. Field measurements were carried out to test the performance of the method. Mean concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 5.3 micrograms/m3 were measured for 3-ethenylpyridine in smoking environments, but no 3-ethenylpyridine was detected in nonsmoking environments. Active sampling using charcoal tubes was used as a reference method in the chamber tests and field measurements. Individual exposures can be easily and accurately measured by means of the passive sampler. Because of simple sample treatment, the method is also well-suited for large-scale monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:11355198

  15. Effects of Tobacco Taxation and Pricing on Smoking Behavior in High Risk Populations: A Knowledge Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Pearl; Boisclair, David; Ferrence, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success. PMID:22163198

  16. [Swedish physicians smoke least in all the world. A new study of smoking habits and attitudes to tobacco].

    PubMed

    Bolinder, Gunilla; Himmelmann, Lars; Johansson, Kerstin

    2002-07-25

    Since 1969, studies of Swedish doctors' tobacco habits and attitudes have been carried out regularly every fifth year. The present investigation was made in 2001 in the form of a questionnaire distributed to a random sample of 5% of Swedish doctors (n = 1,367). The response rate was 80%. The proportion of daily smokers was 6%, a figure that had not changed since 1996. More doctors had never smoked (44% compared with 38% in 1996). Most smokers were found among psychiatrists and surgeons (10%). The use of oral snuff had increased to 16% among male and 5% among female doctors (compared with 9% and 3% in 1996). About 50% of the doctors believed that the use of snuff increased the risk of hypertension, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and oral cancer. Protection of health was the main reason for not smoking (98%). An overall majority (92%) of doctors advise patients with lung diseases and pregnant women not to smoke, and only a few (16%) never give advice about smoking cessation to smokers with non-smoking related diseases. Many doctors do not allow smoking in their homes (69%) and ask for smoke free hotel rooms (82%). The doctor as a role model for patients was regarded as important by 71%. The number of smokers in the general Swedish population was as low as 19% in 2001, achieving the WHO goal for the year 2000. The low, unchanged level of 6% of doctors who smoke daily indicates that it might be possible to achieve a target level of 5-10% among the general population. The slowly increasing use of snuff requires further studies. PMID:12198930

  17. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Crone, Matty R; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Vries, Hein

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008 survey was performed before the implementation of the interventions and the 2009 and 2010 surveys were performed after the implementation. No significant age and educational differences in successful smoking cessation were found after the implementation of the three tobacco control interventions, although smokers aged 15-39 years were more likely to attempt to quit. Of the three population-level tobacco control interventions that were implemented simultaneously in the Netherlands, only the smoke-free legislation seemed to have increased quit attempts. The price increase of cigarettes may have been only effective in stimulating smoking cessation among younger smokers. Larger tax increases, stronger smoke-free legislation and media campaigns about the dangers of (second-hand) smoking are needed in the Netherlands. PMID:23087009

  18. Measurement of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in narghile waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2008-05-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mainstream of narghile smoke is presented. The smoke was generated using a digital waterpipe smoking machine connected to the mouthpiece of a narghile that was loaded with 10 g of a popular flavored tobacco and kept alight with quick-light charcoal briquettes that are commonly used for this purpose. A standard smoking regimen consisting of 171 puffs of 530 ml volume and 2.6s duration spaced 17s apart was used, and the smoke condensates were collected on glass fiber filters. PAHs were extracted with toluene assisted by sonication. For purification, the extract was passed through a silica cartridge and eluted with hexane. The eluent was preconcentrated, reconstituted in acetonitrile, and analyzed using a GC-MS-SICP method. The method showed good selectivity, repeatability, accuracy and sensitivity. The limit of detection ranged from 15 to 96 ng for benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, respectively. It was found that a single narghile smoking session delivers approximately 50 times the quantities of carcinogenic 4- and 5-membered ring PAHs as a single 1R4F cigarette smoked using the FTC protocol. The pattern of PAH concentrations suggested that formation pathways differ from those of the cigarette, possibly reflecting the differing combustion conditions of the two smoking devices. PMID:18308445

  19. cEffect of Afobazole on Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco Smoke in the Placenta and Embryonic Tissues of Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Durnev; A. S. Solomina; A. K. Zhanataev; V. N. Zhukov; S. B. Seredenin

    2010-01-01

    The DNA comet assay was used to evaluate the severity of genotoxic changes in embryonic tissues and placenta of rats daily\\u000a exposed to tobacco smoke per se or in combination with an anxiolytic agent afobazole. The exposure to tobacco smoke (4 cigarettes\\u000a containing 13 mg tar and 1 mg nicotine per 72 dm3) for 20 min on days 1-13 of

  20. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: placing an equity lens on existing systematic reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Main; Sian Thomas; David Ogilvie; Lisa Stirk; Mark Petticrew; Margaret Whitehead; Amanda Sowden

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With smoking increasingly confined to lower socio-economic groups, the tobacco control community has been urged to identify which population-level tobacco control interventions work in order to help tackle smoking-related health inequalities. Systematic reviews have a crucial role to play in this task. This overview was therefore carried out in order to (i) summarise the evidence from existing systematic reviews

  1. Subliminal Processing of Smoking-Related and Affective Stimuli in Tobacco Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Waters, Andrew J.; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Tapia, Evelina; Miller, Elizabeth; Li, Yisheng

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive processing biases toward smoking-related and affective cues may play a role in tobacco dependence. Because processing biases may occur outside conscious awareness, the current study examined processing of smoking-related and affective stimuli presented at subliminal conditions. A pictorial subliminal repetition priming task was administered to three groups: (1) Nonsmokers (n = 56); (2) Smokers (?10 cigarettes/day) who had been deprived from smoking for 12 h (n = 47); and (3) Nondeprived smokers (n = 66). Prime stimuli were presented briefly (17 ms) and were followed by a mask (to render them unavailable to conscious awareness) and then a target. Participants were required to make a speeded classification to the target. A posttask awareness check was administered to ensure that participants could not consciously perceive the briefly presented primes (i.e., smoking paraphernalia, neutral office supplies, and happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions). The groups differed in the degree to which they exhibited a processing bias for smoking-related stimuli, F(2, 166) = 4.99, p = .008. Deprived smokers exhibited a bias toward processing smoking (vs. neutral office supply) stimuli, F(1, 46) = 5.67, p = .02, whereas nondeprived smokers and nonsmokers did not (ps > .22). The three groups did not differ in the degree to which they exhibited a subliminal processing bias for affective stimuli. Tobacco deprivation appears to increase smokers’ subliminal processing of smoking-related (vs. neutral) stimuli but does not influence subliminal processing of affective stimuli. Future research should investigate whether subliminal biases toward smoking-related stimuli influence relapse. PMID:18729684

  2. Nicotine Content of Domestic Cigarettes, Imported Cigarettes and Pipe Tobacco in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sahar; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moalemzadeh-Haghighi, Hamideh; Nassirli, Hooriyeh; Eshraghi, Pyman; Jalali, Navid; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many different kinds of cigarettes and tobacco available in the market. Since nicotine content of various brands of cigarettes are very variable, therefore evaluation and comparison of nicotine content of different brands of cigarettes is important. The goal of the present study was to determine and compare nicotine content of various domestic and imported cigarettes available in the area. Methods Fourteen popular imported brands and nine popular domestic brands of cigarettes and three available brands of tobaccos were investigated for the amounts of nicotine content. Nicotine was extracted from each cigarette and tobacco samples and was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Findings The amount of nicotine in each cigarette was from 6.17 to 12.65 mg (1.23 ± 0.15 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) in domestic cigarettes. It was between 7.17-28.86 mg (1.80 ± 0.25 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) for imported cigarette, and between 30.08- 50.89 mg (3.82 ± 1.11 percent) for the pipe nicotine. There was significant difference in nicotine amount between imported and domestic brands of cigarettes. There was also no significant difference in nicotine content between light and normal cigarettes in imported brands. Conclusion Nicotine content of all tested cigarettes, imported and domestic brands, were higher than the international standard. PMID:24494133

  3. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 ?g/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 ?g/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal. PMID:22788372

  4. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Results Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0–16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide. PMID:24725483

  5. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco

  6. [Tobacco smoking among the primary and high school children in the administrative district of Sokó?ka].

    PubMed

    Micun, Lidia

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most serious health and social problem. Most of the elderly smokers start smoking at age of 13 to 15 years. The aim of the thesis was to survey the tobacco smoking and the knowledge about the harmfulness of the tobacco smoking among the young people. The investigated material is the 365 persons' group of boys and girls from the 13 schools in the administrative district of Sokó?ka, who took part in the antinicotine educational program. The questionnaire was used before the program was started. Even though the investigated people evaluated their knowledge about the harmfulness of tobacco smoking very well, they still attempt this risky behavior. More often the young people smoke in order to impress their friends. 18% boys and girls attempted smoking in the primary schools and 35% in the high schools. The survey shows that every third pupil in the primary schools recived the proposal of smoking. Among the investigated people the proportion of smokers is lower as compared to the others of the similar age group in Poland in 1998. Experimenting on smoking is dangerous as the proportion of smokers is rising with their age. It is necessary to introduce the prophylactic actions in every type of school. The programs should be concentrated on preventing the youth from the risky addictions and reducing the risky factors. PMID:17474603

  7. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljevi?, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijevi?, Snezana; Andjeli?, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes. PMID:20587395

  8. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  9. Pathogenesis of lesions induced in rat lung by chronic tobacco smoke inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, C.A.; Dalbey, W.E.

    1982-07-01

    Lesions were induced in the lungs of specific-pathogen-free F344 rats by chronic tobacco smoke exposure. Animals exposed to 7 cigarettes/day were killed after 1, 1.5 or 2 years of exposure. Parallel lifetime exposures induced pulmonary tumors in 9% of the animals. In serially killed animals, four types of lesions were found: (1) perivascular or peribronchiolar accumulation of lymphoreticular cells; (2) fibrotic and cellular enlargement of peribronchiolar septa; (3) type II cell hyperplasia with septal fibrosis; and (4) air-space enlargement (emphysema). However, emphysema occurred only in animals exposed to a higher (10 cigarettes) dose of tobacco smoke. Ultrastructural studies showed all of the focal lesions to be infiltrated by cells typical of the inflammatory response. The type II hyperplastic and peribronchiolar alveolar lesions involved larger portions of the parenchyma in fibrotic changes but differed in structure, location, and frequency. The incidence of the peribronchiolar alveolar lesions was temporally related to tumor incidence.

  10. Tobacco Smoke Biomarkers and Cancer Risk Among Male Smokers in the Shanghai Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Stepanov, Irina; Nelson, Heather H.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of tobacco smoke constituents can be quantified in urine and other body fluids providing a realistic measure of carcinogen and toxicant dose in a smoker. Many previous studies have demonstrated that these metabolites – referred to as biomarkers in this paper – are related to tobacco smoke exposure. The studies reviewed here were designed to answer another question: are these substances also biomarkers of cancer risk? Using a prospective study design comparing biomarker levels in cancer cases and controls, all of whom were smokers, the results demonstrate that several of these biomarkers – total cotinine, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), r-1-,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (PheT), and total N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) - are biomarkers of cancer risk. Therefore, these biomarkers have the potential to become part of a cancer risk prediction algorithm for smokers. PMID:22824243

  11. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

  12. Rating the Effectiveness of Local Tobacco Policies for Reducing Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B.; Grube, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers’ and prevention specialists’ ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice. PMID:24327233

  13. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Eisner; John Balmes; Patricia P Katz; Laura Trupin; Edward H Yelin; Paul D Blanc

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we

  14. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-07-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active. PMID:9687969

  15. Chemical and biological studies of a new cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. Part 1. Chemical composition of mainstream smoke.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Chung, H L; Mangan, P P; Morrison, C C; Risner, C H; Rogers, J C; Simmons, D F; Uhrig, M S; Wendelboe, F N; Wingate, D E; Winkler, L S

    1998-03-01

    A new-technology cigarette has been developed. While the new cigarette burns some tobacco, it does not use tobacco as the fuel to sustain combustion and provide heat to the cigarette. Rather, the new cigarette primarily heats tobacco thereby reducing products of smoke formation mechanisms such as tobacco combustion, tobacco pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis. The mainstream smoke composition from a cigarette based on the new design (TOB-HT) has been characterized in comparative chemical testing with two reference cigarettes using the FTC puffing regimen. Thermal properties, UV absorption characteristics, elemental composition and materials balance studies all suggest a simplified smoke aerosol. Twenty-five smoke constituents ("target compounds") identified by the scientific community as compounds that may contribute to the diseases statistically associated with smoking have also been measured. Mainstream smoke concentrations of most target compounds are significantly lower with the TOB-HT cigarette when compared with reference cigarettes in the ultra-light "tar" and light "tar" categories. Taken together, chemical analysis results suggest simplified TOB-HT smoke chemistry with marked reductions in specific chemicals reported to be biologically active. PMID:9609390

  16. Paraoxonase activity as a marker of exposure to xenobiotics in tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Socha, Ewelina

    2015-05-01

    The paraoxonase (PON) family is composed of 3 proteins (PON1, PON2, and PON3), each of which plays a crucial role in the body, displaying antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic properties. The activities and properties of PON proteins can be modulated by a number of environmental factors, including cigarette smoke. In the present article, a review of existing literature is employed to analyze both the direct and the indirect impact of cigarette smoking on the activity of members of the PON family. Cigarette smoking leads to direct inhibition of the hydrolytic activity of PON enzymes by modification of thiol groups, by the reactions of free radicals, or by inhibiting enzyme-active regions with heavy metals. It has been shown that cigarette smoking correlates with a decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration as well as with an increase in other components of the lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, and total cholesterol). By decreasing HDL levels, cigarette smoking likely acts indirectly to induce a decline in PON1 activity. Inhibition of PON1 activity by smoking is a reversible process after cessation of exposure to the xenobiotics in tobacco smoke. PMID:25953737

  17. Epidemiological study on tobacco smoking among university students in Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic.

    PubMed

    Al-Kubaisy, W; Abdullah, N N; Al-Nuaimy, H; Halawany, G; Kurdy, S

    2012-07-01

    There is a lack of data on tobacco use in the Syrian Arab Republic. This cross-sectional questionnaire survey estimated the prevalence of smoking among university students in Damascus and identified factors related to smoking. Among the 583 respondents, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 20.8%. The mean age of smokers [25 (SD 2.2) years] was significantly higher than non-smokers [21 (SD 1.8) years]. Smoking prevalence among males (26.1%) was significantly higher than among females (9.5%). However, female students consumed a significantly higher number of cigarettes per day than did males [mean 21 (SD 5) versus 9 (SD 2)]. The smoking prevalence among students in non-health faculties (27.8%) was significantly higher than that of health professional students (14.5%) and was higher among students living away from their families (27.8%) than those living with their families (16.2%). The study raised concerns about smoking in student residences and women's smoking patterns. PMID:22891520

  18. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ) - the protocol of a new study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM). Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS) will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration. PMID:22188808

  19. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. PMID:25985121

  20. Nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine concentrations as markers for environmental tobacco smoke in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Hyvärinen, M J; Rothberg, M; Kähkönen, E; Mielo, T; Reijula, K

    2000-06-01

    The Finnish Tobacco Act has restricted smoking in public places since 1976, and in 1994 the Act was amended to include workplaces as well. In 2000, the Tobacco Act will be expanded further to restaurants. In Finland, the exposure of clients and employees to the vapor phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in restaurants has not been systematically studied before by measuring ETS markers in indoor air. However, in these establishments the concentrations of ETS are expected to be much higher than in other workplaces. Gaseous nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine were used as indicators of ETS in three different types of restaurants. Mean concentrations of nicotine ranged from 1.4-42.2 micrograms/m3 and 3-ethenylpyridine 1.4-6.3 micrograms/m3. In addition, concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), CO and CO2 were measured and concentrations were 183-2215 micrograms/m3, 0.9-3.1 mg/m3 and 600-880 ppm, respectively. The concentrations of ETS markers were highest in discos and nightclubs and lowest in restaurants. The concentrations of total volatile organic compounds were highest in discos and nightclubs, especially when smoke generators were used. PMID:11980101

  1. Let's Make the Next Generation Tobacco-Free: Your Guide to the 50th Anniversary Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1999 Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement bans outdoor and transit billboard ads for tobacco products. 2000 Twenty-three percent of American adults smoke. 2001 Surgeon General’s Report calls smokingrelated disease among ...

  2. Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested poorer health in the homosexual and bisexual groups compared to heterosexuals. Tobacco smoking, which is a health-related behavior associated with psychosocial stress, may be one explanation behind such health differences. Social capital, i.e. the generalized trust in other people and social participation/social networks which decreases the costs of social interaction, has been suggested to affect health through psychosocial pathways and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account and analyzing the attenuation of the logit after the introduction of social participation, trust and their combination in the models. Methods In 2008 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in southern Sweden with a postal questionnaire with 28,198 participants aged 18–80 (55% participation rate). This study was restricted to 24,348 participants without internally missing values on all included variables. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco smoking were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 11.9% of the men and 14.8% of the women were daily tobacco smokers. Higher and almost unaltered odds ratios of daily smoking compared to heterosexuals were observed for bisexual men and women, and for homosexual men throughout the analyses. The odds ratios of daily smoking among homosexual women were not significant. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels among both men and women, with a corresponding 54% attenuation of the logit in the “other” group among men and 31.5% among women after the inclusion of social participation and trust. In addition, only the “other” sexual orientation group had higher odds ratios of low participation than heterosexuals. Conclusions Bisexual men and women and homosexual men, but not homosexual women, are daily smokers to a higher extent than heterosexuals. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels after adjustments for covariates including trust and social participation. PMID:24903892

  3. Cigarette Smoking, Desire to Quit, and Tobacco-Related Counseling among Adult Health Center Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Fiore, Michael C.; Tomoyasu, Naomi; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2014-01-01

    Background Federally supported health centers provide primary care services for over 20 million medically underserved patients across the U.S. Health centers are well-positioned to identify patients who smoke and ensure receipt of needed cessation counseling or treatment. Purpose Determine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, desire to quit, and receipt of tobacco-related counseling among a national sample of adult health center patients; identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these measures. Methods Data came from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey and the 2009 National Health Interview Survey. The analytic sample included 3,949 adult health center patients and 27,731 U.S. adults. Results Findings showed that 31% of adult health center patients were current smokers, compared with 21% of U.S. adults in general. Among currently smoking health center patients, 83% reported a desire to quit and 68% reported receiving tobacco counseling. In multivariable models, patients had higher odds of wanting to quit if they showed signs of severe mental illness (OR=3.26, 95% CI: 1.19–8.97) and lower odds if they had health insurance (OR=0.43, 95% CI: 0.22–0.86). Patients had higher odds of receiving counseling if they had two or more chronic conditions (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.11–3.78) and lower odds if they were Hispanic (OR=0.57-0.34-0.96). Conclusions The prevalence of cigarette smoking is substantially higher among health center patients than the U.S. in general. However, most smokers seen in health centers desire to quit smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to reduce tobacco use in this vulnerable segment of the population. PMID:24625147

  4. Tobacco Smoking among Incarcerated Individuals: A Review of the Nature of the Problem and What Is Being Done in Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a major health problem, however the issue is even more pronounced among those incarcerated in prisons, where smoking rates are often three times that of the general population. While effective treatments have been demonstrated in the tobacco literature, research examining treatment within prisons is limited in scope. This article…

  5. The Effects of Mainstream and Sidestream Environmental Tobacco Smoke Composition for Enhanced Condensational Droplet Growth by Water Vapor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaochen Tang; Zhongqing Zheng; Heejung S. Jung; Akua Asa-Awuku

    2012-01-01

    Although tobacco smoke is well known for its adverse health effects, the hygroscopicity and droplet growth properties of the aerosol have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, cigarette smoke is further characterized and several state-of-art analysis techniques are applied to understand the effects of particle chemistry and hygroscopicity for enhanced condensational growth by water vapor and wet particle deposition.

  6. The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly D Blake; K. Viswanath; Robert J Blendon; Donna Vallone

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo assess the relative, independent contribution of reported tobacco-specific media exposure (pro-tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco advertising, and news coverage of tobacco issues) to US adults' support for policy efforts that aim to regulate the portrayal of smoking in movies.MethodsUsing the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES-2), multivariable logistic regression was used to model the predicted probability that

  7. Pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke and respiratory outcomes during the first year.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, V; Estarlich, M; Ballester, F; Murcia, M; Esplugues, A; Aurrekoetxea, J J; Basterrechea, M; Fernández-Somoano, A; Morales, E; Gascón, M; Tardón, A; Rebagliato, M

    2015-02-01

    The different role of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke in respiratory outcomes in infants has not yet been clearly established. Our objective is to assess the effects of these exposures on the risk of respiratory outcomes during the first year of life of infants from a Spanish multicenter cohort study. A total of 2506 women were monitored until delivery. About 2039 infants made up the final population. The outcomes were caused by the occurrence of the following: otitis, cough persisting for more than 3 weeks, lower respiratory tract symptoms (wheezing or chestiness), and lower respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia). The relationship between prenatal and postnatal exposure and health outcomes was explored using logistic regression analysis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy increased the odds for wheezing (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.99-2.01) and chestiness (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01). Postnatal exposure from fathers was associated with otitis (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01-1.54). Passive exposure at work of non-smoking mothers during pregnancy was related to cough (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.05-2.51). Exposure to tobacco smoke was related to a higher risk of experiencing respiratory outcomes in young infants. Prenatal exposure was that most clearly associated with the respiratory outcomes analyzed. PMID:24810295

  8. Histological differentiation of oral squamous cell cancer in relation to tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, T; Bentzen, S M; Søgaard, H

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential effect of tobacco and alcohol consumption on the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinomas in 161 consecutive patients. The patients were included in a prospective study to secure valid data on tobacco and alcohol consumption. The histopathological grading system included eight morphological qualities describing both the tumour cell population and the interaction between tumour and host. A mean histological score was calculated as the arithmetic mean of the scored individual morphological parameters. Tobacco consumption, as opposed to alcohol consumption, was shown to be significantly correlated with the mean histological score (P = 0.0009), and with the four morphological qualities describing the tumour cell population: pattern (P = 0.0044), cytoplasmic differentiation (P = 0.0008), nuclear differentiation (P = 0.0054) and mitosis (P = 0.0001). Thus, tobacco consumption seems to cause the tumour cells of oral squamous cell carcinomas to undergo a more pronounced dedifferentiation which makes them more aggressive. This effect is enhanced with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:7633284

  9. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their knowledge on health risks of smoking. Comprehensive messages and/or images about specific diseases related to AS/SHS should be conveyed using of different channels and modes specific to local cultures to increase knowledge on smoking health consequences for general population. PMID:23374702

  10. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  11. Tobacco Control and the Reduction in Smoking-related Premature Deaths in the United States, 1964–2012

    PubMed Central

    Holford, Theodore R.; Meza, Rafael; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meernik, Clare; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Levy, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General’s Report on smoking and health is celebrated in 2014. This seminal document inspired efforts by government s, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector to reduce the toll of cigarette smoking through reduced initiation and increased cessation. Objective To quantify reductions in smoking -related mortality associated with implementation of tobacco control since 1964. Design, Setting and Participants Smoking histories for individual birth cohorts that actually occurred and under likely scenarios had tobacco control never emerged were estimated. National mortality rates and mortality rate ratio estimates from analytical studies of the effect of smoking on mortality yielded death rates by smoking status. Actual smoking -related mortality from 1964–2012 was compared to estimated mortality under no tobacco control that included a likely scenario (primary counterfactual) and upper and lower bounds that would capture plausible alternatives. Exposure National Health Interview Surveys yielded cigarette smoking histories for the US adult population from 1964–2012. Main Outcomes and Measures Number of premature deaths avoided and years of life saved were primary outcomes. Change in life expectancy at age 40 associated with change in cigarette smoking exposure constituted another measure of overall health outcomes. Results From 1964–2012, an estimated 17.6 million deaths were related to smoking, an estimated 8.0 (7.4–8.3, for the lower and upper tobacco control counterfactuals, respectively) million fewer premature smoking-induced deaths than what would have occurred under the alternatives and thus associated with tobacco control (5.3 (4.8–5.5) million males and 2.7 (2.5–2.7) million females). This resulted in an estimated 157 (139–165) million years of life saved, a mean of 19.6 years for each beneficiary, (111 (97–117) million for males, 46 (42–48) million for females). During this time, estimated life expectancy at age 40 increased 7.8 years for males and 5.4 years for females, of which tobacco control is associated with2.3 (1.8–2.5) years [30% (23–32%)] of the increase for males and 1.6 (1.4–1.7) years [29% (25–32%)] for females. Conclusions and Relevance Tobacco control is associated with avoidance of millions of premature deaths, and an estimated extended mean lifespan of 19–20 years. While tobacco control represents an important public health achievement, smoking continues to be the leading contributor to the nation’s death toll. PMID:24399555

  12. Modeling the activation of tobacco smoking expectancies in memory in relation to use patterns.

    PubMed

    Linkovich-Kyle, Tiffany Leigh; Schreiner, Amy M; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Methodology that has led to successful strategies to reduce alcohol use was applied to tobacco smoking expectancies. Individual differences scaling was used to empirically model a semantic network of associations stored in memory and preference mapping was used to model likely paths of expectancy activation for groups with different smoking histories. Smokers emphasized an external appearance-internal experience dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of negative affect reduction. Nonsmokers emphasized a positive-negative dimension and were more likely to activate expectancies of health risks and reduced physical attractiveness. Proportionate frequencies of first associates' validated findings of the MDS-based solutions. Future efforts to alter likely activation patterns may successfully reduce the onset of smoking, enhance quit rates, and reduce relapse. PMID:22178600

  13. Tobacco exposure and susceptibility to tuberculosis: is there a smoking gun?

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward D; Kinney, William H; Honda, Jennifer R; Bishwakarma, Raju; Gangavelli, Avani; Mya, Jenny; Bai, Xiyuan; Ordway, Diane J

    2014-12-01

    In many regions of the world, there is a great overlap between the prevalence of cigarette smoke exposure and tuberculosis. Despite the large body of epidemiologic evidence that tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased tuberculosis infection, active disease, severity of disease, and mortality from tuberculosis, these studies cannot distinguish whether the mechanism is principally through direct impairment of anti-tuberculosis immunity by cigarette smoke or due to potential confounders that increase risk for tuberculosis and are commonly associated with smoking--such as poverty, malnutrition, and crowded living conditions. While there are several in vivo murine and in vitro macrophage studies showing cigarette smoke impairs control of tuberculous infection, little is known of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which this impairment occurs. Herein, we highlight the key findings of these studies. Additionally, we review key immune cells that play critical roles in host-defense or pathogenesis of tuberculosis and generate a hypothesis-driven discussion of the possible mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs or enhances their functions, respectively, ultimately resulting in compromised immunity against tuberculosis. PMID:25305002

  14. In utero and childhood exposure to parental tobacco smoke, and allergies in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Raherison, Chantal; Pénard-Morand, Céline; Moreau, David; Caillaud, Denis; Charpin, Denis; Kopfersmitt, Christien; Lavaud, François; Taytard, André; Annesi-maesano, Isabella

    2007-01-01

    Among early-life environmental factors, parental smoking (ETS) has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes in children. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether parental smoking might lead to asthma and allergies taking into account family history of asthma, personal atopy, breast feeding as confounders and owing pets and day-care during the first 6 months of life as modifiers. About 9000 children of fourth and fifth grade were selected in six cities of France. About 7798 answered an epidemiological questionnaire, underwent a medical examination including skin prick test positivity to common allergens, skin examination for eczema, and run test to assess exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Prevalence of allergies was, respectively, 25.2% for eczema, 12.9% for rhinitis, 9.9% for asthma and 25% for atopy. About 8.3% had an EIA. About 21.6% of children were exposed to maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Maternal smoking, in utero and later, was significantly related to lifetime wheezing (odds ratio (OR): 1.24[1.10-1.56]) and asthma (OR: 1.22[1.04-1.66]). There was no association between atopy, rhinitis, eczema and parental smoking, respectively. ETS remains a risk factor of wheezing in childhood. Counselling parents of children to quit smoking still remains a public health policy. PMID:16735111

  15. Tobacco Use and Smoking Cessation Practices among Physicians in Developing Countries: A Literature Review (1987–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Abu S.; Stillman, Frances A.; Yang, Li; Luo, Hongye; Zhang, Zhiyong; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Physicians have a key role to play in combating tobacco use and reducing the tobacco induced harm to health. However, there is a paucity of information about tobacco-use and cessation among physicians in developing countries. To assess the need for and nature of smoking cessation services among physicians in developing countries, a detailed literature review of studies published in English, between 1987 and 2010 was carried out. The electronic databases Medline and Pub Med were searched for published studies. The findings show that there are regional variations in the current smoking prevalence, quitting intentions, and cessation services among physicians. Smoking prevalence (median) was highest in Central/Eastern Europe (37%), followed by Africa (29%), Central and South America (25%) and Asia (17.5%). There were significant gender differences in smoking prevalence across studies, with higher prevalence among males than females. Smoking at work or in front of patients was commonly practiced by physicians in some countries. Asking about smoking status or advising patients to quit smoking was not common practice among the physicians, especially among smoker physicians. Organized smoking cessation programs for physicians did not exist in all of these regions. This review suggests that while smoking of physicians varies across different developing regions; prevalence rates tend to be higher than among physicians in developed countries. Quitting rates were low among the physicians, and the delivery of advice on quitting smoking was not common across the studies. To promote tobacco control and increase cessation in populations, there is a need to build physicians’ capacity so that they can engage in tobacco use prevention and cessation activities. PMID:24380976

  16. The Role of Public Policies in Reducing Smoking Prevalence in California: Results from the California Tobacco Policy Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David T.; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Summary Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes over 60% of the reduction to price increases, over 25% of the overall effect to media policies, 10% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5,000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population. PMID:17055104

  17. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in Lebanon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chaaya; S. Jabbour; Z. El-Roueiheb; H. Chemaitelly

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, little is known about argileh (water pipe or hubble-bubble) and cigarette smoking among pregnant women in the Arab world, despite emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of argileh smoking and well-established knowledge about the health risks of cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Objectives: The present study assesses pregnant Arab women's knowledge of chemical contents and related harmful effects

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Shihadeh; Rawad Saleh

    2005-01-01

    A smoking machine protocol and yields for “tar”, nicotine, PAH, and CO are presented for the standard 171-puff steady periodic smoking regimen proposed by Shihadeh et al. [Shihadeh, A., Azar, S., Antonios, C., Haddad, A., 2004b. Towards a topographical model of narghile water-pipe café smoking: A pilot study in a high socioeconomic status neighborhood of Beirut, Lebanon. Pharmacology Biochemistry and

  20. Smoky coal, tobacco smoking, and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei, China

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Christopher; Chapman, Robert S.; Hu, Wei; He, Xingzhou; Hosgood, H. Dean; Liu, Larry Z.; Lai, Hong; Chen, Wei; Silverman, Debra T.; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Linwei; Bassig, Bryan; Shen, Min; Zhang, Yawei; Ma, Shuangge; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lung cancer rates in Xuanwei are the highest in China. In-home use of smoky coal was associated with lung cancer risk, and the association of smoking and lung cancer risk strengthens after stove improvement. Here, we explored the differential association of tobacco use and lung cancer risk by the intensity, duration, and type of coal used. Materials and Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 260 male lung cancer cases and 260 age-matched male controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for tobacco use was calculated by conditional logistic regression. Results Use of smoky coal was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer risk, and tobacco use was weakly and non-significantly associated with lung cancer risk. When the association was assessed by coal use, the cigarette-lung cancer risk association was null in hazardous coal users and elevated in less hazardous smoky coal users and non-smoky coal users. The risk of lung cancer per cigarette per day decreased as annual use of coal increased (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17; >3 tons: OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95-1.03). Among more hazardous coal users, attenuation occurs at even low levels of usage (>0-3 tons: OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.91-1.14; >3 tons: OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). Conclusion We found evidence that smoky coal attenuated the tobacco and lung cancer risk association in males that lived in Xuanwei, particularly among users of hazardous coal where even low levels of smoky coal attenuated the association. Our results suggest that the adverse effects of tobacco may become more apparent as China's population continues to switch to using cleaner fuels for the home, underscoring the urgent need for smoking cessation in China and elsewhere. PMID:24506909

  1. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Relation to Bladder Cancer Risk – The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Wang, Renwei; Nelson, Heather H.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chan, Kenneth; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contains tobacco carcinogens. Hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) are important isoenzymes in activation and detoxification, respectively, of tobacco carcinogens. Data on ETS and bladder cancer risk are sparse. Methods We examined the effects of ETS alone and combined with NAT2/CYP1A2 on bladder cancer risk among lifelong-nonsmokers in a case-control study involving 195 patients and 261 controls in Shanghai, China. A comprehensive history of ETS exposure was determined through in-person interviews while CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotypes by a caffeine-based urinary assay. Results ETS exposure was related to an overall statistically non-significant 38% increased bladder cancer risk. The risk increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked by household members or number of hours per day at workplace where coworkers smoked. Compared with no ETS exposure, subjects living with smoking parents during childhood had an OR of 2.43 (95% CI=0.99–5.96) for bladder cancer. When all ETS sources were combined, the risk increased with increasing total ETS score (Ptrend = 0.03). The OR for high versus nil ETS exposure was 3.00 (95% CI =1.24–7.26). The increased risk with ETS was mainly seen among individuals possessing a CYP1A2 high efficiency and/or a NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (Ptrend = 0.04). Conclusions ETS was associated with an increased bladder cancer risk for lifelong-nonsmokers. The association was stronger for people possessing the at-risk phenotypes of CYP1A2 and/or NAT2. Impact Reducing exposure to ETS for children and genetically more susceptible individuals could be more effective for bladder cancer prevention. PMID:21056942

  2. Cigarette smoke composition. Part 1. Limitations of FTC method when applied to cigarettes that heat instead of burn tobacco.

    PubMed

    Borgerding, M F; Hicks, R D; Bodnar, J E; Riggs, D M; Nanni, E J; Fulp, G W; Hamlin, W C; Giles, J A

    1990-01-01

    The design of a new cigarette that heats rather than burns tobacco calls for modifications to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) method for analytical smoking. These changes include eliminating sample conditioning at 75 degrees F and 60% RH, exercising greater care in lighting cigarettes, and smoking cigarettes to self-extinguishment rather than to a predetermined butt length as a measure of complete consumption. By several gross analytical measures, smoke condensate from the new cigarette differs substantially from that of tobacco-burning cigarettes. This is inferred from the lack of coloration of smoke condensate collected on Cambridge filters. Elemental analysis demonstrates reduced carbon and nitrogen content concurrent with increased hydrogen. Thermogravimetric analysis shows almost quantitative weight loss at Tmax = 220 degrees C. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric analysis shows greatly reduced levels of tobacco-derived smoke components and qualitative differences in chemical entities being measured. By design, the heat required for smoke formation is supplied by a carbon heat source embedded in the cigarette tip. Tobacco contained in the cigarette is not burned and is exposed to temperature less than 300 degrees C. Thus, it is apparent (1) that smoke from the new cigarette contains little or no "tar" as tar is classically defined, and (2) that the FTC method even as modified to account for cigarette design differences is appropriate only for determination of nicotine and carbon monoxide yielded from this cigarette. PMID:2211483

  3. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Abu S.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C.K.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home. PMID:21556182

  4. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hitchman, Sara C; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children's exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children's health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children's health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children's health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children's health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home. PMID:21556182

  5. Title: University Smoking Policy Code: 1-300-010

    E-print Network

    Huang, Jianyu

    the health risks of secondhand, or passive, smoke by linking this type of smoke to 3,000 lung cancer deaths cigar, cigarette, pipe, or other tobacco product or smoking equipment. Hazardous areas include certain. The University's Faculty/Staff Assistance Program offers a program called Fresh Start, the American Cancer

  6. A genome-wide gene-environment interaction analysis for tobacco smoke and lung cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruyang; Chu, Minjie; Zhao, Yang; Wu, Chen; Guo, Huan; Shi, Yongyong; Dai, Juncheng; Wei, Yongyue; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Dong, Jing; Yi, Honggang; Bai, Jianling; Gong, Jianhang; Sun, Chongqi; Zhu, Meng; Wu, Tangchun; Hu, Zhibin; Lin, Dongxin; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco smoke is the major environmental risk factor underlying lung carcinogenesis. However, approximately one-tenth smokers develop lung cancer in their lifetime indicating there is significant individual variation in susceptibility to lung cancer. And, the reasons for this are largely unknown. In particular, the genetic variants discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) account for only a small fraction of the phenotypic variations for lung cancer, and gene-environment interactions are thought to explain the missing fraction of disease heritability. The ability to identify smokers at high risk of developing cancer has substantial preventive implications. Thus, we undertook a gene-smoking interaction analysis in a GWAS of lung cancer in Han Chinese population using a two-phase designed case-control study. In the discovery phase, we evaluated all pair-wise (591 370) gene-smoking interactions in 5408 subjects (2331 cases and 3077 controls) using a logistic regression model with covariate adjustment. In the replication phase, promising interactions were validated in an independent population of 3023 subjects (1534 cases and 1489 controls). We identified interactions between two single nucleotide polymorphisms and smoking. The interaction P values are 6.73 × 10(-) (6) and 3.84 × 10(-) (6) for rs1316298 and rs4589502, respectively, in the combined dataset from the two phases. An antagonistic interaction (rs1316298-smoking) and a synergetic interaction (rs4589502-smoking) were observed. The two interactions identified in our study may help explain some of the missing heritability in lung cancer susceptibility and present strong evidence for further study of these gene-smoking interactions, which are benefit to intensive screening and smoking cessation interventions. PMID:24658283

  7. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice. PMID:25106748

  8. Controls on the valence species of arsenic in tobacco smoke: XANES investigation with implications for health and regulation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert C J; Stephens, William E; Finch, Adrian A; Geraki, Kalotina

    2014-03-18

    Arsenic (As) is one of four metals/metalloids in tobacco being considered for regulation. In vitro toxicological response to As varies substantially, determined primarily by valence and compound speciation, and inorganic arsenite (As(III)) compounds are the most toxic to humans. This study uses X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) to determine valence states of As from the tobacco plant to the crucial combustion stage that creates respirable smoke. Samples studied include cultivated plants (some burdened with additional As), reference standards, and commercial products, along with smoke condensate and ash from these samples. The relative contributions of As(III) and As(V) to the XANES spectra are analyzed, and a consistent pattern of redox changes emerges. Tobacco leaf and manufactured products tend to be dominated by As(V) whereas combustion produces respirable smoke invariably in As(III) form and ash invariably as As(V). The valence state of precursor tobacco is not a controlling factor because all the As mobilized in smoke is reduced during combustion. This study concludes that tobacco combustion exposes smokers to potentially the most toxic forms of arsenic, and this exposure is magnified in regions where arsenic is present in tobacco crops at relatively high concentrations. PMID:24521490

  9. Tobacco industry efforts to present ventilation as an alternative to smoke-free environments in North America

    PubMed Central

    Drope, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry developed a network of consultants to promote ventilation as a "solution" to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the USA. Methods: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Results: As with its other strategies to undermine the passage of clean indoor legislation and regulations, the tobacco industry used consultants who represented themselves as independent but who were promoting the industry's ventilation "solution" strategies under close, but generally undisclosed, industry supervision. The nature of the industry's use of ventilation consultants evolved over time. In the 1980s, the industry used them in an effort to steer the concerns about indoor air quality away from secondhand smoke, saying SHS was an insignificant component of a much larger problem of indoor air quality and inadequate ventilation. By the 1990s, the industry and its consultants were maintaining that adequate ventilation could easily accommodate "moderate smoking". The consultants carried the ventilation message to businesses, particularly the hospitality business, and to local and national and international regulatory and legislative bodies. Conclusion: While the tobacco industry and its consultants have gone to considerable lengths to promote the tobacco industry's ventilation "solution", this strategy has had limited success in the USA, probably because, in the end, it is simpler, cheaper, and healthier to end smoking. Tobacco control advocates need to continue to educate policymakers about this fact, particularly in regions where this strategy has been more effective. PMID:14985616

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers on a silica surface for the adsorption of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Ting; Zhu, Yong-Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Wen-Na; Yin, Yong-Guan; Zhu, Quan-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are one of the most important groups of carcinogens in tobacco products. Using adsorbents as filter additives is an effective way to reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette smoke. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using nicotinamide as template were grafted on the silica gel surface to obtain MIP@SiO2 and employed as filter additives to absorb tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke. Four milligrams of MIP@SiO2 per cigarette was added to the interface between filter and tobacco rod to prepare a binary filter system. The mainstream smoke was collected on an industry-standard Cambridge filter pad and extracted with ammonium acetate aqueous solution before analysis. Compared to the cigarette smoke of the control group, the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were both reduced, and the adsorption rates of N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanabasine, N-nitrosoanatabine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridine)-1-butanone with silica gel and with MIP@SiO2 were 20.76, 15.32, 18.79, and 18.01%, and 41.33, 34.04, 37.86, and 35.53%, respectively. Furthermore the content of total particle materials in cigarette smoke with silica gel was decreased evidently but showed no observable change with MIP@SiO2 . It indicated MIP@SiO2 could selectively reduce tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the mainstream cigarette smoke with no change to the cigarette flavor. PMID:25914259

  11. Toxicological effects of the different substances in tobacco smoke on human embryonic development by a systems chemo-biology approach.

    PubMed

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Notari, Daniel Luis; Bonatto, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and molecular effects of tobacco smoke in adult humans and the development of cancer have been well described. In contrast, how tobacco smoke affects embryonic development remains poorly understood. Morphological studies of the fetuses of smoking pregnant women have shown various physical deformities induced by constant fetal exposure to tobacco components, especially nicotine. In addition, nicotine exposure decreases fetal body weight and bone/cartilage growth in addition to decreasing cranial diameter and tibia length. Unfortunately, the molecular pathways leading to these morphological anomalies are not completely understood. In this study, we applied interactome data mining tools and small compound interaction networks to elucidate possible molecular pathways associated with the effects of tobacco smoke components during embryonic development in pregnant female smokers. Our analysis showed a relationship between nicotine and 50 additional harmful substances involved in a variety of biological process that can cause abnormal proliferation, impaired cell differentiation, and increased oxidative stress. We also describe how nicotine can negatively affect retinoic acid signaling and cell differentiation through inhibition of retinoic acid receptors. In addition, nicotine causes a stress reaction and/or a pro-inflammatory response that inhibits the agonistic action of retinoic acid. Moreover, we show that the effect of cigarette smoke on the developing fetus could represent systemic and aggressive impacts in the short term, causing malformations during certain stages of development. Our work provides the first approach describing how different tobacco constituents affect a broad range of biological process in human embryonic development. PMID:23637898

  12. Tobacco smoke: A critical etiological factor for vascular impairment at the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M.; Sathe, T.; Fazio, V.; Mazzone, P.; Weksler, Babette; Janigro, D.; Rapp, E.; Cucullo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Active and passive tobacco smoke are associated with the dysfunction of endothelial physiology and vascular impairment. Studies correlating the effects of smoking and the brain microvasculature at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) level have been largely limited to few selective compounds that are present in the tobacco smoke (TS) yet the pathophysiology of smoking has not been unveiled. For this purpose, we characterized the physiological response of isolated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and monocytes to the exposure of whole soluble TS extract. With the use of a well established humanized flow-based in vitro blood–brain barrier model (DIV-BBB) we have also investigated the BBB physiological response to TS under both normal and impaired hemodynamic conditions simulating ischemia. Our results showed that TS selectively decreased endothelial viability only at very high concentrations while not significantly affecting that of astrocytes and monocytes. At lower concentrations, despite the absence of cytotoxicity, TS induced a strong vascular pro-inflammatory response. This included the upregulation of endothelial pro-inflammatory genes, a significant increase of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activated matrix metalloproteinase, and the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. When flow-cessation/reperfusion was paired with TS exposure, the inflammatory response and the loss of BBB viability were significantly increased in comparison to sham-smoke condition. In conclusion, TS is a strong vascular inflammatory primer that can facilitate the loss of BBB function and viability in pathological settings involving a local transient loss of cerebral blood flow such as during ischemic insults. PMID:19539613

  13. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  14. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  15. Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ?11 cigarettes/day ?=?1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day ?=?1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

  16. The Pit and the Pendulum: The Impact on Teen Smokers of Including a Designated Smoking Area in School Tobacco Control Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, L. E.; Lovato, C. Y.; Taylor, E.; Rutherford, M. B.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant…

  17. The pit and the pendulum: the impact on teen smokers of including a designated smoking area in school tobacco control policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Baillie; C. Y. Lovato; E. Taylor; M. B. Rutherford; M. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Co- lumbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant safety and discipline problems it creates for

  18. Psychophysiological reactivity to environmental tobacco smoke on smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ordoñana, Juan R; González-Javier, Francisca; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an air pollutant with a relevant impact on public health. In addition, ETS is a significant stimulus that may elicit different responses depending on previous experience and current status regarding smoking. Exposure to cigarette cues has been shown to be a reliable method for inducing subjective and physiological responses. However, the role of ETS as a stimulus has not received, to date, enough attention in the research literature. This study aimed to analyse both the autonomic and subjective responses of smokers and non-smokers to exposure to ETS. To that end, 41 non-smokers and 57 smokers were exposed to ETS, in a controlled laboratory setting. We measured the subjective perception of smoke, unpleasantness, heart rate and skin conductance to compare the reactions of smokers and non-smokers to ETS. Additionally, subjective tobacco craving after exposure was assessed for current smokers. We found different psychophysiological responses to ETS exposure for smokers and non-smokers. Smokers showed a generalised increase in autonomic activity, significantly greater than that of non-smokers. In addition, heart rate increase during exposure to ETS was positively correlated with subjective craving. Our data suggested that ETS was an important stimulus and acted as a relevant cue for smokers; it induced both psychophysiological reactions and subjective craving. Hence, this kind of stimulus within the cue-reactivity research paradigm may be useful for studying the effect of ETS on smokers' reactions, craving, quitting attempts, or relapse probabilities. PMID:22465376

  19. In vitro evaluation of the effect of tobacco smoke on rat cornea function.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Ewa; Olszewski, Jan; Pi?tek, Jacek; Samborski, W?odzimierz; Sosnowski, Przemys?aw; Ole?ków, Beata; Zawadzi?ski, Jaros?aw; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The influence of tobacco smoke on the dielectric properties of rat cornea were measured in vitro over the frequency range of the electric field of 500Hz-100kHz and in temperatures of the air from 25 to 150°C. The temperature dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea represent the relation between the energy lost and the energy stored in the epithelium-stromal-endothelium systems of the cornea. The differences between the healthy and the smoky cornea concerned the temperature ranges in which there appeared the decomposition of loosely-bound water and ?-relaxation associated with polar side-chains relaxations on protein molecules of this tissue. The effect of smoke is manifested as a shift of the loss tangent peaks of these two processes towards higher temperatures, when compared with the control. The results are interpreted as caused by the toxic compounds of the tobacco smoke leading to higher ion transport in the nonhomogeneous structure of the cornea when compared to that of the control tissue. The activation energy of conductivity were similar for the healthy and smoky cornea as a consequence of the braking of hydrogen and Van der Waals bonds between loosely bound water, and the proteins of channels in the epithelium and endothelium. Recognition of the effect of frequency and temperature on the dielectric behaviour of the smoky cornea may be of interest for disease characterization of this tissue. PMID:23311788

  20. Ceremonial tobacco use in the Andes: implications for smoking prevention among indigenous youth.

    PubMed

    Alderete, Ethel; Erickson, Pamela I; Kaplan, Celia P; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify Andean youth's beliefs regarding ceremonial tobacco use and to discuss potential applications of findings in tobacco control interventions. The study was conducted in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina among 202 boys and girls, 10 to 20 years of age, living in rural and urban areas. The world of beliefs and meanings became accessible by asking youth to focus on tangible experiences regarding the Pachamama ceremony, a ritual honoring Mother Earth. Concepts such as reciprocity, the unity of material and spiritual realms, and the complementary nature of opposite forces were linked to beliefs about ceremonial tobacco use. Three domains for understanding smoking behaviour beliefs and norms were identified including mechanisms of production, conceptual tenants and behavioural expressions. These findings suggest that tobacco control interventions based on solidarity, reciprocity, and non-rational ways of learning are more culturally appropriate for native populations in the Andes than the current individual behaviour change models and have the potential applications with other indigenous populations. The research methods also have the potential for generalized application in cross-cultural studies of health behaviours in understudied populations in middle and low-income countries. PMID:20419515

  1. Ceremonial Tobacco Use in the Andes: Implications for Smoking Prevention among Indigenous Youth

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Erickson, Pamela I.; Kaplan, Celia P.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Andean youth’s beliefs regarding ceremonial tobacco use and to discuss potential applications of findings in tobacco control interventions. The study was conducted in the Province of Jujuy, Argentina among 202 boys and girls, 10 to 20 years of age, living in rural and urban areas. The world of beliefs and meanings became accessible by asking youth to focus on tangible experiences regarding the Pachamama ceremony, a ritual honoring Mother Earth. Concepts like reciprocity, the unity of material and spiritual realms, and the complementary nature of opposite forces were linked to beliefs about ceremonial tobacco use. Three domains for understanding smoking behavior beliefs and norms were identified including mechanisms of production, conceptual tenants and behavioral expressions. These findings suggest that tobacco control interventions based on solidarity, reciprocity, and non-rational ways of learning are more culturally appropriate for native populations in the Andes than the current individual behavior change models and have the potential application with other indigenous populations. The research methods also have the potential for generalized application in cross-cultural studies of health behaviors in understudied populations in middle and low-income countries. PMID:20419515

  2. Does Switching to Reduced Ignition Propensity Cigarettes Alter Smoking Behavior or Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents?

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Vaughan W.; Norton, Kaila J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Connolly, Gregory N.; Alpert, Hillel R.; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M.; Giovino, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers’ exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. Methods: An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006–2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. Results: We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Discussion: Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products. PMID:20805292

  3. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02), but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87). Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children. PMID:20113468

  4. Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure Is Associated with Childhood DNA CpG Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Joubert, Bonnie R.; Wang, Xinhui; Qui, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent; Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Martinez, Fernando; Liu, Andy; Lemanske, Robert; Strunk, Robert; Weiss, Scott; London, Stephanie; Gilliland, Frank; Raby, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking while pregnant is associated with a myriad of negative health outcomes in the child. Some of the detrimental effects may be due to epigenetic modifications, although few studies have investigated this hypothesis in detail. Objectives To characterize site-specific epigenetic modifications conferred by prenatal smoking exposure within asthmatic children. Methods Using Illumina HumanMethylation27 microarrays, we estimated the degree of methylation at 27,578 distinct DNA sequences located primarily in gene promoters using whole blood DNA samples from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) subset of Asthma BRIDGE childhood asthmatics (n?=?527) ages 5–12 with prenatal smoking exposure data available. Using beta-regression, we screened loci for differential methylation related to prenatal smoke exposure, adjusting for gender, age and clinical site, and accounting for multiple comparisons by FDR. Results Of 27,578 loci evaluated, 22,131 (80%) passed quality control assessment and were analyzed. Sixty-five children (12%) had a history of prenatal smoke exposure. At an FDR of 0.05, we identified 19 CpG loci significantly associated with prenatal smoke, of which two replicated in two independent populations. Exposure was associated with a 2% increase in mean CpG methylation in FRMD4A (p?=?0.01) and Cllorf52 (p?=?0.001) compared to no exposure. Four additional genes, XPNPEP1, PPEF2, SMPD3 and CRYGN, were nominally associated in at least one replication group. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with reproducible epigenetic changes that persist well into childhood. However, the biological significance of these altered loci remains unknown. PMID:24964093

  5. Exposure to carbon monoxide from second-hand tobacco smoke in Polish pubs.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej ?ukasz; Czoga?a, Jan; Ko?mider, Leon; Koszowski, Bartosz; Zieli?ska-Danch, Wioleta; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the more toxic agents present in the gas phase of second-hand tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence suggesting that passive smokers are involuntarily poisoned by low CO concentrations. At lower doses, CO affects the central nervous system leading to deterioration in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. The effects of chronic inhalation of CO at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular system are not well investigated but might involve myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias. In people with pre-existing disease, CO pollution alone may result in increased morbidity and mortality. In the study CO levels were monitored in 22 Polish pubs. The temporary CO concentration varied in examined pubs from 0 to 33.11 ppm. The average 8-hours CO concentration varied from 0.21 to 10.20 ppm. Nine percent of pubs exceeded the WHO or EU limit value at some point during the monitoring process. The average weekly CO concentration in all examined microenvironments varied from 0 to 4.80 ppm. The most important factor influencing CO concentration was air-exchange through open doors and windows. In pubs where doors and windows were closed, the following statistical important factors influencing CO concentration were found: 1. the number of smokers present in the pub, 2. the pub's capaciousness, and 3. and the pub's location. The results of the study show that second-hand tobacco smoke is a significant source of CO in Polish pubs. Passive smokers in Polish pubs might be exposed to very high CO concentration exceeding EU reference value. PMID:20377053

  6. Exposure to carbon monoxide from second-hand tobacco smoke in Polish pubs

    PubMed Central

    Goniewicz, Maciej ?ukasz; Czoga?a, Jan; Ko?mider, Leon; Koszowski, Bartosz; Zieli?ska-Danch, Wioleta; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the more toxic agents present in the gas phase of second-hand tobacco smoke. There is sufficient evidence suggesting that passive smokers are involuntarily poisoned by low CO concentrations. At lower doses, CO affects the central nervous system leading to deterioration in visual perception, manual dexterity, learning, driving performance, and attention level. The effects of chronic inhalation of CO at doses corresponding to tobacco smoking on the cardiovascular system are not well investigated but might involve myocardial hypertrophy and arrhythmias. In people with pre-existing disease, CO pollution alone may result in increased morbidity and mortality. In the study CO levels were monitored in 22 Polish pubs. The temporary CO concentration varied in examined pubs varied from 0 to 33.11 ppm. The average 8-hours CO concentration varied from 0.21 to 10.20 ppm. Nine percent of pubs exceeded the WHO or EU limit value at some point during the monitoring process. The average weekly CO concentration in all examined microenvironments varied from 0 to 4.80 ppm. The most important factor influencing CO concentration was air-exchange through open doors and windows. In pubs where doors and windows were closed, the following statistical important factors influencing CO concentration were found: 1) the number of smokers present in the pub, 2) the pub’s capaciousness, and 3) and the pub’s location. The results of the study show that second-hand tobacco smoke is a significant source of CO in Polish pubs. Passive smokers in Polish pubs might be exposed to very high CO concentration exceeding UE reference value. PMID:20377053

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  8. Estrogen metabolism within the lung and its modulation by tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Clapper, Margie L.

    2013-01-01

    Although estrogen and the enzymes responsible for its metabolism have been detected within the lung, the ability of this tissue to metabolize estrogen has not been demonstrated previously. The goal of this study was to characterize the profile of estrogen metabolites within the murine lung and to determine the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on metabolite levels. Use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry led to the detection of three estrogens (E1, E2 and E3) and five estrogen metabolites (2-OHE1, 4-OHE1, 4-OHE2, 2-OMeE1 and 2-OMeE2) within the perfused lung, with 4-OHE1 being the most abundant species. Levels of 4-OHEs, carcinogenic derivatives produced primarily by cytochrome P450 1B1 (Cyp1b1), were 2-fold higher in females than males. Deletion of Cyp1b1 in females led to a dramatic reduction (21-fold) in 4-OHEs, whereas levels of 2-OHE1 and the putative protective estrogen metabolite 2-OMeE2 were increased (2.4- and 5.0-fold, respectively) (P = 0.01). Similar quantitative differences in estrogen metabolite levels were observed between Cyp1b1 null and wild-type males. Exposure of female mice to tobacco smoke for 8 weeks (2h per day, 5 days per week) increased the levels of 4-OHE1 (4-fold) and 2-OHE2 (2-fold) within the lung while reducing the total concentration of 2-OMeEs to 70% of those of unexposed controls. These data suggest that tobacco smoke accelerates the production of 4-OHEs within the lung; carcinogenic metabolites that could potentially contribute to lung tumor development. Thus, inhibition of CYP1B1 may represent a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23276798

  9. Amelioration strategies fail to prevent tobacco smoke effects on neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic receptor blockade, antioxidants, methyl donors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-07-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl-l-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury by interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation. PMID:25891525

  10. The role of reported tobacco-specific media exposure on adult attitudes towards proposed policies to limit the portrayal of smoking in movies

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative, independent contribution of reported tobacco-specific media exposure (pro-tobacco advertising, anti-tobacco advertising, and news coverage of tobacco issues) to US adults’ support for policy efforts that aim to regulate the portrayal of smoking in movies. Methods Using the American Legacy Foundation’s 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey (ASHES-2), multivariable logistic regression was used to model the predicted probability that US adults support movie-specific tobacco control policies, by reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages, controlling for smoking status, education, income, race/ethnicity, age, sex, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and state. Results Across most outcome variables under study, findings reveal that reported exposure to tobacco-specific media messages is associated with adult attitudes towards movie-specific policy measures. Most exposure to tobacco information in the media (with the exception of pro-tobacco advertising on the internet) contributes independently to the prediction of adult support for movie-specific policies. The direction of effect follows an expected pattern, with reported exposure to anti-tobacco advertising and news coverage of tobacco predicting supportive attitudes towards movie policies, and reported exposure to pro-tobacco advertising lessening support for some movie policies, though the medium of delivery makes a difference. Conclusion Media campaigns to prevent tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke have had value beyond the intended impact of single-issue campaigns; exposure to anti-tobacco campaigns and public dialogue about the dangers of tobacco seem also to be associated with shaping perceptions of the social world related to norms about tobacco, and ideas about regulating the portrayal of smoking in movies. PMID:20008152

  11. SLC6A4 STin2 VNTR genetic polymorphism is associated with tobacco use disorder, but not with successful smoking cessation or smoking characteristics: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine if variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the second intron (STin2) of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) gene was associated with tobacco use disorder, successful smoking cessation, or smoking characteristics. In this case–control study, patients with current tobacco use disorder, diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria (n?=?185), and never-smokers, diagnosed according to CDC criteria (n?=?175), were recruited and received 52 weeks of combined pharmacotherapy and cognitive therapy. Successful smoking cessation was defined as exhaled carbon monoxide?tobacco use disorder, while the STin2.10/10 genotype (OR?=?0.42; 95% CI 0.25-0.71, p?tobacco use disorder and the STin2.10 or STin2.9 alleles or the other genotypes (STin2.12/12, 12/10, 12/9, 10/9 or 9/9). There were no significant associations between the STin2 genotypes and alleles and successful smoking cessation, smoking characteristics and increased alcohol or sedative use risk. Conclusions Our results suggest that the STin2.10/10 genotype and STin2.12 allele are associated with tobacco use disorder or nicotine dependence, but not with treatment response or severity of dependence. It is hypothesized that the ST2in.12 allele by modulating the metabolism of serotonin may participate in the pathophysiology of tobacco use disorder or nicotine dependence. PMID:24968820

  12. Effect of afobazole on genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke in the placenta and embryonic tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Durnev, A D; Solomina, A S; Zhanataev, A K; Zhukov, V N; Seredenin, S B

    2010-09-01

    The DNA comet assay was used to evaluate the severity of genotoxic changes in embryonic tissues and placenta of rats daily exposed to tobacco smoke per se or in combination with an anxiolytic agent afobazole. The exposure to tobacco smoke (4 cigarettes containing 13 mg tar and 1 mg nicotine per 72 dm(3)) for 20 min on days 1-13 of pregnancy increased the degree of DNA damage and elevation of apoptotic DNA comets in cells of the placenta and embryo from pregnant rats. Afobazole (1 and 10 mg/kg orally) reduced the genotoxic effect of tobacco smoke and decreased the amount of apoptotic DNA comets in placental tissue and embryonic tissue from rats. PMID:21246089

  13. Tobacco industry manipulation messages in anti-smoking public service announcements: the effect of explicitly versus implicitly delivering messages.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Fryer, Craig S; Tharp-Taylor, Shannah

    2010-05-01

    Message content in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) can be delivered explicitly (directly with concrete statements) or implicitly (indirectly via metaphor), and the method of delivery may affect the efficacy of those PSAs. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial test of this idea using tobacco industry manipulation PSAs in adolescents. A 2 (age: 11-14 years old; 15-17 years old)x2 (message delivery: implicit, explicit) mixed model design was used. There was a significant main effect of message delivery: Tobacco industry manipulation PSAs that delivered their messages explicitly were associated with stronger levels of smoking resistance self-efficacy compared to tobacco industry manipulation PSAs that delivered their messages implicitly. No significant main effects of age were found nor were any interactions between age and message delivery. These results suggest that message delivery factors should be taken into account when designing anti-smoking PSAs. PMID:20071100

  14. Turkish coffeehouse kahvehane is an important tobacco smoke exposure area in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Fatma; Guven, Hulya; Eminoglu, Ozlem; Kalkan, Sule; Ergor, Gul; Cimrin, Arif

    2005-08-27

    This study was undertaken to investigate the extent of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in coffeehouses, as these are commonly frequented public places in Turkey. From 86 coffeehouses in the 3 districts, 59 coffeehouse workers and 35 hospital staff members (as a control group) were evaluated. Participants answered a questionnaire about demographics, working characteristics, smoking behavior, and ETS exposure during their daily life lives. The amount of nicotine in hair was determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mean hair nicotine level of the nonsmoker and smoker coffeehouse workers were 23.2 +/- 12.3 microg/g and 62.5 +/- 49.8 microg/g, respectively. Among the hospital staff, mean hair nicotine levels were 4.5 +/- 6 microg/g in nonsmokers and 30.6 +/- 14 microg/g in smokers. Working in coffeehouses has a marked effect on hair nicotine levels and potential adverse health effects. PMID:16009651

  15. Induction of the interleukin 6\\/ signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway in the lungs of mice sub-chronically exposed to mainstream tobacco smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabina Halappanavar; Marsha Russell; Martin R Stampfli; Andrew Williams; Carole L Yauk

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is associated with lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. However, little is known about the global molecular changes that precede the appearance of clinically detectable symptoms. In this study, the effects of mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS) on global transcription in the mouse lung were investigated. METHODS: Male C57B1\\/CBA mice were exposed to MTS from two cigarettes daily,

  16. Protecting the World From Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go From Here?

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates all signatory countries to “protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places.” Even though there has been great progress in the implementation of Article 8, still most of the world population remains exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). In this article, we sought to summarize the research that supports Article 8, where do we stand, and current research gaps and future directions. Discussion: Secondhand smoke is an established cause of heart disease and several types of cancer. Additional research is needed to reach final conclusions for diseases where evidence is only suggestive of causality. The only solution to SHS exposure in public places is banning smoking indoors. Research on the gaming industry and nightclubs, particularly in developing countries, needs to be disseminated to support their inclusion in smoke-free laws. Aside from indoor bans, additional research is needed for outdoor and multiunit housing bans and in support of measures that protect children and other vulnerable populations. The impact of smoke-free laws on other health outcomes, besides heart disease and respiratory outcomes, is another area where further research is needed. Thirdhand smoke assessment and health effects are also likely to be a topic of further research. As new tobacco products emerge, evaluating SHS exposure and effects will be vital. Conclusions: Furthering research in support of Article 8 can contribute to reach the final goal of protecting everyone from SHS exposure. PMID:23072872

  17. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lau, Derick H. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  18. The effect of a novel tobacco process on the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cigarette smoke particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Combes, R; Scott, K; Dillon, D; Meredith, C; McAdam, K; Proctor, C

    2012-09-01

    Some of the toxic effects of smoking have been attributed to the combustion of nitrogenous protein in tobacco. The effects of a treatment which reduces tobacco's protein nitrogen level, on the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of cigarette smoke particulate matter (PM), were measured. PMs were tested in the Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) test; the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (SAL); the mouse lymphoma mammalian cell mutation assay (MLA) and the in vitro micronucleus test (IVMNT). PMs from all of the cigarettes were cytotoxic and genotoxic. PM obtained from smoking treated tobacco, showed a small, consistent and statistically significant reduced mutagenicity (revertants/?g) in TA98 with post-mitochondrial supernatant (S9). No consistent quantitative or qualitative differences were detected in the other tests. The data are discussed in relation to published information on smoke chemistry obtained from cigarettes made of tobacco treated using this technique. The observations confirm that the method did not give rise to any new qualitative or quantitative cytotoxic or genotoxic effects, and may have reduced PM's bacterial mutagenicity in TA98 with S9. Further toxicity testing is warranted, to investigate the effects of the tobacco treatment in more detail and add to the data already obtained. PMID:22542757

  19. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and their interaction in the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuper, H; Tzonou, A; Kaklamani, E; Hsieh, C C; Lagiou, P; Adami, H O; Trichopoulos, D; Stuver, S O

    2000-02-15

    During a 4-year period from January 1995 to December 1998, blood samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 333 incident cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as from 360 controls who were hospitalized for eye, ear, nose, throat or orthopedic conditions in Athens, Greece. Coded sera were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by third-generation enzyme immunoassays, and information on smoking habits and beverage consumption was obtained. We found a significant dose-response, positive association between smoking and HCC risk [>/= 2 packs per day, odds ratio (OR)=2.5]. This association was stronger in individuals without chronic infection with either HBV or HCV (>/= 2 packs per day, OR=2.8). Consumption of alcoholic beverages above a threshold of 40 glasses per week increased the risk of HCC (OR=1.9). We also found evidence of a strong, statistically significant and apparently super-multiplicative effect of heavy smoking and heavy drinking in the development of HCC (OR for both exposures=9.6). This interaction was particularly evident among individuals without either HBsAg or anti-HCV (OR for both exposures=10.9). Coffee intake was not positively associated with HCC risk, but the reverse could not be excluded for the subgroup of chronically infected individuals. In conclusion, tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased risk of HCC, especially when these 2 exposures occur together. PMID:10699921

  20. Determination of aromatic tracer compounds for environmental tobacco smoke aerosol by two step laser mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrical, Brad D.; Zenobi, Renato

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of indoor aerosol pollution. Determination of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) aerosol is critical to understanding health effects. Sizing studies have shown that ETS has a size distribution that is efficiently deposited into the lungs and can therefore provide effective delivery of carcinogenic compounds into the human body. Two-step laser mass spectrometry is used to analyze aromatic compounds on aerosols collected from a smoking lobby. The determination and suitability of ETS tracers on aerosols is examined. Additionally, the transport of aerosol from the smoking lobby is examined to determine what effect deposition and dilution have on the mass spectrum observed. Results from the analysis of ETS, both from lobby samples and direct cigarette sampling, show that several unique peaks are present in the mass spectrum when compared to other combustion sources, such as automobiles and diesel trucks. In particular, ions at m/ z 118, 132, 146, and 160 are consistently present and are not found in other combustion sources. For the indoor environment, where chemical transformation is much less rapid than in the outdoor environment, these ions were found to be present as soon as the first smokers appeared and persisted over the course of the day. Aerosol samples taken in the morning prior to the presence of smokers in the lobby reveal the presence of skeletal PAHs, indicative of outdoor urban traffic aerosol penetration into the building.

  1. Glutathione peroxidase inhibitory assay for electrophilic pollutants in diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Staimer, Norbert; Nguyen, Tran B; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Delfino, Ralph J

    2012-04-01

    We developed a rapid kinetic bioassay demonstrating the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx-1) by organic electrophilic pollutants, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and p-benzoquinone, that are frequently found as components of tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion sources. In a complementary approach, we applied a high-resolution proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to monitor in real-time the generation of electrophilic volatile carbonyls in cigarette smoke. The new bioassay uses the important antioxidant selenoenzyme GPx-1, immobilized to 96-well microtiter plates, as a probe. The selenocysteine bearing subunits of the enzyme's catalytic site are viewed as cysteine analogues and are vulnerable to electrophilic attack by compounds with conjugated carbonyl systems. The immobilization of GPx-1 to microtiter plate wells enabled facile removal of excess reactive inhibitory compounds after incubation with electrophilic chemicals or aqueous extracts of air samples derived from different sources. The inhibitory response of cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust particle extracts were compared with chemical standards of a group of electrophilic carbonyls and the arylating p-benzoquinone. GPx-1 activity was directly inactivated by millimolar concentrations of highly reactive electrophilic chemicals (including acrolein, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and p-benzoquinone) and extracts of diesel and cigarette smoke. We conclude that the potential of air pollutant components to generate oxidative stress may be, in part, a result of electrophile-derived covalent modifications of enzymes involved in the cytosolic antioxidant defense. PMID:22349402

  2. [Evaluation of the efficacy of a school-based program to prevent tobacco smoking among adolescents in Lombardy (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Benni, Emanuela; Sacco, Sara; Roncarolo, Federico; Bonfanti, Marina; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The program "Free to choose" was a school-based program aimed at encouraging secondary school students to lead healthy lifestyles and free from tobacco smoke. The project was part of a wider project named "Free from tobacco smoke", implemented in kindergarten, elementary and secondary schools in Lombardy (Italy). The "Free to choose" program was a controlled, non randomized study involving 2,145 subjects aged 16 years, of whom 1,063 participated in the activities laid out by the program (treatment group) and 1,082 only completed the questionnaires (control group). The program did not achieve the aim of reducing the number of subjects who start smoking. However, an increased awareness of the risks of smoking was observed among "treated" subjects as well as an increased number of non smokers who intend to refuse a cigarette if they were offered one. PMID:22508642

  3. Scientometric Analysis and Combined Density-Equalizing Mapping of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Research

    PubMed Central

    Vitzthum, Karin; Scutaru, Cristian; Musial-Bright, Lindy; Quarcoo, David; Welte, Tobias; Spallek, Michael; Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix

    2010-01-01

    Background Passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to exert a major burden of disease. Currently, numerous countries have taken legal actions to protect the population against ETS. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, scientometric methods should be used to analyze the accumulated data since there is no such approach available so far. Methods and Results A combination of scientometric methods and novel visualizing procedures were used, including density-equalizing mapping and radar charting techniques. 6,580 ETS-related studies published between 1900 and 2008 were identified in the ISI database. Using different scientometric approaches, a continuous increase of both quantitative and qualitative parameters was found. The combination with density-equalizing calculations demonstrated a leading position of the United States (2,959 items published) in terms of quantitative research activities. Charting techniques demonstrated that there are numerous bi- and multilateral networks between different countries and institutions in this field. Again, a leading position of American institutions was found. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive scientometric analysis of data on global scientific activities in the field of environmental tobacco smoke research. The present findings can be used as a benchmark for funding allocation processes. PMID:20582305

  4. [Sex-dependence of larynx susceptibility to tobacco smoke carcinogens. The role of androgen hormones].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, K; Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Szmeja, Z; Kozak, W; Szyfter, W; Kujawski, M; Banaszewski, J; Wójtowicz, J

    1998-01-01

    According to epidemiological data concerning laryngeal cancer there is almost ninefold higher morbidity in male population than in females. The aim of this study was to analyse on molecular level the genotoxic effects arising under the same exposure to tobacco smoke in males and females. In biopsies received from laryngectomy material we determined levels of aromatic and alkylated DNA adducts in tumours and in adjacent non-tumour tissue. It was established that levels of DNA adducts found in male DNA samples exceeded those in female DNA samples 1.5-3.8 times, which was recognised as a molecular evidence for epidemiological differences. Next, testosterone and sex hormones binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in male subjects blood serum. The levels of testosterone and SHBG very weakly correlated with DNA adduct levels even when subjects were separated into age groups. It is concluded that levels of testosterone and SHBG are not the proper markers of individual susceptibility to genotoxicity of tobacco smoke carcinogens. PMID:9673113

  5. Implications of the alpha dispersion for studies on interaction of tobacco smoke--corneal tissue.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, J; Marzec, E; Kulza, M; Samborski, W

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we have carried out a dielectric study to determine the effect of tobacco smoke on the rat corneal function. Measurements were performed over the frequency range of 500 Hz-100 kHz in air and at the temperature of 35°C. The frequency dependencies of the loss tangent for both healthy and smoky cornea exhibit two peaks with different width occurring as a narrow at 2 kHz and a broad at around 16 kHz. The distribution parameter ? at 2 kHz has a value of about 0.3, which increases to 0.6 at 16 kHz. The magnitude of the permittivity decrement at 2 and 16 kHz is about two and four times higher, respectively, for the smoky cornea than that for the healthy one. These dielectric studies indicate that the present method is useful in detection of the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on the corneal behavior. PMID:22037475

  6. Education Against Tobacco (EAT): a quasi-experimental prospective evaluation of a programme for preventing smoking in secondary schools delivered by medical students: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brinker, Titus J; Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A survey conducted by the German Federal Centre for Health Education in 2012 showed that 35.2% of all young adults (18–25?years) and 12.0% of all adolescents (12–17?years) in Germany are regular cigarette smokers. Most smoked their first cigarette in early adolescence. We recently reported a significantly positive short-term effect of a physician-delivered school-based smoking prevention programme on the smoking behaviour of schoolchildren in Germany. However, physician-based programmes are usually very expensive. Therefore, we will evaluate and optimise Education against Tobacco (EAT), a widespread, low-cost programme delivered by about 400 medical students from 16 universities in Germany. Methods and analysis A prospective quasi-experimental study design with two measurements at baseline (t1) and 6?months post-intervention (t2) to investigate an intervention in 10–15-year-olds in grades 6–8 at German secondary schools. The intervention programme consists of two 60-min school-based medical-student-delivered modules with (module 1) and without the involvement of patients with tobacco-related diseases and control groups (no intervention). The study questionnaire measuring smoking status (water pipe and cigarette smoking), smoking-related cognitions, and gender, social and cultural aspects was designed and pre-tested in advance. The primary end point is the prevalence of smokers and non-smokers in the two study arms at 6 months after the intervention. The percentage of former smokers and new smokers in the two groups and the measures of smoking behaviour will be studied as secondary outcome measures. Ethics and dissemination In accordance with Good Epidemiologic Practice (GEP) guidelines, the study protocol was submitted for approval by the responsible ethics committee, which decided that the study does not need ethical approval (Goethe University, Frankfurt-Main, Germany). Findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals, at conferences, within our scientific advisory board and through medical students within the EAT project. PMID:25059969

  7. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Extracted from Tobacco Smoke as Neuroprotective Factors for Potential Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sari, Youssef; Khalil, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of mainly the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which leads to motor dysfunction. Although, most of the drugs are currently used for symptomatic treatment, there are at least three FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of PD that have been suggested preclinically to have neuroprotective effects. Among these drugs are monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B inhibitors such as selegiline and rasagiline, and non-ergot derivative dopamine agonist, pramipexole. In this review article, we focused on the potential uses of non-selective reversible MAO inhibitor, 2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, from flue-cured tobacco leaves extract and two ?- carboline alkaloids (harman and norharman) as potent, reversible and non-selective MAO inhibitors for the treatment of PD. In addition, we discussed the potential uses of farnesol as a potent inhibitor of MAO-B and farnesylacetone as a less potent selective MAO-B inhibitor. Furthermore, adducts of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline have shown to have competitive inhibitory effects for both MAO-A and MAO-B. These inhibitors have potential neuroprotective effects, which might be mediated at least through nerve growth factor, neurotrophin 3, brain derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor. We suggest here the neuroprotective implication of extracted MAO inhibitors from smoke tobacco; however, it is important to note that there are several existing compounds in tobacco smoke that have toxic effects in the brain, these include and not limited to the induction of neuropathological features observed in individuals suffering from Alzheimer's disease and dementia. PMID:25808895

  8. Effects of tobacco smoke on PC12 cell neurodifferentiation are distinct from those of nicotine or benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Card, Jennifer; Stadler, Ashley; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2014-01-01

    Although nicotine accounts for a great deal of the neurodevelopmental damage associated with maternal smoking or second-hand exposure, tobacco smoke contains thousands of potentially neurotoxic compounds. We used PC12 cells, a standard in vitro model of neurodifferentiation, to compare tobacco smoke extract (TSE) to nicotine, matching TSE exposure (with its inherent nicotine content) to parallel concentrations of nicotine, or to benzo[a]pyrene, a tobacco combustion product. TSE promoted the transition from cell replication to differentiation, resulting in fewer, but larger cells with greater neurite extension. TSE also biased differentiation into the dopaminergic versus the cholinergic phenotype, evidenced by an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity but not choline acetyltransferase. Nicotine likewise promoted differentiation at the expense of cell numbers, but its effect on growth and neurite extension was smaller than that of TSE; furthermore, nicotine did not promote the dopaminergic phenotype. Benzo[a]pyrene had effects opposite to those of TSE, retarding neurodifferentiation, which resulted in higher cell numbers, smaller cells, reduced neurite information, and impaired emergence of both dopaminergic and cholinergic phenotypes. Our studies show that the complex mixture of compounds in tobacco smoke exerts direct effects on neural cell replication and differentiation that resemble those of nicotine in some ways but not others, and most importantly, that are greater in magnitude than can be accounted for from just the nicotine content of TSE. Thus, fetal tobacco smoke exposure, including lower levels associated with second-hand smoke, could be more injurious than would be anticipated from measured levels of nicotine or its metabolites. PMID:24642111

  9. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: results of two personal exposure studies.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, R A; Counts, R W

    1999-01-01

    Personal monitoring is a more accurate measure of individual exposure to airborne constituents because it incorporates human activity patterns and collects actual breathing zone samples to which subjects are exposed. Two recent studies conducted by our laboratory offer perspective on occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from a personal exposure standpoint. In a study of nearly 1600 workers, levels of ETS were lower than or comparable to those in earlier studies. Limits on smoking in designated areas also acted to reduce overall exposure of workers. In facilities where smoking is permitted, ETS exposures are 10 to 20 times greater than in facilities in which smoking is banned. Service workers were exposed to higher levels of ETS than workers in white-collar occupations. For the narrower occupational category of waiters, waitresses, and bartenders, a second study in one urban location indicated that ETS levels to which wait staff are exposed are not considerably different from those exposure levels of subjects in the larger study who work in environments in which smoking is unrestricted. Bartenders were exposed to higher ETS levels, but there is a distinction between bartenders working in smaller facilities and those working in multiroom restaurant bars, with the former exposed to higher levels of ETS than the latter. In addition, ETS levels encountered by these more highly exposed workers are lower that those estimated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Concomitant area monitoring in the smaller study suggests that area samples can only be used to estimate individual personal exposure to within an order of magnitude or greater. PMID:10350519

  10. An intervention to address secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among nonsmokers hospitalized with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Park, Elyse R; Streck, Joanna; Chang, Yuchiao; Reyen, Michele; McKool, Kathleen; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2014-10-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure increases nonsmokers' risk of coronary heart disease and worsens outcomes after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, but it is rarely addressed in inpatient cardiac care. We developed and assessed a hospital-based intervention to increase nonsmokers' awareness of SHS as a cardiovascular risk factor. Nonsmokers admitted to 2 cardiac units of a large Boston, Massachusetts, hospital were surveyed before (May 2010 to January 2011) and after (November 2011 to March 2012) a system-level nurse-delivered intervention was implemented in October 2011. It consisted of a revised admission form that prompted nurses to document SHS exposure at admission, provide a pamphlet about SHS risks, and advise nonsmokers to make their home and car smoke free. The primary outcome was patients' short-term recall of advice to keep their home and car smoke free. The secondary outcome was patients' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. We enrolled 190 nonsmokers before and 142 nonsmokers after implementation. Adjusting for group differences, patients admitted after the system change were more likely to recall being asked if a household member smokes (24% vs 10%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8 to 7.1, p=0.0002) and being advised to keep their home and car smoke free (28% vs 2%, AOR 27.3, 95% CI 7.8 to 95.7, p<0.0001). After the intervention, more patients believed that SHS exposure increased cardiovascular risk for nonsmokers (42% vs 21%, AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.4) and for themselves (39% vs 22%, AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). In conclusion, a system-level intervention in cardiac units successfully increased hospitalized nonsmokers' awareness of the cardiovascular risk of SHS exposure. PMID:25124185

  11. Seasonal variability in environmental tobacco smoke exposure in public housing developments.

    PubMed

    Arku, R E; Adamkiewicz, G; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D; Levy, D E

    2015-02-01

    The risk of tobacco smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure combined are the leading contributors to disease burden in high-income countries. Recent studies and policies are focusing on reducing exposure to SHS in multiunit housing (MUH), especially public housing. We examined seasonal patterns of SHS levels within indoor common areas located on Boston Housing Authority (BHA) properties. We measured weekly integrated and continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and passive airborne nicotine in six buildings of varying building and occupant characteristics in summer 2012 and winter 2013. The average weekly indoor PM2.5 concentration across all six developments was 9.2 ?g/m3, higher during winter monitoring period (10.3 ?g/m3) compared with summer (8.0 ?g/m3). Airborne nicotine concentrations ranged from no detection to about 5000 ng/m3 (mean 311 ng/m3). Nicotine levels were significantly higher in the winter compared with summer (620 vs. 85 ng/m3; 95% CI: 72-998). Smoking-related exposures within Boston public housing vary by season, building types, and resident smoking policy. Our results represent exposure disparities that may contribute to health disparities in low-income communities and highlight the potential importance of efforts to mitigate SHS exposures during winter when outdoor-indoor exchange rates are low and smokers may tend to stay indoors. Our findings support the use of smoke-free policy as an effective tool to eliminate SHS exposure and protect non-smokers, especially residents of MUH. PMID:24750252

  12. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n=1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR=2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P<0.01 and aRR=1.7 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-3.0] P=0.05, respectively). Estimates of the effect of parental smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P<0.05). Having parents who smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts. PMID:25665487

  13. Changes in smoking prevalence and number of cigarettes smoked per day following the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco control plan in New York City.

    PubMed

    Coady, Micaela H; Jasek, John; Davis, Karen; Kerker, Bonnie; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Perl, Sarah B

    2012-10-01

    The New York City (NYC) Health Department has implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan since 2002, and there was a 27% decline in adult smoking prevalence in NYC from 2002 to 2008. There are conflicting reports in the literature on whether residual smoker populations have a larger or smaller share of "hardcore" smokers. Changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence, common components used to define hardcore smokers, were evaluated in the context of the smoking prevalence decline. Using the NYC Community Health Survey, an annual random digit dial, cross-sectional survey that samples approximately 10,000 adults, the prevalence of current heavy daily, light daily, and nondaily smokers among NYC adults was compared between 2002 and 2008. A five-level categorical cigarettes per day (CPD) variable was also used to compare the population of smokers between the 2 years. From 2002 to 2008, significant declines were seen in the prevalence of daily smoking, heavy daily smoking, and nondaily smoking. Among daily smokers, there is also evidence of population declines in all but the lowest smoking category (one to five CPD). The mean CPD among daily smokers declined significantly, from 14.6 to 12.5. After an overall decline in smoking since 2002, the remaining smokers may be less nicotine dependent, based on changes in daily consumption and daily and nondaily smoking prevalence. These findings suggest the need to increase media and cessation efforts targeted towards lighter smokers. PMID:22544658

  14. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States)] [LaKind Associates (United States); Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States)] [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences] [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; James, A.C. [A.C. James and Associates (United States)] [A.C. James and Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P. [TERA (United States)] [TERA (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  15. MODELING OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO IN-VEHICLE PM2.5 FROM ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to be a significant contributor to in-vehicle human exposure to fine particulate matter of 2.5 µm or smaller (PM2.5). A critical assessment was conducted of a mass balance model for estimating PM2.5 concentration with smoking in a motor vehicle. Recommendations for the range of inputs to the mass-balance model are given based on literature review. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for data collection. Air exchange rate (ACH) and the deposition rate have wider relative ranges of variation than other inputs, representing inter-individual variability in operations, and inter-vehicle variability in performance, respectively. Cigarette smoking and emission rates, and vehicle interior volume, are also key inputs. The in-vehicle ETS mass balance model was incorporated into the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model to quantify the potential magnitude and variability of in-vehicle exposures to ETS. The in-vehicle exposure also takes into account near-road incremental PM2.5 concentration from on-road emissions. Results of probabilistic study indicate that ETS is a key contributor to the in-vehicle average and high-end exposure. Factors that mitigate in-vehicle ambient PM2.5 exposure lead to higher in-vehicle ETS exposure, and vice versa. PMID:23060732

  16. A comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components retards orthodontic tooth movement via the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Nagaie, Maya; Nishiura, Aki; Honda, Yoshitomo; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of numerous components. Nevertheless, most experiments have examined the effects of individual chemicals in tobacco smoke. The comprehensive effects of components on tooth movement and bone resorption remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that a comprehensive mixture of tobacco smoke components (TSCs) attenuated bone resorption through osteoclastogenesis inhibition, thereby retarding experimental tooth movement in a rat model. An elastic power chain (PC) inserted between the first and second maxillary molars robustly yielded experimental tooth movement within 10 days. TSC administration effectively retarded tooth movement since day 4. Histological evaluation disclosed that tooth movement induced bone resorption at two sites: in the bone marrow and the peripheral bone near the root. TSC administration significantly reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclastic cells in the bone marrow cavity of the PC-treated dentition. An in vitro study indicated that the inhibitory effects of TSCs on osteoclastogenesis seemed directed more toward preosteoclasts than osteoblasts. These results indicate that the comprehensive mixture of TSCs might be a useful tool for detailed verification of the adverse effects of tobacco smoke, possibly contributing to the development of reliable treatments in various fields associated with bone resorption. PMID:25322153

  17. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Methods Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Results All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they ‘ought’ to quit as opposed to ‘wanted’ to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence motivation. Highly motivated smokers expressed more willingness to visit Stop Smoking Services, although none had done so. Conclusion Continuing smokers’ attitudes towards smoking and quitting suggests that research and policy need to focus on increasing smokers’ implicit motivation to quit smoking, even for those who classified themselves as having high motivation to quit. Targeted information and further education about Stop Smoking Services is required to increase uptake. PMID:23641875

  18. A Multilevel-Based Study of School Policy for Tobacco Control in Relation to Cigarette Smoking among Children in Elementary Schools: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Fu-Li; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Huang, Cheng-Ming; Shi, Hon-Yi; Hu, Chih-Yang; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to comprehensively examine school-based tobacco policy status, implementation and students' perceived smoking at school in regard to gender-specific differences in smoking behavior. We conducted a multilevel-based study to assess two-level effects for smoking among 2350 grades three to six students in 26 randomly selected elementary…

  19. [The awareness of carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoke--a questionnaire survey of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University].

    PubMed

    Seget, Monika; Karolczak, Dominika; Wilk, Magdalena; B?aszczyk, Agata; Szylberg, ?ukasz; Florek, Ewa; Marsza?ek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is currently the most significant risk factor for health according to WHO statements. It has been proven that smoking is the cause of many diseases, for example cardiovascular and respiratory tract diseases as well as impaired fertility and decreased immunity. The adverse effects of cigarette smoking on pregnancy and health of children were also proved. However, special attention is laid on impact of smoking on the development of cancer. In tobacco smoke there are over 4,000 different chemical substances and compounds, of which more than 50 are carcinogens. The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge of students and employees of Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun (CM UMK), first on number and types of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke and secondly on types of diseases caused by smoking. There were 480 responders included to the study(253 women and 227 men). Among them there were 416 students of CM UMK, 59 students of biomedical engineering at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz and 5 employees of CM UMK. Among the respondents there was considerable ignorance about the number of carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke with over 50% of them indicating the incorrect answer. Among the carcinogens there were mentioned mostly tar and nicotine, and among the diseases caused by tobacco smoke most often pointed response there were lung and larynx cancer and heart and blood vessels diseases and to reduce the weight of newborns. In summary, we can conclude that the awareness of students and employees of CM UMK about the carcinogenic properties of tobacco smoke was not sufficient. Respondents were aware of the dangers of smoking, they knew the basic carcinogenic substances and pointed a few diseases caused by smoking cigarettes. Unfortunately their knowledge does not refer to a number of diseases which in common believe are not connected to cigarette smoking, but in fact tobacco smoke is very important for their development. PMID:23421057

  20. Ill Effects of Smoking: Baseline Knowledge among School Children and Implementation of the “AntE Tobacco” Project

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim; Reddy, Raghu; Houlihan, Amy E.; Parrish, Brenda; Evans-Hudnall, Gina L.; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Cigarette smoking contributes to the deaths of more than 400,000 Americans annually. Each day >3,000 children and adolescents become regular smokers. This paper details a new antitobacco educational program titled “AntE Tobacco” Method. Children in grades 1–3 were administered a 10-item questionnaire to ascertain their baseline knowledge about the ill effects of smoking, shown an educational cartoon video depicting the ill effects of tobacco, and given a story book based on the video. At the end of video, children were administered a questionnaire to determine short-term recall of the antitobacco educational objectives of the program. Four to 6 weeks later, the children were then administered a follow-up survey to determine long-term retention of the anti tobacco educational program. Result. Eighty two percent of the children answered the outcome questions correctly immediately following the video. At follow-up, 4–6 weeks later, 83% of children answered all questions correctly. Conclusion. The anti tobacco education program used in this study effectively conveyed most of the educational objectives. The results of this study indicate that a multimedia (i.e., video and book) educational program can be used to educate and reinforce anti tobacco messages. This program may be very useful as a part of a comprehensive anti tobacco curriculum in school systems. PMID:21716695

  1. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Gonzales; Lorraine Malcoe; Michelle C Kegler; Judith Espinoza

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's

  2. Smoke-free policies and the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay and Mexico: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Boado, Marcelo; Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Bianco, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to determine the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of smoke-free policies in middle-income countries. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the 2006 waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation. Survey comparing adult smokers in Mexico (n = 1,080), where smoke-free legislation at that time was weak, and Uruguay (n = 1,002), where comprehensive smoke-free legislation was implemented. Analyses aimed to determine whether exposure to smoke-free policies and perceived antismoking social norms were associated with smokers’ receiving cues about the bothersome nature of secondhand smoke (SHS), with smokers’ reactance against such cues, and with smokers’ level of support for smoke-free policies in different venues. Results In bivariate analyses, Uruguayan smokers were more likely than Mexican smokers to experience verbal anti-SHS cues, lower reactance against anti-SHS cues, stronger antismoking societal norms, and stronger support for 100% smoke-free policies in enclosed workplaces, restaurants, and bars. In multivariate models for both countries, the strength of voluntary smoke-free policies at home was independently associated with support for smoke-free policies across all venues queried, except for in bars among Uruguayans. Perceived strength of familial antismoking norms was consistently associated with all indicators of the social acceptability of smoking in Uruguay but only with the frequency of receiving anti-SHS verbal cues in Mexico. Discussion These results are generally consistent with previous research indicating that comprehensive smoke-free policies are likely to increase the social unacceptability of smoking and that resistance against such policies is likely to diminish once such policies are in place. PMID:19380383

  3. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  4. In vitro effects of aldehydes present in tobacco smoke on gene expression in human lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Nuan P; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Vermeulen, Jolanda P; van Schooten, Frederik J; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2013-04-01

    Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of harmful components. A major class of chemicals found in tobacco smoke is formed by aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein. The present study investigates the gene expression changes in human lung alveolar epithelial cells upon exposure to formaldehyde, acrolein and acetaldehyde at sub-cytotoxic levels. We exposed A549 cells in vitro to aldehydes and non-aldehyde chemicals (nicotine, hydroquinone and 2,5-dimethylfuran) present in tobacco smoke and used microarrays to obtain a global view of the transcriptomic responses. We compared responses of the individual aldehydes with that of the non-aldehydes. We also studied the response of the aldehydes when present in a mixture at relative concentrations as present in cigarette smoke. Formaldehyde gave the strongest response; a total of 66 genes were more than 1.5-fold differentially expressed mostly involved in apoptosis and DNA damage related processes, followed by acetaldehyde (57 genes), hydroquinone (55 genes) and nicotine (8 genes). For acrolein and the mixture only one gene was upregulated involved in oxidative stress. No gene expression effect was found for exposure to 2,5-dimethylfuran. Overall, aldehyde responses are primarily indicative for genotoxicity and oxidative stress. These two toxicity mechanisms are linked to respiratory diseases such as cancer and COPD, respectively. The present findings could be important in providing further understanding of the role of aldehydes emitted from cigarette smoke in the onset of pulmonary diseases. PMID:23416264

  5. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  6. Tobacco Smoke–Related Health Effects Induced by 1,3-Butadiene and Strategies for Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G.

    2013-01-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a smoke component selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) study group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg) for mandated lowering. We examined the tobacco smoke–related health effects induced by BD and possible health impacts of risk reduction strategies. BD levels in mainstream smoke (MSS) from international and Canadian cigarettes and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were derived from scientific journals and international government reports. Dose-response analyses from toxicity studies from government reports were evaluated and the most sensitive cancer and noncancer endpoints were selected. The risks were evaluated by taking the ratio (margin of exposure, MOE) from the most sensitive toxicity endpoint and appropriate exposure estimates for BD in MSS and ETS. BD is a good choice for lowering given that MSS and ETS were at levels for cancer (leukemia) and noncancer (ovarian atrophy) risks, and the risks can be significantly lowered when lowering the BD concentrations in smoke. Several risk reduction strategies were analyzed including a maximum level of 125% of the median BD value per milligram nicotine obtained from international brands as recommended by the WHO TobReg, tobacco substitute sheets, dual and triple carbon filters, and polymer-derived carbon. The use of tobacco substitute sheet with a polymer-derived carbon filter resulted in the most significant change in risk for cancer and noncancer effects. Our results demonstrate that MOE analysis might be a practical way to assess the impact of risk reduction strategies on human health in the future. PMID:24014643

  7. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Data Sources Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. Study Selection 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Data Extraction Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Results Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Conclusion Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority. PMID:26162085

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.?SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.?PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.?RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women), and cold/flu symptoms (OR=1.52 in men, 1.57 in women). Any current ETS exposure was also associated with chronic cough (OR=1.22) in men and with heart disease (OR=1.10) in women. Self reported stroke was inversely associated with any current ETS exposure in men (OR=0.27). No associations were noted for cancer or tumour and for migraine.?CONCLUSION—ETS exposure correlated with several personal characteristics potentially associated with adverse health outcomes. Although the study design precluded causal inference, ETS exposure was associated with several self reported acute and chronic medical conditions.???Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; smoking PMID:11553655

  9. Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: Relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Tracy J.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Businelle, Michael S.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Li, Yisheng; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Although recent research indicates that many Latino smokers are nondaily smokers or daily smokers who smoke at a low level (?5 cigarettes/day), almost no research has investigated the characteristics of low-level smokers because such individuals are typically excluded from clinical trial research. Methods: The present study examined the associations of daily smoking level and demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and abstinence during a specific quit attempt among 280 Spanish-speaking Latino smokers (54% male) who participated in a clinical trial of a telephone counseling intervention. Daily smokers were classified as low-level (1–5 cigarettes/day; n?=?81), light (6–10 cigarettes/day; n?=?99), or moderate/heavy smokers (?11 cigarettes/day; n?=?100). Data were collected prior to the quit attempt and at 5 and 12 weeks postquit. Results: Results yielded three key findings. First, smoking level was positively associated with the total score and 12 of 13 subscale scores on a comprehensive, multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Low-level smokers consistently reported the least dependence, and moderate/heavy smokers reported the most dependence on tobacco. Second, low-level smokers reported the least craving in pre- to postcessation longitudinal analyses. Third, despite significant differences on dependence and craving, low-level smoking was not associated with abstinence. Smoking level was not associated with demographic variables. Discussion: This is a preliminary step in understanding factors influencing tobacco dependence and smoking cessation among low-level Spanish-speaking Latino smokers, a subgroup with high prevalence in the Latino population. PMID:19246627

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke: mutagenic emission rates and their relationship to other emission factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewtas, J.; Williams, K.; Lofroth, G.; Hammond, K.; Leaderer, B.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission rates and exposure concentrations of mutagens, nicotine, and particles from cigarettes. Studies were conducted under controlled laboratory and chamber conditions as well as in personal residences. The mutagenicity of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was evaluated in three bioassays using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Strain TA98 was used in the standard plate-incorporation and microsuspension histidine reversion assays; and strain TM677 in a microsuspension forward mutation assay. The mutagenicity, expressed either per Ug particle or per Ug nicotine, appeared to be a relatively constant factor that did not vary significantly between various cigarette brands. These data are being used to model the emissions of mutagens to predict mutagenic exposure concentrations under various conditions.

  11. Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescents, are more susceptible to smoking epidemic and its consequences. Therefore, it is important to identify the association between anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking status in order to design effective interventions to curtail the smoking epidemic in this region. Methods This is a secondary analysis of national data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Pakistan (year 2003), India (year 2006), Bangladesh (year 2007), and Nepal (year 2007). GYTS is a school-based survey of students targeting adolescents of age 13–15 years. We examined the association of different ways of delivering anti-smoking messages with students’ current smoking status. Results A total of 19,643 schoolchildren were included in this study. The prevalence of current smoking was 5.4% with male predominance. No exposure to school teachings, family discussions regarding smoking hazards, and anti-smoking media messages was significantly associated with current smoking among male students. Participants who were deprived of family discussion regarding smoking hazards (girls: odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.89, p value 0.152; boys: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04–1.80, p value 0.025), those who had not seen media messages (girls: OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.58–5.28, p value <0.001; boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91–1.88, p value 0.134), and those who were not taught the harmful effects of smoking at school (girls: OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.95–4.21, p value 0.066; boys: OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.44–2.48, p value <0.001) had higher odds of being current smokers after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion School-going adolescents in South Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) who were not exposed to anti-tobacco media messages or were not taught about the harmful effects in school or at home had higher odds of being current smokers than their counterparts. PMID:24568532

  12. Smoking Antecedents: Separating Between- and Within-Person Effects of Tobacco Dependence in a Multiwave Ecological Momentary Assessment Investigation of Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) investigations have shown that the antecedents of smoking vary with individual differences in tobacco dependence. This has been interpreted as indicating that the transition to dependence is characterized by an erosion of external stimulus control over smoking. Rigorously testing this requires collecting multiple waves of EMA data, which permits separation of the influence of between- and within-person tobacco dependence variation in multilevel models. Methods: Adolescents (n = 313, 9th or 10th grade at baseline) participated in up to 4 waves of week-long EMA assessment over the course of 2 years as part of a larger longitudinal, observational study. At each wave, participants recorded contextual features and subjective states in response to prompted diary assessments and when smoking. They completed a youth-specific form of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale at each wave. Results: In cross-sectional multilevel analyses, smoking was less contingent on alcohol/drug use and was more common at home and in the morning for adolescents with higher levels of dependence. Multiwave analyses demonstrated that these effects were largely attributable to between-person variation in dependence, although parameter estimates for intraindividual dependence × antecedent effects tended to be in the predicted direction. Discussion: Findings provided partial support for the contention that the antecedents of smoking shift as an individual progresses to higher levels of dependence. Distinctive choices concerning smoking settings also appear to reflect between-person differences in propensity to dependence. More generally, the findings illustrate the value of using multilevel modeling and repeated EMA assessments to investigate the correlates of tobacco dependence at different levels of analysis. PMID:23990475

  13. "Anti-smoking data are exaggerated" versus "the data are clear and indisputable": examining letters to the editor about tobacco.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine K; Israel, Kendre; Schell, Sarah; Mohr, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Media advocacy plays a unique role in tobacco control policy development. Letters to the editor in particular are an interesting form of media advocacy because they reflect community sentiment regarding the policy agenda and provide insight into the public debate. The authors used ethnographic context analysis to examine the techniques used by writers of 262 tobacco-related letters to the editor published in 61 newspapers across Missouri over a 2-year period when tobacco tax and smoke-free indoor air initiatives were occurring across the state. The authors found that pro-tobacco control letter writers often used didactic strategies, citing numbers and reports, to convey information and presented their training or experience as a health professional (e.g., M.D., Ph.D.) to add legitimacy to their arguments. Anti-tobacco control letter writers, in contrast, used narrative strategies to support their stance, claimed authority as a smoker or small business owner to legitimize their claims by relating to the audience, and used collectivity to capture the attention of policymakers. These results present the importance of strategic media advocacy in tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates should increase their use of narrative strategies and collectivity in order to better connect with the public and policymakers. PMID:22376195

  14. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50?years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    In the 50?years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of ‘clean’ nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible. PMID:23591504

  15. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Ahrens, W; Nyberg, F; Mukeria, A; Brüske-Hohlfeld, I; Fortes, C; Constantinescu, V; Simonato, L; Batura-Gabryel, H; Lea, S; Gaborieau, V; Benhamou, S

    1999-11-26

    We conducted a case-control study of adenocarcinoma of the lung and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in 7 countries. We interviewed 70 cases of adenocarcinoma of the lung and 178 population or hospital controls. All subjects had smoked fewer than 400 cigarettes in their lifetimes. Ever exposure to ETS from the parents during childhood was associated with a decreased risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-1.2], and there was a suggestion of a decreasing trend in risk with increasing duration of exposure. Ever exposure to ETS from the spouse was not associated with an increased risk (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.8), while the OR of ever exposure to ETS at the workplace was 1.5 (95% CI 0.8-3.0). For both exposure sources, an increased risk was observed among the highly exposed, and the OR among those with the highest duration of exposure to ETS from the spouse or at the workplace was 1.8 (95% CI 0.5-6.2). A similar risk was estimated for current exposure to ETS from either source. Our results confirm previous reports of a weak effect of adult ETS exposure on risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Bias and confounding cannot be excluded as explanations for the apparent decrease in risk from childhood exposure. PMID:10521800

  16. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased risk of failed implantation and reduced IVF success

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Merle D.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Vahratian, Anjel; Berry, Katharine F.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Meeker, John D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Infertility and early pregnancy loss are prevalent as is exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (STS). Previous research has suggested a relationship between STS exposure and early pregnancy loss, but studies have been limited by small study sizes and/or imprecise methods for exposure estimation. IVF allows for the collection of follicular fluid (FF), the fluid surrounding the pre-ovulatory oocyte, which may be a more biologically relevant sample media than urine or serum in studies of early reproduction. METHODS In a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study, we measured cotinine in FF collected during 3270 IVF treatment cycles from 1909 non-smoking women between 1994 and 2003 to examine the relationship between STS exposure and implantation failure. RESULTS In adjusted models, we found a significant increase in the risk of implantation failure among women exposed to STS compared with those unexposed [odds ratio (OR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20–1.92; risk ratio (RR) = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.10–1.25]. We also found a significant decrease in the odds for a live birth among STS-exposed women (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57–0.99; RR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.66–0.99). CONCLUSIONS Female STS exposure, estimated through the measurement of cotinine in FF, is associated with an increased risk of implantation failure and reduced odds of a live birth. PMID:21771769

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of lung cancer: the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Hirsch, A

    1994-10-01

    Exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread in European countries, the most serious exposures occurring at home and in the workplace. Epidemiological studies available up to 1986 have been reviewed by several international and national authorities, which agreed in concluding that ETS exposure is causally related to lung cancer. A number of epidemiological studies have been published since then, and have confirmed this association. The possibility of positive results due to bias has been envisaged; it seems, however, that such bias could not explain the whole excess of lung cancer. Few data are available on confounders, such as diet and previous history of lung disease, that might be responsible for the association; however, there is no evidence that they play an important role. Moreover, the biological plausibility of a causal association is supported by the similarity of the composition of ETS and active smoke. The causal association between ETS exposure and lung cancer now seems well-established; however, its public health impact is still debated. Estimates are available from the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and England. PMID:7828699

  18. Urban living, tobacco smoking, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a study in Athens.

    PubMed

    Tzonou, A; Maragoudakis, G; Trichopoulos, D; Zavitsanos, X; Dimopoulou, I; Toupadaki, N; Kremastinou, J

    1992-01-01

    We studied the relation of urban living and tobacco smoking to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study was based on 110 incident cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between 50 and 60 years of age who were permanent residents of Athens and 400 control patients hospitalized for traumatic and orthopedic conditions in the same hospitals at the same time. All subjects were interviewed about their smoking habits, place of birth, history of past residence, and years of schooling. We found that subjects with more education have a reduced risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with 4 additional years of schooling corresponding to a 30% reduction of risk. We also found that those who have lived all their lives in urban areas (mostly in Athens) have a twofold greater risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease compared with people who have lived exclusively or partly in rural areas before settling in Athens. Finally, we found that smokers have a 10-fold relative risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and this risk is strongly dependent on the number of cigarettes consumed per day. The findings of the present study suggest that air pollution, or another aspect of the urban environment, can be an important contributor to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:1554811

  19. Tracers for Assessing Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke: What are they tracing?

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, Joan M.

    1998-03-01

    The effectiveness of various tracers for measurements of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a complex chemical mixture is based on the physicochemical properties of four major organic components and their dynamic behavior in indoor environments. For the particulate matter (PM) component and the very volatile organic compounds, emission and ventilation rates are generally the most important processes controlling indoor concentrations and exposures of nonsmokers. For the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), sorption on and desorption from indoor surfaces are additional processes that influence exposures. Laboratory and modeling studies of the dynamic behavior of nicotine, an SVOC, and PM indicate that nicotine can be used to estimate PM exposures from ETS in indoor environments when certain criteria are met: (a) smoking occurs regularly in the environment, (b) the system is near quasi-steady state, and (c) sampling time is longer than the characteristic times for removal processes. Measurements in residential and workplace buildings also support the use of nicotine as a tracer for PM in ETS. Recent laboratory and field data indicate that the VOCs from ETS can be traced using compounds with similar physicochemical properties, such as 3-ethenylpyridine, pyrrole, or pyridine. The effectiveness of nicotine for estimating exposures to the VOCs and SVOCs has not been determined, although these constitute major mass fractions of ETS.

  20. Minnesota smokers’ perceived helpfulness of 2009 federal tobacco tax increase in assisting smoking cessation: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost of cigarettes has been cited as a motivating factor for smokers to quit smoking, and a cigarette tax increase is an effective way to increase the cost of cigarettes. Scholars have suggested that smokers may see cigarette tax increases as commitment devices to help them quit smoking. Little is known about whether smokers actually think cigarette tax increases help them quit, and whether this perception predicts subsequent smoking cessation behaviors. We used data from the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study collected after the 2009 federal tobacco tax increase to answer these questions. Methods In 2009, 727 smokers were asked whether they thought the federal tobacco tax increase helped them to: (1) think about quitting, (2) cut down on cigarettes, and (3) make a quit attempt. We also collected data on demographics, number of cigarette price-minimizing strategies used, and cigarette consumption. In 2010, we assessed if these smokers had made a quit attempt, had cut down on their cigarette consumption, and had stopped smoking. Logistic regression models were used to assess the characteristics associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation, and the association between these perceptions in 2009 and cessation behaviors in 2010. Results Overall, 65% of the sample thought that the 2009 tax increase helped them think about quitting, 47% thought it helped them cut down on cigarettes, and 29% thought it helped them make a quit attempt. Lower education, lower income, lower cigarette consumption, and using more cigarette price-minimizing strategies were associated with the perceptions that the tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation (p?smoking cessation were more likely than those who did not perceive the tax increase as helpful to report making a quit attempt in 2010 (p?tobacco tax increase was helpful in assisting smoking cessation, particularly among smokers of lower socio-economic status. Health communication interventions to promote cigarette tax increases as an opportunity for smoking cessation may further assist quit attempts. PMID:24134094

  1. Genetic toxicology studies comparing the activity of sidestream smoke from cigarettes which burn or only heat tobacco.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, D J; Lee, C K; Ivett, J L; Mirsalis, J C; Riccio, E; Rudd, C J; Burger, G T; Hayes, A W

    1990-02-01

    The results of in vitro genetic toxicology studies of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS) from cigarettes which heat but do not burn tobacco were compared to those of sidestream smoke from cigarettes which burn tobacco. SSCSs from 5 cigarettes were compared. Three of the cigarettes, the Kentucky reference research cigarette (1R4F), a commercially available ultra-low-tar brand (ULT) and a commercially available ultra-low-tar menthol brand (ULT-menthol) burn tobacco while two of the cigarettes, a regular (TEST) and a menthol (TEST-menthol) heat tobacco. SSCSs from all cigarettes were prepared by identical techniques, which involved collecting sidestream smoke particulate matter on Cambridge filter pads and combining the particulate matter with the vapor-phase materials collected by bubbling the smoke exiting the Cambridge pad through DMSO. The SSCSs obtained (equivalent to 0.4 cigarettes/ml DMSO) were evaluated at identical concentrations in an in vitro genetic toxicology test battery. SSCS from 1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol cigarettes produced positive results in Ames bacterial strains TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1538 in the presence of metabolic activation (S9 from Aroclor-induced rat liver) but negative results in strain TA1535. In the absence of metabolic activation, 1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol SSCSs were not significantly mutagenic. TEST and TEST-menthol SSCSs produced negative results in all 5 bacterial strains, both with and without metabolic activation. SSCS from 1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol cigarettes produced positive results in the CHO chromosomal aberration assay and in the CHO sister-chromatid exchange assay both with and without metabolic activation while TEST and TEST-menthol SSCSs produced negative results in both assays, either with or without metabolic activation. The SSCSs from 1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol cigarettes were weakly positive in inducing DNA repair in cultured rat hepatocytes while TEST and TEST-menthol SSCSs were negative in this assay. All 5 SSCSs were nonmutagenic in the CHO-HGPRT assay both with and without metabolic activation. SSCSs from the 1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol cigarettes were cytotoxic in the CHO-HGPRT assay, both with and without metabolic activation, while TEST and TEST-menthol SSCSs were not cytotoxic under either condition. These results demonstrate that sidestream smoke from cigarettes which heat but do not burn tobacco (TEST and TEST-menthol) was neither genotoxic nor cytotoxic under conditions where sidestream smoke from cigarettes which burn tobacco (1R4F, ULT and ULT-menthol) was genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:2300076

  2. Tobacco Interests or the Public Interests: Twenty-years of Tobacco Industry Strategies to Undermine Airline Smoking Restrictions

    E-print Network

    Lopipero, Peggy M.P.H.; Bero, Lisa A. Ph.D.

    2006-01-01

    to promote the safety of flight of civil aircraft”, the FAAand safety or health hazards resulting from smoking on passenger flights.and Safety and calls for a total smoking ban on all domestic commercial flights

  3. Banishing Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, William U.

    1986-01-01

    The health consequences of active and passive smoking are well known and the smoking epidemic is growing steadily, but worldwide efforts to control tobacco use often are merely attempts to control or color information about the product. (Author/GC)

  4. State-specific prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults aged ?18 years - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly; Marshall, LaTisha; Hu, Sean; Neff, Linda

    2015-05-22

    Cigarette smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco both cause substantial morbidity and premature mortality. The concurrent use of these products might increase dependence and the risk for tobacco-related disease and death. State-specific estimates of prevalence and relative percent change in current cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and concurrent cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among U.S. adults during 2011-2013, developed using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), indicate statistically significant (p<0.05) changes for all three behaviors. From 2011 to 2013, there was a statistically significant decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence overall and in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in four states: Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia; significant declines were observed in two states: Ohio and Tennessee. In addition, the use of smokeless tobacco among cigarette smokers (concurrent use) significantly increased in five states (Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and West Virginia). Although annual decreases in overall cigarette smoking among adults in the United States have occurred in recent years, there is much variability in prevalence of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco, and concurrent use across states. In 2013, the prevalence ranged from 10.3% (Utah) to 27.3% (West Virginia) for cigarette smoking; 1.5% (District of Columbia and Massachusetts) to 9.4% (West Virginia) for smokeless tobacco; and 3.1% (Vermont) to 13.5% (Idaho) for concurrent use. These findings highlight the importance of sustained comprehensive state tobacco-control programs funded at CDC-recommended levels, which can accelerate progress toward reducing tobacco-related disease and deaths by promoting evidence-based population-level interventions. These interventions include increasing the price of tobacco products, implementing comprehensive smoke-free laws, restricting tobacco advertising and promotion, controlling access to tobacco products, and promoting cessation assistance for smokers to quit, as well as continuing and implementing mass media campaigns that contain graphic anti-smoking ads, such as the Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS) campaign. PMID:25996096

  5. Determinants of exposure to secondhand smoke among Vietnamese adults: California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey, 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Webber, Whitney L; van Erp, Brianna; Stoddard, Pamela; Tsoh, Janice Y

    2014-01-01

    Because smoking rates are high among Vietnamese men, we used data from the 2007-2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey to estimate secondhand smoke exposure and associated risk factors among Vietnamese nonsmokers. Thirty percent of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home, 8% at work, 52% in bars, and 67% on a college campus. At home, odds of SHS exposure were greater for women than for men and for adults aged less than 40 years than for older adults. Odds of SHS exposure were higher for former smokers at work (among employed men) and among men when in bars. Future interventions should consider sex, age, and smoking history in efforts to prevent SHS exposure among Vietnamese adults. PMID:24831285

  6. Reliability of self-reported smoking history and age at initial tobacco use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Huerta; Gabriel Chodick; Ran D. Balicer; Nadav Davidovitch; Itamar Grotto

    2005-01-01

    Background.Many studies use questionnaires to determine smoking status and age of smoking onset. This study aimed to determine the reliability of self-reported smoking history and age of smoking initiation.

  7. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  8. Effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke on the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    1. Effects of nicotine, cigarette smoke and carbon monoxide have been compared in the cat encéphale isolé preparation, exhibiting a synchronized electrocorticogram (ECoG) and behavioural sleep. 2. 2 ml samples of smoke, containing approximately 7 ?g nicotine (approximately 2 ?g nicotine/kg for a 3 kg cat), introduced into the lungs at 30 s intervals from a smoking simulator, caused desynchronization of the ECoG and behavioural arousal. 3. Effects of smoke were matched in the same experiments by intravenous injections of nicotine, 2 ?g/kg every 30 s. 4. The use of specific nicotine antagonists, for example mecamylamine, and filters for removing nicotine, indicated the presence in smoke of other agents capable of exerting a pharmacological response. 5. Cigarette smoke contains approximately 5·0% carbon monoxide. Introduced into the lungs of cats pretreated with mecamylamine (2 mg/kg), 2 ml samples of 5% carbon monoxide caused changes in the ECoG similar to those caused by smoke. 6. Effects of nicotine or smoke were not modified by pretreatment with chlorpromazine (2·0-4·0 mg/kg). Atropine (0·3 mg/kg), however, prevented the cortical activation, but not the behavioural arousal. 7. 2 ml samples of smoke applied to the nostrils caused the occurrence in the olfactory bulb of a discharge or burst of “induced” waves. This discharge was sometimes accompanied by a transient period of cortical activation. 8. These studies demonstrate that in cats, nicotine is the principal pharmacological constituent of tobacco smoke as far as effects on the central nervous system are concerned, although other constituents of smoke may play a contributory role. PMID:5417854

  9. Effects of afobazole on cognitive behavior of the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation period.

    PubMed

    Shreder, O V; Solomina, A S; Tsorin, I B; Trofimov, S S; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2011-05-01

    Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1-20. Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg/kg daily during the whole gestation and/or entering rat pup body with breast milk from mothers receiving 200 mg/kg to day 20 of their life normalized their learning capacity. The formation of short-term and long-term memory in animals receiving afobazole did not differ from the control. Hence, afobazole corrects cognitive disorders in rats exposed to tobacco smoke during prenatal development. PMID:22442799

  10. Mineralogical controls on the partitioning of trace elements between smoke and ash during the combustion of tobacco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, W. E.; Calder, A.

    2003-04-01

    Tobacco smoke is a potential source of some toxic trace elements including inorganic carcinogens1,2. In order to understand the controls on trace elements in smoke and their potential toxic effects it is necessary to know their distribution between the various inorganic (mineral) and organic repositories in tobacco, the relative concentrations of these repositories, the effects of combustion on these repositories, and the role of particles in adsorbing and transporting trace elements. Few trace element data are available for any of these materials and the partitioning processes are poorly understood. We have applied Rietveld XRD to quantifying the major minerals the tobacco of all available cigarette references standards, as well as the most popular UK cigarette brands and a selection of international brands. Most common are calcium oxalate biominerals (up to 4% by dry weight), calcium carbonate, sylvite, and several silicate minerals typical of soils amounting to a few wt%. We have developed an accurate and rapid method for determining 23 trace elements in tobacco using polarised X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and applied it to the same samples. Although the concentrations vary over about five orders of magnitude the abundance patterns for standards and brands are remarkably consistent. We present a model to account for these variations in which anthropogenic inputs of fertilisers, manufacturers’ additives and environmental pollution supplement natural sources based on soils and plant processes. Combustion of tobacco (400-900^oC) causes the oxalates (whewellite &weddellite) to decompose and other non-silicates react to form new phases such as fairchildite (K_2Ca(CO_3)_2) and arcanite (K_2SO_4). Ash amounts to ˜15% of the mass of unburned tobacco. Comparison of trace element concentrations in smoke with those in tobacco and ash indicates that a few metals, most notably Cd, may partition strongly into the smoke phase. It is noteworthy that Cd levels are higher in the blood, kidneys and lungs of smokers than non-smokers. 1. Wu, D. J. et al. Jl Radioanal.Nuclear.Chem. 217, 77-82 (1997) 2. Stohs, S.J. et al. Inhalation Toxicology 9, 867-90 (1997)

  11. Effects of Afobazole on Cognitive Behavior of the Offspring of Rats Exposed to Tobacco Smoke during Gestation Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Shreder; A. S. Solomina; I. B. Tsorin; S. S. Trofimov; A. D. Durnev; S. B. Seredenin

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on the model of foraging behavior formation under conditions of free choice (T-maze) revealed learning failure\\u000a against the background of reduced motor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to tobacco smoke on gestation days 1–20.\\u000a Afobazole administered to pregnant rats orally in doses of 1 or 10 mg\\/kg daily during the whole gestation and\\/or entering\\u000a rat pup body

  12. Tobacco Smoking and Suicidal Ideation in School-Aged Children 12–15 Years Old: Impact of Cultural Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Innamorati; Diego De Leo; Zoltan Rihmer; Gianluca Serafini; Roberto Brugnoli; David Lester; Mario Amore; Maurizio Pompili; Paolo Girardi

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between tobacco smoking and suicidal ideation in school-aged children from 9 countries in Africa, the Americas, and the Western Pacific region. Data were collected through the Global school-based Student Health Survey, a collaborative surveillance project between the World Health Organization, the United Nations, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNAIDS, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and

  13. Combined SPE and HPTLC as a Screening Assay of Urinary Cotinine from Male Adolescents Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bazylak; H. Brózik; W. Sabanty

    Cotinine, as the main metabolite of nicotine, has been determined in urine using solid-phase extraction and the high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (SPE-HPTLC) method. The urine samples were collected from a group of 35 male adolescents which were moderate or significantly exposed to home environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). l-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone was used as the internal standard in the proposed screening procedure. The thin-layer

  14. 8-Oxo-2?-Deoxyguanosine as a Biomarker of Tobacco Smoking-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mesaros, Clementina; Arora, Jasbir S.; Wholer, Ashley; Vachani, Anil; Blair, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxo-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo) is a useful biomarker of oxidative stress. However, its analysis can be challenging because 8-oxo-dGuo must be quantified in the presence of dGuo, without artifactual conversion to 8-oxo-dGuo. Urine is the ideal biological fluid for population studies, since it can be obtained non-invasively and it is less likely that artifactual oxidation of dGuo can occur because of the relatively low amounts that are present when compared with hydrolyzed DNA. Stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-SRM/MS) with [15N5]-8-oxo-dGuo as internal standard provided the highest possible specificity for 8-oxo-dGuo analysis. Furthermore, artifact formation was determined by addition of [13C1015N5]-dGuo and monitoring its conversion to [13C1015N5]-8-oxo-dGuo during the analytical procedure. 8-Oxo-dGuo concentrations were normalized for inter-individual differences in urine flow by analysis of creatinine using stable isotope dilution LC-SRM/MS. A significant increase in urinary 8-oxo-dGuo was observed in tobacco smokers when compared with non-smokers using either simple urinary concentrations or after normalization for creatinine excretion. The mean levels of 8-oxo-dGuo were 1.65 ng/mL and the levels normalized to creatinine were 1.72 ?g/g creatinine. Therefore, stable isotope dilution LC-SRM/MS analysis of urinary 8-oxo-dGuo complements urinary isoprostane (isoP) analysis for assessing tobacco-smoking-induced oxidative stress. This method will be particularly useful for studies that employ polyunsaturated fatty acids, where reduction in arachidonic acid precursor could confound isoP measurements. PMID:22613262

  15. Placental DNA methylation alterations associated with maternal tobacco smoking at the RUNX3 gene are also associated with gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Maccani, Jennifer ZJ; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, Eugene Andrés; Marsit, Carmen J; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Aims The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that later-life disease may be influenced by the quality of the in utero environment. Environmental toxicants can have detrimental effects on fetal development, potentially through effects on placental development and function. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, preterm birth and other complications, and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero has been linked to gross pathologic and molecular changes to the placenta, including differential DNA methylation in placental tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy, methylation changes in the placenta and gestational age. Materials & methods We used Illumina®’s (CA, USA) Human Methylation27 BeadChip technology platform to investigate the methylation status of 21,551 autosomal, non-SNP-associated CpG loci in DNA extracted from 206 human placentas and examined loci whose variation in methylation was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results We found that methylation patterns of a number of loci within the RUNX3 gene were significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy, and one of these loci was associated with decreased gestational age (p = 0.04). Conclusion Our findings, demonstrating maternal smoking-induced changes in DNA methylation at specific loci, suggest a mechanism by which in utero tobacco smoke exposure could exert its detrimental effects upon the health of the fetus. PMID:24283877

  16. Smoking Abstinence-related Expectancies among American Indians, African Americans, and Women: Potential Mechanisms of Tobacco-related Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Hendricks, Peter S.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Park, Van M. Ta; Thorne, Christopher B.; Wood, Sabrina B.; Baker, Majel R.; Lawler, R. Marsh; Hooper, Monica Webb; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented tobacco-related health disparities by race and gender. Prior research, however, has not examined expectancies about the smoking cessation process (i.e., abstinence-related expectancies) as potential contributors to tobacco-related disparities in special populations. This cross-sectional study compared abstinence-related expectancies between American Indian (n = 87), African American (n = 151), and White (n = 185) smokers, and between women (n = 231) and men (n = 270) smokers. Abstinence-related expectancies also were examined as mediators of race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Results indicated that American Indians and African Americans were less likely than Whites to expect withdrawal effects, and more likely to expect that quitting would be unproblematic. African Americans also were less likely than Whites to expect smoking cessation interventions to be effective. Compared to men, women were more likely to expect withdrawal effects and weight gain.These expectancy differences mediated race and gender relationships with motivation to quit and abstinence self-efficacy. Findings emphasize potential mechanisms underlying tobacco-related health disparities among American Indians, African Americans, and women, and suggest a number of specific approaches for targeting tobacco dependence interventions to these populations. PMID:23528192

  17. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  18. Belief-based Tobacco Smoking Scale: Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Theory of Planned Behavior’s Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Majid; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Hidarnia, Alireza; Niknami, Shamsodin; Bashirian, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: At present, there are no comprehensive validated instruments for measuring adolescents’ beliefs regarding tobacco smoking in the Iranian society. This study aimed to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of the belief-based tobacco smoking scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) constructs as a theoretical framework. Methods: This cross-sectional validation study was carried out on 410 male adolescents of Hamadan, west of Iran, recruited through multi-stage random sampling method. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). In addition, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) and Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed to test construct validity. Content validity was examined using Content Validity Index (CVI) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR). Results: Results obtained from factor analysis showed that the data was fit to the model (X2=391.43, P<0.001) and TPB consisted of 22 items measuring seven components which explaining 69.7% of the common variance. The mean scores for the CVI and CVR were 0.89 and 0.80; respectively. Additional anal-yses indicated acceptable results for internal consistency reliability values ranging from 0.55 to 0.92. Conclusion: The belief-based tobacco smoking questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument and now is acceptable and suitable and can be used in future studies. PMID:26000247

  19. Smoking and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater risks from smoking ... health. 1 Key Facts About Tobacco Use Among Older Adults Today's generation of older Americans had smoking rates ...

  20. Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Airway Obstruction in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Robyn T.; Strunk, Robert C.; Field, Joshua J.; Rosen, Carol L.; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Redline, Susan; Stocks, Janet; Rodeghier, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to pulmonary morbidity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that children with SCA and ETS exposure would have an increased prevalence of obstructive lung disease and respiratory symptoms compared with children with SCA and no ETS exposure. Methods: Parent reports of ETS and respiratory symptom frequency were obtained for 245 children with SCA as part of a multicenter prospective cohort study. One hundred ninety-six children completed pulmonary function testing. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations between ETS exposure at different time points (prenatal, infant [birth to 2 years], preschool [2 years to first grade], and current) and lung function and respiratory symptoms. Results: Among the 245 participants, a high prevalence of prior (44%) and current (29%) ETS exposure was reported. Of the 196 children who completed pulmonary function testing, those with parent-reported infant and current ETS exposure were more likely to have airway obstruction (defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio below the lower limit normal) compared with unexposed children (22.0% vs 3.1%, P < .001). Those with ETS exposure also had a lower forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase/FVC ratio (0.82 vs 0.97, P = .001) and were more likely to have evidence of bronchodilator responsiveness (23% vs 11%, P = .03). Current and prior ETS exposure and in utero smoke exposure were associated with increased frequency of respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: ETS exposure is associated with evidence of lower airway obstruction and increased respiratory symptoms in SCA. PMID:23681054

  1. Refining the tobacco dependence phenotype using the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM)

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kim, Su-Young; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Smith, Stevens S.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Cannon, Dale S.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    The construct of tobacco dependence is important from both scientific and public health perspectives, but it is poorly understood. The current research integrates person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis) and variable-centered analyses (e.g., exploratory factor analysis) to understand better the latent structure of dependence and to guide distillation of the phenotype. Using data from four samples of smokers (including treatment and non-treatment samples), latent profiles were derived using the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) subscale scores. Across all four samples, results revealed a unique latent profile that had relative elevations on four dependence motive subscales (Automaticity, Craving, Loss of Control, and Tolerance). Variable-centered analyses supported the uniqueness of these four subscales both as measures of a common factor distinct from that underlying the other nine subscales, and as the strongest predictors of relapse, withdrawal and other dependence criteria. Conversely, the remaining nine motives carried little unique predictive validity regarding dependence. Applications of a factor mixture model further support the presence of a unique class of smokers in relation to a common factor underlying the four subscales. The results illustrate how person-centered analyses may be useful as a supplement to variable-centered analyses for uncovering variables that are necessary and/or sufficient predictors of disorder criteria, as they may uncover small segments of a population in which the variables are uniquely distributed. The results also suggest that severe dependence is associated with a pattern of smoking that is heavy, pervasive, automatic and relatively unresponsive to instrumental contingencies. PMID:19025223

  2. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and the frailty syndrome in US older adults.

    PubMed

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Navas-Acien, Ana; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and lung cancer in nonsmoking adults. However, few studies have focused on the health consequences of exposure to SHS in older adults. This is the first study to assess the association between SHS and the frailty syndrome in the nonsmoking older adult population. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 2059 nonsmoking adults aged ?60 years who participated in the third US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had completed a physical examination. Exposure to SHS was assessed by serum cotinine concentrations and by self-reported data from the home questionnaire. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria. Analyses were performed with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. The median (interquartile range) concentration of serum cotinine was 0.095 (IQR 0.035-0.211) ng/mL. The prevalence of frailty was 6.0 %. The odds ratios (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of frailty comparing the second, third, and fourth to the lowest quartile of serum cotinine were, respectively, 1.44 (0.67-3.06), 1.46 (0.75-2.85), and 2.51 (1.06-5.95), p value for trend 0.04. An increased frequency of frailty was also observed in participants reporting to live with ?2 smokers at home (odds ratio 5.37; 95 % CI 1.13-25.5). In the US nonsmoking older adult population, exposure to SHS was associated with an increased frequency of frailty. More efforts are needed to protect older adults from SHS, especially at home and in other areas not covered by smoke-free regulations. PMID:25773068

  3. DEMOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL FINDINGS, INCLUDING EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE, IN DOGS WITH CHRONIC COUGH

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Eleanor C.; Clay, Latoya D.; Bradley, Julie M.; Davidian, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlled studies investigating risk factors for the common presenting problem of chronic cough in dogs are lacking. Hypothesis/Objectives To identify demographic and historical factors associated with chronic cough in dogs, and associations between the characteristics of cough and diagnosis. Animals Dogs were patients of an academic internal medicine referral service. Coughing dogs had a duration of cough ? 2 months (n=115). Control dogs had presenting problems other than cough (n=104). Methods Owners completed written questionnaires. Demographic information and diagnoses were obtained from medical records. Demographic and historical data were compared between coughing and control dogs. Demographic data and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) also were compared with hospital accessions and adult smoking rates, respectively. Characteristics of cough were compared among diagnoses. Results Most coughing dogs had a diagnosis of large airway disease (n=88; 77%). Tracheobronchomalacia was diagnosed in 59 dogs (51%), including 79% of toy breed dogs. Demographic risk factors included older age, smaller body weight, and being toy breed (p<0.001). No association was found between coughing and month (p=0.239) or season (p=0.414) of presentation. Exposure to ETS was not confirmed to be a risk factor (p=0.243). No historical description of cough was unique to a particular diagnosis. Conclusions and clincal importance Associations with age, size, and toy breeds were strong. Tracheobronchomalacia is frequent in dogs with chronic cough, but descriptions of cough should be used cautiously in prioritizing differential diagnoses. The association between exposure to ETS and chronic cough deserves additional study. PMID:20492480

  4. A Content Analysis of Smoking Fetish Videos on YouTube: Regulatory Implications for Tobacco Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyongseok Kim; Hye-Jin Paek; Jordan Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, accessibility, and characteristics of eroticized smoking portrayal, also referred to as smoking fetish, on YouTube. The analysis of 200 smoking fetish videos revealed that the smoking fetish videos are prevalent and accessible to adolescents on the website. They featured explicit smoking behavior by sexy, young, and healthy females, with the content corresponding to PG-13 and

  5. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rios, Monica; Fernandez, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Lopez, Maria Jose

    2015-01-01

    Background A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006) and after (2011) the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010. Methods Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (? 18 years old) Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76%) showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%). Conclusions The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. PMID:26066497

  6. Secondhand tobacco smoke in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile: evaluation of partial smoking ban legislation in public places

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Veronica; Droppelmann, Andrea; Acuña, Marisol; Peruga, Armando; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare air nicotine concentrations according to the smoking policy selected by bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile before and after the enactment of partial smoking ban legislation in 2007 (establishments could be smoke free, have segregated (mixed) smoking and non-smoking areas, or allow smoking in all areas). Methods The study measured air nicotine concentrations over 7?days to characterise secondhand smoke exposure in 30 bars/restaurants in 2008. Owner/manager interviews and physical inspections were conducted. Results Median IQR air nicotine concentrations measured in all venues were 4.38 (0.61–13.62)??g/m3. Air nicotine concentrations were higher in bars (median 7.22, IQR 2.48–15.64??g/m3) compared to restaurants (1.12, 0.15–9.22??g/m3). By smoking status, nicotine concentrations were higher in smoking venues (13.46, 5.31–16.87??g/m3), followed by smoking areas in mixed venues (9.22, 5.09–14.90??g/m3) and non-smoking areas in mixed venues (0.99, 0.19–1.27??g/m3). Air nicotine concentrations were markedly lower in smoke-free venues (0.12, 0.11–0.46??g/m3). After adjustment for differences in volume and ventilation, air nicotine concentrations were 3.2, 35.5 and 56.2 times higher in non-smoking areas in mixed venues, smoking areas in mixed venues and smoking venues, respectively, compared to smoke-free venues. Conclusions Exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile. These findings demonstrate that the partial smoking ban legislation enacted in Chile in 2007 provides no protection to employees working in those venues. Enacting a comprehensive smoke-free legislation which protects all people from exposure to secondhand smoke in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed. PMID:20798021

  7. Effect of air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on serum hyaluronate concentrations in school children

    PubMed Central

    Fuji, Y; Shima, M; Ando, M; Adachi, M; Tsunetoshi, Y

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate serum hyaluronate concentrations relative to air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and respiratory health in Japanese school children. Methods: Respiratory symptoms and serum IgE concentrations were examined in 1037 school children living in four communities in Japan with differing levels of air pollution. Serum hyaluronate concentrations were assayed in 230 children, consisting of all the children who had symptoms of either asthma or wheeze (65 and 50 subjects, respectively) and normal controls adjusted for sex, school grade, and school without these symptoms (115 subjects). Results: Although serum hyaluronate concentrations did not differ for either asthma or wheeze, the concentrations were significantly higher in children living in communities with higher levels of air pollution. Children with asthma or wheeze and those with serum IgE concentrations of 250 IU/ml or above showed differences in hyaluronate concentrations that related to the degree of air pollution in the communities. In children with higher serum IgE concentrations, the hyaluronate concentrations among subjects exposed to ETS were significantly higher than among those without exposure to ETS. Conclusions: The present results suggest that serum hyaluronate concentration is related to the degree of air pollution and exposure to ETS. Children with asthma or wheeze and children with higher IgE concentrations are considered to be more susceptible to environmental factors. PMID:11850556

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and adult non-neoplastic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Boffetta, P; Saracci, R; Hirsch, A

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread in European countries, the most serious exposures occurring at home and in the workplace. Epidemiological studies have, essentially, addressed the association between ETS exposure and respiratory health in children, and increased risk of lung cancer among adult nonsmokers. Relatively few studies have been reported on ETS and adult non-neoplastic respiratory diseases. On the basis of the available data, no definite conclusion (excluding the acute irritating effect of ETS on respiratory mucous membranes) can be drawn. Although biologically plausible, it remains controversial whether ETS exposure is associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and occurrence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including asthma. Most of the studies that have used the most sensitive indicators of pulmonary function have suggested a negative impact of ETS exposure. However, if really present, the physiological significance of such small changes is unclear, and the relationship to long-term changes in lung function is not established. Moreover, the possibility of bias and confounding factors must be taken into account. Thus, there is a need for further epidemiological studies on ETS exposure and adult non-neoplastic respiratory disorders. PMID:8143819

  9. Tobacco smoke condensate cutaneous carcinogenesis: changes in Langerhans' cells and tumour regression.

    PubMed Central

    Zeid, N. A.; Muller, H. K.

    1995-01-01

    Tobacco smoke condensate was painted on the skin of BALB/c mice. It increased the density and changed the morphology of Langerhans' cells (LC). LC number in epidermal sheets of treated mice was significantly higher (1793 LC/mm2) than in controls (946 LC/mm2) (P < 0.0001) and remained elevated for 35 weeks. LC became less dendritic, or even rounded in shape, and smaller in size. The function of the morphologically altered LC was impaired when assessed by the contact hypersensitivity response. These changes were associated with skin tumour development in all treated mice. Ten weeks after stopping the TSC treatment, LC number in skin tumours and in skin around these lesions had not decreased, but significantly increased (P < 0.0001). During this period tumour regression occurred in 23% of tumours; the remaining tumours showed a 50% reduction in size. At 45 weeks, the LC number in epidermal sheets around skin papillomas was 2274 +/- 14.14/mm2 and in invasive squamous cell carcinomas was 2088 +/- 183/m2. This was associated with reversible changes in LC morphology, where cells became fully dendritic. This also correlated with lymphocytic infiltration into tumours, tumour necrosis, reduction in tumour size and/or tumour regression. It is concluded that the influx of normal LC into the skin tumours allowed the development of an immune response with tumour regression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7734341

  10. Molecular and cellular alterations in tobacco smoke-associated larynx cancer.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, K; Szmeja, Z; Szyfter, W; Hemminki, K; Banaszewski, J; Jasku?a-Sztul, R; Louhelainen, J

    1999-09-30

    Tumours of head and neck belong to the most frequent types of cancer world-wide. In Poland, mortality from larynx cancer among males has been continuously increasing during the last decades up to 8.4 deaths per 100,000 men in 1993, which exceeds epidemiological records from other countries. The aetiology of laryngeal cancer is strongly associated with exposure to carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The review describes a sequence of molecular and cellular events from carcinogenic exposure, DNA adduct formation, detection of mutations in the p53 gene, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in chromosomal loci encoding the p53 and p16 genes, and loss of control of the cell cycle. The section concerning DNA adducts includes a discussion of the role of such confounders as exogenous exposure, the age and sex of the subject, and disease progression. The significance of genetic factors as individual risk determinants is discussed in relation to bleomycin-induced chromosome instability and in connection with the occurrence of defects in genes encoding detoxifying enzymes. The question concerning the substantial difference between men and women in larynx cancer morbidity and mortality remains open, even when the significantly higher adduct formation in male DNA compared with female material was taken into account. Preliminary experiments suggest a role of the frequently observed loss of the Y-chromosome. PMID:10575435

  11. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the First Amendment: why a substantial interest in protecting public health won't save some new restrictions on tobacco advertising.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written. PMID:24479250

  12. Determinants of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among current non-smoking in-school adolescents (aged 11-18 years) in South Africa: results from the 2008 GYTS study.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) among 6,412 current non-smoking school-going adolescents (aged 11 to 18 years) in South Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 in South Africa within the framework of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Overall, 25.7% of students were exposed to SHS at home, 34.2% outside of the home and 18.3% were exposed to SHS at home and outside of the home. Parental and close friends smoking status, allowing someone to smoke around you and perception that passive smoking was harmful were significant determinants of adolescent's exposure to both SHS at home and outside of the home. Identified factors can inform the implementation of public health interventions in order to reduce passive smoking among adolescents. PMID:22016702

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Vineis; L Airoldi; F Veglia; L Olgiati; R Pastorelli; H Autrup; A Dunning; S Garte; E Gormally; P Hainaut; C Malaveille; G Matullo; M Peluso; K Overvad; A Tjonneland; F Clavel-Chapelon; H Boeing; V Krogh; D Palli; S Panico; R Tumino; B Bueno-De-Mesquita; P Peeters; G Berglund; G Hallmans; R Saracci; E Riboli

    2005-01-01

    AbstractObjectives To investigate the association between environmental tobacco smoke, plasma cotinine concentration, and respiratory cancer or death.Design Nested case-control study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).Participants 303 020 people from the EPIC cohort (total 500 000) who had never smoked or who had stopped smoking for at least 10 years, 123 479 of whom provided information

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Vineis; L Airoldi; F Veglia; L Olgiati; R Pastorelli; H Autrup; A Dunning; S Garte; E Gormally; P Hainaut; G Matullo; M Peluso; K Overvad; A Tjonneland; F Clavel-chapelon; H Boeing; V Krogh; D Palli; S Panico; R Tumino; B Bueno-de-mesquita; P Peeters; G Berglund; R Saracci; E Riboli

    Abstract Objectives To investigate the association between environmental tobacco smoke, plasma cotinine concentration, and respiratory cancer or death. Design Nested case-control study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants 303 020 people,from the EPIC cohort (total 500 000) who,had never smoked,or who,had stopped,smoking for at least 10 years, 123 479 of whom provided information on exposure,to

  15. The smoking gun: many conditions associated with tobacco exposure may be attributable to paradoxical compensatory autonomic responses to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Anthony J; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y; Gerber, Anthony; Daniel, Stephanie M

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco exposure is implicated in many illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are poorly understood. The mechanisms by which tobacco induces pro-sympathetic and pro-inflammatory changes also remain elusive. Some studies have attributed these changes to the direct effects of nicotine, but such findings run counter to the pro-vagal, anti-inflammatory nature of the nicotinic pathway. We hypothesize that the illnesses associated with smoking may be partly attributable to autonomic dysfunction, sympathetic bias, and T helper (Th)2 inflammation induced by a paradoxical compensatory response to intermittent nicotinic exposure. The confusion of interpreting the adrenergia and inflammation associated with nicotine as a primary response instead of a secondary compensation may be explained by the unusually rapid absorption, action, and serum elimination of nicotine. Given the fast action and clearance of nicotine, even heavy smokers spend large portions of the day and the entire night in nicotine withdrawal, at which time rebound sympathetic bias may manifest as a result of desensitization of nicotinic receptors. This may help reconcile why the features observed in smokers such as tachycardia, hypertension, inflammation, insomnia, and anxiety, which are perhaps mistakenly attributed to the direct action of nicotine, are identical to those seen during acute nicotine withdrawal after smoking cessation. On the other hand, delayed responses to cessation of smoking such as weight gain and increased heart rate variability are compatible with reduced sympathovagal ratio and resensitization of nicotinic receptors. Sympathetic bias and the associated Th2 inflammation underlie many systemic diseases. Tobacco-related cancers may be partly attributable to immunomodulatory properties of chronic nicotine exposure by dampening Th1 immunity and enabling tumoral evasion of immune surveillance. Other conditions associated with tobacco exposure may also operate through similar autonomic and immune dysfunctions. Therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:15823687

  16. [A persistence of tobacco smoking addiction in economically severely underdeveloped regions of Poland--the case of the Green Forest and White Forest].

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2007-01-01

    In the 19-th and early 20-th centuries the regions of the Green Forest and White Forest (Central Poland) comprised a reservoir of rural people living on the verge of biological existence. Despite material deficiencies, tobacco smoking addiction was common--nearly 100% of the male population was smokers. An analysis of ethnographic findings suggests that the permanence of addiction could have been caused by 1. the early initiation of smoking and acceptance of smoking by under-ages, 2. the spreading of the practice of replacing tobacco, when in deficit, by other materials such as dried potato leaves, clover leaves or even feces of horses. One can assume that stimuli linked with non-tobacco-exposed smoking may also have an important influence on maintaining addiction. PMID:18409341

  17. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TOBACCO SMOKING AND THE BELIEF ABOUT WEIGHT CONTROL EFFECT OF SMOKING AMONG HUNGARIAN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Penzes, Mélinda; Czégledi, Edit; Balázs, Péter; Foley, Kristie L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction The relationship between body weight and smoking has been well-documented among adult populations, but the data among youth are inconsistent. This study explores the relationship among social, behavioural, body weight-related factors and adolescent smoking while identifying factors associated with the belief that smoking controls weight. Materials and methods Baseline data from a three-year, prospective cohort study started in 2009 in Hungary’s six metropolitan cities. Randomly selected 6th and 9th grade students completed a self-administered questionnaire during the 2009–2010 school year (n=1445; 45% boys, mean age of 6th graders: 12.06 years, SD=0.63; mean age of 9th graders: 15.06 years, SD=0.63). Calculations of Body Mass Index (BMI) were based on objectively measured weight and height data of participants. Appetite-Weight Control Scale of the Short Form of Smoking Consequences Questionnaire was used to measure the belief that smoking supports weight control. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between the perception of weight control and smoking, while controlling for potential confounding variables (e.g., gender). Results 24.8% of participants smoked cigarettes within the past 30 days. The odds of smoking were increased among students who were older, had smoking friends, were exposed to parental smoking, and had poorer academic performance. BMI showed positive association with smoking (increases in BMI were associated with higher odds of smoking), and the belief that smoking controls weight mediated this association. There was no difference in smoking prevalence among those motivated either to lose or gain weight (~30%), but was considerably lower among adolescents satisfied with their body weight (19%). The belief that smoking supports weight control was more common for girls, older students, and those who perceived themselves as overweight. Conclusions Dissatisfaction with body weight and the belief that smoking has weight controlling effects are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent smoking, therefore they must be considered in smoking prevention programmes among youth. PMID:22571010

  18. Reductions in tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke?free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke?free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: findings from the ITC Ireland/UK Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Hyland, A; Borland, R; Hammond, D; Hastings, G; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Cummings, K M; Allwright, S; Mulcahy, M; Howell, F; Clancy, L; Thompson, M E; Connolly, G; Driezen, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychosocial and behavioural impact of the first ever national level comprehensive workplace smoke?free law, implemented in Ireland in March 2004. Design Quasi?experimental prospective cohort survey: parallel cohort telephone surveys of national representative samples of adult smokers in Ireland (n??=??769) and the UK (n??=??416), surveyed before the law (December 2003 to January 2004) and 8–9 months after the law (December 2004 to January 2005). Main outcome measures Respondents' reports of smoking in key public venues, support for total bans in those key venues, and behavioural changes due to the law. Results The Irish law led to dramatic declines in reported smoking in all venues, including workplaces (62% to 14%), restaurants (85% to 3%), and bars/pubs (98% to 5%). Support for total bans among Irish smokers increased in all venues, including workplaces (43% to 67%), restaurants (45% to 77%), and bars/pubs (13% to 46%). Overall, 83% of Irish smokers reported that the smoke?free law was a “good” or “very good” thing. The proportion of Irish homes with smoking bans also increased. Approximately 46% of Irish smokers reported that the law had made them more likely to quit. Among Irish smokers who had quit at post?legislation, 80% reported that the law had helped them quit and 88% reported that the law helped them stay quit. Conclusion The Ireland smoke?free law stands as a positive example of how a population?level policy intervention can achieve its public health goals while achieving a high level of acceptance among smokers. These findings support initiatives in many countries toward implementing smoke?free legislation, particularly those who have ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which calls for legislation to reduce tobacco smoke pollution. PMID:16754947

  19. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. PMID:25142407

  20. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: Evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage=43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. PMID:25142407

  1. Association between a 15q25 gene variant, smoking quantity and tobacco-related cancers among 17 000 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lips, Esther H; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James D; Chabrier, Amelie; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Xinarianos, George; McLaughlin, John; Liu, Geoffrey; Skorpen, Frank; Elvestad, Maiken Bratt; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars; Study, EPIC; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Merletti, Franco; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Fernandez, Leticia; Metspalu, Andres; Heath, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in 15q25 have been identified as potential risk markers for lung cancer (LC), but controversy exists as to whether this is a direct association, or whether the 15q variant is simply a proxy for increased exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Methods We performed a detailed analysis of one 15q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs16969968) with smoking behaviour and cancer risk in a total of 17 300 subjects from five LC studies and four upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer studies. Results Subjects with one minor allele smoked on average 0.3 cigarettes per day (CPD) more, whereas subjects with the homozygous minor AA genotype smoked on average 1.2 CPD more than subjects with a GG genotype (P < 0.001). The variant was associated with heavy smoking (>20 CPD) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–1.34, P = 0.13 for heterozygotes and 1.81, 95% CI 1.39–2.35 for homozygotes, P < 0.0001]. The strong association between the variant and LC risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.23–1.38, P = 1 × 10–18), was virtually unchanged after adjusting for this smoking association (smoking adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.19–1.35, P = 5 × 10–13). Furthermore, we found an association between the variant allele and an earlier age of LC onset (P = 0.02). The association was also noted in UADT cancers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.02). Genome wide association (GWA) analysis of over 300 000 SNPs on 11 219 subjects did not identify any additional variants related to smoking behaviour. Conclusions This study confirms the strong association between 15q gene variants and LC and shows an independent association with smoking quantity, as well as an association with UADT cancers. PMID:19776245

  2. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk. PMID:25355624

  3. Long term environmental tobacco smoke activates nuclear transcription factor-kappa B, activator protein-1, and stress responsive kinases in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Sunil K.; Rangasamy, Thirumalai; Wise, Kimberly; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Shishodia, Shishir; Biswal, Shyam; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a key mediator of several diseases. Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of over 4700 chemical components many of which are toxic and have been implicated in the etiology of oxidative stress related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Parkinson’s disease, asthma, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism of action of cigarette smoke in the onset of these diseases is still largely unknown. Previous studies have revealed that the free radicals generated by cigarette smoke may contribute to many of these chronic health problems and this study sought to address the role of environmental tobacco smoke in oxidative stress related damage in different regions of the mouse brain. In this study, male mice were exposed for 7 h/day, 7 days/week, for 6 months. Our results show that tobacco smoke led to increased generation of reactive oxygen species with an increase in NF-?B activation. Gel shift analysis also revealed the elevated level of the oxidative stress sensitive proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 in different regions of the brain of cigarette smoke exposed mice. Tobacco smoke led to activation of COX-2 in all the regions of the brain. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase were also observed in various regions of brain of ETS exposed mice. Overall our results indicate that exposure to long-term cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress leading to activation of stress induced kinases and activation of proinflammatory transcription factors. PMID:16569398

  4. Tobacco use in Tunisia: behaviour and awareness.

    PubMed Central

    Fakhfakh, Radhouane; Hsairi, Mohamed; Maalej, Mohsen; Achour, Nourredinne; Nacef, Taoufik

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess tobacco use and the awareness of and attitudes towards tobacco and its control in the adult population of Tunisia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1996 of a representative national sample of 5696 subjects aged 25 and over. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire in Arabic. FINDINGS: Tobacco use was reported by 30.4% of the respondents, of whom 24.6% smoked cigarettes and 5.8% consumed traditional tobacco, i.e. snuff, chewing tobacco and/or water pipe tobacco. Whereas 55.6% of men used tobacco, only 5.2% of women did so. Among men the proportion of tobacco users diminished with age as the rate of cessation increased. Among women, smoking peaked in the 35-54 age group. The proportion of men consuming traditional tobacco alone increased from 2.4% in the 25-34 age group to 20.4% in the 55+ age group; the corresponding values for women were 0.1% and 14.3%. Tobacco use was more widespread in rural than in urban areas and was relatively high among poorly educated men from economically deprived backgrounds. The use of tobacco was believed to be harmful to health by 98.6% of the respondents. Over 90% of the interviewees were aware that tobacco played a part in the development of heart disease. However, there were some gaps in awareness. A fear of cancer was expressed by 85% of the respondents, whereas only 5.6% were fearful of accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Informational and educational campaigns relating to tobacco control should be directed at individuals and communities, taking into account the gaps in awareness of the effects of tobacco on health. PMID:12077609

  5. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Public Places in Latin America, 2002-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Navas-Acien; Armando Peruga; Patrick Breysse; Alfonso Zavaleta; Adriana Blanco-Marquizo; Raul Pitarque; Marisol Acuna; Katya Jimenez-Reyes; Vera L. Colombo; Graciela Gamarra; Frances A. Stillman; Jonathan Samet

    Context The success of measures to restrict smoking in indoor environments and the intensity of enforcement vary among countries around the world. In 2001, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched the Smoke-Free Americas Ini- tiative to build capacity to achieve smoke-free environments in Latin America and the Caribbean. Objective To assess secondhand smoke concentrations in public places in the

  6. Oxidative stress of office workers relevant to tobacco smoking and inner air quality.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Chen, Pei-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-06-01

    Studies have used 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker to detect systemic oxidative DNA damage associated with oxidative stress. However, studies on the association between exposure to tobacco smoking and urinary 8-OHdgG give inconsistent results. Limited studies have estimated the oxidative stress among office workers. This study assessed the association between urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine for office workers.  Workers (389) including smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers from 87 offices at high-rise buildings in Taipei participated in this study with informed consent. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine specimen at the end of work day for measuring urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine. The carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in workers' offices were also measured. The questionnaire reported socio-demographic characteristics, life styles and allergic history. The urinary 8-OHdG level increased with the cotinine level among participants (Spearmans' rho = 0.543, p < 0.001). The mean of urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine was 5.81 ± 3.53 ?g/g creatinine and 3.76 ± 4.06 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Comparing with non-smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having urinary 8-OHdG greater than the median level of 4.99 ?g/g creatinine was 5.30 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.30-21.5) for current smokers and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.34-2.43) for former smokers. We also found workers exposed to 1,000 ppm of CO2 at offices had an adjusted OR of 4.28 (95% CI = 1.12-16.4) to have urinary 8-OHdG greater than 4.99 ?g/g creatinine, compared to those exposed to indoor CO2 under 600 ppm. In conclusion, urinary 8-OHdG could represent a suitable marker for measuring smoking and CO2 exposure for office workers. PMID:24865395

  7. Oxidative Stress of Office Workers Relevant to Tobacco Smoking and Inner Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Yen; Ma, Yee-Chung; Chen, Pei-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Studies have used 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker to detect systemic oxidative DNA damage associated with oxidative stress. However, studies on the association between exposure to tobacco smoking and urinary 8-OHdgG give inconsistent results. Limited studies have estimated the oxidative stress among office workers. This study assessed the association between urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine for office workers. Workers (389) including smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers from 87 offices at high-rise buildings in Taipei participated in this study with informed consent. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a spot urine specimen at the end of work day for measuring urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine. The carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in workers’ offices were also measured. The questionnaire reported socio-demographic characteristics, life styles and allergic history. The urinary 8-OHdG level increased with the cotinine level among participants (Spearmans’ rho = 0.543, p < 0.001). The mean of urinary 8-OHdG and cotinine was 5.81 ± 3.53 ?g/g creatinine and 3.76 ± 4.06 ?g/g creatinine, respectively. Comparing with non-smokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having urinary 8-OHdG greater than the median level of 4.99 ?g/g creatinine was 5.30 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.30–21.5) for current smokers and 0.91 (95% CI = 0.34–2.43) for former smokers. We also found workers exposed to 1,000 ppm of CO2 at offices had an adjusted OR of 4.28 (95% CI = 1.12–16.4) to have urinary 8-OHdG greater than 4.99 ?g/g creatinine, compared to those exposed to indoor CO2 under 600 ppm. In conclusion, urinary 8-OHdG could represent a suitable marker for measuring smoking and CO2 exposure for office workers. PMID:24865395

  8. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  9. Tobacco in the news: associations between news coverage, news recall and smoking-related outcomes in a sample of Australian smokers and recent quitters.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Sally M; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Chapman, Simon

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to track smokers' and recent quitters' recall of tobacco news, compare patterns of recall with patterns of news coverage and assess associations between news recall and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours, by using a quantitative analysis. The Cancer Institute New South Wales (NSW)'s Tobacco Tracking Survey, a continuous tracking telephone survey of adult smokers and recent quitters, was used to monitor recall of tobacco news and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours from January to September 2010 (approximately 50 interviews per week; n = 1952). Thirty per cent of respondents reported semi-prompted recall of tobacco news with patterns of recall closely following peaks in news coverage. Television was the most frequently cited source of tobacco news. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that, controlling for individual characteristics, smokers with high levels of tobacco news recall were significantly more likely to have strong beliefs about harms from smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.38] and frequent thoughts about quitting (OR = 1.32). The results show that the news media are an important source of information for smokers, with the potential to influence beliefs and to put or keep quitting on the smokers' agenda. Media advocacy remains an important component of tobacco control. PMID:22156232

  10. The Role of Smoking Inflexibility/Avoidance in the Relation Between Anxiety Sensitivity and Tobacco Use and Beliefs Among Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent scholarly attention has focused on explicating the nature of tobacco use among anxiety-vulnerable smokers. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of aversive internal anxiety states) is a cognitive-affective individual difference factor related to the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms and disorders and various smoking processes. The present study examined the cross-sectional associations between anxiety sensitivity and a range of cognitive and behavioral smoking processes, and the mediating role of the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (AIS; thoughts, feelings, or internal sensations) in such relations. Method Participants (n = 466) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco cessation study. Baseline (pre-treatment) data were utilized. Self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity, AIS, and four criterion variables: Barriers to smoking cessation, quit attempt history, severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts, and mood-management smoking expectancies. Results Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was indirectly related to greater barriers to cessation, greater number of prior quit attempts and greater mood-management smoking expectancies through the tendency to respond inflexibly/avoid to the presence of distressing smoking-related thoughts, feelings and internal sensations; but not severity of problems experienced while quitting. Discussion The present findings suggest AIS may be an explanatory mechanism between anxiety sensitivity and certain smoking processes. PMID:24490706

  11. Tobacco industry use of corporate social responsibility tactics as a sword and a shield on secondhand smoke issues.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Lissy C

    2009-01-01

    The tobacco industry has used corporate social responsibility tactics to improve its corporate image with the public, press, and regulators who increasingly have grown to view it as a merchant of death. There is, however, an intractable problem that corporate social responsibility efforts can mask but not resolve: the tobacco industry's products are lethal when used as directed, and no amount of corporate social responsibility activity can reconcile that fundamental contradiction with ethical corporate citizenship. This study's focus is to better understand the tobacco industry's corporate social responsibility efforts and to assess whether there has been any substantive change in the way it does business with regard to the issue of exposure to secondhand smoke. The results show that the industry has made no substantial changes and in fact has continued with business as usual. Although many of the tobacco companies' tactics traditionally had been defensive, they strove for a way to change to a more offensive strategy. Almost without exception, however, their desire to appear to be good corporate citizens clashed with their aversion to further regulation and jeopardizing their legal position, perhaps an irreconcilable conflict. Despite the switch to offense, in 2006 a federal judge found the companies guilty of racketeering. PMID:20122118

  12. Interaction of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) Polymorphisms and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Che-Chen; Tai, Chien-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is particularly common in children. The association between polymorphisms of the gene encoding intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and gene-environment interactions with childhood asthma has not been fully investigated. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate these associations among children in Taiwan. The effects of two functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ICAM1, rs5491 (K56M) and rs5498 (K469E), and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were studied. Two hundred and eighteen asthmatic and 877 nonasthmatic children were recruited from elementary schools. It was found that the genetic effect of each SNP was modified by the other SNP and by exposure to ETS. The risk of asthma was higher for children carrying the rs5491 AT or TT genotypes and the rs5498 GG genotype (odds ratio = 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.09–2.59) than for those with the rs5491 AA and rs5498 AA or AG genotypes (the reference group). The risk for the other two combinations of genotypes did not differ significantly from that of the reference group (p of interaction = 0.0063). The two studied ICAM1 SNPs were associated with childhood asthma among children exposed to ETS, but not among those without ETS exposure (p of interaction = 0.05 and 0.01 for rs5491 and rs5498, respectively). Both ICAM1 and ETS, and interactions between these two factors are likely to be involved in the development of asthma in childhood. PMID:25003170

  13. Allergenic fungi and actinomycetes in smoking materials and their health implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Kurup; A. Resnick; S. L. Kagen; S. H. Cohen; J. N. Fink

    1983-01-01

    Street marijuana, commercial cigarettes and pipe tobaccos were studied for the presence of fungi and actinomycetes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aspergillus species and thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from the smoking materials. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus spores were isolated from marijuana smoke, indicating the potential hazard involved in developing serious disease. Precipitin antibodies against fungi, particularly Aspergillus, showed a higher prevalence

  14. Smoke signs: patterns of tobacco billboard advertising in a metropolitan region

    PubMed Central

    Luke, D.; Esmundo, E.; Bloom, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To use geographic information systems data and analyses to describe locations and characteristics of tobacco billboards in a large metropolitan area, and to assess the extent to which tobacco companies are locating billboards in close proximity to minority neighbourhoods and schools.?DESIGN—Observational study of billboards in a large metropolitan region.?SETTING—City and county of St Louis, Missouri.?PARTICIPANTS—All stationary billboards in the city and county of St Louis were eligible to be observed, with the exception of bus stop and street side retail advertising signs (for example, cigarette advertising at gas stations). A total of 1239 non-blank billboards were observed. All data were collected in early 1998.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Tobacco and non-tobacco billboard geographic distribution; billboard type and product brand frequencies; and billboard neighbourhood characteristics.?RESULTS—Almost 20% of the billboards contained tobacco advertising. Four of the top five and nine of the top 22 brands displayed on billboards were tobacco products. Billboards were located in all areas of St Louis except for the communities with the highest average incomes. Tobacco billboards were more likely to be found in low income areas and areas with a higher percentage of African Americans. Images of African American figures on tobacco billboards were concentrated in the most heavily African American populated regions of the city. Approximately 74% of all billboards in the city of St Louis were within 2000 feet (700 metres) of public school property.?CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco products were the single most heavily advertised type of product on billboards in St Louis. The geographic distribution of tobacco billboards, as well as the types of images found on these billboards, is consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco companies are targeting poor and minority communities with their advertising. Methods employing geographic information systems are a powerful technique for examining outdoor tobacco advertising.???Keywords: tobacco advertising; billboards; maps; geographic information systems PMID:10691754

  15. Stay away from tobacco: a pilot trial of a school-based adolescent smoking prevention program in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Lin, Danhua

    2006-04-01

    A quasiexperimental study was conducted to explore the efficacy of the program Stay Away from Tobacco (SAFT). Participants-from 11 classes with 381 students total in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11-were assigned by class to three groups (intervention group T with school teachers delivering the program, intervention group R with researchers delivering the program, and comparison group C). Data were collected at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and 6 months after the intervention. Self-reported smoking was the outcome measure. The 30-day smoking prevalence in group C increased from 4% at baseline to 10% at the 6-month follow-up, whereas this rate declined from 11% to 6% in group T, and from 9% to 1% in group R. For group T, the odds ratio (for 30-day smoking) and the regression coefficient (for indexed number of cigarettes smoked) assessing interactions between intervention and time were 0.20 (p < .001) and -.1605 (p < .05), respectively. The same statistics for group R were 0.09 (p < .001) and -.2406 (p < .01), respectively. The predicted smoking rate declined by 19% from baseline to 6-month follow-up in group T (11.5% vs. 9.3%), and the same rate declined by 26% in group R (11.1% vs. 8.2%). The results from this pilot trial suggest that SAFT can reduce cigarette smoking among middle and high school students through its effect on improving these students' refusal skills and changing their perceived mental and physical values from smoking. A full-scale evaluation is recommended. PMID:16766415

  16. Exposure to tobacco smoke based on urinary cotinine levels among Israeli smoking and nonsmoking adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the first Israeli human biomonitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotinine levels provide a valid measure of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The goal of this study was to examine exposure to tobacco smoke among smoking and nonsmoking Israeli adults and to identify differences in ETS exposure among nonsmokers by socio-demographic factors. Methods We analyzed urinary cotinine data from the first Israeli human biomonitoring study conducted in 2011. In-person questionnaires included data on socio-demographic and active smoking status. Cotinine levels were measured using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry procedure. We calculated creatinine-adjusted urinary cotinine geometric means (GM) among smokers and nonsmokers, and by socio-demographic, smoking habits and dietary factors. We analyzed associations, in a univariable and multivariable analysis, between socio-demographic variables and proportions of urinary cotinine ?1 ?g/l (Limit of Quantification?=?LOQ) or ?4 ?g/l. Results Cotinine levels were significantly higher among 91 smokers (GM?=?89.7 ?g/g creatinine; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 47.4-169.6) than among 148 nonsmokers (GM?=?1.3; 1.1-1.7). Among exclusive waterpipe smokers, cotinine levels were relatively high (GM?=?53.4; 95% CI 12.3-232.7). ETS exposure was widespread as 62.2% of nonsmokers had levels???LOQ, and was higher in males (75.8%) than in females (52.3%). In a multivariable model, urinary cotinine???LOQ was higher in males (Prevalence ratio [PR]?=?1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.64, p?=?0.032) and in those with lower educational status (PR?=?1.58; 1.04-2.38, p?=?0.031) and decreased with age (PR?=?0.99; 0.98-1.00, p?=?0.020, per one additional year). There were no significant differences by ethnicity, residence type or country of birth. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread ETS exposure in the nonsmoking Israeli adult population, especially among males, and younger and less educated participants. These findings demonstrate the importance of human biomonitoring, were instrumental in expanding smoke-free legislation implemented in Israel on July 2012 and will serve as a baseline to measure the impact of the new legislation. PMID:24377966

  17. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  18. Policies and practices of European dental schools in relation to smoking: the place of tobacco education in the undergraduate dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    McCartan, B E; Shanley, D B

    1995-10-21

    A postal questionnaire was used to ascertain policies and practices of European dental schools in relation to smoking and the teaching of the relationship of smoking to the aetiology and primary prevention or oral cancer. A majority of responding schools taught the role of smoking in the aetiology of oral cancer. A majority expected students to take smoking histories from patients. Half of schools taught anti-smoking advice to students and half expected students to impart such advice to patients. A majority banned smoking in clinical and non-clinical teaching facilities and associated public access areas. There is scope for considerable improvement in curricula in relation to anti-smoking counselling and in the practices of schools in expecting students to act as tobacco counsellors. PMID:7577192

  19. Occasional tobacco use among young adult women: a longitudinal analysis of smoking transitions

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Owen, Neville

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe prospective transitions in smoking among young adult women who were occasional smokers, and the factors associated with these transitions, by comparing sociodemographic, lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of those who changed from occasional smoking to daily smoking, non?daily smoking or non?smoking. Design Longitudinal study with mailed questionnaires. Participants/setting Women aged 18–23?years in 1996 were randomly selected from the Medicare Australia database, which provides the most complete list of people in Australia. Main outcome measures Self?reported smoking status at survey 1 (1996), survey 2 (2000) and survey 3 (2003), for 7510 participants who took part in all three surveys and who had complete data on smoking at survey 1. Results At survey 1, 28% (n?=?2120) of all respondents reported smoking. Among the smokers, 39% (n?=?829) were occasional smokers. Of these occasional smokers, 18% changed to daily smoking at survey 2 and remained daily smokers at survey 3; 12% reported non?daily smoking at surveys 2 and 3; 36% stopped smoking and remained non?smokers; and 33% moved between daily, non?daily and non?smoking over surveys 2 and 3. Over the whole 7?year period, approximately half stopped smoking, one?quarter changed to daily smoking and the remainder reported non?daily smoking. Multivariate analysis identified that a history of daily smoking for ?6?months at baseline predicted reversion to daily smoking at follow?up. Being single and using illicit drugs were also associated with change to daily or non?daily smoking, whereas alcohol consumption was associated with non?daily smoking only. Compared with stopping smoking, the change to daily smoking was significantly associated with having intermediate educational qualifications. No significant associations with depression and perceived stress were observed in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the prevalence of smoking among young women need to take account of occasional smokers, who made up 39% of all smokers in this study. Targeted interventions to prevent the escalation to daily smoking and to promote cessation should allow for the social context of smoking with alcohol and other drugs, and social and environmental influences in vocational education and occupational settings. PMID:17652240

  20. Pro-inflammatory activity in rats of thiocyanate, a metabolite of the hydrocyanic acid inhaled from tobacco smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wellesley Whitehouse; Mark Jones

    2009-01-01

    Objective  To seek a mechanism linking tobacco smoking with the increased incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis, deduced from\\u000a many retrospective surveys, by studying arthritis\\/fibrosis development in rats.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Rats (>300) received low levels of sodium\\/potassium thiocyanate (10 or 25 mmol\\/l) in their drinking water to raise their blood\\u000a thiocyanate levels, mimicking the elevated levels of blood, salivary and urinary thiocyanate found